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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342444/scarlet-fever-epidemic-in-china-caused-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-serotype-m12-epidemiologic-and-molecular-analysis
#1
Yuanhai You, Mark R Davies, Melinda Protani, Liam McIntyre, Mark J Walker, Jianzhong Zhang
From 2011, Hong Kong and mainland China have witnessed a sharp increase in reported cases, with subsequent reports of epidemic scarlet fever in North Asia and the United Kingdom. Here we examine epidemiological data and investigate the genomic context of the predominantly serotype M12 Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever isolates from mainland China. Incident case data was obtained from the Chinese Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System. The relative risk of scarlet fever in recent outbreak years 2011-2016 was calculated using the median age-standardised incidence rate, compared to years 2003-2010 prior this outbreak...
January 11, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337626/comparative-analysis-of-pasteurella-multocida-isolates-from-acute-and-chronic-fowl-cholera-cases-in-hungary-during-the-period-2005-through-2010
#2
Boglárka Sellyei, Ákos Thuma, Dmitriy Volokhov, Zsuzsanna Varga
Fowl cholera (FC) is a highly contagious and economically important disease of poultry worldwide. This study was performed on 218 Pasteurella multocida isolates collected from separated breeding farms or backyards with acute and chronic FC cases in multiple localities across Hungary during the period 2005-2010. All isolates were characterized by a broad range of biochemical, serological, and molecular methods, as well as their antibiotic susceptibility to aminoglycosides (A), macrolides (M), penicillins (P), quinolones (Q), cephalosporins, sulphonamides (S), and tetracyclines (T) was determined...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337082/serum-lactate-dehydrogenase-isoenzymes-4-plus-5-is-a-better-biomarker-than-total-lactate-dehydrogenase-for-refractory-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-in-children
#3
Ta-Yu Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Chih-Min Tsai, Kuang-Che Kuo, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Chin-Hao Chang, Yu-Tsun Su, Chen-Kuang Niu, Hong-Ren Yu
Although usually self-limiting, Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) may lead to clinical or radiological deterioration despite macrolide antibiotic therapy, resulting in the development of refractory MPP (RMPP). Corticosteroids have been used to treat RMPP with beneficial effects. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a suggested biomarker for the use of steroid therapy. Since serum LDH is a non-specific marker and elevated in many inflammatory processes, this study investigates the predicting level of LDH isoenzymes for RMPP...
December 26, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336808/miniaturized-solid-phase-extraction-of-macrolide-antibiotics-in-honey-and-bovine-milk-using-mesoporous-mcm-41-silica-as-sorbent
#4
Li-Jing Du, Ling Yi, Li-Hong Ye, Yu-Bo Chen, Jun Cao, Li-Qing Peng, Yu-Ting Shi, Qiu-Yan Wang, Yu-Han Hu
A simple and effective method of miniaturized solid-phase extraction (mini-SPE) was developed for the simultaneous purification and enrichment of macrolide antibiotics (MACs) (i.e. azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, lincomycin and roxithromycin) from honey and skim milk. Mesoporous MCM-41 silica was synthesized and used as sorbent in mini-SPE. Several key parameters affecting the performance of mini-SPE procedure were thoroughly investigated, including sorbent materials, amount of sorbent and elution solvents...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332397/unconventional-fragment-usage-enables-a-concise-total-synthesis-of-callyspongiolide
#5
Francesco Manoni, Corentin Rumo, Liubo Li, Patrick G Harran
An asymmetric synthesis of (-)-callyspongiolide is described. The route builds the macrolide domain atypically from a disaccharide and a monoterpene without passing through a seco-acid. Chiral iridium catalysis selectively joins fragments. Subsequent degradation of an imbedded butyrolactone via perhemiketal fragmentation affords a stereo and regio-defined homoallylic alcohol that is engaged directly in a carbonylative macrolactonization. Further elaboration of the polyunsaturated appendage provides the natural product in a particularly direct and flexible manner...
January 13, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332324/effects-of-macrolide-and-corticosteroid-in-neutrophilic-asthma-mouse-model
#6
Tai Joon An, Chin Kook Rhee, Ji Hye Kim, Young Rong Lee, Jin Young Chon, Chan Kwon Park, Hyoung Kyu Yoon
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a disease of chronic airway inflammation with heterogeneous features. Neutrophilic asthma is corticosteroid-insensitive asthma related to absence or suppression of TH2 process and increased TH1 and/or TH17 process. Macrolides are immunomodulatory drug that reduce airway inflammation, but their role in asthma is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of macrolides in neutrophilic asthma and compare their effects with those of corticosteroids...
January 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332148/occurrence-of-pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-and-their-associated-environmental-risks-in-a-large-shallow-lake-in-north-china
#7
Panwei Zhang, Huaidong Zhou, Kun Li, Xiaohui Zhao, Qiaona Liu, Dongjiao Li, Gaofeng Zhao
Eighteen selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), consisting of five non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals (N-APs), four sulfonamides (SAs), four tetracyclines (TCs), four macrolides (MCs), and one quinolone (QN) were detected in water, pore water, and sediment samples from Baiyangdian Lake, China. A total of 31 water samples and 29 sediment samples were collected in March 2017. Caffeine was detected with 100% frequency in surface water, pore water, and sediment samples. Carbamazepine was detected with 100% frequency in surface water and sediment samples...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330715/case-series-analysis-of-new-zealand-reports-of-rapid-intense-potentiation-of-warfarin-by-roxithromycin
#8
Ruth L Savage, Michael V Tatley
INTRODUCTION: We undertook an analysis of all the reports to the New Zealand Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring of a roxithromycin/warfarin interaction after two recent reports described intense rapid warfarin potentiation. The interaction was first published in 1995. Cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition has been the proposed mechanism but has limited biologic plausibility. There are suggestions that the clinical significance of the interaction may be increased by severe illness, polypharmacy, renal dysfunction, older age and increased warfarin sensitivity...
January 12, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329759/treatment-outcomes-of-macrolide-susceptible-mycobacterium-abscessus-lung-disease
#9
Hayoung Choi, Byung Woo Jhun, Su-Young Kim, Dae Hun Kim, Hyun Lee, Kyeongman Jeon, O Jung Kwon, Hee Jae Huh, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Sung Jae Shin, Charles L Daley, Won-Jung Koh
Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease is difficult to treat due to inducible resistance to macrolides. However, 15%-20% of isolates are macrolide susceptible. In 14 patients with macrolide-susceptible M. abscessus lung disease, all isolates had nonfunctional erm(41) gene, and sputum culture conversion rate was achieved in 93% (13/14) following antibiotic therapy.
December 16, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329011/removal-of-ozonation-products-of-pharmaceuticals-in-laboratory-moving-bed-biofilm-reactors-mbbrs
#10
Haitham El-Taliawy, Monica Escola Casas, Kai Bester
The major pathway of pharmaceuticals from urban applications to urban surface waters is via wastewater treatment plants. Ozonation is able to remove pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents. However, during that reaction, ozonation products are formed. Some ozonation products were found to be persistent and have adverse effect on the environment. Moving bed bio reactors (MBBRs) were tested for the removal of the ozonation products of macrolide antibiotics and diclofenac at two different concentration levels 1 μg/L and 10 μg/L in laboratory reactors...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327931/bastimolide-b-an-antimalarial-24-membered-marine-macrolide-possessing-a-tert-butyl-group
#11
Chang-Lun Shao, Xiao-Feng Mou, Fei Cao, Carmenza Spadafora, Evgenia Glukhov, Lena Gerwick, Chang-Yun Wang, William H Gerwick
We reported previously the discovery of the potent antimalarial 40-membered macrolide bastimolide A (1) from the tropical marine cyanobacterium Okeania hirsute. Continued investigation has led to the discovery of a new analogue, bastimolide B (2), a 24-membered polyhydroxy macrolide with a long aliphatic chain and unique terminal tert-butyl group. Its complete structure was determined by a combination of extensive spectroscopic methods and comparative analysis of its methanolysis products with those of bastimolide A...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326225/genomic-insights-into-biofilm-forming-enterococcus-faecalis-sk460-isolated-from-a-chronic-diabetic-ulcer-patient
#12
Karthika Suryaletha, Lekshmi Narendrakumar, Joby John, Dinesh Reghunathan, Manoj Prasannakumar, Sabu Thomas
Enterococcus faecalis is recognized as one of the leading pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Here we report a draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis SK460, isolated from a chronic diabetic foot ulcer patient. This strain exhibits various biofilm-associated genes, virulence genes, and antibiotic-resistance genes related to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance.
January 11, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326010/genomics-of-corynebacterium-striatum-an-emerging-multi-drug-resistant-pathogen-of-immunocompromised-patients
#13
Kathleen Nudel, Xiaomin Zhao, Sankha Basu, Xiaoxi Dong, Maria Hoffmann, Michael Feldgarden, Marc Allard, Michael Klompas, Lynn Bry
OBJECTIVES: Corynebacterium striatum is an emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogen of immunocompromised and chronically ill patients. The objective of these studies was to provide a detailed genomic analysis of disease causing C. striatum and determine the genomic drivers of resistance and resistance-gene transmission. METHODS: A multi-institutional and prospective pathogen genomics program flagged seven MDR C. striatum infections occurring close in time, and specifically in immunocompromised patients with underlying respiratory diseases...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325970/the-role-of-adjuvant-immunomodulatory-agents-for-treatment-of-severe-influenza
#14
REVIEW
David S Hui, Nelson Lee, Paul K Chan, John H Beigel
A severe inflammatory immune response with hypercytokinemia occurs in patients hospitalized with severe influenza, such as avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N9), and seasonal A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections. The role of immunomodulatory therapy is unclear as there have been limited published data based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Passive immunotherapy such as convalescent plasma and hyperimmune globulin have some studies demonstrating benefit when administered as an adjunctive therapy for severe influenza...
January 8, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317655/the-evolution-of-substrate-discrimination-in-macrolide-antibiotic-resistance-enzymes
#15
Andrew C Pawlowski, Peter J Stogios, Kalinka Koteva, Tatiana Skarina, Elena Evdokimova, Alexei Savchenko, Gerard D Wright
The production of antibiotics by microbes in the environment and their use in medicine and agriculture select for existing and emerging resistance. To address this inevitability, prudent development of antibiotic drugs requires careful consideration of resistance evolution. Here, we identify the molecular basis for expanded substrate specificity in MphI, a macrolide kinase (Mph) that does not confer resistance to erythromycin, in contrast to other known Mphs. Using a combination of phylogenetics, drug-resistance phenotypes, and in vitro enzyme assays, we find that MphI and MphK phosphorylate erythromycin poorly resulting in an antibiotic-sensitive phenotype...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316972/genomic-comparisons-of-streptococcus-suis-serotype-9-strains-recovered-from-diseased-pigs-in-spain-and-canada
#16
Han Zheng, Pengchen Du, Xiaotong Qiu, Anusak Kerdsin, David Roy, Xuemei Bai, Jianguo Xu, Ana I Vela, Marcelo Gottschalk
Streptococcus suis is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in the porcine industry and also a zoonotic agent. Serotype 9 is becoming one of the most prevalent serotypes within the S. suis population in certain European countries. In the present study, serotype 9 strains isolated from a country where infection due to this serotype is endemic (Spain), were compared to those recovered from Canada, where this serotype is rarely isolated from diseased pigs. For comparison purposes, strains from Brazil and the only strain isolated from a human case, in Thailand, were also incorporated...
January 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313589/role-of-clarithromycin-in-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Agam Vora
The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in under-developing and developing countries. As per current estimations, COPD will become the third leading cause of death globally, by 2030. Long-acting anti-cholinergic agents, β2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, antibiotics and mucolytics are few of the agents currently used in the treatment of COPD, which improve the symptoms and overall quality of life. Several of the important classes of antibiotics are used in the management of COPD including penicillins, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulphonamides, aminoglycosides and macrolides...
September 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313203/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-ureaplasma-spp-and-mycoplasma-hominis-isolated-from-semen-samples-of-infertile-men-in-shanghai-china-from-2011-to-2016
#18
Y-H Zhou, H-X Ma, Y Yang, W-M Gu
This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance rate of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis that were isolated from the semen samples of infertile males in Shanghai, China from 2011 to 2016. A total of 5016 infertile males and 412 healthy male controls were examined. The cultivation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis were assessed by using a Mycoplasma IST kit that was performed in parallel to selective solid agar cultivation...
January 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311087/in-vitro-activities-of-miltefosine-and-antibacterial-agents-from-macrolide-oxazolidinone-and-pleuromutilin-classes-against-pythium-insidiosum-and-pythium-aphanidermatum
#19
Erico S Loreto, Juliana S M Tondolo, Daniele C Oliveira, Janio M Santurio, Sydney H Alves
We tested 29 isolates of Pythium insidiosum and one isolate of Pythium aphanidermatum to investigate their susceptibility to miltefosine and antibacterial drugs from macrolide, oxazolidinone, and pleuromutilin classes. We found that miltefosine, azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin, linezolid, sutezolid, retapamulin, tiamulin, and valnemulin had inhibitory and cidal activity against the pathogens at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 64 μg/ml. Our results suggest that these antimicrobials are promising candidates for future studies on pythiosis in animals and humans...
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310575/a-comparison-of-estimators-from-self-controlled-case-series-case-crossover-design-and-sequence-symmetry-analysis-for-pharmacoepidemiological-studies
#20
Yoshinori Takeuchi, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Yutaka Matsuyama
BACKGROUND: Despite the frequent use of self-controlled methods in pharmacoepidemiological studies, the factors that may bias the estimates from these methods have not been adequately compared in real-world settings. Here, we comparatively examined the impact of a time-varying confounder and its interactions with time-invariant confounders, time trends in exposures and events, restrictions, and misspecification of risk period durations on the estimators from three self-controlled methods...
January 8, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
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