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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149052/flanking-variation-influences-rates-of-stutter-in-simple-repeats
#1
August E Woerner, Jonathan L King, Bruce Budowle
It has been posited that the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS) of tandem repeats, as defined by the number of exactly matching repeating motif units, is a better predictor of rates of stutter than the parental allele length (PAL). While there are cases where this hypothesis is likely correct, such as the 9.3 allele in the TH01 locus, there can be situations where it may not apply as well. For example, the PAL may capture flanking indel variations while remaining insensitive to polymorphisms in the repeat, and these haplotypic changes may impact the stutter rate...
November 17, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129311/speech-disfluencies-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#2
Kurt Eggers, Sabine Van Eerdenbrugh
PURPOSE: Speech and language development in individuals with Down syndrome is often delayed and/or disordered and speech disfluencies appear to be more common. These disfluencies have been labeled over time as stuttering, cluttering or both. FINDINGS: were usually generated from studies with adults or a mixed age group, quite often using different methodologies, making it difficult to compare findings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze and describe the speech disfluencies of a group, only consisting of children with Down Syndrome between 3 and 13 years of age...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125966/stopping-and-slowing-manual-and-spoken-responses-similar-oscillatory-signatures-recorded-from-the-subthalamic-nucleus
#3
Ayda Ghahremani, Jan R Wessel, Kaviraja Udupa, Bogdan Neagu, Ping Zhuang, Utpal Saha, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, Adam R Aron, Robert Chen
Response control in the forms of stopping and slowing responses is thought to be implemented by a frontal-subcortical network, which includes the subthalamic nucleus (STN). For manual control, stopping is linked to STN beta (13-30 Hz) and slowing responses are linked to lower frequencies (<12 Hz). Whether similar STN oscillatory activities are associated with the control of spoken responses is not clear. We studied 16 patients with STN LFP recordings during manual and vocal stop signal tasks in two experiments...
November 7, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114766/auditory-attentional-set-shifting-and-inhibition-in-children-who-stutter
#4
Kurt Eggers, Eira Jansson-Verkasalo
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether previously reported parental questionnaire-based differences in attentional shifting and inhibitory control (AS and IC; Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) would be supported by direct measurement of AS and IC using a computer task. Method: Participants were 16 Finnish children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 7.06 years) and 16 Finnish children who do not stutter (mean age = 7.05 years). Participants were matched on age (±8 months) and gender...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111141/self-stigma-and-its-associations-with-stress-physical-health-and-health-care-satisfaction-in-adults-who-stutter
#5
Michael P Boyle, Alison N Fearon
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify potential relationships between self-stigma (stigma awareness and stigma application) and stress, physical health, and health care satisfaction among a large sample of adults who stutter. It was hypothesized that both stigma awareness and stigma application would be inversely related to measures of physical health and health care satisfaction, and positively related to stress. Furthermore, it was anticipated that stress mediated the relationship between self-stigma and physical health...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102664/atypical-callosal-morphology-in-children-with-speech-sound-disorder
#6
Eileen Luders, Florian Kurth, Lauren Pigdon, Gina Conti-Ramsden, Sheena Reilly, Angela T Morgan
Speech sound disorder (SSD) is common, yet its neurobiology is poorly understood. Recent studies indicate atypical structural and functional anomalies either in one hemisphere or both hemispheres, which might be accompanied by alterations in inter-hemispheric connectivity. Indeed, abnormalities of the corpus callosum - the main fiber tract connecting the two hemispheres - have been linked to speech and language deficits in associated disorders, such as stuttering, dyslexia, aphasia, etc. However, there is a dearth of studies examining the corpus callosum in SSD...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100084/profiling-of-short-tandem-repeat-disease-alleles-in-12-632-human-whole-genomes
#7
Haibao Tang, Ewen F Kirkness, Christoph Lippert, William H Biggs, Martin Fabani, Ernesto Guzman, Smriti Ramakrishnan, Victor Lavrenko, Boyko Kakaradov, Claire Hou, Barry Hicks, David Heckerman, Franz J Och, C Thomas Caskey, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti
Short tandem repeats (STRs) are hyper-mutable sequences in the human genome. They are often used in forensics and population genetics and are also the underlying cause of many genetic diseases. There are challenges associated with accurately determining the length polymorphism of STR loci in the genome by next-generation sequencing (NGS). In particular, accurate detection of pathological STR expansion is limited by the sequence read length during whole-genome analysis. We developed TREDPARSE, a software package that incorporates various cues from read alignment and paired-end distance distribution, as well as a sequence stutter model, in a probabilistic framework to infer repeat sizes for genetic loci, and we used this software to infer repeat sizes for 30 known disease loci...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098450/early-detection-of-speech-and-voice-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-treated-with-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-a-1-year-follow-up-study
#8
Takashi Tsuboi, Hirohisa Watanabe, Yasuhiro Tanaka, Reiko Ohdake, Makoto Hattori, Kazuya Kawabata, Kazuhiro Hara, Mizuki Ito, Yasushi Fujimoto, Daisuke Nakatsubo, Satoshi Maesawa, Yasukazu Kajita, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
We previously reported that Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) had distinct phenotypes of speech and voice disorders: hypokinetic dysarthria, stuttering, breathy voice, strained voice, and spastic dysarthria. However, changes over time remain unclear. In the present study, 32 consecutive PD patients were assessed before and up to 1 year after surgery (PD-DBS). Eleven medically treated PD patients were also assessed (PD-Med). Speech, voice, motor, and cognitive functions were evaluated...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098269/neural-indices-of-semantic-processing-in-early-childhood-distinguish-eventual-stuttering-persistence-and-recovery
#9
Kathryn Kreidler, Amanda Hampton Wray, Evan Usler, Christine Weber
Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering (CWS-ePersisted) from those who will recover from stuttering (CWS-eRecovered). Method: Fifty-six 5-year-old children with normal receptive language listened to naturally spoken sentences in a story context...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095783/stuttering-as-a-symptom-of-concussion-confirmation-of-association-using-nontraditional-information-sources
#10
Jonathan C Cherry, Kevin Eric Gordon
OBJECTIVE: A 12-year-old girl presented to our pediatric emergency department after a head injury with symptoms of concussion and acute stuttering. A PubMed search identified only 1 similar pediatric case. We investigated whether new-onset stuttering may be seen in the presence of acute concussive symptoms using an infodemiologic approach. METHODS: We conducted a search with a metabrowser search engine (www.dogpile.com) using the free-text words "concussion" and "stuttering...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089147/mood-state-sub-types-in-adults-who-stutter-a-prospective-study
#11
Yvonne Tran, Elaine Blumgart, Ashley Craig
PURPOSE: Many adults who stutter have elevated negative mood states like anxiety and depressive mood. Little is known about how mood states change over time. The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories or sub-types of mood states in adults who stutter over a 6 month period, and establish factors that contribute to these sub-types. METHOD: Participants included 129 adults who stutter who completed an assessment regimen at baseline, including a measure of mood states (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised)...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064318/comparing-the-performance-of-people-who-stutter-and-people-who-do-not-stutter-on-the-test-of-everyday-attention
#12
Silviya Doneva, Steve Davis, Penny Cavenagh
INTRODUCTION: Compelling findings into the relationship between stuttering and attentional ability have started to emerge, with some child and adult studies indicating poorer attentional ability among people who stutter (PWS). The purpose of the present research was to provide a more complete picture of the attentional abilities of PWS, as well as to gather insights into their individual attentional performance. METHOD: We compared the attentional ability of PWS to that of people who do not stutter (PWNS) by using the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061602/cognitive-bias-modification-for-social-anxiety-in-adults-who-stutter-a-feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Jan McAllister, Sally Gascoine, Amy Carroll, Kate Humby, Mary Kingston, Lee Shepstone, Helen Risebro, Bundy Mackintosh, Tammy Davidson Thompson, Jo Hodgekins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a computerised treatment for social anxiety disorder for adults who stutter including identification of recruitment, retention and completion rates, large cost drivers and selection of most appropriate outcome measure(s) to inform the design of a future definitive trial. DESIGN: Two-group parallel design (treatment vs placebo), double-blinded feasibility study. PARTICIPANTS: 31 adults who stutter...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054456/from-locations-to-networks-can-brain-imaging-inform-treatment-of-stuttering
#14
EDITORIAL
Katrin Neumann, Anne L Foundas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050641/white-matter-pathways-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering-lessons-from-tractography
#15
Vered Kronfeld-Duenias, Oren Civier, Ofer Amir, Ruth Ezrati-Vinacour, Michal Ben-Shachar
PURPOSE: Fluent speech production relies on the coordinated processing of multiple brain regions. This highlights the role of neural pathways that connect distinct brain regions in producing fluent speech. Here, we aim to investigate the role of the white matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering (PDS), where speech fluency is disrupted. METHODS: We use diffusion weighted imaging and tractography to compare the white matter properties between adults who do and do not stutter...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049493/preliminary-evidence-that-growth-in-productive-language-differentiates-childhood-stuttering-persistence-and-recovery
#16
Kathryn A Leech, Nan Bernstein Ratner, Barbara Brown, Christine M Weber
Purpose: Childhood stuttering is common but is often outgrown. Children whose stuttering persists experience significant life impacts, calling for a better understanding of what factors may underlie eventual recovery. In previous research, language ability has been shown to differentiate children who stutter (CWS) from children who do not stutter, yet there is an active debate in the field regarding what, if any, language measures may mark eventual recovery versus persistence. In this study, we examined whether growth in productive language performance may better predict the probability of recovery compared to static profiles taken from a single time point...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992603/sex-steroid-hormones-and-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-levels-cyp17-msp-ai-34t-c-and-cyp19-codon-39-trp-arg-variants-in-children-with-developmental-stuttering
#17
Hiwa Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Zohreh Rahimi, Faezeh Faghihi, Habibolah Khazaie, Hashem Farhangdoost, Masoud Mehrpour
Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS)...
October 6, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985970/the-effects-of-actors-vocal-exercises-for-relaxation-on-fluency-a-preliminary-study
#18
Emily Monteagudo, Jean Sawyer, Alyssa Sivek-Eskra
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of treatment based on Kristin Linklater's technique for vocal preparation for performance for use with people who stutter. METHOD: A protocol for a treatment for stuttering involving breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and focus on awareness was designed by the first author from Linklater's published exercises in her book Freeing the Natural Voice (2006). Four adults who stutter participated in a 12-week, single-case reversal design study...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979988/the-history-of-stuttering-by-7-years-of-age-follow-up-of-a-prospective-community-cohort
#19
Elaina Kefalianos, Mark Onslow, Ann Packman, Adam Vogel, Angela Pezic, Fiona Mensah, Laura Conway, Edith Bavin, Susan Block, Sheena Reilly
Purpose: For a community cohort of children confirmed to have stuttered by the age of 4 years, we report (a) the recovery rate from stuttering, (b) predictors of recovery, and (c) comorbidities at the age of 7 years. Method: This study was nested in the Early Language in Victoria Study. Predictors of stuttering recovery included child, family, and environmental measures and first-degree relative history of stuttering. Comorbidities examined at 7 years included temperament, language, nonverbal cognition, and health-related quality of life...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973156/semantic-and-phonological-encoding-times-in-adults-who-stutter-brain-electrophysiological-evidence
#20
Nathan D Maxfield
Purpose: Some psycholinguistic theories of stuttering propose that language production operates along a different time course in adults who stutter (AWS) versus typically fluent adults (TFA). However, behavioral evidence for such a difference has been mixed. Here, the time course of semantic and phonological encoding in picture naming was compared in AWS (n = 16) versus TFA (n = 16) by measuring 2 event-related potential (ERP) components: NoGo N200, an ERP index of response inhibition, and lateralized readiness potential, an ERP index of response preparation...
September 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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