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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531305/impact-of-age-and-antibody-type-on-progression-from-single-to-multiple-autoantibodies-in-type-1-diabetes-relatives
#1
Emanuele Bosi, David C Boulware, Dorothy J Becker, Jane H Buckner, Susan Geyer, Peter A Gottlieb, Courtney Henderson, Amanda Kinderman, Jay M Sosenko, Andrea K Steck, Polly J Bingley
Context: Islet autoantibodies are markers of type 1 diabetes and an increase in number of autoantibodies detected during the preclinical phase is predictive of progression to overt disease. Objective: To refine the impact of age in relation to islet antibody type on the progression from single to multiple autoantibodies in relatives of people with type 1 diabetes. Research design and methods: We examined 994 relatives with normal glucose tolerance and positive for a single autoantibody, followed prospectively in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531241/effect-of-statin-treatment-vs-usual-care-on-primary-cardiovascular-prevention-among-older-adults-the-allhat-llt-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Benjamin H Han, David Sutin, Jeff D Williamson, Barry R Davis, Linda B Piller, Hannah Pervin, Sara L Pressel, Caroline S Blaum
Importance: While statin therapy for primary cardiovascular prevention has been associated with reductions in cardiovascular morbidity, the effect on all-cause mortality has been variable. There is little evidence to guide the use of statins for primary prevention in adults 75 years and older. Objectives: To examine statin treatment among adults aged 65 to 74 years and 75 years and older when used for primary prevention in the Lipid-Lowering Trial (LLT) component of the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT-LLT)...
May 22, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531224/defining-the-vaccination-window-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-using-age-seroprevalence-data-for-children-in-kilifi-kenya
#3
Joyce U Nyiro, Ivy K Kombe, Charles J Sande, James Kipkoech, Patience K Kiyuka, Clayton O Onyango, Patrick K Munywoki, Timothy M Kinyanjui, D James Nokes
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in early life and a target for vaccine prevention. Data on the age-prevalence of RSV specific antibodies will inform on optimizing vaccine delivery. METHODS: Archived plasma samples were randomly selected within age strata from 960 children less than 145 months of age admitted to Kilifi County Hospital pediatric wards between 2007 and 2010. Samples were tested for antibodies to RSV using crude virus IgG ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531205/cost-analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-related-cervical-diseases-and-genital-warts-in-swaziland
#4
Themba G Ginindza, Benn Sartorius, Xolisile Dlamini, Ellinor Östensson
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC), and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531197/a-narrative-systematic-review-of-factors-affecting-diabetes-prevention-in-primary-care-settings
#5
Josie Messina, Stephen Campbell, Rebecca Morris, Emily Eyles, Caroline Sanders
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is impacting millions of people globally; however, many future cases can be prevented through lifestyle changes and interventions. Primary care is an important setting for diabetes prevention, for at-risk populations, because it is a patient's primary point of contact with the health care system and professionals can provide lifestyle counselling and support, as well as monitoring health outcomes. These are all essential elements for diabetes prevention for at-risk adults...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531132/effects-of-%C3%AE-carotene-and-its-cleavage-products-in-primary-pneumocyte-type-ii-cells
#6
Cornelia Haider, Franziska Ferk, Ekramije Bojaxhi, Giuseppe Martano, Hanno Stutz, Nikolaus Bresgen, Siegfried Knasmüller, Avdulla Alija, Peter M Eckl
β-Carotene has been shown to increase the risk of developing lung cancer in smokers and asbestos workers in two large scale trails, the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) and the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Trial (ATBC). Based on this observation, it was proposed that genotoxic oxidative breakdown products may cause this effect. In support of this assumption, increased levels of sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, and chromosomal aberrations were found in primary hepatocyte cultures treated with a mixture of cleavage products (CPs) and the major product apo-8'carotenal...
May 21, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530637/cell-penetrating-peptides-selectively-targeting-smad3-inhibit-profibrotic-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#7
Jeong-Han Kang, Mi-Yeon Jung, Xueqian Yin, Mahefatiana Andrianifahanana, Danielle M Hernandez, Edward B Leof
TGF-β is considered a master switch in the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. The primary mediators of this activity are the SMAD proteins, particularly SMAD3. In the current study, we have developed a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) conjugate of the HIV TAT protein that is fused to an aminoterminal sequence of sorting nexin 9 (SNX9), which was previously shown to bind phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3). We determined that specifically preventing the nuclear import of pSMAD3 using the TAT-SNX9 peptide inhibited profibrotic TGF-β activity in murine cells and human lung fibroblasts as well as in vivo with no demonstrable toxicity...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530464/osteonecrosis-in-sle-prevalence-patterns-outcomes-and-predictors
#8
D D Gladman, N Dhillon, J Su, M B Urowitz
Objective Osteonecrosis is a serious comorbidity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of symptomatic osteonecrosis, determine the pattern of joint involvement, identify the outcomes and investigate predictive factors in a large cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus followed prospectively. Methods At the Toronto Lupus Clinic patients have been followed prospectively according to a standard protocol since 1970. Osteonecrosis is recorded if patients are symptomatic and is confirmed by imaging...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530380/diabetes-update-primary-care-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#9
Beth Choby
The incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) are increasing among white, black, Hispanic, and Asian individuals in the United States. Children often present with acute symptoms, including severe polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, and ketonemia; adults may develop more gradual symptoms that initially appear similar to those of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults and maturity-onset diabetes of the young are conditions that may be confused with T1D, although they are actually more closely related to T2D...
May 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529935/modified-fisher-method-for-unilateral-cleft-lip-report-of-cases
#10
Hui Young Kim, Joonhyoung Park, Ming-Chih Chang, In Seok Song, Byoung Moo Seo
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation of normal function and form is essential in cleft lip repair. In 2005, Dr. David M. Fisher introduced an innovative method, named "an anatomical subunit approximation technique" in unilateral cleft lip repair. According to this method, circumferential incision along the columella on cleft side of the medial flap is continued to the planned top of the Cupid's bow in straight manner, which runs parallel to the unaffected philtral ridge. Usually, small inlet incision is needed to lengthen the medial flap...
December 2017: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529922/governmental-efforts-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-efforts-in-the-russian-federation
#11
REVIEW
Nana Pogosova, Olga Sokolova
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability in Russia as is case with the most other countries of the world, although Russia has unique features and demographic trends. In the late 90's and early 2000's Russia has sustained a profound demographical crisis with a period of overmortality but since 2003 the mortality rates are declining. By 2013, the birth rates exceeded mortality. The reversal of the demographic crisis took place on the background of a number of comprehensive governmental efforts with focus on non-communicable diseases prevention...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529918/advances-in-dyslipidemia-management-for-prevention-of-atherosclerosis-pcsk9-monoclonal-antibody-therapy-and-beyond
#12
REVIEW
Nathan D Wong, Paul D Rosenblit, Robert S Greenfield
In 2003, select families with familial hypercholesterolemia were first identified to have gain-of-function mutations for proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) followed, in 2006, by the identification of those with lifelong low levels of LDL-C and lowered atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk who had loss-of-function PCSK9 mutations. These discoveries led to the rapid development of PSCK9-targeted monoclonal antibody (PCSK9 mAb) therapies and, in 2015, 2 'fully-humanized' PCSK9 mAbs (alirocumab and evolocumab) were marketed in the United States, Europe, and other countries...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529917/current-guidelines-on-prevention-with-a-focus-on-dyslipidemias
#13
REVIEW
Ian M Graham, Alberico L Catapano, Nathan D Wong
Examination of the current the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) guidelines on the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the management of dyslipidemias finds much common ground. Both note that Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is, in most people, the product of a number of risk factors, notably tobacco exposure, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, inactivity, overweight and diabetes. They stress that risk calculators can help in the assessment of risk in apparently healthy persons...
April 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529660/biomechanical-considerations-in-slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis-and-insights-into-prophylactic-fixation
#14
E Leblanc, J M Bellemore, T Cheng, D G Little, O Birke
PURPOSE: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is a deformity of the proximal femur secondary to widened and unstable physis. In stabilising the slip, gold standard treatments stop growth and involve premature physeal closure, which prevents the remodelling of the acquired deformity and creates a leg length discrepancy that may be significant in younger patients. METHODS: We measured the impact of placing threaded screws across the proximal femoral physis by measuring the centre-trochanteric distance (CTD) and articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD) in participants with or without prophylactic fixation...
April 2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529588/downregulation-of-calbindin-1-a-calcium-binding-protein-reduces-the-proliferation-of-osteosarcoma-cells
#15
Zhengxiang Huang, Guojun Fan, Dongliang Wang
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor and has a high propensity to metastasize to the lungs and bones. Calbindin 1 (CALB1) is a constituent Ca2+ binding protein, which can prevent apoptotic death in several cell types induced through various pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. To investigate whether CALB1 is implicated in the tumor growth of human osteosarcoma, two different short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against CALB1 were used for CALB1-knockdown in osteosarcoma U2OS cells. The U2OS cells were divided into three groups: Two groups with CALB1 knockdown (CALB1-shRNA 1 and CALB1-shRNA 2) and one control group (Con-shRNA)...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529529/disclosure-of-traditional-and-complementary-medicine-use-and-its-associated-factors-to-medical-doctor-in-primary-care-clinics-in-kuching-division-sarawak-malaysia
#16
Anak Kelak Johny, Whye Lian Cheah, Safii Razitasham
The decision by the patients to disclose traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) use to their doctor is an important area to be explored. This study aimed to determine the disclosure of TCM use and its associated factors to medical doctor among primary care clinic attendees in Kuching Division, Sarawak. It was a cross-sectional study using questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire. A total of 1130 patients were screened with 80.2% reporting using TCM. Logistic regression analysis revealed that being female (AOR = 3...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529132/efficient-selective-removal-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-via-ecto-alkaline-phosphatase-mediated-aggregation-of-synthetic-peptides
#17
Yi Kuang, Kenji Miki, Callum J C Parr, Karin Hayashi, Ikue Takei, Jie Li, Mio Iwasaki, Masato Nakagawa, Yoshinori Yoshida, Hirohide Saito
The incomplete differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) poses a serious safety risk owing to their potential tumorigenicity, hindering their clinical application. Here, we explored the potential of phospho-D-peptides as novel iPSC-eliminating agents. Alkaline phosphatases overexpressed on iPSCs dephosphorylate phospho-D-peptides into hydrophobic peptides that aggregate and induce cell death. We isolated a peptide candidate, D-3, that selectively and rapidly induced toxicity in iPSCs within 1 hr but had little influence on various non-iPSCs, including primary hepatocytes and iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes...
May 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529088/pilot-test-of-a-home-based-program-to-prevent-perceived-insufficient-milk
#18
Natsuko K Wood, Elizabeth A Sanders, Frances M Lewis, Nancy F Woods, Susan T Blackburn
PROBLEM: Although the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, only 22% of U.S. mothers do so. Mothers' perceived insufficient milk (PIM) is the primary reason for breastfeeding discontinuation globally. There are two changeable causes of PIM: (1) mothers' misinterpretation of their infant's behavior, and (2) mothers' lack of confidence in their ability to breastfeed. AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of a home-based intervention designed to prevent and/or reduce PIM...
May 18, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528855/patterns-of-recent-national-institutes-of-health-nih-funding-to-diagnostic-radiology-departments-analysis-using-the-nih-reporter-system
#19
Ana M Franceschi, Andrew B Rosenkrantz
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize recent National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for diagnostic radiology departments at US medical schools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study did not use private identifiable information and thus did not constitute human subjects research. The public NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools Expenditure and Results system was used to extract information regarding 887 NIH awards in 2015 to departments of "Radiation-Diagnostic/Oncology...
May 18, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528373/the-association-between-primary-source-of-healthcare-coverage-and-colorectal-cancer-screening-among-us-veterans
#20
Folasade P May, Elizabeth M Yano, Dawn Provenzale, W Neil Steers, Donna L Washington
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a deadly but largely preventable disease. Screening improves outcomes, but screening rates vary across healthcare coverage models. In the Veterans Health Administration (VA), screening rates are high; however, it is unknown how CRC screening rates compare for Veterans with other types of healthcare coverage. AIMS: To determine whether Veterans with Veteran-status-related coverage (VA, military, TRICARE) have higher rates of CRC screening than Veterans with alternate sources of healthcare coverage...
May 20, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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