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Juliet Imeson, Robyn Lowe, Mark Onslow, Natalie Munro, Rob Heard, Sue O'Brian, Simone Arnott
This study was driven by the need to understand the mechanisms underlying Lidcombe Program treatment efficacy. The aim of the present study was to extend existing data exploring whether stuttering reductions observed when children successfully treated with the Lidcombe Program are associated with restricted language development. Audio recordings of 10-min parent-child conversations at home were transcribed verbatim for 11 pre-school-age children with various stuttering severities. Language samples from three assessments-pre-treatment, 9 and 18 months after beginning treatment-were analysed using SALT software for lexical diversity, utterance length and sentence complexity...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
Geoffrey A Coalson, Courtney T Byrd, Amanda Kuylen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies employing a variety of tasks have demonstrated that adults who stutter (AWS) pre-sent with phonological encoding differences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The present study examined whether atypical preverbal monitoring also influenced AWS performance during one such paradigm - the silent phoneme monitoring task. Specifically, we investigated whether monitoring latencies for AWS were accelerated after the word's uniqueness point - the phoneme that isolates the word from all lexical competitors - as observed for AWNS when monitoring internal and external speech...
March 13, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Rebecca S Just, Jodi A Irwin
Some of the expected advantages of next generation sequencing (NGS) for short tandem repeat (STR) typing include enhanced mixture detection and genotype resolution via sequence variation among non-homologous alleles of the same length. However, at the same time that NGS methods for forensic DNA typing have advanced in recent years, many caseworking laboratories have implemented or are transitioning to probabilistic genotyping to assist the interpretation of complex autosomal STR typing results. Current probabilistic software programs are designed for length-based data, and were not intended to accommodate sequence strings as the product input...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Matthew J Ludeman, Chang Zhong, Julio J Mulero, Robert E Lagacé, Lori K Hennessy, Marc L Short, Dennis Y Wang
The GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit is a single multiplex assay that amplifies a set of 24 markers, which encompass the European Standard Set and CODIS (Combined DNA Index System) recommended composite set of loci. In addition to more loci and a 6-dye chemistry format, the Master Mix has been formulated to allow higher sample loading volume for trace DNA samples. The GlobalFiler™ Kit has been optimized to deliver high performance on casework samples, while also delivering fast thermal cycling, with an amplification time of approximately 80 min...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Courtney D Giles, Alan E Richardson, Barbara J Cade-Menun, Malika M Mezeli, Lawrie K Brown, Daniel Menezes-Blackburn, Tegan Darch, Martin Sa Blackwell, Charles A Shand, Marc I Stutter, Renate Wendler, Patricia Cooper, David G Lumsdon, Catherine Wearing, Hao Zhang, Philip M Haygarth, Timothy S George
Citrate and phytase root exudates contribute to improved phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) when both exudates are produced in a P deficient soil. To test the importance of root intermingling in the interaction of citrate and phytase exudates, Nicotiana tabacum plant-lines with constitutive expression of heterologous citrate (Cit) or fungal phytase (Phy) exudation traits were grown under two root treatments (roots separated or intermingled) and in two soils with contrasting soil P availability...
March 2, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Kurt Eggers, Luc F De Nil, Bea R H Van den Bergh
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between children's exogenously triggered response inhibition and stuttering. METHOD: Participants were 18 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 9;01 years) and 18 children who not stutter (CWNS; mean age = 9;01 years). Participants were matched on age (±3 months) and gender. Response inhibition was assessed by a stop signal task (Verbruggen, Logan, & Stevens, 2008). RESULTS: Results suggest that CWS, compared to CWNS, perform comparable to CWNS in a task where response control is externally triggered...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Timothy A Howell, Nan Bernstein Ratner
Previous work has postulated that a deficit in lexicalization may be an underlying cause of a stuttering disorder (Prins, Main, & Wampler, 1997; Wingate, 1988). This study investigates the time course of lexicalization of nouns and verbs in adults who stutter. A generalized phoneme monitoring (PM) paradigm was used. Adults who stutter (AWS) and typically-fluent peers both showed an expected effect of word class (verbs yielded slower and less accurate monitoring than nouns), as well as phoneme position (word medial/final phonemes yielded slower and less accurate monitoring than word initial phonemes)...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Daichi Iimura, Yasuto Yada, Kazuya Imaizumi, Toshimitsu Takeuchi, Manami Miyawaki, John Van Borsel
PURPOSE: To determine laypeople's knowledge and awareness of stuttering in Japan. METHODS: A total of 303 respondents, recruited by street sampling, completed a questionnaire assessing the prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different races, cause, treatment, association with intelligence, and hereditariness of stuttering. The questionnaire used was a Japanese version of that devised by Van Borsel, Verniers, and Bouvry (1999) for use in Belgium...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Siti Nor Ain Seri Masran, Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid
Due to the growing public health and tourism awareness, Cimex hemipterus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) has gained a great interest in increasing reported infestation cases in tropical regions of the world, including Malaysia. Since the information on the molecular ecology and population biology of this species are tremendously lacking, the isolation and development of molecular markers can be used to determine its genetic structure. In this study, novel microsatellite primers isolated from enriched genomic libraries of C...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Katerina Ntourou, Julie D Anderson, Stacy A Wagovich
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the executive function (EF) abilities of preschool children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) using a parent-report questionnaire and a behavioral task. METHOD: Participants were 75 CWS and 75 CWNS between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 (years; months). Parents rated their children's EF abilities using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003). Children's ability to integrate cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and working memory was measured using a behavioral task, the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders (HTKS; Cameron Ponitz, McClelland, Matthews, & Morrison, 2009)...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Aysu Erdemir, Tedra A Walden, Caswell M Jefferson, Dahye Choi, Robin M Jones
PURPOSE: This study investigated the possible association of emotional processes and articulation rate in pre-school age children who stutter and persist (persisting), children who stutter and recover (recovered) and children who do not stutter (nonstuttering). METHODS: The participants were ten persisting, ten recovered, and ten nonstuttering children between the ages of 3-5 years; who were classified as persisting, recovered, or nonstuttering approximately 2-2...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Paul C Jordan, Cheng Liu, Pauline Raynaud, Michael K Lo, Christina F Spiropoulou, Julian A Symons, Leo Beigelman, Jerome Deval
Paramyxoviruses represent a family of RNA viruses causing significant human diseases. These include measles virus, the most infectious virus ever reported, in addition to parainfluenza virus, and other emerging viruses. Paramyxoviruses likely share common replication machinery but their mechanisms of RNA biosynthesis activities and details of their complex polymerase structures are unknown. Mechanistic and functional details of a paramyxovirus polymerase would have sweeping implications for understanding RNA virus replication and for the development of new antiviral medicines...
February 9, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Seth Tichenor, Paula Leslie, Susan Shaiman, J Scott Yaruss
PURPOSE: Speech-language pathologists routinely assess physical tension during evaluation of those who stutter. If speakers experience tension that is not visible to clinicians, then judgments of severity may be inaccurate. This study addressed this potential discrepancy by comparing judgments of tension by people who stutter and expert clinicians to determine if clinicians could accurately identify the speakers' experience of physical tension. METHOD: Ten adults who stutter were audio-video recorded in two speaking samples...
February 8, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Richard M Arenas, Jody M Shoemaker, John Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: Brain and Language
Hatun Zengin-Bolatkale, Edward G Conture, Tedra A Walden, Robin M Jones
PURPOSE: This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. METHOD: Participants were 9 children with persisting stuttering, 23 children who recovered, and 17 children who do not stutter. Participants performed a stress-inducing picture-naming task and skin conductance was measured across three time points. RESULTS: Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered...
February 7, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Victoria Tumanova, Dahye Choi, Edward G Conture, Tedra A Walden
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the Test of Childhood Stuttering observational rating scales (TOCS; Gillam et al., 2009) (1) differed between parents who did versus did not express concern (independent from the TOCS) about their child's speech fluency; (2) correlated with children's frequency of stuttering measured during a child-examiner conversation; and (3) correlated with the length and complexity of children's utterances, as indexed by mean length of utterance (MLU)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
Marcelo D Mendonça, Raquel Barbosa, Alexandra Seromenho-Santos, Carla Reizinho, Paulo Bugalho
Stuttering, a speech fluency disorder, is a rare complication of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's Disease (PD). We report a 61 years-old patient with PD, afflicted by severe On and Off dystonia, treated with Subthalamic Nucleus DBS that developed post-DBS stuttering while on 130 Hz stimulation. Stuttering reduction was noted when frequency was changed to 80 Hz, but the previously observed dystonia improvement was lost. There are no reports in literature on patients developing stuttering with low-frequency stimulation...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Jennifer Chesters, Riikka Möttönen, Kate E Watkins
Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting 5% of children, and persisting in 1% of adults. Promoting lasting fluency improvement in adults who stutter is a particular challenge. Novel interventions to improve outcomes are of value, therefore. Previous work in patients with acquired motor and language disorders reported enhanced benefits of behavioural therapies when paired with transcranial direct current stimulation. Here, we report the results of the first trial investigating whether transcranial direct current stimulation can improve speech fluency in adults who stutter...
January 31, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Akira Toyomura, Tetsunoshin Fujii, Koichi Yokosawa, Shinya Kuriki
Affective states, such as anticipatory anxiety, critically influence speech communication behavior in adults who stutter. However, there is currently little evidence regarding the involvement of the limbic system in speech disfluency during interpersonal communication. We designed this neuroimaging study and experimental procedure to sample neural activity during interpersonal communication between human participants, and to investigate the relationship between the amygdala activity and speech disfluency. Participants were required to engage in live communication with a stranger of the opposite sex in the MRI scanner environment...
January 25, 2018: Neuroscience
M Ahmadi, B X R Alves, C J Baker, W Bertsche, A Capra, C Carruth, C L Cesar, M Charlton, S Cohen, R Collister, S Eriksson, A Evans, N Evetts, J Fajans, T Friesen, M C Fujiwara, D R Gill, J S Hangst, W N Hardy, M E Hayden, C A Isaac, M A Johnson, S A Jones, S Jonsell, L Kurchaninov, N Madsen, M Mathers, D Maxwell, J T K McKenna, S Menary, T Momose, J J Munich, K Olchanski, A Olin, P Pusa, C Ø Rasmussen, F Robicheaux, R L Sacramento, M Sameed, E Sarid, D M Silveira, C So, G Stutter, T D Tharp, J E Thompson, R I Thompson, D P van der Werf, J S Wurtele
The simultaneous control of the density and particle number of non-neutral plasmas confined in Penning-Malmberg traps is demonstrated. Control is achieved by setting the plasma's density by applying a rotating electric field while simultaneously fixing its axial potential via evaporative cooling. This novel method is particularly useful for stabilizing positron plasmas, as the procedures used to collect positrons from radioactive sources typically yield plasmas with variable densities and particle numbers; it also simplifies optimization studies that require plasma parameter scans...
January 12, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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