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Piers Mook, Jacquelyn McCormick, Manpreet Bains, Lauren A Cowley, Marie A Chattaway, Claire Jenkins, Amy Mikhail, Gwenda Hughes, Richard Elson, Martin Day, Rohini Manuel, Jayshree Dave, Nigel Field, Gauri Godbole, Timothy Dallman, Paul Crook
In England in 2015, Shigella sonnei isolates from men who have sex with men produced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and exhibited macrolide resistance. Whole-genome sequencing showed a close relationship among the isolates, which harbored a plasmid that was previously identified in a shigellosis outbreak among this population but has acquired a mobile element.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
I Klimiene, M Virgailis, A Pavilonis, R Siugzdiniene, R Mockeliunas, M Ruzauskas
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci were evaluated by breakpoint values specific to the species (EU-CAST). The presence of resistance-encoding genes was detected by multiplex PCR. A total of 191 CNS isolates were obtained. The CNS isolates were typically resistant to penicillin (67.4%), tetracyc-line (18.9%), and erythromycin (13...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Naoyuki Kuse, Shinji Abe, Hiroki Hayashi, Koichiro Kamio, Yoshinobu Saito, Jiro Usuki, Arata Azuma, Shoji Kudoh, Akihiko Gemma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence for anti-inflammatory activities of macrolides in chronic respiratory diseases, such as diffuse panbronchiolitis, cystic fibrosis, or chronic bronchitis. The long-term effect of macrolides in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is unknown. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of macrolide therapy on the frequency of acute exacerbation (AE) and the mortality in IPF. METHODS: A total 52 IPF patients who were treated by combination of conventional agents with or without macrolides were retrospectively reviewed...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Diego Viasus, Oscar Ramos, Leidy Ramos, Antonella F Simonetti, Jordi Carratalà
Community-acquired pneumonia is a major public health problem worldwide. In recent years, there has been an increase in the frequency of resistance to the antimicrobials such as β-lactams or macrolides which have habitually been used against the causative pathogens. Solithromycin, a next-generation macrolide, is the first fluoroketolide with activity against most of the frequently isolated bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia, including typical and atypical bacteria as well as macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
October 18, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Dennis G Hall, Taras Rybak, Tristan Verdelet
Multicomponent reactions (MCR), transformations employing three or more simple substrates in a single and highly atom-economical operation, are very attractive in both natural product synthesis and diversity-oriented synthesis of druglike molecules. Several popular multicomponent reactions were designed by combining two well-established individual reactions that utilize mutually compatible substrates. In this regard, it is not surprising that the merging of two reactions deemed as workhorses of stereoselective synthesis, the Diels-Alder cycloaddition and carbonyl allylboration, would produce a powerful and highly versatile tandem MCR process...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Linlin Yao, Yanxin Wang, Lei Tong, Yamin Deng, Yonggang Li, Yiqun Gan, Wei Guo, Chuangju Dong, Yanhua Duan, Ke Zhao
The occurrence of 14 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides and sulfonamides) in groundwater and surface water at Jianghan Plain was investigated during three seasons. The total concentrations of target compounds in the water samples were higher in spring than those in summer and winter. Erythromycin was the predominant antibiotic in surface water samples with an average value of 1.60μg/L, 0.772μg/L and 0.546μg/L respectively in spring, summer and winter. In groundwater samples, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines accounted for the dominant proportion of total antibiotic residues...
October 13, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Susanne Paukner, Rosemarie Riedl
Pleuromutilins are antibiotics that selectively inhibit bacterial translation and are semisynthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring tricyclic diterpenoid pleuromutilin, which received its name from the pleuromutilin-producing fungus Pleurotus mutilus Tiamulin and valnemulin are two established derivatives in veterinary medicine for oral and intramuscular administration. As these early pleuromutilin drugs were developed at a time when companies focused on major antibacterial classes, such as the β-lactams, and resistance was not regarded as an issue, interest in antibiotic research including pleuromutilins was limited...
October 14, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Christopher Henry, Carl Boethel, Laurel A Copeland, Shekhar Ghamande, Alejandro C Arroliga, Heath D White
RATIONALE: Legionella pneumophila is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia in south central United States and regular testing may not be cost-effective in areas of low incidence. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of Legionella in central Texas and determine the costeffectiveness of Legionella urinary antigen testing. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with pneumonia between January 2001 and December 2013...
October 14, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Clark D Ridge, Eugene P Mazzola, Martyn P Coles, Simon F R Hinkley
The commonly occurring, high-cytotoxicity macrolide roridin E has been re-isolated from Stachybotrys atra and characterized by 1- and 2-D NMR spectroscopy. Assignment of the spectral data for roridin E revealed differences from the accepted literature, and spectra are reported herein to aid in future identification. For the first time confirmation of structure was provided by a crystallographic solution for roridin E.
October 13, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Constantin Hays, Mathilde Louis, Céline Plainvert, Nicolas Dmytruk, Gérald Touak, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Claire Poyart, Asmaa Tazi
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal invasive infections and an emerging pathogen in the elderly. Our objectives were to describe the evolution of GBS resistance to antibiotics in France and to investigate the emergence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant isolates. A total of 8,757 unrelated GBS isolates were collected and tested for antibiotic susceptibility from 2007 and 2014 according to EUCAST recommendations. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxicillin, and vancomycin...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Nandini Chatterjee, Chandan Chatterjee, Sinjan Ghosh, Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ramkrishna Brahmachari, Kartik Patar
BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in urinary tract infections have led to emergence of 'superbugs' worldwide. Periodical review of antibiograms is of utmost importance for optimum patient benefit. OBJECTIVE: To identify the spectrum of organisms responsible for urinary tract infection and evaluate the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of the organisms. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from all consecutive patients getting admitted in the medicine indoor irrespective of symptomatology...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Abiola Olumuyiwa Olaitan, Jean-Marc Rolain
Antibiotic resistance is an ancient biological mechanism in bacteria, although its proliferation in our contemporary world has been amplified through antimicrobial therapy. Recent studies conducted on ancient environmental and human samples have uncovered numerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. The resistance genes that have been reported from the analysis of ancient bacterial DNA include genes coding for several classes of antibiotics, such as glycopeptides, β-lactams, tetracyclines, and macrolides...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Masahiro Hirama
Our chemical syntheses and related scientific investigations of natural products with complex architectures and powerful biological activities are described, focusing on the very large 3 nm-long polycyclic ethers called the ciguatoxins, highly strained and labile chromoprotein antitumor antibiotics featuring nine-membered enediyne cores, and extremely potent anthelmintic macrolides called the avermectins.
2016: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
S Miehlke, R Loibl, S Meszaros, J Labenz
Purpose: The acceptance and realization of clinical guidelines in daily routine practice is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of private gastroenterologists in Germany with respect to the diagnostic and therapeutic management of H. pylori infection in times of increasing antibiotic resistance. Methods: Between 12/2014 and 02/2015 a standardized questionnaire with 19 multiple choice questions were sent to 1507 private gastroenterologists in Germany. The data were electronically captured and analyzed using SurveyMonkey...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Vaishali Gaikwad, Tejash Gohel, Shrijeet Panickar, Vijay Chincholkar, Santosh Mangalkar
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection, especially pneumonia, surgical site infections, blood stream infections, and continues to be a major cause of community-acquired infections. The emergence of penicillin resistance followed by the development and spread of strains resistant to the semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin, oxacillin and nafcillin, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides has made the treatment of staphylococcal infection a global challenge...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Rustam Aminov
The introduction of antibiotics into clinical practice revolutionized the treatment and management of infectious diseases. Before the introduction of antibiotics, these diseases were the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human populations. This review presents a brief history of discovery of the main antimicrobial classes (arsphenamines, β-lactams, sulphonamides, polypeptides, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, amphenicols, lipopeptides, macrolides, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, streptogramins, ansamycins, quinolones, and lincosamides) that have changed the landscape of contemporary medicine...
October 5, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Kiyoun Lee, Megan L Lanier, Jae-Hwan Kwak, Hyoungsu Kim, Jiyong Hong
Covering: 2005 to 2016Clavosolides A-D and cyanolide A are glycosidic macrolides and represent a new family of marine natural products. They possess a number of unusual structural features and have attracted considerable interest from the synthetic community. This review presents a comprehensive survey of all aspects of the clavosolides A-D and cyanolide A. Specific topics include isolation, structure determination, biological activity, and synthetic approaches.
September 12, 2016: Natural Product Reports
Jonathan K Challis, Mark L Hanson, Charles S Wong
A unique configuration of the diffusive gradients in thin films sampler for polar organics (o-DGT) without a polyethersulfone membrane was developed, calibrated, and field-evaluated. Diffusion coefficients (D) through agarose diffusive gels ranged from (1.02-4.74)×10(-6) cm(2)/s for 34 pharmaceuticals and pesticides at 5, 13, and 23(o)C. Analyte-specific diffusion-temperature plots produced linear (r(2) > 0.85) empirical relationships whereby D could be estimated at any environmentally relevant temperature (i...
October 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Max R Schroeder, David S Stephens
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common commensal and an opportunistic pathogen. Suspected pneumococcal upper respiratory infections and pneumonia are often treated with macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. The widespread use of macrolides is associated with increased macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae, and the treatment of pneumococcal infections with macrolides may be associated with clinical failures. In S...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Lars Falk, Jørgen Skov Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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