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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213005/is-clarithromycin-a-potential-treatment-for-cachexia-in-people-with-lung-cancer-a-feasibility-study
#1
Sarah Awan, Vincent Crosby, Vanessa Potter, Ivo Hennig, David Baldwin, Mehluli Ndlovu, Sharon Paradine, Andrew Wilcock
Clarithromycin may improve cachexia and survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but adequately controlled data are lacking. This study was undertaken primarily to inform the feasibility and scale of a phase III trial. Eligible consenting patients with stage IV NSCLC and cachexia were to be randomized to receive either clarithromycin 250mg twice daily or placebo for eight weeks. Aspects of trial feasibility recorded included numbers eligible, approached and recruited, together with adherence and completion of treatment and assessments...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210463/frequency-of-inducible-clindamycin-resistance-among-gram-positive-cocci-in-a-tertiary-hospital-tehran-iran
#2
Hiva Saffar, Afsaneh Rajabiani, Alireza Abdollahi, Shirin Habibi, Zohreh Baseri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accurate designation of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the infecting microorganisms is an important crucial factor in making appropriate therapeutic decisions. Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics are in a family, reserved as an alternative approach in treatment of resistant Gram positive cocci. Amongst them, clindamycin has been considered as the preferred agent due to its excellent pharmacokinetic properties. The inducible resistance to clindamycin in Gram positive staphylococci and streptococci cannot be recognized by routine broth or agar based susceptibility tests and D-zone testing is necessary...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196716/effect-of-gel-formation-on-the-dissolution-behavior-of-clarithromycin-tablets
#3
Kei Takiyama, Shuji Noguchi, Yasunori Iwao, Shigeru Itai
Clarithromycin (CAM) is a macrolide antibiotic that is widely used at clinical sites. We found that release of CAM is suppressed when tablets of CAM were exposed to an external solvent containing carboxylate buffers such as citrate. The suppressed release of CAM can be attributed to the formation of gels on the tablet surfaces, which inhibits penetration of the solvent into the tablet and thus disintegration of the tablets. Delayed disintegration of the tablets was also observed for commercial tablets. This suggests that taking CAM and carboxylates at the same time might be avoided...
February 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193669/overexpression-of-smedef-efflux-pump-decreases-aminoglycoside-resistance-in-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#4
Yi-Wei Huang, Cheng-Wen Lin, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Yi-Tsung Lin, Yi-Chih Chang, Tsuey-Ching Yang
The SmeDEF pump of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is negatively regulated by SmeT. Strains KJΔT (smeT deletion mutant) and KJT-D(m) (mutant with defective SmeT-binding site) showed increased resistance to chloramphenicol/nalidixic acid/macrolides and susceptibility to aminoglycoside. Overexpression of the SmeDEF pump, in either KJΔT or KJT-D(m), downregulated smeYZ expression, which is responsible for the reduced aminoglycoside resistance. Furthermore, the SmeRySy two-component regulatory system was downregulated in response to SmeDFE overexpression, supporting its involvement in the regulatory circuit...
February 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193274/evaluation-of-medicines-dispensing-pattern-of-private-pharmacies-in-rajshahi-bangladesh
#5
Shuvashis Saha, Md Tawhid Hossain
BACKGROUND: In developing country like BANGLADESH, people depend more on pharmacies due to expediency, shorter waiting time, cost reduction, availability of credit and flexible opening hours. The aim of this study was to investigate medicines dispensing patterns of the pharmacies in RAJSHAHI, BANGLADESH and to identify and analyze contribution of drugsellers and quacks in irrational drug use. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during January 2016 - April, 2016 in 75 randomly selected private pharmacies including both licensed and unlicensed pharmacies of covering LAKSHMIPUR area...
February 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193258/antibiotic-use-practices-of-pharmacy-staff-a-cross-sectional-study-in-saint-petersburg-the-russian-federation
#6
Tatiana Belkina, Natalia Duvanova, Julia Karbovskaja, Jurjen Duintjer Tebbens, Jiri Vlcek
BACKGROUND: Non-prescription access to antimicrobials is common, and self-prescribing is increasingly popular in Russian society. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of community pharmacists regarding antibiotic use and self-medication. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from September-December 2015 of community pharmacists in the Saint-Petersburg and Leningrad region, Russia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess antibiotic use and self-medication practices...
February 14, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193233/tacrolimus-in-the-prevention-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-diabetes-associated-embryopathies-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#7
Ahmad J H Albaghdadi, Melanie A Hewitt, Samantha M Putos, Michael Wells, Terence R S Ozolinš, Frederick W K Kan
BACKGROUND: T2DM is a high-risk pregnancy with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes including repeated miscarriages and fetal malformations. Despite the established association between placental insufficiency and poor maternal Th1-adaptability to the development of pregnancy complications in T2DM, there have been no established data to assess benefits of pre-pregnancy immunosuppression relative to gestational outcomes in T2DM. We hypothesized that pre-pregnancy macrolide immune suppression can re-establish normal placental development and uterine vascular adaptation in a mouse model of obesity-associated T2DM...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188830/in-vitro-activity-of-clarithromycin-in-combination-with-other-antimicrobial-agents-against-mycobacterium-abscessus-and-mycobacterium-massiliense
#8
Zhijian Zhang, Jie Lu, Min Liu, Yufeng Wang, Yanlin Zhao, Yu Pang
Macrolides, especially clarithromycin (CLA), remain the cornerstone of therapy for Mycobacterium abscessus complex infections. The purpose of this study was to gather results from in vitro drug susceptibility testing of M. abscessus and Mycobacterium massiliense for the combination of CLA with various other agents, including linezolid (LZD), moxifloxacin (MOX), amikacin (AMK) and tigecycline (TGC). A total of 40 M. abscessus complex isolates were studied, comprising 20 M. abscessus and 20 M. massiliense strains...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188718/-hematopoietic-stem-cells-transplant-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-is-a-therapeutic-option
#9
Julio César Cambray-Gutiérrez, Diana Andrea Herrera-Sánchez, Patricia López-Pérez, Aurora Chávez-García, Marco Antonio Yamazaki-Nakashimada
BACKGROUND: Patients with common variable immunodeficiency show higher incidence of sinopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections, as well as lymphoproliferative and autoimmune diseases. The treatment of choice is replacement therapy with human gamma-globulin. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a non-conventional therapeutic modality. CASE REPORT: Twenty-six-year old woman with no family or hereditary history of primary immune deficiencies or consanguinity, with repeated episodes of otitis, sinusitis, gastroenteritis and bronchitis since childhood...
January 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185832/reduction-of-fr900525-using-an-s-2-aminoethyl-l-cysteine-resistant-mutant
#10
Shiho Shimizu, Ayako Futase, Tatsuya Yokoyama, Satoshi Ueda, Hiroyuki Honda
FK506 (tacrolimus), a macrolide compound with immunosuppressant activity, has been proven to have clinical importance and has been manufactured industrially since 1993 by using mutants with high FK506-production ability; these mutants have been developed from the wild strain Streptomyces tsukubaensis No. 9993. FR900525 is one of the by-products of FK506 production. However, there was no effective industrial method to separate FR900525 from FK506 due to the structural similarity between the two compounds. Therefore, reducing the level of FR900525 was a serious problem in the industrial strain A...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180088/human-case-of-bacteremia-caused-by-streptococcus-canis-sequence-type-9-harboring-the-scm-gene
#11
Daisuke Taniyama, Yoshihiko Abe, Tetsuya Sakai, Takahide Kikuchi, Takashi Takahashi
Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177677/mtorc1-inhibitors-rapamycin-and-metformin-affect-cardiovascular-markers-differentially-in-zdf-rats
#12
Ravi Nistala, Ahmad Raja, Lakshmi Pulakat
Mammalian target for rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a common target for the action of immunosuppressant macrolide rapamycin and glucose lowering metformin. Inhibition of mTORC1 can exert both beneficial and detrimental effects in different pathologies. Here we investigated the differential effects of rapamycin (1.2mg/kg/day delivered subcutaneously for six weeks) and metformin (300mg/kg/day delivered orally for 11 weeks) treatments on male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats that mimic the cardio-renal pathology of T2DM patients and progress to insulin insufficiency...
January 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176536/kinase-targets-in-cns-drug-discovery
#13
Hendra Gunosewoyo, Lifang Yu, Lenka Munoz, Michael Kassiou
Originally thought to be nondruggable, kinases represent attractive drug targets for pharmaceutical companies and academia. To date, there are over 40 kinase inhibitors approved by the US FDA, with 32 of these being small molecules, in addition to the three mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor macrolides (sirolimus, temsirolimus and everolimus). Despite the rapid development of kinase inhibitors for cancer, presently none of these agents are approved for CNS indications. This mini perspective highlights selected kinase targets for CNS disorders, of which brain-permeable small-molecule inhibitors are reported, with demonstrated preclinical proof-of-concept efficacy...
February 8, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175948/comparative-proteomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-of-streptomyces-tsukubaensis-reveals-the-metabolic-mechanism-of-fk506-overproduction-by-feeding-soybean-oil
#14
Jun Wang, Huanhuan Liu, Di Huang, Lina Jin, Cheng Wang, Jianping Wen
FK506 (tacrolimus) is a 23-membered polyketide macrolide that possesses powerful immunosuppressant activity. In this study, feeding soybean oil into the fermentation culture of Streptomyces tsukubaensis improved FK506 production by 88.8%. To decipher the overproduction mechanism, comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis was carried out. A total of 72 protein spots with differential expression in the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS), and 66 intracellular metabolites were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS)...
February 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170262/natural-product-synthesis-via-palladium-catalyzed-carbonylation
#15
Yu Bai, Dexter C Davis, Mingji Dai
Carbon monoxide is an important one-carbon source and can be incorporated in complex molecules via various transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylation reactions. In particular, palladium-catalyzed carbonylation reactions have found broad application in total synthesis of natural products. Examples are presented in this Synopsis to highlight recent progress in this area, including our own work in macrolide and spirocyclic molecule synthesis. In these selected cases, carbon monoxide functions as a one-carbon linchpin to facilitate building structural complexity and improving synthetic efficiency...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166162/increasing-role-of-macrolide-anti-inflammatory-therapy-in-secondary-organizing-pneumonia
#16
Arjan S Flora, Hermann Simo, Ragheb Assaly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165093/first-asymmetric-total-synthesis-of-aspergillide-d
#17
Bighnanshu K Jena, G Sudhakar Reddy, Debendra K Mohapatra
The first asymmetric total synthesis of a 16-membered macrolide, aspergillide D, is described. The chiral centers of the acid are derived from d-ribose and the alcohol subunit from 1,8-octane diol through Sharpless kinetic resolution, respectively. The other key reactions include Yamaguchi esterification, ring-closing metathesis reaction, and Shiina macrolactonization to construct the fully functionalized macrocycle.
February 6, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164711/aminorifamycins-and-sporalactams-produced-in-culture-by-a-micromonospora-sp-isolated-from-a-northeastern-pacific-marine-sediment-are-potent-antibiotics
#18
David E Williams, Doralyn S Dalisay, Jessie Chen, Elena A Polishchuck, Brian O Patrick, Gagandeep Narula, Mary Ko, Yossef Av-Gay, Haoxin Li, Nathan Magarvey, Raymond J Andersen
The new ansa macrolide antibiotics 1 to 4 have been isolated from cultures of a Micromonospora sp. obtained from a marine sediment. Rifamycins 1 and 2 are the first natural ansa macrolides to have a 3-amino substituent. Sporalactams A (3) and B (4) are comprised of a heterocylic core 5 and a 14-membered ansa bridge that are both unprecedented. Sporalactam B (4) shows selective and potent inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
February 6, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164610/an-investigation-of-the-frequency-of-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-pathogens-and-their-antibiotic-patterns-in-tonsils-and-adenoids-of-adenotonsillectomy-patients
#19
Yasar Nakipoglu, Gulsen Gunel, Deniz Kanliada, Levent Aydemir, Nezahat Gurler, Bulent Gurler
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the potentially pathogenic bacteria of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and their susceptibilities to different antibiotics. METHODS: Two-hundred adenoid and tonsil specimens from 100 patients who had undergone adenotonsillectomy were obtained and analyzed bacteriologically. Identification of the pathogens was made by conventional or commercial identification systems and antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out by disk diffusion method...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161038/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-rhodococcus-equi
#20
REVIEW
Steeve Giguère
Pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi remains an important cause of disease and death in foals. The combination of a macrolide (erythromycin, azithromycin, or clarithromycin) with rifampin remains the recommended therapy for foals with clinical signs of infection caused by R equi. Most foals with small, subclinical ultrasonographic pulmonary lesions associated with R equi recover without therapy, and administration of antimicrobial agents to these subclinically affected foals does not hasten lesion resolution relative to administration of a placebo...
February 1, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
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