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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445444/pharmaceutical-equivalence-of-clarithromycin-oral-dosage-forms-marketed-in-nairobi-county-kenya
#1
Rebecca O Manani, Kennedy O Abuga, Hezekiah K Chepkwony
Clarithromycin is a broad-spectrum semi-synthetic macrolide indicated for treatment of pneumonias, Helicobacter pylori, and chlamydial and skin infections. The object of this study was to evaluate the pharmaceutical equivalence of 14 generic clarithromycin products marketed in Nairobi County, Kenya, to the innovator products, using in vitro dissolution profiles and similarity factors (f₂). Further, dissolution profiles of four innovator formulations manufactured in different sites were compared. Fourteen clarithromycin tablets/capsules and four suspensions were subjected to assay and comparative dissolution runs at pH 1...
April 26, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445442/a-review-study-on-macrolides-isolated-from-cyanobacteria
#2
REVIEW
Mengchuan Wang, Jinrong Zhang, Shan He, Xiaojun Yan
Cyanobacteria are rich sources of structurally-diverse molecules with promising pharmacological activities. Marine cyanobacteria have been proven to be true producers of some significant bioactive metabolites from marine invertebrates. Macrolides are a class of bioactive compounds isolated from marine organisms, including marine microorganisms in particular. The structural characteristics of macrolides from cyanobacteria mainly manifest in the diversity of carbon skeletons, complexes of chlorinated thiazole-containing molecules and complex spatial configuration...
April 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443249/francisella-tularensis-susceptibility-to-antibiotics-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-data-obtained-in-vitro-and-in-animal-models
#3
REVIEW
Yvan Caspar, Max Maurin
The antibiotic classes that are recommended for tularaemia treatment are the aminoglycosides, the fluoroquinolones and the tetracyclines. However, cure rates vary between 60 and 100% depending on the antibiotic used, the time to appropriate antibiotic therapy setup and its duration, and the presence of complications, such as lymph node suppuration. Thus, antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of F. tularensis strains remains of primary importance for detection of the emergence of antibiotic resistances to first-line drugs, and to test new therapeutic alternatives...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439298/multi-drug-resistant-pathogenic-bacteria-in-the-gut-of-young-children-in-bangladesh
#4
Shirajum Monira, Syeda Antara Shabnam, Sk Imran Ali, Abdus Sadique, Fatema-Tuz Johura, Kazi Zillur Rahman, Nur Haque Alam, Haruo Watanabe, Munirul Alam
BACKGROUND: The gut of human harbors diverse commensal microbiota performing an array of beneficial role for the hosts. In the present study, the major commensal gut bacteria isolated by culturing methods from 15 children of moderate income families, aged between 10 and 24 months, were studied for their response to different antibiotics, and the molecular basis of drug resistance. RESULTS: Of 122 bacterial colonies primarily selected from Luria-Bertani agar, bacterial genera confirmed by analytical profile index (API) 20E(®) system included Escherichia as the predominant (52%) organism, followed by Enterobacter (16%), Pseudomonas (12%), Klebsiella (6%), Pantoea (6%), Vibrio (3%), and Citrobacter (3%); while Aeromonas and Raoultella were identified as the infrequently occurring genera...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438948/macrolide-and-quinolone-resistant-mycoplasma-genitalium-in-a-man-with-persistent-urethritis-the-tip-of-the-british-iceberg
#5
Suneeta Soni, Andy Parkhouse, Gillian Dean
There is growing concern worldwide for macrolide resistance in M. genitalium following liberal use of 1 g azithromycin to treat non-gonococcal urethritis and confirmed C. trachomatis infection. Moxifloxacin is the second-line treatment for M. genitalium and still has excellent efficacy against it. However, recent reports indicating that quinolone resistance is more prevalent than previously thought are worrying. Routine testing of symptomatic men and women for M. genitalium is not currently recommended in BASHH guidelines, and attempts to implement such testing have been hampered by a lack of commercially available assays...
April 24, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438941/new-macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin-b-resistance-gene-erm-48-on-the-novel-plasmid-pjw2311-in-staphylococcus-xylosus
#6
Juliette R K Wipf, Matthew C Riley, Stephen A Kania, David A Bemis, Sabrina Andreis, Sybille Schwendener, Vincent Perreten
Whole-genome sequencing of Staphylococcus xylosus strain JW2311 from bovine mastitis milk identified the novel 49.3 kb macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance plasmid pJW2311. It contained the macrolide resistance gene mph(C), the macrolide-streptogramin B resistance gene msr(A), and the new MLSB resistance gene erm (48) and could be transformed into S. aureus by electroporation. Functionality of erm (48) was demonstrated by cloning and expression in S. aureus.
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436691/concise-synthesis-and-ptp1b-inhibitory-activity-of-r-and-s-dihydroresorcylide
#7
Cheng-Shi Jiang, Li Zhang, Jing-Xu Gong, Jing-Ya Li, Li-Gong Yao, Jia Li, Yue-Wei Guo
The present study was designed to develop a concise synthetic route for macrolide, with the purpose of confirming the absolute configuration of natural dihydroresorcylide (1) and making it more easily accessible for biological evaluation. The absolute configuration of C-3 in natural 1 was revised to be R by comparison of the rotation sign of synthetic (R)- and (S)-1. The synthetic (R)-1 was found to be a novel highly specific PTP1B inhibitor with an IC50 value of 17.06 μM.
April 24, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436019/antibiotic-therapy-for-pelvic-inflammatory-disease
#8
REVIEW
Ricardo F Savaris, Daniele G Fuhrich, Rui V Duarte, Sebastian Franik, Jonathan Ross
BACKGROUND: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection that affects 4% to 12% of young women, and is one of the most common causes of morbidity in this age group. The main intervention for acute PID is the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics which cover Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and anaerobic bacteria, administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or orally. In this review, we assessed the optimal treatment regimen for PID. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic regimens used to treat pelvic inflammatory disease...
April 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432937/subantibiotic-dose-of-azithromycin-attenuates-alveolar-bone-destruction-and-improves-trabecular-microarchitectures-in-a-rat-model-of-experimental-periodontitis-a-study-using-micro-computed-tomography
#9
Hye-Shin Park, Yong Sun Lee, Eun-Young Choi, Jeom-Il Choi, In Soon Choi, Sung-Jo Kim
Azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities apart from its antibacterial properties. In this study, we examined the efficacy of subantibiotic dose of azithromycin on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging and bone parameter analysis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to the following four groups: non-ligation (NL) group; ligation-only (L) group; ligation-plus-subantibiotic dose azithromycin (SA) group; and 4) ligation-plus-antibiotic dose azithromycin (AA) group...
April 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432048/solithromycin-a-novel-ketolide-antibiotic
#10
Michael J Buege, Jack E Brown, Samuel L Aitken
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, antimicrobial activity, clinical safety, and current regulatory status of solithromycin are reviewed. SUMMARY: Solithromycin is a novel ketolide antibiotic developed for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Its pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties provide activity against a broad range of intracellular organisms, including retained activity against pathogens displaying various mechanisms of macrolide resistance...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430673/antimicrobial-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-prevalence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#11
Regine Cherazard, Marcia Epstein, Thien-Ly Doan, Tanzila Salim, Sheena Bharti, Miriam A Smith
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review of prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications in S. pneumoniae resistance. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: Since S. pneumoniae resistance to penicillin was first reported with subsequent development of resistance to other classes of drugs, selection of appropriate antibiotic treatment is challenging...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429679/mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease
#12
Charles L Daley
Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Isolation of MAC from a respiratory specimen does not necessarily mean that treatment is required, as the decision to treatment requires the synthesis of clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic information as well as a weighing of the risks and benefits for the individual patient...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429305/the-role-of-macrolides-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-crssnp-and-crswnp
#13
REVIEW
Gretchen M Oakley, Richard J Harvey, Valerie J Lund
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We assess the literature on the pharmacokinetics, indications, important considerations, and effectiveness of long-term, low-dose macrolide antibiotics in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). RECENT FINDINGS: The key to effective implementation of macrolide therapy in CRS is appropriate patient selection. Macrolides have demonstrated the most benefit in Th1-mediated non-eosinophilic CRS when used for durations of at least 3 months. Macrolide antibiotics have demonstrated great benefit when used for their anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory properties, which include the blockage of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
May 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427991/impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-serotype-distribution-of-adult-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-in-tokai-region-japan-2008-2016
#14
Yuri Furuya, Yuka Yamagishi, Hayato Okade, Takumi Kadota, Tori Funatsu, Maki Eto, Nobuhiko Nomura, Junichi Mitsuyama, Hiroshige Mikamo
The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in February 2010 markedly reduced the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease and changed serotype distribution in Japan. In November 2013, PCV7 was replaced by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). We investigated the serotype distribution and susceptibility trends of non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from adult patients. A total of 504 pneumococcal isolates were collected during 4 periods between 2008 and 2016 (Period 1; between June 2008 and April 2009, Period 2; between September 2010 and March 2011, Period 3; between October 2011 and March 2012, Period 4; between August 2015 and January 2016)...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422340/leptolyngbyolides-cytotoxic-macrolides-from-the-marine-cyanobacterium-leptolyngbya-sp-isolation-biological-activity-and-catalytic-asymmetric-total-synthesis
#15
Jin Cui, Maho Morita, Osamu Ohno, Tomoyuki Kimura, Toshiaki Teruya, Takumi Watanabe, Kiyotake Suenaga, Masakatsu Shibasaki
Four new macrolactones, leptolyngbyolides A-D, were isolated from the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. collected in Okinawa, Japan. The planar structure of leptolyngbyolides were determined by extensive NMR studies, although complete assignment of the absolute configuration awaited the catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of leptolyngbyolide C. The synthesis took advantage of the catalytic asymmetric thioamide-aldol reaction using copper (I) complexed with a chiral bidentate phosphine ligand to regulate two key stereochemistries of the molecule at the outset...
April 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421551/macrolides-digoxin-toxicity-and-the-risk-of-sudden-death-a-population-based-study
#16
Kieran L Quinn, Erin M Macdonald, Tara Gomes, Muhammad M Mamdani, Anjie Huang, David N Juurlink
INTRODUCTION: Digoxin is commonly prescribed to elderly patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation, and macrolide antibiotics markedly increase the risk of digoxin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether, in older patients receiving digoxin, macrolide antibiotics are associated with sudden death. METHODS: We used a population-based, nested, case-control design from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2012 in a cohort of Ontario residents aged 66 years or older prescribed digoxin...
April 18, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419973/antibacterial-antifungal-and-antimycobacterial-compounds-from-cyanobacteria
#17
REVIEW
Shasank S Swain, Sudhir K Paidesetty, Rabindra N Padhy
Infections from multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain progressively intractable. The search of effective antimicrobials from other possible non-conventional sources against MDR pathogenic bacteria, fungi and mycobacteria is call of the day. This review considers 121 cyanobacterial compounds or cyano-compounds with antimicrobial activities. Chemical structures of cyano-compounds were retrieved from ChemSpider and PubChem databases and were visualized by the software ChemDraw Ultra...
April 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419786/toward-the-rational-design-of-macrolide-antibiotics-to-combat-resistance
#18
Anna Pavlova, Jerry M Parks, Adegboyega K Oyelere, James C Gumbart
Macrolides, one of the most prescribed classes of antibiotics, bind in the bacterial ribosome's polypeptide exit tunnel and inhibit translation. However, mutations and other ribosomal modifications, especially to the base A2058 of the 23S rRNA, have led to a growing resistance problem. Here, we have used molecular dynamics simulations to study the macrolides erythromycin and azithromycin in wild-type, A2058G-mutated, and singly or doubly A2058-methylated E. coli ribosomes. We find that the ribosomal modifications result in less favorable interactions between the base 2058 and the desosamine sugar of the macrolides, as well as greater displacement of the macrolides from their crystal structure position, illuminating the causes of resistance...
April 17, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418319/increasing-macrolide-and-fluoroquinolone-resistance-in-mycoplasma-genitalium
#19
Gerald L Murray, Catriona S Bradshaw, Melanie Bissessor, Jennifer Danielewski, Suzanne M Garland, Jørgen S Jensen, Christopher K Fairley, Sepehr N Tabrizi
Escalating resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin is being reported for Mycoplasma genitalium in the Asia-Pacific region. Analyzing 140 infections, we found pretreatment fluoroquinolone-resistance mutations in parC (13.6%) and gyrA (5%). ParC S83 changes were associated with moxifloxacin failure. Combined macrolide/fluoroquinolone-resistance mutations were in 8.6% of specimens, for which recommended therapies would be ineffective.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416110/structural-basis-for-kinase-mediated-macrolide-antibiotic-resistance
#20
Desiree H Fong, David L Burk, Jonathan Blanchet, Amy Y Yan, Albert M Berghuis
The macrolides are a class of antibiotic, characterized by a large macrocyclic lactone ring that can be inactivated by macrolide phosphotransferase enzymes. We present structures for MPH(2')-I and MPH(2')-II in the apo state, and in complex with GTP analogs and six different macrolides. These represent the first structures from the two main classes of macrolide phosphotransferases. The structures show that the enzymes are related to the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, but are distinguished from them by the presence of a large interdomain linker that contributes to an expanded antibiotic binding pocket...
April 1, 2017: Structure
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