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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926088/treatments-for-priapism-in-boys-and-men-with-sickle-cell-disease
#1
REVIEW
Francis I Chinegwundoh, Sherie Smith, Kofi A Anie
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease comprises a group of genetic haemoglobin disorders. The predominant symptom associated with sickle cell disease is pain resulting from the occlusion of small blood vessels by abnormally 'sickle-shaped' red blood cells. There are other complications, including chronic organ damage and prolonged painful erection of the penis, known as priapism. Severity of sickle cell disease is variable, and treatment is usually symptomatic. Priapism affects up to half of all men with sickle cell disease, however, there is no consistency in treatment...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919009/distinct-patterns-of-response-to-transfusion-therapy-for-different-chronic-complications-of-sickle-cell-disease-a-useful-insight
#2
Dimitris A Tsitsikas, Funmilayo Orebayo, Alexandra Agapidou, Roger J Amos
Two main sub-phenotypes have been described in sickle cell disease: one with higher baseline haemoglobin and a higher rate of painful crises and one with lower baseline haemoglobin, increased markers of haemolysis and a higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension, priapism and leg ulcers. We compared the patterns of response to regular automated red cell exchange transfusion over a five-year period of 21 patients with recurrent painful crises from the first group and 3 patients with pulmonary hypertension and 5 with recurrent severe stuttering priapism form the second and found them to be distinctly different...
August 18, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915514/developmental-stuttering-in-children-who-are-hard-of-hearing
#3
Richard M Arenas, Elizabeth A Walker, Jacob J Oleson
Purpose: A number of studies with large sample sizes have reported lower prevalence of stuttering in children with significant hearing loss compared to children without hearing loss. This study used a parent questionnaire to investigate the characteristics of stuttering (e.g., incidence, prevalence, and age of onset) in children who are hard of hearing (CHH). Method: Three hundred three parents of CHH who participated in the Outcomes of Children With Hearing Loss study (Moeller & Tomblin, 2015) were sent questionnaires asking about their child's history of stuttering...
September 15, 2017: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915513/the-influence-of-executive-functions-on-phonemic-processing-in-children-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#4
Jayanthi Sasisekaran, Shriya Basu
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate dual-task performance in children who stutter (CWS) and those who do not to investigate if the groups differed in the ability to attend and allocate cognitive resources effectively during task performance. Method: Participants were 24 children (12 CWS) in both groups matched for age and sex. For the primary task, participants performed a phoneme monitoring in a picture-written word interference task. For the secondary task, participants made pitch judgments on tones presented at varying (short, long) stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) from the onset of the picture...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911819/non-neurogenic-language-disorders-a-preliminary-classification
#5
REVIEW
Mario F Mendez
BACKGROUND: Few publications deal with non-neurogenic language disorders (NNLDs), distinct from psychogenic speech disorders such as psychogenic dysphonia or stuttering. NNLDs are alterations in language owing to psychosomatic preoccupations, conversion disorder, psychiatric disorders, or other psychological reasons. OBJECTIVE: To identify and classify the range of NNLDs and their characteristics. METHODS: This review summarizes the literature on disturbances in language, broadly defined as the use of symbols for communication, which may have a psychogenic or psychiatric etiology...
August 10, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886431/the-effect-of-phonetic-complexity-on-the-speed-of-single-word-productions-in-adults-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#6
Courtney T Byrd, Geoffrey A Coalson, Jie Yang, Kirsten Moriarty
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of phonetic complexity as measured by the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) on the speed of single-word production in adults who do (AWS, n=15) and do not stutter (AWNS, n=15). METHOD: Participants were required to name pictures of high versus low phonetic complexity and balanced for lexical properties. Speech reaction time was recorded from initial presentation of the picture to verbal response of participant for each word type...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880977/speech-situation-checklist-revised-investigation-with-adults-who-do-not-stutter-and-treatment-seeking-adults-who-stutter
#7
Martine Vanryckeghem, Michael Matthews, Peixin Xu
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Speech Situation Checklist for adults who stutter (SSC) in differentiating people who stutter (PWS) from speakers with no stutter based on self-reports of anxiety and speech disruption in communicative settings. The SSC's psychometric properties were examined, norms were established, and suggestions for treatment were formulated. Method: The SSC was administered to 88 PWS seeking treatment and 209 speakers with no stutter between the ages of 18 and 62...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870333/stuttering-generalization-self-measure-preliminary-development-of-a-self-measuring-tool
#8
Mohammad Alameer, Lotte Meteyard, David Ward
INTRODUCTION: Generalization of treatment is considered a difficult task for clinicians and people who stutter (PWS), and can constitute a barrier to long-term treatment success. To our knowledge, there are no standardized tests that collect measurement of the behavioral and cognitive aspects alongside the client's self-perception in real-life speaking situations. PURPOSE: This paper describes the preliminary development of a Stuttering Generalization Self-Measure (SGSM)...
September 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870332/rethinking-covert-stuttering
#9
Christopher Dominick Constantino, Walter H Manning, Susan Naomi Nordstrom
PURPOSE: The experience of passing as fluent, also called covert stuttering, has been uncritically framed as an inherently negative pursuit. Historically passing has been understood as a repression of one's true, authentic self in response to either psychological distress or social discrimination. The authors of this paper seek a more nuanced understanding of passing. We ask, how must a person relate to herself in order to pass as fluent? METHODOLOGY: This is a qualitative research study in which the authors utilized the ethical theories of philosopher Michel Foucault to contextualize data obtained from semi-structured interviews with nine participants who pass as fluent...
September 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870331/atypical-non-verbal-sensorimotor-synchronization-in-adults-who-stutter-may-be-modulated-by-auditory-feedback
#10
Robert van de Vorst, Vincent L Gracco
PURPOSE: To investigate if non-verbal sensorimotor synchronization abilities in adult individuals who stutter (IWS) differ from non-stuttering controls (NS) under various performance conditions (tempo, auditory feedback, use of hands [single/both] and rhythm). METHODS: Participants were 11 IWS (5 males, 6 females, Mean age=25.8, SD=8.7) and 11 age- and gender-matched controls (Mean age=24.4, SD=8.4). During the experiment, participants were asked to prepare three melodies and subsequently perform them with a metronome at different rates and auditory feedback modalities (non-altered and suppressed)...
September 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870330/evidence-based-guidelines-for-being-supportive-of-people-who-stutter-in-north-america
#11
Kenneth O St Louis, Farzan Irani, Rodney M Gabel, Stephanie Hughes, Marilyn Langevin, Midori Rodriguez, Kathleen Scaler Scott, Mary E Weidner
While many resources, particularly those available on the Internet, provide suggestions for fluent speakers as they interact with people who stutter (PWS), little evidence exists to support these suggestions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to document the supportiveness of common public reactions, behaviors, or interventions to stuttering by PWS.Methods 148 PWS completed the Personal Appraisal of Support for Stuttering-Adults. Additionally, a comparison of the opinions of adults who stutter based on gender and their involvement in self-help/support groups was undertaken...
September 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853955/lexical-tone-and-stuttering-in-cantonese
#12
Thomas Law, Ann Packman, Mark Onslow, Carol K-S To, Michael C-F Tong, Kathy Y-S Lee
Cantonese is a tone language, in which the variation of the fundamental frequency contour of a syllable can change meaning. There are six different lexical tones in Cantonese. While research with Western languages has shown an association between stuttering and syllabic stress, nothing is known about whether stuttering in Cantonese speakers is associated with one or more of the six lexical tones. Such an association has been reported in conversational speech in Mandarin, which is also a tone language, but which varies markedly from Cantonese...
August 30, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841724/intrajudge-and-interjudge-reliability-of-the-stuttering-severity-instrument-fourth-edition
#13
Jason H Davidow, Kathleen A Scott
Purpose: The Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI) is a tool used to measure the severity of stuttering. Previous versions of the instrument have known limitations (e.g., Lewis, 1995). The present study examined the intra- and interjudge reliability of the newest version, the Stuttering Severity Instrument-Fourth Edition (SSI-4) (Riley, 2009). Method: Twelve judges who were trained on the SSI-4 protocol participated. Judges collected SSI-4 data while viewing 4 videos of adults who stutter at Time 1 and 4 weeks later at Time 2...
August 25, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837728/how-stuttering-develops-the-multifactorial-dynamic-pathways-theory
#14
Anne Smith, Christine Weber
Purpose: We advanced a multifactorial, dynamic account of the complex, nonlinear interactions of motor, linguistic, and emotional factors contributing to the development of stuttering. Our purpose here is to update our account as the multifactorial dynamic pathways theory. Method: We review evidence related to how stuttering develops, including genetic/epigenetic factors; motor, linguistic, and emotional features; and advances in neuroimaging studies. We update evidence for our earlier claim: Although stuttering ultimately reflects impairment in speech sensorimotor processes, its course over the life span is strongly conditioned by linguistic and emotional factors...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837363/beyond-stuttering-speech-disfluencies-in-normally-fluent-french-speaking-children-at-age-4
#15
Anne-Lise Leclercq, Pauline Suaire, Astrid Moyse
The aim of this study was to establish normative data on the speech disfluencies of normally fluent French-speaking children at age 4, an age at which stuttering has begun in 95% of children who stutter (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Fifty monolingual French-speaking children who do not stutter participated in the study. Analyses of a conversational speech sample comprising 250-550 words revealed an average of 10% total disfluencies, 2% stuttering-like disfluencies and around 8% non-stuttered disfluencies. Possible explanations for these high speech disfluency frequencies are discussed, including explanations linked to French in particular...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835863/clozapine-induced-microseizures-orofacial-dyskinesia-and-speech-dysfluency-in-an-adolescent-with-treatment-resistant-early-onset-schizophrenia-on-concurrent-lithium-therapy
#16
Vivekananda Rachamallu, Ayman Haq, Michael M Song, Manish Aligeti
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. It has a well-known side effect profile, including agranulocytosis, decreased seizure threshold, and tardive dyskinesia. In addition, numerous case reports have described clozapine-induced stuttering in adults. However, there has been only one previous case report describing it in the adolescent population. In addition, concurrent lithium therapy has been shown to enhance the neurotoxic effects of antipsychotics and lower the seizure threshold...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815262/semantic-and-phonological-encoding-in-adults-who-stutter-silent-responses-to-pictorial-stimuli
#17
Irena Vincent
Purpose: Research on language planning in adult stuttering is relatively sparse and offers diverging arguments about a potential causative relationship between semantic and phonological encoding and fluency breakdowns. This study further investigated semantic and phonological encoding efficiency in adults who stutter (AWS) by means of silent category and phoneme identification, respectively. Method: Fifteen AWS and 15 age- and sex-matched adults who do not stutter (ANS) participated...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796166/speechlessness-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome-cannabis-based-medicines-improve-severe-vocal-blocking-tics-in-two-patients
#18
Ewgeni Jakubovski, Kirsten Müller-Vahl
We report the cases of two young German male patients with treatment-resistant Tourette syndrome (TS), who suffer from incapacitating stuttering-like speech disfluencies caused by vocal blocking tics and palilalia. Case 1: a 19-year old patient received medical cannabis at a dose of 1 × 0.1 g cannabis daily. Case 2: a 16-year old patient initially received dronabinol at a maximum dose of 22.4-33.6 mg daily. Both treatments provided significant symptom improvement of vocal blocking tics as well as of comorbid conditions and were well tolerated...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770838/observation-of-the-hyperfine-spectrum-of-antihydrogen
#19
M Ahmadi, B X R Alves, C J Baker, W Bertsche, E Butler, A Capra, C Carruth, C L Cesar, M Charlton, S Cohen, R Collister, S Eriksson, A Evans, N Evetts, J Fajans, T Friesen, M C Fujiwara, D R Gill, A Gutierrez, J S Hangst, W N Hardy, M E Hayden, C A Isaac, A Ishida, M A Johnson, S A Jones, S Jonsell, L Kurchaninov, N Madsen, M Mathers, D Maxwell, J T K McKenna, S Menary, J M Michan, T Momose, J J Munich, P Nolan, K Olchanski, A Olin, P Pusa, C Ø Rasmussen, F Robicheaux, R L Sacramento, M Sameed, E Sarid, D M Silveira, S Stracka, G Stutter, C So, T D Tharp, J E Thompson, R I Thompson, D P van der Werf, J S Wurtele
The observation of hyperfine structure in atomic hydrogen by Rabi and co-workers and the measurement of the zero-field ground-state splitting at the level of seven parts in 10(13) are important achievements of mid-twentieth-century physics. The work that led to these achievements also provided the first evidence for the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, inspired Schwinger's relativistic theory of quantum electrodynamics and gave rise to the hydrogen maser, which is a critical component of modern navigation, geo-positioning and very-long-baseline interferometry systems...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763803/executive-functions-impact-the-relation-between-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-and-frequency-of-stuttering-in-young-children-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#20
Robin M Jones, Tedra A Walden, Edward G Conture, Aysu Erdemir, Warren E Lambert, Stephen W Porges
Purpose: This study sought to determine whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and executive functions are associated with stuttered speech disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS). Method: Thirty-six young CWS and 36 CWNS were exposed to neutral, negative, and positive emotion-inducing video clips, followed by their participation in speaking tasks. During the neutral video, we measured baseline RSA, a physiological index of emotion regulation, and during video viewing and speaking, we measured RSA change from baseline, a physiological index of regulatory responses during challenge...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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