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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350952/future-advances-in-spine-surgery-the-aospine-north-america-perspective
#1
Michael G Fehlings, Christopher S Ahuja, Thomas Mroz, Wellington Hsu, James Harrop
This focus issue highlights state-of-the-art techniques, equipment, and practices in the modern era of spine surgery while providing a glimpse into the next generation of patient care. A broad range of topics are presented to cover the full spectrum of the field. Degenerative diseases are discussed in a series of 3 articles on (1) pathophysiology, management, and surgical approaches to degenerative cervical myelopathy; (2) novel approaches to degenerative thoracolumbar disease (eg, interspinous process spacers, minimally invasive/endoscopic approaches); and (3) animal models and emerging therapeutics in degenerative disk disease...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350935/screening-for-celiac-disease-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#2
Roger Chou, Christina Bougatsos, Ian Blazina, Katherine Mackey, Sara Grusing, Shelley Selph
Importance: Silent or subclinical celiac disease may result in potentially avoidable adverse health consequences. Objective: To review the evidence on benefits and harms of screening for celiac disease in asymptomatic adults, adolescents, and children 3 years and older for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, searched to June 14, 2016...
March 28, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350929/effect-of-vitamin-d-and-calcium-supplementation-on-cancer-incidence-in-older-women-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Joan Lappe, Patrice Watson, Dianne Travers-Gustafson, Robert Recker, Cedric Garland, Edward Gorham, Keith Baggerly, Sharon L McDonnell
Importance: Evidence suggests that low vitamin D status may increase the risk of cancer. Objective: To determine if dietary supplementation with vitamin D3 and calcium reduces the risk of cancer among older women. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 4-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, population-based randomized clinical trial in 31 rural counties (June 24, 2009, to August 26, 2015-the final date of follow-up). A total of 2303 healthy postmenopausal women 55 years or older were randomized, 1156 to the treatment group and 1147 to the placebo group...
March 28, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350561/reducing-pediatric-sternal-wound-infections-a-quality-improvement-project
#4
Claudia Delgado-Corcoran, Charlotte S Van Dorn, Charles Pribble, Emily A Thorell, Andrew T Pavia, Camille Ward, Randall Smout, Susan L Bratton, Phillip T Burch
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a quality improvement intervention reduces sternal wound infection rates in children after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: This is a pre- and postintervention quality improvement study. SETTING: A 16-bed cardiac ICU in a university-affiliated pediatric tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: All patients undergoing cardiac surgery via median sternotomy from January 2010 to December 2014 are included...
March 27, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346649/the-rising-incidence-of-major-salivary-gland-cancer-in-the-united-states
#5
Anthony G Del Signore, Uchechukwu C Megwalu
We performed a population-based historical cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to determine trends in the incidence of major salivary gland cancer and to evaluate the effect of sex, tumor size, histology, primary site, and extent of disease. Participants were men and women with major salivary gland cancer, diagnosed 1973-2009. The incidence of major salivary gland cancer increased from 10.4 per 1,000,000 in 1973 to 16 per 1,000,000 in 2009 (annual percent change [APC] 0...
March 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346567/effect-of-a-low-glycemic-index-mediterranean-diet-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-randomized-controlled-clinici-trial
#6
G Misciagna, M Del Pilar Díaz, D V Caramia, C Bonfiglio, I Franco, M R Noviello, M Chiloiro, D I Abbrescia, A Mirizzi, M Tanzi, M G Caruso, M Correale, R Reddavide, R Inguaggiato, A M Cisternino, A R Osella
INTRODUCTION: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common form of liver disease worldwide affecting all ages and ethnic groups and it has become a consistent threat even in young people. Our aim was to estimate the effect of a Low Glycemic Index Mediterranean Diet (LGIMD) on the NAFLD score as measured by a Liver Ultrasonography (LUS). DESIGN: NUTRIzione in EPAtologia (NUTRIEPA) is a population-based Double-Blind RCT. Data were collected in 2011 and analyzed in 2013-14...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346498/characteristics-of-seasonal-influenza-a-and-b-in-latin-america-influenza-surveillance-data-from-ten-countries
#7
Saverio Caini, Wladimir J Alonso, Angel Balmaseda, Alfredo Bruno, Patricia Bustos, Leticia Castillo, Celina de Lozano, Doménica de Mora, Rodrigo A Fasce, Walquiria Aparecida Ferreira de Almeida, Gabriela F Kusznierz, Jenny Lara, Maria Luisa Matute, Brechla Moreno, Claudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Juan Manuel Rudi, Clotilde El-Guerche Séblain, François Schellevis, John Paget
INTRODUCTION: The increased availability of influenza surveillance data in recent years justifies an actual and more complete overview of influenza epidemiology in Latin America. We compared the influenza surveillance systems and assessed the epidemiology of influenza A and B, including the spatio-temporal patterns of influenza epidemics, in ten countries and sub-national regions in Latin America. METHODS: We aggregated the data by year and country and characteristics of eighty-two years were analysed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346481/edaravone-protects-against-hyperosmolarity-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-primary-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#8
Yanwei Li, Haifeng Liu, Wei Zeng, Jing Wei
An increase in the osmolarity of tears induced by excessive evaporation of the aqueous tear phase is a major pathological mechanism behind dry eye. Exposure of epithelial cells on the surface of the human eye to hyperosmolarity leads to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. Edaravone, a hydroxyl radical scavenging agent, is clinically used to reduce neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In this study, we found that treatment with hyperosmotic media at 400 and 450 mOsM increased the levels of ROS and mitochondrial oxidative damage, which were ameliorated by edaravone treatment in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345960/graft-utilization-in-the-bridging-reconstruction-of-irreparable-rotator-cuff-tears-a-systematic-review
#9
Matthew R Lewington, Devin P Ferguson, T Duncan Smith, Robert Burks, Catherine Coady, Ivan Ho-Bun Wong
BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common conditions affecting the shoulder. Because of the difficulty in managing massive rotator cuff tears and the inability of standard techniques to prevent arthropathy, surgeons have developed several novel techniques to improve outcomes and ideally alter the natural history. PURPOSE: To systematically review the existing literature and analyze reported outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of using a bridging graft reconstruction technique to treat large to massive irreparable rotator cuff tears...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345606/53bp1-contributes-to-regulation-of-autophagic-clearance-of-mitochondria
#10
Cha Kyung Youn, Hong Beum Kim, Ting Ting Wu, Sanggon Park, Sung Il Cho, Jung-Hee Lee
Autophagy, the primary recycling pathway within cells, plays a critical role in mitochondrial quality control under normal growth conditions and in the cellular response to stress. Here we provide evidence that 53BP1, a DNA damage response protein, is involved in regulating mitochondrial clearance from the cell via a type of autophagy termed mitophagy. We found that when either human or mouse cells were 53BP1-deficient, there was an increase in mitochondrial abnormalities, as observed through staining intensity, aggregation, and increased mass...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345602/a-primary-human-macrophage-enteroid-co-culture-model-to-investigate-mucosal-gut-physiology-and-host-pathogen-interactions
#11
Gaelle Noel, Nicholas W Baetz, Janet F Staab, Mark Donowitz, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Marcela F Pasetti, Nicholas C Zachos
Integration of the intestinal epithelium and the mucosal immune system is critical for gut homeostasis. The intestinal epithelium is a functional barrier that secludes luminal content, senses changes in the gut microenvironment, and releases immune regulators that signal underlying immune cells. However, interactions between epithelial and innate immune cells to maintain barrier integrity and prevent infection are complex and poorly understood. We developed and characterized a primary human macrophage-enteroid co-culture model for in-depth studies of epithelial and macrophage interactions...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345504/the-association-between-dietary-inflammatory-index-scores-and-the-prevalence-of-colorectal-adenoma
#12
Alyson Haslam, Sara Wagner Robb, James R Hébert, Hanwen Huang, Michael D Wirth, Nitin Shivappa, Mark H Ebell
OBJECTIVE: The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)TM, which was developed to characterize the inflammatory potential of a person's diet, has been shown to be associated with inflammatory conditions such as cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the association between DII scores and colorectal adenoma (CRA), a pre-cancerous condition. DESIGN: Responses to baseline dietary questionnaires were used calculate DII scores. In a cross-sectional study design, the association between DII scores and CRA prevalence was determined in men and women separately using logistic regression models...
March 27, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345437/clinical-profile-dosing-and-quality-of-life-outcomes-in-primary-immune-deficiency-patients-treated-at-home-with-immunoglobulin-g-data-from-the-ideal-patient-registry
#13
Sean Kearns, Loretta Kristofek, William Bolgar, Luqman Seidu, Samantha Kile
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary immune deficiency (PID) often require immunoglobulin G (IgG, commonly referred to as Ig) replacement therapy to prevent infections and associated comorbidities. Ig therapy can be given either through intravenous or subcutaneous routes, and both can be done in the home setting. There is limited information available on the real-world diagnosis, management, and outcomes of this patient population, given the variable disease presentation and treatment options...
April 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345330/relationship-of-lifetime-exposure-to-tobacco-alcohol-and-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-with-upper-aero-digestive-tract-cancers-in-india-a-case-control-study-with-a-life-course-perspective
#14
Bhawna Gupta, Narinder Kumar, Newell W Johnson
Background: Squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADTSCC) are a multifaceted public health problem. Effects of lifestyle risk factors, including tobacco (chewing and smoking), alcohol drinking and exposure to second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) at home and their association with UADT cancers was assessed in a case-control study with a life-course perspective. The study was conducted at two different hospitals in Pune, India. Material and methods: The total sample size (N=480) included 240 histopathologically confirmed cases of UADT cancers and an equal number of controls frequency matched with cases by gender and age distribution (+5 years)...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345303/arterial-ageing-from-endothelial-dysfunction-to-vascular-calcification
#15
M Tesauro, A Mauriello, V Rovella, M Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, C Cardillo, G Melino, N Di Daniele
Complex structural and functional changes occur in the arterial system with advancing age. The aged artery is characterized by changes in microRNA expression patterns, autophagy, smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and arterial calcification with progressively increased mechanical vessel rigidity and stiffness. With age the vascular smooth muscle cells modify their phenotype from contractile to 'synthetic' determining the development of intimal thickening as early as the second decade of life as an adaptive response to forces acting on the arterial wall...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345119/metabolism-of-mannose-in-cultured-primary-rat-neurons
#16
Wiebke Rastedt, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Ralf Dringen
Glucose is the main peripheral substrate for energy production in the brain. However, as other hexoses are present in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, we have investigated whether neurons have the potential to metabolize, in addition to glucose, also the hexoses mannose, fructose or galactose. Incubation of primary cerebellar granule neurons in the absence of glucose caused severe cell toxicity within 24 h, which could not be prevented by application of galactose or fructose, while the cells remained viable during incubation in the presence of either mannose or glucose...
March 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344889/loss-of-tapasin-in-human-lung-and-colon-cancer-cells-and-escape-from-tumor-associated-antigen-specific-ctl-recognition
#17
Yosuke Shionoya, Takayuki Kanaseki, Sho Miyamoto, Serina Tokita, Ayumi Hongo, Yasuhiro Kikuchi, Vitaly Kochin, Kazue Watanabe, Ryota Horibe, Hiroshi Saijo, Tomohide Tsukahara, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Hiroki Takahashi, Noriyuki Sato, Toshihiko Torigoe
Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) lyse target cells after recognizing the complexes of peptides and MHC class I molecules (pMHC I) on cell surfaces. Tapasin is an essential component of the peptide-loading complex (PLC) and its absence influences the surface repertoire of MHC class I peptides. In the present study, we assessed tapasin expression in 85 primary tumor lesions of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, demonstrating that tapasin expression positively correlated with patient survival. CD8(+) T-cell infiltration of tumor lesions was synergistically observed with tapasin expression and correlated positively with survival...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344881/immunosurveillance-and-immunoediting-in-mmtv-pymt-induced-mammary-oncogenesis
#18
Emilie T E Gross, Semi Han, Prasantha Vemu, Carlos D Peinado, Martin Marsala, Lesley G Ellies, Jack D Bui
Evidence of cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting processes has been primarily demonstrated in mouse models of chemically induced oncogenesis. Although these models are very tractable, they are characterized by high mutational loads that represent a minority of human cancers. In this study, we sought to determine whether cancer immunosurveillance and immunoediting could be demonstrated in a more clinically relevant oncogene-induced model of carcinogenesis, the MMTV-PyMT (PyMT) mammary carcinoma model...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344838/establishing-a-policy-framework-for-the-primary-prevention-of-occupational-cancer-a-proposal-based-on-a-prospective-health-policy-analysis
#19
Amanda Veglia, Manisha Pahwa, Paul A Demers
BACKGROUND: Despite our knowledge of the causes of cancer, millions of workers are involuntarily exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens in the workplace. To address this issue from a policy perspective, we developed a policy framework based on a prospective health policy analysis. Use of the framework was demonstrated for developing policies to prevent cancers associated with diesel engine exhaust (DEE), asbestos, and shift work, three occupational carcinogens with global reach and large cancer impact...
March 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344574/health-associated-niche-inhabitants-as-oral-probiotics-the-case-of-streptococcus-dentisani
#20
Arantxa López-López, Anny Camelo-Castillo, María D Ferrer, Áurea Simon-Soro, Alex Mira
Oral diseases, including dental caries and periodontitis, are among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and develop as a consequence of a microbial dysbiosis. Several bacterial strains are being tested as potential oral health-promoting organisms, but usually they are species isolated from niches other than the site where they must exert its probiotic action, typically from fecal samples. We hypothesize that oral inhabitants associated to health conditions will be more effective than traditional, gut-associated probiotic species in key aspects such as colonization of the oral site where disease takes place or the possession of oral health promoting functions, as well as more practical issues like safety and toxicity, and establishing proper doses for administration...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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