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Transverse myelitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694861/an-uncommon-cause-of-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis
#1
Catalina Coclitu, Athena Mergeani, Teodora Parvu, Octaviana Rusu, Andrei Ciobotaru, Ovidiu Bajenaru, Florina Antochi
Considering that currently Romania has the highest tuberculosis incidence in Europe, the recognition of the infection is an acknowledged health issue. Central nervous system tuberculosis accounts for approximately 1% of all cases of tuberculosis. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis is a contiguous infl ammatory lesion of the spinal cord which involves three or more spinal segments. In tuberculosis, spinal cord involvement is rare and is usually rather due to radiculomyelitis or spinal tuberculoma, and only very rare due to longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis...
September 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694624/neuropsychiatric-manifestations-of-scrub-typhus
#2
REVIEW
Sanjay K Mahajan, Sanyam K Mahajan
Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi characterized by focal or disseminated vasculitis and perivasculitis which may involve the lungs, heart, liver, spleen and central nervous system. It was thought to have been eradicated from India. Recently it is being reported from many areas of India. The clinical picture and severity of the symptoms varies widely. The neurological manifestations of scrub typhus are not uncommon but are diverse. Meningoencephalitis is classical manifestation of scrub typhus but cerebellitis, cranial nerve palsies, plexopathy, transverse myelitis, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and Guillan-Barré syndrome are other manifestations reported in literature...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694045/myelitis-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#3
REVIEW
Xiang-Yang Li, Hai-Bing Xiao, Pearl Pai
SLE-associated acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare, but potentially severe complication of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and may lead to significant motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunctions in the central nervous system resulting in marked neurological deficits. It is important to recognize its clinical feature to allow timely diagnosis and management of this condition. In this review, we aimed to provide the reader with the understanding of its clinical presentation and classification, the underlying pathological, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) appearance, and current status of management, with an emphasis on recent discoveries and advancements...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678221/pediatric-acute-transverse-myelitis
#4
Bashaer Albulushi, Brahim Tabarki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667382/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-clinical-features-in-acute-and-subacute-myelopathies
#5
REVIEW
Stefan Weidauer, Marlies Wagner, Michael Nichtweiß
Differential diagnosis of acute and subacute transverse myelopathy includes inflammatory, infectious, vascular, metabolic and paraneoplastic etiologies. Information on the diagnostic approach to transverse myelopathy with regard to daily clinical practice is provided. The differentiation between five lesion patterns on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in myelitis may be helpful: (1) longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis, (2) short segment ovoid or peripherally located, (3) "polio-like", (4) granulomatous and (5) segmental with rash...
June 30, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639937/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-compared-with-standard-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-transverse-myelitis-in-adults-and-children-strive
#6
Michael Absoud, Peter Brex, Olga Ciccarelli, Onyinye Diribe, Gavin Giovannoni, Jennifer Hellier, Rosemary Howe, Rachel Holland, Joanna Kelly, Paul McCrone, Caroline Murphy, Jackie Palace, Andrew Pickles, Michael Pike, Neil Robertson, Anu Jacob, Ming Lim
BACKGROUND: Transverse myelitis (TM) is an immune-mediated disorder of the spinal cord that affects adults and children and that causes motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. There is a prolonged recovery phase, which may continue for many years. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an uncommon relapsing inflammatory central nervous system condition in which TM can be the first presenting symptom. As TM and NMO affect many patients in the prime of their working life, the disorder can impose a significant demand on health resources...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638259/global-alert-zika-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus
#7
REVIEW
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637379/neuropsychological-outcomes-of-pediatric-demyelinating-diseases-a-review
#8
Alexander Tan, Cole Hague, Benjamin M Greenberg, Lana Harder
Immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases impact various areas of the brain, optic nerves, and/or spinal cord and can result in a wide range of neurologic symptoms including adverse cognitive outcomes. Neuropsychological outcomes in adult multiple sclerosis (MS) are well documented, while literature on such outcomes in pediatric cohorts is more limited. Furthermore, literature on neuropsychological outcomes in pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and transverse myelitis (TM) is even more limited...
June 21, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617719/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-and-zika-virus-outbreaks
#9
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Ivan R F da Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arboviruses have been associated with central and peripheral nervous system injuries, in special the flaviviruses. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, meningoencephalitis, ophthalmological manifestations, and other neurological complications have been recently associated to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. In this review, we aim to analyze the epidemiological aspects, possible pathophysiology, and what we have learned about the clinical and laboratory findings, as well as treatment of patients with ZIKV-associated neurological complications...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601290/suspected-bacterial-meningomyelitis-the-first-presenting-clinical-feature-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#10
Xiang Li, Jie Lin, Sipei Pan, Yiyun Weng, Jia Li, Xu Zhang, Junhui Xia, Qiaowen Tong
A rare case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, suspected to be bacterial meningomyelitis as the initial manifestation, is reported. The patient presented with initial symptoms of meningomyelitis and fever. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis (1280×10(6)/L [98% lymphocytes]) and glucose level of 1.8mmol/L. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed >3 vertebral, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and area postrema lesions. Right optic neuritis was experienced 20months after the first attack...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584662/a-rare-case-of-acute-transverse-myelitis-associated-with-staphylococcusaureus-bacteremia-and-osteomyelitis
#11
Stamatis Karakonstantis, Despoina Galani, Sevasti Maragou, Asimina Koulouridi, Dimitra Kalemaki, Charalampos Lydakis
INTRODUCTION: Direct intramedullary infections are considered very rare. Only few reports of Staphylococcus aureus myelitis have been published. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient, a 79-year-old male, presented with a 2-day history of high-grade fever and high inflammatory markers and progressively developed tetraplegia during hospitalization. Lumbar puncture revealed cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and a spinal cord MRI revealed transverse myelitis at the level of C3-C5 and possible osteomyelitis of C5-T1...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580877/clinical-commentary-on-aquaporin-4-igg-positive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-recurrent-short-partial-transverse-myelitis-and-favorable-prognosis-two-new-cases-by-wang-et-al
#12
Eoin P Flanagan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580873/aquaporin-4-igg-positive-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-with-recurrent-short-partial-transverse-myelitis-and-favorable-prognosis-two-new-cases
#13
Jinhua Zhang, Fang Liu, Yiqi Wang, Ying Yang, Yuehong Huang, Hongchen Zhao, Yong Bi, Tianming Shi, Shunyuan Guo, Meiping Wang
Understanding the characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) with recurrent short partial transverse myelitis (SPTM), which is very rare, contributes to the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We present two Chinese aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG)-seropositive NMOSD cases who had at least twice SPTM during 4 and 6 years of follow-up, respectively. Their SPTMs have been mild and responded well to corticosteroids just like in the case of MS. The findings highlight the need of searching for serum AQP4-IgG (cell-based assay strongly recommended) in patients with recurrent SPTM and suggest that those patients may have a mild acute attack phase and favorable long-term prognosis...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551037/a-child-with-acute-transverse-myelitis-requiring-permanent-pacemaker-implantation
#14
Masataka Fukuoka, Ichiro Kuki, Asako Horino, Kiyohiro Kim, Yuka Hattori, Hitomi Tsuji, Megumi Nukui, Shin Okazaki, Hisashi Kawawaki, Yoko Yoshida, Jyunichi Ishikawa, Hiroshi Rinka
We diagnosed a 3-year-old girl with acute transverse myelitis (ATM). She presented with weakness of the limbs and developed urination difficulty and respiratory disturbance. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a symmetric area of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images involving the lower end of the medulla oblongata to the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody was negative. She was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy, immunoglobulin therapy, and plasmapheresis; however, her clinical symptoms did not change...
May 24, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546874/acute-paraparesis-and-sensory-loss-following-intravenous-corticosteroid-administration-in-a-case-of-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis-caused-by-spinal-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#15
Michael A DiSano, Russell Cerejo, MaryAnn Mays
INTRODUCTION: The underlying causes of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) are broad and include inflammatory processes, compression and spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF). Presenting symptoms of SDAVF are nonspecific and often go misdiagnosed. Acute clinical deterioration from SDAVF has been described following exertion or valsalva. However, deterioration has been recently recognized following steroid administration and may contribute to increased morbidity. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 63-year-old woman with a 2-year history of intermittent lower extremity numbness and back pain, lumbar stenosis, who presented with subacute worsening of symptoms following a course of oral steroids for an upper respiratory infection...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537458/chiari-i-malformation-in-children-with-transverse-myelitis
#16
Sathya Vadivelu, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Maureen Mealy, Smurti Patel, Libby Kosnik-Infinger, Daniel Becker
PURPOSE: Transverse myelitis (TM) is an acute inflammatory spinal cord injury. Asymptomatic Chiari I malformation (CMI) management is highly controversial, particularly when associated with a spinal syrinx. Here, we assess the occurrence of CMI in the pediatric TM population and management outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study based on 61 consecutively identified pediatric TM cases over an -8-year period. We reviewed demographic characteristics, radiographic findings, presenting symptoms, and long-term outcomes...
May 24, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533781/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-deciphering-a-target-in-inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Patrick Peschl, Monika Bradl, Romana Höftberger, Thomas Berger, Markus Reindl
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, is a myelin protein solely expressed at the outermost surface of myelin sheaths and oligodendrocyte membranes. This makes MOG a potential target of cellular and humoral immune responses in inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Due to its late postnatal developmental expression, MOG is an important marker for oligodendrocyte maturation. Discovered about 30 years ago, it is one of the best-studied autoantigens for experimental autoimmune models for multiple sclerosis (MS)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509337/impact-of-induction-chemotherapy-hyperfractionated-accelerated-radiotherapy-and-high-dose-thiotepa-on-brain-volume-loss-and-functional-status-of-children-with-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumour
#18
Elwira Szychot, Kiran Seunarine, Kshitij Mankad, Steffi Thust, Chris Clark, Mark N Gaze, Antony Michalski
BACKGROUND: The introduction of aggressive chemo-radiotherapy regimens has improved overall survival in children with primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET). However, these combinations may result in neurotoxicity. Previously reported magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in children receiving intensive sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) and high-dose thiotepa prompted us to investigate the degree of brain volume loss and patients' functional status after therapy...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465700/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disease-characteristics-in-isfahan-iran-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Fereshte Ashtari, Ali Safaei, Vahid Shaygannejad, Mohammad Amin Najafi, Sahar Vesal
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD) is a severe autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that throughout epidemiological data, it has not been completely determined. The aim of this study was to assess characteristics of NMOSD patients in Isfahan as one of the most prevalent cities for multiple sclerosis in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five patients diagnosed as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) disease through 5 years enrolled in this study...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460008/the-spectrum-and-burden-of-influenza-associated-neurological-disease-in-children-combined-encephalitis-and-influenza-sentinel-site-surveillance-from-australia-2013-2015
#20
P N Britton, C C Blyth, K Macartney, R C Dale, J Li-Kim-Moy, G Khandaker, N Crawford, H Marshall, J Clark, E Elliott, R Booy, A C Cheng, C A Jones
Background.: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern hemisphere. Methods.: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from two studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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