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Primary prevention

M Chen, J L Zhuang, M H Duan, W Zhang, J Li, T N Zhu, H C Cai, X X Cao, J Feng, C Yang, Y Zhang, L Zhang, D B Zhou, B Han
Objective: To Evaluate the efficacy and safety of posaconazole as primary prevention of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) treated with anti-thymus/lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG/ALG) combined with cyclosporine intensive immunosuppressive therapy (IST). Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of 58 SAA patients who received IST of anti-thymocyte immunoglobulin combining cyclosporine and antifungal prophylaxis during April 2013 to May 2017 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital was performed...
February 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Kaitlyn Fladeboe, Kyrill Gurtovenko, Madelaine Keim, Joy Kawamura, Kevin M King, Debra L Friedman, Bruce E Compas, David Breiger, Liliana J Lengua, Lynn Fainsilber Katz
Objective:  When a child is diagnosed with cancer, problems may arise in family relationships and negatively affect child adjustment. The current study examined patterns of spillover between marital and parent-child relationships to identify targets for intervention aimed at ameliorating family conflict. Method:  Families (N = 117) were recruited from two US children's hospitals within 2-week postdiagnosis to participate in a short-term prospective longitudinal study...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Carlos A Campos, Anna J Bowen, Carolyn W Roman, Richard D Palmiter
Animals must respond to various threats to survive. Neurons that express calcitonin gene-related peptide in the parabrachial nucleus (CGRPPBN neurons) relay sensory signals that contribute to satiation and pain-induced fear behaviour, but it is unclear how they encode these distinct processes. Here, by recording calcium transients in vivo from individual neurons in mice, we show that most CGRPPBN neurons are activated by noxious cutaneous (shock, heat, itch) and visceral stimuli (lipopolysaccharide). The same neurons are inhibited during feeding, but become activated during satiation, consistent with evidence that CGRPPBN neurons prevent overeating...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Il Ju Choi, Myeong-Cherl Kook, Young-Il Kim, Soo-Jeong Cho, Jong Yeul Lee, Chan Gyoo Kim, Boram Park, Byung-Ho Nam
BACKGROUND: Patients with early gastric cancers that are limited to gastric mucosa or submucosa usually have an advanced loss of mucosal glandular tissue (glandular atrophy) and are at high risk for subsequent (metachronous) development of new gastric cancer. The long-term effects of treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori on histologic improvement and the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer remain unclear. METHODS: In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, we assigned 470 patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer or high-grade adenoma to receive either H...
March 22, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Nancy A Gonzales, Michaeline Jensen, Jenn Yun Tein, Jessie J Wong, Larry E Dumka, Anne Marie Mauricio
Importance: Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. Objective: To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Cynthia de Jesus Freire, Lucas Roberto da Silva Barbosa, João Gomes da Costa, Renata Guerda de Araújo Santos, Aldenir Feitosa Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the use of phytotherapy as a therapy adopted in the context of Primary Care to Childhood. METHOD: Observational and analytical field research, with quantitative-qualitative approach. A semi-structured survey was used on socio-demographic and ethnopharmacological variables, audio interview and daily observation. RESULTS: The production of knowledge about phytotherapy constitutes a family heritage, but incorporated data resulting from the daily experiences shared by the community...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Fleur P Paling, Karina Olsen, Kristin Ohneberg, Martin Wolkewitz, Vance G Fowler, Mark J DiNubile, Hasan S Jafri, Frangiscos Sifakis, Marc J M Bonten, Stephan J Harbarth, Jan A J W Kluytmans
BACKGROUND: Identifying patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery at high risk of Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection (SSI) is a prerequisite for implementing effective preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to develop a risk prediction model for S. aureus SSI or bacteremia after cardiothoracic surgery based on pre-operative variables. MATERIALS/METHODS: Data from the Merck Phase IIb/III S. aureus vaccine (V710-P003) clinical trial were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Peter Ueda, Thomas Wai-Chun Lung, Yuan Lu, Joshua A Salomon, Kazem Rahimi, Philip Clarke, Goodarz Danaei
BACKGROUND: The updated national guidelines for cardiovascular risk assessment and lipid modification in the UK and US expand the indications for statin therapy in primary prevention to adults with moderate risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) but many adults at high CVD risk remain untreated in both countries. We set out to identify treatment gaps in English and American adults at moderate and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to estimate the number of CVD events that would be prevented from expanding statin therapy to those who are currently untreated...
2018: PloS One
Hatim A AlSulaim, R Sterling Haring, Anthony O Asemota, Blair J Smart, Joseph K Canner, Aslam Ejaz, David T Efron, Catherine G Velopulos, Elliott R Haut, Eric B Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification-derived conscious status and mortality rates in trauma centres (TC) vs. non-trauma centres (NTC). METHODS: Patients in the 2006-2011 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample meeting, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for traumatic brain injury (TBI), with head/neck Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores ≥3 were included...
March 21, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Ronald Trejo, Karen-Leigh Edward, Wendy Cross
BACKGROUND: secondary prevention programmes help manage risk factors, prevent progression of disease, minimise complications and reduce readmissions to hospitals. Referrals to these programmes are suboptimal even though they improve survival and quality of life. AIM: to explore referral of individuals with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease to secondary prevention programmes. METHODS: a non-experimental descriptive retrospective design was used to analyse 176 patient records from a tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia...
March 22, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Ritika S Joshi, Dipanwita Das Mukherjee, Subhendu Chakrabarty, Ansie Martin, Manojkumar Jadhao, Gopal Chakrabarti, Angshuman Sarkar, Sujit Kumar Ghosh
In the development of small molecule drug candidates, naphthalimide based compounds hold a very important position as potent anti-cancer agents with considerable safety in drug discoveries. Being synthetically and readily accessible, naphthalimide compounds with planar architecture have been developed mostly as DNA targeting intercalators. However, in this article, we demonstrate, for the first time, wherein an unfused naphthalimide-benzothiazole bichromophoric compound 2-(6-chlorobenzo[d] thiazol-2-yl)-1H-benzo[de] isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-dione (CBIQD), designed and synthesized by our group, seem to expand the bioactivity of naphthalimide as anti-mitotic agents also...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Andrea I Guaricci, Delia De Santis, Mark G Rabbat, Gianluca Pontone
: Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have proven to be the most effective preventive therapy of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on current guidelines, the indication for prophylactic ICD therapy is primarily based on a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 35%. However, patients with low LVEF may never have an arrhythmic event while patients with normal to moderately reduced LVEF, who are traditionally felt to be at lower risk, can experience SCD. Therefore, LVEF alone is not an ideal risk stratification parameter to determine ICD therapy...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Yi Dong, Kun Fang, Xin Wang, Shengdi Chen, Xueyuan Liu, Yuwu Zhao, Yangtai Guan, Dingfang Cai, Gang Li, Jianmin Liu, Jianren Liu, Jianhua Zhuang, Panshi Wang, Xin Chen, Haipeng Shen, David Z Wang, Ying Xian, Wuwei Feng, Bruce Cv Campbell, Mark Parsons, Qiang Dong
Background Several stroke outcome and quality control projects have demonstrated the success in stroke care quality improvement through structured process. However, Chinese health-care systems are challenged with its overwhelming numbers of patients, limited resources, and large regional disparities. Aim To improve quality of stroke care to address regional disparities through process improvement. Method and design The Shanghai Stroke Service System (4S) is established as a regional network for stroke care quality improvement in the Shanghai metropolitan area...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
S I Achkasov, Yu A Shelygin, A I Moskalev, Yu L Trubacheva, S A Senashenko
AIM: To estimate efficacy of laparoscopic-assisted procedures for chronic complications of diverticular disease (DD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was made a prospective comparative study within 2007-2015. Inclusion criteria were verified chronic DD (>6 weeks after the first attack) and bowel resection followed by primary anastomosis. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: contraindications for pneumoperitoneum, BMI ≥35 kg/m2 , infiltrate dimension >10 cm, preoperatively non-excluded neoplasm...
2018: Khirurgiia
Gino Vissers, Arno Talboom, Ben Gys, Damien Desbuquoit, Niels Komen, Guy Hubens
BACKGROUND: An internal abdominal hernia is defined as the protrusion of a viscus through a mesenteric or peritoneal aperture within the peritoneal cavity. A less common type of internal herniation is a small bowel herniation through a defect in the falciform ligament of the liver. This defect can be congenital or iatrogenic after penetration of the falciform ligament with a trocar during laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: We present a case report illustrating an internal herniation through an iatrogenic defect in the falciform ligament of the liver...
March 21, 2018: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Chi Zhang, Bo Xu, Guanzhao Liang, Xianshang Zeng, Chen Yang, Fan Zhang, Zi Wan, Weiguang Yu, Deng Chen, Zhe Ge, Xinchao Zhang
Objective This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of rivaroxaban versus nadroparin for preventing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in elderly patients with osteoporosis undergoing initial total hip arthroplasty (THA) for femoral neck fractures. Methods Prospectively maintained databases were reviewed to retrospectively compare elderly patients with osteoporosis who underwent initial THA for femoral neck fractures from 2007 to 2015. The patients received peroral rivaroxaban at 10 mg/day for 2 weeks or subcutaneous injections of nadroparin at 0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Fatma Yazici Yilmaz, Begum Aydogan Mathyk, Serhat Yildiz, Nefise Nazli Yenigul, Ceren Saglam
The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative pain and neuropathy after primary caesarean sections with either blunt or sharp fascial expansions. A total of 123 women undergoing primary caesarean sections were included in the study. The sharp group had 61 patients, and the blunt group had 62. In the sharp group, the fascia was incised sharply and extended using scissors. In blunt group, the fascia was bluntly opened by lateral finger-pulling. The primary outcome was postoperative pain. The long-term chronic pain scores were significantly lower in the blunt group during mobilisation (p = ...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Adolph J Yates
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention recently released their 2017 Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. One of their recommendations is the ordering of a single dose of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics with no subsequent postoperative dosing; this recommendation includes perioperative antibiotics for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty. At this time, the American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons (AAHKS) does not agree with this recommendation vis-a-vis total joint arthroplasty because it contradicts current international standards of care with limited evidence and study...
March 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Andrew Konopitski, Anthony Boniello, Patrick Wang, Mitesh Shah, Andrew Old, Kevin Gingrich
We present a unique case of bladder perforation occurring intraoperatively during primary total hip arthroplasty. It is suspected that the patient's aberrant bladder anatomy, with idiopathic erosion of the quadrilateral space, predisposed the patient to bladder injury. Several preoperative risk factors for bladder injury were identified in the literature. These factors include cemented acetabular components, previous history of hip arthroplasty, history of pelvic trauma or intrapelvic surgery, and poor bone quality...
March 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Robert F Pass, Ravit Arav-Boger
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is a major cause of central nervous system and sensory impairments that affect cognition, motor function, hearing, language development, vestibular function, and vision. Although the importance of congenital cytomegalovirus infection is readily evident, the vast majority of maternal and fetal infections are not identified, even in developed countries. Multiple studies of prenatal cytomegalovirus infections have produced a body of knowledge that can inform the clinical approach to suspected or proven maternal and fetal infection...
2018: F1000Research
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