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Primary prevention

A Forsberg, C E West, S L Prescott, M C Jenmalm
Reduced intensity and diversity of microbial exposure is considered a major factor driving abnormal postnatal immune maturation and increasing allergy prevalence, particularly in more affluent regions. Quantitatively the largest important source of early immune-microbial interaction, the gut microbiota is of particular interest in this context, with variations in composition and diversity in the first months of life associated with subsequent allergy development. Attempting to restore the health consequences of the 'dysbiotic drift' in modern society, interventions modulating gut microbiota for allergy prevention have been evaluated in several randomized placebo controlled trials...
October 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
X-N Ma, C-X Ma, W-G Shi, J Zhou, H-P Ma, Y-H Gao, C J Xian, K-M Chen
OBJECTIVE: Icaritin, one effective metabolite of Herba Epimedii-derived flavonoid icariin, has a strong osteogenic activity. However, its action mechanism remains unclear. Since primary cilia have been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating the osteogenesis, we hypothesized primary cilia are indispensable in mediating icaritin osteogenic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary rat calvarial osteoblasts were transfected with siRNA1 targeting intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88), a protein required for ciliogenesis, to prevent formation of primary cilium and were treated with 10(-6) M icaritin...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
K-J Maier, B Bücking, K Horst, H Andruszkow, F Hildebrand, M Knobe
BACKGROUND: In unstable trochanteric fractures, the extramedullary rotationally stable screw-anchor (RoSA) combines the benefits of the load and rotational stability of the blade with the advantages of the screw (pull-out resistance, compression capability) in a single load carrier, and was designed to prevent femoral neck shortening by using an additional locked trochanteric stabilizing plate (TSP). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current prospective cohort study was the clinical evaluation of the RoSA/TSP system regarding the mechanical re-operation rate and the amount of postoperative femoral neck shortening...
October 21, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
D E Beaton, M Vidmar, K B Pitzul, R Sujic, N K Rotondi, E R Bogoch, J E M Sale, R Jain, J Weldon
: We evaluated the impact of a more intensive version of an existing post-fracture coordinator-based fracture prevention program and found that the addition of a full-risk assessment improved treatment rates. These findings provide additional support for more intensive programs aimed at reducing the risk of re-fractures. INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based guidelines support coordinator-based programs to improve post-fracture osteoporosis guideline uptake, with more intensive programs including bone mineral density (BMD) testing and/or treatment being associated with better patient outcomes...
October 21, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Dongdong Chai, Hong Jiang, Qifang Li
OBJECTIVE: Previously, we found that the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane up-regulated the transcriptional factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein levels during induction of neurodegeneration in the brain of neonatal rats. Here, we investigated the role of HIF-1α and the underlying signaling pathway in the neurodegenration induced by isoflurane in rodent developing brain. METHODS: Primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to isoflurane (0.4mM) for 12h. Neuron injury was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethyithiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetra-zolium bromide (MTT) test and quantification of lactate dehydrogenaserelease...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Marion Rouzaire, Aurélie Comptour, Corinne Belville, Damien Bouvier, Gaël Clairefond, Flora Ponelle, Vincent Sapin, Denis Gallot, Loïc Blanchon
Thirty percent of preterm births directly result from preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes (PPROM). Clinical management currently proposes using a collagen plug to mechanically stop loss of amniotic fluid. Vitamin A and its active metabolite (retinoic acid) have well-known pro-healing properties and could thus make good candidates as a proposable adjuvant to this mechanical approach. Here we investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the pro-healing properties of all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) in fetal membranes via an approach using an in vitro primary amniocyte wound model and transcriptomics...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Michael G Tecce, Marten N Basta, Valeriy Shubinets, Michael A Lanni, Michael N Mirzabeigi, Laura Cooney, Suneeta Senapati, Ashley F Haggerty, Jason M Weissler, J Andres Hernandez, John P Fischer
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernia (IH) is a complication following open abdominal hysterectomy. This study addresses the incidence and health care cost of IH repair after open hysterectomy, and identify perioperative risk factors to create predictive risk models. METHODS: We conduct a retrospective review of patients who underwent open hysterectomy between 2005 and 2013 at the University of Pennsylvania. The primary outcome was post-hysterectomy IH. Univariate/multivariate cox proportional hazard analyses identified perioperative risk factors...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Andrea M Tarnecki, William F Patterson, Covadonga R Arias
BACKGROUND: The microbiota plays an essential role in host health, particularly through competition with opportunistic pathogens. Changes in total bacterial load and microbiota structure can indicate early stages of disease, and information on the composition of bacterial communities is essential to understanding fish health. Although Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) is an economically important species in recreational fisheries and a primary aquaculture candidate, no information is available on the microbial communities of this species...
October 21, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Yong-Xia Wang, Yan-Ru Chen, Shan-Shan Liu, Ya-Ping Ye, Hong-Li Jiao, Shu-Yang Wang, Zhi-Yuan Xiao, Wen-Ting Wei, Jun-Feng Qiu, Li Liang, Wen-Ting Liao, Yan-Qing Ding
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Metastatic progression is a primary factor contributing to lethality of CRC patients. However, the molecular mechanisms forming early local invasion and distant metastatic colonies are still unclear and the present therapeutic approaches for CRC are unsatisfactory. Therefore, novel therapies targeting metastatic invasion that could prevent tumor spreading and recurrence are urgently needed. Our study showed that the decrease of miR-384 was found in 83...
October 17, 2016: Oncotarget
Laura M Seske, William C Ralston, Louis J Muglia, James M Greenberg
Infant mortality rate is generally regarded as a fundamental indicator of population health and is often used to validate public health interventions. Hamilton County, Ohio, has one of the highest rates in the nation. Most deaths that do not occur in the hospital fall under the jurisdiction of a coroner/medical examiner. We reviewed all infant deaths evaluated by the Hamilton County Coroner from 2006 to 2013 in order to identify opportunities for public health interventions. We predicted that the majority of these infant deaths were unintentional, but preventable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Jane Desborough, Nasser Bagheri, Michelle Banfield, Jane Mills, Christine Phillips, Rosemary Korda
BACKGROUND: The numbers of nurses in general practice in Australia tripled between 2004 and 2012. However, evidence on whether nursing care in general practice improves patient outcomes is scarce. Although patient satisfaction and enablement have been examined extensively as outcomes of general practitioner care, there is little research into these outcomes from nursing care in general practice. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between specific general practice characteristics and nurse consultation characteristics, and patient satisfaction and enablement METHODS: A mixed methods study examined a cross-section of patients from 21 general practices in the Australian Capital Territory...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Martie L Skinner, Kevin P Haggerty, Mary Casey-Goldstein, Ronald W Thompson, Laura Buddenberg, W Alex Mason
OBJECTIVES: The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their concerns and needs in the context of legalization. METHODS: Six semi-structured focus groups (3 with parents, 3 with teens) were conducted in Washington State in 2013 related to consequences of teen marijuana use and messages that would be effective in helping to prevent teens from using marijuana in the context of legal adult use...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Colin G Murphy, Michel P Bonnin, Antoine H Desbiolles, Yannick Carrillon, Tarik Aїt Si Selmi
BACKGROUND: Varus inclination of the uncemented stem is not necessarily a technical error. The proximal femoral anatomy of hips with a coxa vara deformity frequently predisposes varus inclination. METHODS: We reviewed a series of 200 patients undergoing primary uncemented THA with the Corail® hip system. Preoperative data were based on patient demographics, diagnosis, and radiographic information (preoperative templating-CT measurements), and compared postoperative alignment for each stem and type of stem used...
October 15, 2016: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
Kathryn L Kreicher, Jeremy S Bordeaux
Importance: Cutaneous surgery is performed by otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, oculoplastic surgeons, dermatologic surgeons, and some primary care physicians. Practice gaps exist among cutaneous surgeons, as do differences in how different physicians approach preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative decision-making. Objective: To present the newest and best evidence to close common practice gaps in cutaneous surgery. Evidence Review: We performed a detailed search of peer-reviewed publications that were identified through a search of PubMed/MEDLINE (January 1, 2000, through June 30, 2016) using the literature search terms "cutaneous surgery," "Mohs micrographic surgery," "plastic surgery," in combination with "safety," "cost," "anesthesia," "anti-coagulation," "bleeding," "pain," "analgesia," "anxiety," or "infection," among others...
October 20, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Valentina Talarico, Monica Aloe, Alice Monzani, Roberto Miniero, Gianni Bona
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy defined by thrombocytopenia, non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. HUS is typically classified into two primary types: 1) HUS due to infections, often associated with diarrhea (D+HUS, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia Coli-HUS), with the rare exception of HUS due to a severe disseminated infection caused by Streptococcus; 2) HUS related to complement, such HUS is also known as "atypical HUS" and is not diarrhea associated (D-HUS, aHUS); but recent studies have shown other forms of HUS, that can occur in the course of systemic diseases or physiopathological conditions such as pregnancy, after transplantation or after drug assumption...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Sylvia Spivakovsky
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Yuji Kaneko, Colleen Pappas, Naoki Tajiri, Cesar V Borlongan
Oxytocin protects against ischemia-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, and is associated with GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter) signaling transduction in neurons. However, the molecular mechanism by which oxytocin affords neuroprotection, especially the interaction between oxytocin receptor and GABAA receptor (GABAAR), remains to be elucidated. Primary rat neural cells were exposed to oxytocin before induction of experimental acute stroke model via oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD/R) injury...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Qian Chen, Ligeng Xu, Chao Liang, Chao Wang, Rui Peng, Zhuang Liu
A therapeutic strategy that can eliminate primary tumours, inhibit metastases, and prevent tumour relapses is developed herein by combining adjuvant nanoparticle-based photothermal therapy with checkpoint-blockade immunotherapy. Indocyanine green (ICG), a photothermal agent, and imiquimod (R837), a Toll-like-receptor-7 agonist, are co-encapsulated by poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA). The formed PLGA-ICG-R837 nanoparticles composed purely by three clinically approved components can be used for near-infrared laser-triggered photothermal ablation of primary tumours, generating tumour-associated antigens, which in the presence of R837-containing nanoparticles as the adjuvant can show vaccine-like functions...
October 21, 2016: Nature Communications
Leng Zhou, Haidan Lan, Qinghua Zhou, Xiao Jun Tang, Daxing Zhu, Jianming Yue, Bin Liu
BACKGROUND: Ulinastatin can prevent the perioperative increase in proinflammatory cytokines for lung resection surgery; however, its impact on early clinical outcomes remains unknown. METHODS: The study enrolled 108 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who were randomly allocated into two groups: ulinastatin (group U) and control (group C). Patients in group U ( n = 52) were continuously intravenously infused with ulinastatin at a rate of 20 000 U/kg/hour for the first hour after anesthesia induction, and then at a rate of 5000 U/kg/hour until the conclusion of surgery...
September 2016: Thoracic Cancer
Jennifer L Pilgrim, Elizabeth L Jenkins, Yeliena Baber, David Caldicott, Olaf H Drummer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Fatal poisonings in children comprise a small proportion of cases investigated by an Australian coroner; however, they present a major opportunity for death prevention. This study aimed to examine fatal child poisonings in Australia to 1) estimate the rate of acute poisoning deaths in children; 2) describe the key characteristics of the cohort; and 3) describe the outcomes of coronial recommendations made as a death prevention measure. DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
October 21, 2016: Addiction
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