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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097170/microsatellite-ssr-amplification-by-pcr-usually-led-to-polymorphic-bands-evidence-which-shows-replication-slippage-occurs-in-extend-or-nascent-dna-strands
#1
Abasalt Hosseinzadeh-Colagar, Mohammad Javad Haghighatnia, Zahra Amiri, Maryam Mohadjerani, Majid Tafrihi
Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are very effective molecular markers in population genetics, genome mapping, taxonomic study and other large-scale studies. Variation in number of tandem repeats within microsatellite refers to simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP); but there are a few studies that are showed SSRs replication slippage may be occurred during in vitro amplification which are produced 'stutter products' differing in length from the main products. The purpose of this study is introducing a reliable method to realize SSRs replication slippage...
September 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068353/speech-timing-deficit-of-stuttering-evidence-from-contingent-negative-variations
#2
Ning Ning, Danling Peng, Xiangping Liu, Shuang Yang
The aim of the present study was to investigate the speech preparation processes of adults who stutter (AWS). Fifteen AWS and fifteen adults with fluent speech (AFS) participated in the experiment. The event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a foreperiod paradigm. The warning signal (S1) was a color square, and the following imperative stimulus (S2) was either a white square (the Go signal that required participants to name the color of S1) or a white dot (the NoGo signal that prevents participants from speaking)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056467/the-effects-of-self-disclosure-on-male-and-female-perceptions-of-individuals-who-stutter
#3
Courtney T Byrd, Megann McGill, Zoi Gkalitsiou, Colleen Cappellini
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of self-disclosure on observers' perceptions of persons who stutter. Method: Participants (N = 173) were randomly assigned to view 2 of 4 possible videos (i.e., male self-disclosure, male no self-disclosure, female self-disclosure, and female no self-disclosure). After viewing both videos, participants completed a survey assessing their perceptions of the speakers. Results: Controlling for observer and speaker gender, listeners were more likely to select speakers who self-disclosed their stuttering as more friendly, outgoing, and confident compared with speakers who did not self-disclose...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056137/a-lag-in-speech-motor-coordination-during-sentence-production-is-associated-with-stuttering-persistence-in-young-children
#4
Evan Usler, Anne Smith, Christine Weber
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if indices of speech motor coordination during the production of sentences varying in sentence length and syntactic complexity were associated with stuttering persistence versus recovery in 5- to 7-year-old children. Methods: We compared children with persistent stuttering (CWS-Per) with children who had recovered (CWS-Rec), and children who do not stutter (CWNS). A kinematic measure of articulatory coordination, lip aperture variability (LAVar), and overall movement duration were computed for perceptually fluent sentence productions varying in length and syntactic complexity...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038762/disfluency-characteristics-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms
#5
Hyunkyung Lee, Hyunsub Sim, Eunju Lee, Dahye Choi
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the characteristics of speech disfluency in 15 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and 15 age-matched control children. Reading, story retelling, and picture description tasks were used to elicit utterances from the participants. The findings indicated that children with ADHD symptoms produced significantly more stuttering-like disfluencies (SLD) and other disfluencies (OD) when compared to the control group during all three tasks...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035724/reduced-perfusion-in-broca-s-area-in-developmental-stuttering
#6
Jay Desai, Yuankai Huo, Zhishun Wang, Ravi Bansal, Steven C R Williams, David Lythgoe, Fernando O Zelaya, Bradley S Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. METHODS: We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups...
December 30, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035712/identification-of-fluency-and-word-finding-difficulty-in-samples-of-children-with-diverse-language-backgrounds
#7
Peter Howell, Kevin Tang, Outi Tuomainen, Sin Kan Chan, Kirsten Beltran, Avin Mirawdeli, John Harris
BACKGROUND: Stuttering and word-finding difficulty (WFD) are two types of communication difficulty that occur frequently in children who learn English as an additional language (EAL), as well as those who only speak English. The two disorders require different, specific forms of intervention. Prior research has described the symptoms of each type of difficulty. This paper describes the development of a non-word repetition test (UNWR), applicable across languages, that was validated by comparing groups of children identified by their speech and language symptoms as having either stuttering or WFD...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005057/observation-of-the-1s-2s-transition-in-trapped-antihydrogen
#8
M Ahmadi, B X R Alves, C J Baker, W Bertsche, E Butler, A Capra, C Carruth, C L Cesar, M Charlton, S Cohen, R Collister, S Eriksson, A Evans, N Evetts, J Fajans, T Friesen, M C Fujiwara, D R Gill, A Gutierrez, J S Hangst, W N Hardy, M E Hayden, C A Isaac, A Ishida, M A Johnson, S A Jones, S Jonsell, L Kurchaninov, N Madsen, M Mathers, D Maxwell, J T K McKenna, S Menary, J M Michan, T Momose, J J Munich, P Nolan, K Olchanski, A Olin, P Pusa, C Ø Rasmussen, F Robicheaux, R L Sacramento, M Sameed, E Sarid, D M Silveira, S Stracka, G Stutter, C So, T D Tharp, J E Thompson, R I Thompson, D P van der Werf, J S Wurtele
The spectrum of the hydrogen atom has played a central part in fundamental physics in the past 200 years. Historical examples of its significance include the wavelength measurements of absorption lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhofer, the identification of transition lines by Balmer, Lyman et al., the empirical description of allowed wavelengths by Rydberg, the quantum model of Bohr, the capability of quantum electrodynamics to precisely predict transition frequencies, and modern measurements of the 1S-2S transition by Hänsch(1) to a precision of a few parts in 10(15)...
December 19, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992828/validation-of-the-microreader%C3%A2-23sp-id-system-a-new-str-23-plex-system-for-forensic-application
#9
Jienan Li, Haibo Luo, Feng Song, Lushun Zhang, Chuncao Deng, Zailiang Yu, Tianzhen Gao, Miao Liao, Yiping Hou
Microreader™ 23sp ID system is a new 23-plex STR genotyping system that amplified 21 non-CODIS STR loci (D6S477, D18S535, D19S253, D15S659, D11S2368, D20S470, D1S1656, D22-GATA198B05, D7S3048, D8S1132, D4S2366, D21S1270, D13S325, D9S925, D3S3045, D14S608, D10S1435, D12S391, D2S1338, D17S1290 and D5S2500), one CODIS STR locus (D16S539) and the amelogenin locus in one reaction. Microreader™ 23sp ID system was validated according to the guidelines of "Validation Guidelines for DNA Analysis Methods (2012)" described by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), including PCR-based studies, sensitivity study, precision and accuracy evaluation, stutter percentage and peak height ratio, inhibitors, species specificity and DNA mixture studies...
December 12, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981603/exploring-str-signal-in-the-single-and-multi-copy-number-regimes-deductions-from-an-in-silico-model-of-the-entire-dna-laboratory-process
#10
Ken R Duffy, Neil Gurram, Kelsey C Peters, Genevieve Wellner, Catherine M Grgicak
Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling from DNA samples has long been the bedrock of human identification. The laboratory process is composed of multiple procedures that include quantification, sample dilution, PCR, electrophoresis and fragment analysis. The end-product is an STR electropherogram comprised of signal from allele, artifacts and instrument noise. In order to optimize or alter laboratory protocols, a large number of validation samples must be created at significant expense. As a tool to support that process and to enable the exploration of complex scenarios without costly sample creation, a mechanistic stochastic model that incorporates each of the aforementioned processing features is described herein...
December 16, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943350/systematic-assessment-of-the-performance-of-illumina-s-miseq-fgx%C3%A2-forensic-genomics-system
#11
Nouran Almalki, Hoi Yan Chow, Vishakha Sharma, Katie Hart, Donald Siegel, Elisa Wurmbach
This study assesses the performance of Illumina's MiSeq FGx System for forensic genomics by systematically analyzing single source samples, evaluating concordance, sensitivity and repeatability, as well as describing the quality of the reported outcomes. DNA from 16 individuals (nine males/seven females) in nine separate runs showed consistent STR profiles at DNA input ≥400pg, and two full profiles were obtained with 50pg DNA input. However, this study revealed that the outcome of a single sample does not merely depend on its DNA input but is also influenced by the total amount of DNA loaded onto the flow cell from all samples...
December 12, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936963/stuttering-in-relation-to-the-morphophonemics-of-kannada
#12
Horabail S Venkatagiri, Nuggehalli P Nataraja, M Deepthi
The present study investigated the effect of certain unique morphophonemic features of Kannada words on the rate of stutters in a group of 22 adolescent and adult persons who stuttered in an oral reading task. A linear regression analysis showed that word length ranging from 1 to 8 syllables was a potent variable in the occurrence of stutters accounting for 25.3% of stutters. A composite index of morphophonemic complexity with points assigned for sandhi, geminates, consonant clusters, and number of morphemes accounted for a small 7...
December 12, 2016: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936278/the-relationship-between-grammatical-development-and-disfluencies-in-preschool-children-who-stutter-and-those-who-recover
#13
Julia Hollister, Amanda Owen Van Horne, Patricia Zebrowski
Purpose: The dual diathesis stressor model indicates that a mismatch between a child's endogenous linguistic abilities and exogenous linguistic contexts is one factor that contributes to stuttering behavior. In the present study, we used a developmental framework to investigate if reducing the gap between endogenous and exogenous linguistics factors would result in less disfluency for typical children, children who recover from stuttering (CWS-R), and children who persist. Method: Children between 28 and 43 months of age participated in this study: 8 typical children, 5 CWS-R, and 8 children who persist...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936276/the-impact-of-social-cognitive-stress-on-speech-variability-determinism-and-stability-in-adults-who-do-and-do-not-stutter
#14
Eric S Jackson, Mark Tiede, Deryk Beal, D H Whalen
Purpose: This study examined the impact of social-cognitive stress on sentence-level speech variability, determinism, and stability in adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (AWNS). We demonstrated that complementing the spatiotemporal index (STI) with recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) provides a novel approach to both assessing and interpreting speech variability in stuttering. Method: Twenty AWS and 21 AWNS repeated sentences in audience and nonaudience conditions while their lip movements were tracked...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934097/squeezing-of-ion-populations-and-peaks-in-traveling-wave-ion-mobility-separations-and-structures-for-lossless-ion-manipulations-using-compression-ratio-ion-mobility-programming
#15
Sandilya V B Garimella, Ahmed M Hamid, Liulin Deng, Yehia M Ibrahim, Ian K Webb, Erin S Baker, Spencer A Prost, Randolph V Norheim, Gordon A Anderson, Richard D Smith
In this work we report an approach for spatial and temporal gas-phase ion population manipulation, wherein we collapse ion distributions in ion mobility (IM) separations into tighter packets providing higher sensitivity measurements in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS). We do this for ions moving from a conventional traveling wave (TW)-driven region to a region where the TW is intermittently halted or "stuttered". This approach causes the ion packets spanning a number of TW-created traveling traps (TT) to be redistributed into fewer TT, resulting in spatial compression...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930777/involvement-of-the-central-cognitive-mechanism-in-word-production-in-adults-who-stutter
#16
Pei-Tzu Tsai, Nan Bernstein Ratner
Purpose: The study examined whether semantic and phonological encoding processes were capacity demanding, involving the central cognitive mechanism, in adults who do and do not stutter (AWS and NS) to better understand the role of cognitive demand in linguistic processing and stuttering. We asked (a) whether the two linguistic processes in AWS are capacity demanding, which can temporally disrupt the processing of a concurrent nonlinguistic task, and (b) whether AWS and NS show similar patterns of temporal disruption in the two processes...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919696/the-role-of-anxiety-in-stuttering-evidence-from-functional-connectivity
#17
Yang Yang, Fanlu Jia, Wai Ting Siok, Li Hai Tan
Persistent developmental stuttering is a neurologically based speech disorder associated with cognitive-linguistic, motor and emotional abnormalities. Previous studies investigating the relationship between anxiety and stuttering have yielded mixed results, but it has not yet been examined whether anxiety influences brain activity underlying stuttering. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the functional connectivity associated with state anxiety in a syllable repetition task, and trait anxiety during rest in adults who stutter (N=19) and fluent controls (N=19)...
December 2, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919012/atypical-brain-activation-in-children-who-stutter-in-a-visual-go-nogo-task-an-erp-study
#18
Johanna Piispala, Sara Määttä, Ari Pääkkönen, Risto Bloigu, Mika Kallio, Eira Jansson-Verkasalo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate inhibitory control by evaluating possible differences in the strength and distribution of the brain activity in a visual Go/Nogo task in children who stutter (CWS) compared to typically developing children (TDC). METHODS: Eleven CWS and 19 TDC participated. Event related potentials (ERP) were recorded using a 64-channel EEG-cap during an equiprobable visual Go/Nogo task. The global field power (GFP) as well as the mean amplitudes in the P3 time frame were compared between groups...
January 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914554/comparative-performance-of-ampflstr%C3%A2-identifiler%C3%A2-plus-pcr-amplification-kit-and-qiagen%C3%A2-investigator%C3%A2-idplex-plus-kit
#19
Dalad Mattayat, Thitika Kitpipit, Sukanya Phetpeng, Watee Asawutmangkul, Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai
Many forensic STR kits are currently available in the market. The AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® Plus kit, which targets 15 STRs, is commonly used worldwide. The Thai forensic DNA community is built around it in terms of instrument, databases, and interpretation. QIAGEN's IDplex Plus kit targets the same loci, but the PCR cycling time is shorter by about 90min. A direct comparison that assesses forensic parameters and applicability to casework between the two kits has never been carried out. In this study, we performed a direct comparison between the two kits using serial dilutions of two control DNA samples and 60 randomly selected casework samples, including samples taken from improvised explosive devices and terrorist raids...
December 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914278/fdstools-a-software-package-for-analysis-of-massively-parallel-sequencing-data-with-the-ability-to-recognise-and-correct-str-stutter-and-other-pcr-or-sequencing-noise
#20
Jerry Hoogenboom, Kristiaan J van der Gaag, Rick H de Leeuw, Titia Sijen, Peter de Knijff, Jeroen F J Laros
Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is on the advent of a broad scale application in forensic research and casework. The improved capabilities to analyse evidentiary traces representing unbalanced mixtures is often mentioned as one of the major advantages of this technique. However, most of the available software packages that analyse forensic short tandem repeat (STR) sequencing data are not well suited for high throughput analysis of such mixed traces. The largest challenge is the presence of stutter artefacts in STR amplifications, which are not readily discerned from minor contributions...
November 27, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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