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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144147/pursued-for-their-prescription-exposure-to-compliance-gaining-strategies-predicts-stimulant-diversion-in-emerging-adults
#1
Laura J Holt, Paige N Marut, Ty S Schepis
Researchers have begun to identify predictors of who will divert their stimulant prescriptions, as most emerging adults (EAs) who use prescription stimulants nonmedically procure these drugs from a friend or acquaintance with a prescription. Far less research has examined how EAs with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are approached for these medications, and their affective and behavioral responses to these requests. We hypothesized that EAs with a stimulant prescription who reported greater exposure to compliance-gaining attempts from peers, particularly rational appeals for academic work, would be more likely to divert, as would EAs who reported lower resistance to peer influence...
November 16, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143762/executive-function-capacities-negative-driving-behavior-and-crashes-in-young-drivers
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Walshe, Chelsea Ward McIntosh, Daniel Romer, Flaura K Winston
Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of injury and death in adolescents, with teen drivers three times more likely to be in a fatal crash when compared to adults. One potential contributing risk factor is the ongoing development of executive functioning with maturation of the frontal lobe through adolescence and into early adulthood. Atypical development resulting in poor or impaired executive functioning (as in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) has been associated with risky driving and crash outcomes...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143159/six-year-outcome-in-subjects-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-as-adults
#3
Dan Edvinsson, Lisa Ekselius
There are very few studies on the long-term outcome in subjects diagnosed with ADHD as adults. The objective of the present study was to assess this and relate the outcome to whether there was current medication or not and to other potential predictors of favourable outcome. A prospective clinical cohort of adults diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria was followed-up on an average of 6 years after first evaluation (n = 124; mean age 42 years, 51% males). ADHD symptom trajectories were assessed as well as medication, global functioning, disability, health-related quality of life, and alcohol and drug consumption at follow-up...
November 15, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138391/maternal-impulse-control-disability-and-developmental-disorder-traits-are-risk-factors-for-child-maltreatment
#4
Yoshiyuki Tachibana, Kenji Takehara, Naoko Kakee, Masashi Mikami, Eisuke Inoue, Rintaro Mori, Erika Ota, Tomoe Koizumi, Makiko Okuyama, Takahiko Kubo
Previous work has suggested that maternal developmental disorder traits related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are significantly associated with child maltreatment. However, there may be other important maternal characteristics that contribute to child maltreatment. We hypothesized that maternal impulse control disability may also affect child maltreatment in addition to maternal developmental disorder traits. We aimed to test this hypothesis via a cohort study performed in Tokyo (n = 1,260)...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134566/lisdexamfetamine-a-review-in-binge-eating-disorder
#5
Young-A Heo, Sean T Duggan
Oral lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (Vyvanse(®); lisdexamfetamine), a prodrug of dextroamfetamine, is currently the only drug to be approved in the USA for the treatment of moderate to severe binge eating disorder (BED) in adult patients. Its approval was based on the results of two pivotal short-term (12 weeks) phase III studies, which showed a significantly greater reduction in binge eating days/week at the end of the study with lisdexamfetamine 50-70 mg/day than with placebo. The findings of these studies have been supported and extended by the results of longer-term (≤ 52 weeks) phase III studies, including one with a randomized 26-week withdrawal phase, which showed that lisdexamfetamine markedly reduced the risk of BED relapse relative to placebo...
November 13, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130145/late-onset-adhd-understanding-the-evidence-and-building-theoretical-frameworks
#6
REVIEW
Arthur Caye, Margaret H Sibley, James M Swanson, Luis Augusto Rohde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The traditional definition of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), assuming onset in childhood, has been challenged by evidence from four recent birth-cohort studies that reported most adults with ADHD lacked a childhood categorical ADHD diagnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Late onset of symptoms was evaluated in the long-term follow-up of the Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA). In most cases, other factors were present that discounted the late onset of ADHD symptoms and excluded the diagnosis of ADHD...
November 13, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129558/time-and-psychostimulants-opposing-long-term-structural-effects-in-the-adult-adhd-brain-a-longitudinal-mr-study
#7
Clara Pretus, J Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Vanessa Richarte, Montse Corrales, Marisol Picado, Susanna Carmona, Óscar Vilarroya
Long-term effects of psychostimulants such as methylphenidate on ADHD patients have been proved to be difficult to capture in cross-sectional studies comparing medicated and non-medicated samples and in longitudinal studies with children, with age-related maturational processes possibly confounding independent effects of medication. However, chronic psychostimulant administration at therapeutic doses has been proven to yield profound neuroadaptive changes in rodent models. Here, we present for the first time the effect of psychostimulant treatment on brain volumes in a sample of medication-naïve adult ADHD patients...
November 9, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121555/the-relationship-between-adhd-traits-and-sensory-sensitivity-in-the-general-population
#8
Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G Overton, Tom Stafford
Preliminary studies in children and adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) report both hypo-responsiveness and hyper-responsiveness to sensory stimuli, as well as problems modulating sensory input. As it has been suggested that those with ADHD exist at the extreme end of a continuum of ADHD traits, which are also evident in the general population, we investigated the link between ADHD and sensory sensitivity in the general population. Two online questionnaires measuring ADHD traits and sensory responsivity across various sensory domains were administered to 234 participants...
October 25, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115168/language-of-adhd-in-adults-on-social-media
#9
Sharath Chandra Guntuku, J Russell Ramsay, Raina M Merchant, Lyle H Ungar
OBJECTIVE: We computationally analyze the language of social media users diagnosed with ADHD to understand what they talk about, and how their language is correlated with users' characteristics such as personality and temporal orientation. METHOD: We analyzed approximately 1.3 million tweets written by 1,399 Twitter users with self-reported diagnoses of ADHD, comparing their posts with those used by a control set matched by age, gender, and period of activity. RESULTS: Users with ADHD are found to be less agreeable, more open, to post more often, and to use more negations, hedging, and swear words...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112530/the-prevalence-of-psychiatric-disorders-and-mental-health-services-utilization-by-parents-and-relatives-living-with-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-puerto-rico
#10
Ernesto Magallón-Neri, Dorilyz Vila, Katyana Santiago, Pedro García, Glorisa Canino
Knowledge about prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and mental health services use among parents and relatives of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is limited, particularly when referring to epidemiologic samples. The current study is based on an island-wide probabilistic multistage cluster sample of adult individuals (N = 3062) living in Puerto Rico. Results showed a significantly higher rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and serious mental illness in parents (n = 34) or relatives (n = 34) of ASD individuals, as compared with the Puerto Rico adult population as a whole...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110563/increased-beta-activity-links-to-impaired-emotional-control-in-adhd-adults-with-high-iq
#11
Hui Li, Qihua Zhao, Fang Huang, Qingjiu Cao, Qiujin Qian, Stuart J Johnstone, Yufeng Wang, Changming Wang, Li Sun
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the neuropathology of everyday-life executive function (EF) deficits in adults with ADHD with high IQ. METHOD: Forty adults with ADHD with an IQ ≥ 120 and 40 controls were recruited. Ecological EFs were measured, and eyes-closed Electroencephalograph (EEG) signals were recorded during a resting-state condition; EEG power and correlations with impaired EFs were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the ADHD group showed higher scores on all clusters of EF...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106438/the-neurocognitive-profile-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-review-of-meta-analyses
#12
Michelle A Pievsky, Robert E McGrath
Objective: Numerous meta-analyses have summarized studies comparing the neurocognitive performance of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to that of healthy controls. Method: The present study is a systematic review and quantitative summary of those meta-analyses that aimed to determine the extent to which individuals with ADHD differ cognitively from typically developing controls. Results: Of 253 standardized mean differences (SMDs) drawn from 34 meta-analyses, 244 (96%) were positive, indicating better neurocognitive performance in the control group than the ADHD group...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099955/screening-for-adult-adhd-in-patients-with-fibromyalgia-syndrome
#13
Roland van Rensburg, Helgard Pieter Meyer, Sonia Anne Hitchcock, Christian Edward Schuler
Objective: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a common chronic pain disorder associated with altered activity of neurotransmitters involved in pain sensitivity such as dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline. FMS may significantly impact an individual's functioning due to the presence of chronic pain, fatigue, and cognitive impairment. Dyscognition may be more disabling than the chronic pain but is mostly under-recognized. This study aimed to assess the potential co-occurrence of FMS and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder also associated with impaired cognition and dopaminergic function...
November 1, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099238/psychometric-properties-of-the-persian-version-of-the-weiss-functional-impairment-rating-scale-self-report-form-in-iranian-adolescents
#14
Habib Hadianfard, Behnaz Kiani, Margaret D Weiss
OBJECTIVE: The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Self-Report Form (WFIRS-S) was developed as a measure of functional impairment in adolescents and adults with ADHD. This study reports the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the WFIRS-S in a sample of normal Iranian adolescents. METHOD: Internal consistency and factor structure of the WFIRS-S were tested on a sample of 386 students (Grades 7-12). The test-retest reliability and the convergent validity of the WFIRS-S were evaluated by using two different subsamples including 50 and 100 students, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098975/-the-impasse-known-as-adhd
#15
A M Ruissen
There are two extreme views within psychiatry when it comes to etiopathogenesis. At one extreme is the naturalistic vision; at the other extreme is a perception of psychiatric diagnoses as social constructions. There are also different perspectives on ADHD: historical, social, psychological and neurobiological. In this article, I will try to find a position between the two extremes to sketch the context of the current ADHD debate from the different perspectives. I conclude that a one-sided neurobiological view of ADHD lacks adequate foundation; it does not support the psychiatrist who is struggling with complicated ADHD issues in daily practice, and does not respond adequately to the very real problems of the people concerned and their families...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098969/-upward-trend-in-the-use-of-psychostimulants-by-adults
#16
L van der Koog, J van der Schans, M A Tjioe, J H J Bos, B J Bijker, E Hak, C C M Schuiling-Veninga
OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the trends in the use of psychostimulants among adults. DESIGN: Retrospective database study. METHODS: We selected data on adults (≥ 18 years) who had had a minimum of 2 prescriptions for a psychostimulant drug within 1 year from IADB.nl, a Netherlands database of filled prescriptions (59 public pharmacies, approximately 600,000 patients). We calculated both the number of new users and the total number of users of psychostimulants per year in the period 2004-2014...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098603/development-of-guanfacine-extended-release-dosing-strategies-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-using-a-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-to-predict-drug-drug-interactions-with-moderate-cyp3a4-inhibitors-or-inducers
#17
Aiqun Li, Karen Yeo, Devin Welty, Haojing Rong
BACKGROUND: Guanfacine extended-release (GXR) is an orally administered, non-stimulant treatment for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is primarily metabolized by the 3A4 isozyme of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4). The results of clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies indicate that guanfacine is sensitive to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) perpetrated by strong inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A4. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to provide guidance on the possible requirement for GXR dose adjustment in children and adolescents with ADHD by predicting DDIs following co-administration with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors and inducers...
November 2, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090967/the-qualitative-interview-study-of-persistent-and-nonpersistent-substance-use-in-the-mta-sample-characteristics-frequent-use-and-reasons-for-use
#18
James M Swanson, Timothy Wigal, Peter S Jensen, John T Mitchell, Thomas S Weisner, Desiree Murray, L Eugene Arnold, Lily Hechtman, Brooke S G Molina, Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw, Katherine Belendiuk, Andrea Howard, Sharon B Wigal, Page Sorensen, Annamarie Stehli
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate participants' perceptions about frequent use and reasons for substance use (SU) in the qualitative interview study, an add-on to the multimodal treatment study of ADHD (MTA). METHOD: Using the longitudinal MTA database, 39 ADHD cases and 19 peers with Persistent SU, and 86 ADHD cases and 39 peers without Persistent SU were identified and recruited. In adulthood, an open-ended interview was administered, and SU excerpts were indexed and classified to create subtopics (frequent use and reasons for use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090087/extended-release-methylphenidate-monotherapy-in-patients-with-comorbid-social-anxiety-disorder-and-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-retrospective-case-series
#19
Ahmet Koyuncu, Fahri Çelebi, Erhan Ertekin, Burcu Ece Kök, Raşit Tükel
BACKGROUND: The relationship between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a subject which has recently become a topic of interest for research. METHODS: In this study, 20 patients with comorbid SAD and adult ADHD who were treated with extended-release methylphenidate monotherapy were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: Clinical response for both ADHD and SAD symptoms was observed in 17 of 20 patients...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081022/adhd-symptoms-in-healthy-adults-are-associated-with-stressful-life-events-and-negative-memory-bias
#20
Janna N Vrijsen, Indira Tendolkar, Marten Onnink, Martine Hoogman, Aart H Schene, Guillén Fernández, Iris van Oostrom, Barbara Franke
Stressful life events, especially Childhood Trauma, predict ADHD symptoms. Childhood Trauma and negatively biased memory are risk factors for affective disorders. The association of life events and bias with ADHD symptoms may inform about the etiology of ADHD. Memory bias was tested using a computer task in N = 675 healthy adults. Life events and ADHD symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. The mediation of the association between life events and ADHD symptoms by memory bias was examined. We explored the roles of different types of life events and of ADHD symptom clusters...
October 28, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
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