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Multiple sclerosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352526/ectrims-ean-guideline-on-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#1
X Montalban, R Gold, A J Thompson, S Otero-Romero, M P Amato, D Chandraratna, M Clanet, G Comi, T Derfuss, F Fazekas, H P Hartung, E Havrdova, B Hemmer, L Kappos, R Liblau, C Lubetzki, E Marcus, D H Miller, T Olsson, S Pilling, K Selmaj, A Siva, P S Sorensen, M P Sormani, C Thalheim, H Wiendl, F Zipp
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of the central nervous system. As new drugs are becoming available, knowledge on diagnosis and treatment must continuously evolve. There is therefore a need for a reference tool compiling current data on benefit and safety, to aid professionals in treatment decisions and use of resources across Europe. The European Committee of Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) have joined forces to meet this need...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352485/nonclassical-monocytes-are-they-the-next-therapeutic-targets-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Bahareh Ajami, Lawrence Steinman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352444/activation-of-the-anti-aging-and-cognition-enhancing-gene-klotho-by-crispr-dcas9-transcriptional-effector-complex
#3
Ci-Di Chen, Ella Zeldich, Yuexuan Li, Andrea Yuste, Carmela R Abraham
Multiple lines of evidence show that the anti-aging and cognition-enhancing protein Klotho fosters neuronal survival, increases the anti-oxidative stress defense, and promotes remyelination of demyelinated axons. Thus, upregulation of the Klotho gene can potentially alleviate the symptoms and/or prevent the progression of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here we used a CRISPR-dCas9 complex to investigate single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting the Klotho promoter region for efficient transcriptional activation of the Klotho gene...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352234/bi-exponential-3d-t1%C3%AF-mapping-of-whole-brain-at-3%C3%A2-t
#4
Rajiv G Menon, Azadeh Sharafi, Johannes Windschuh, Ravinder R Regatte
Detection of multiple relaxation pools using MRI is useful in a number of neuro-pathologies including multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's, and stroke. In this study we evaluate the feasibility of using T1ρ imaging for the detection of bi-exponential decays in the human brain. A prospective T1ρ imaging study was performed on model relaxation phantoms (eggs) and 7 healthy volunteers. The data was fitted using a single pool and a 2-pool model to estimate mono- and bi-exponential T1ρ maps, respectively. Bi-exponential decays were identified in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of the brain with 40...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352101/activation-of-disease-during-therapy-with-alemtuzumab-in-3-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Thomas Wehrum, Lena-Alexandra Beume, Oliver Stich, Irina Mader, Mathias Mäurer, Adam Czaplinski, Cornelius Weiller, Sebastian Rauer
OBJECTIVE: To report 3 patients with multiple sclerosis showing severe activation of disease during immunotherapy with alemtuzumab. METHODS: Retrospective case series. RESULTS: Patient 1, a 21-year-old woman, developed severe cognitive impairment, sight deterioration, severe gait ataxia, urinary retention, and extensive progression of cerebral lesion load, including new lesions that exhibited gadolinium ring enhancement and dominance of CD19/20-positive B lymphocytes, 6 months after induction of alemtuzumab...
January 19, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351742/herv-w-group-evolutionary-history-in-non-human-primates-characterization-of-erv-w-orthologs-in-catarrhini-and-related-erv-groups-in-platyrrhini
#6
Nicole Grandi, Marta Cadeddu, Jonas Blomberg, Jens Mayer, Enzo Tramontano
BACKGROUND: The genomes of all vertebrates harbor remnants of ancient retroviral infections, having affected the germ line cells during the last 100 million years. These sequences, named Endogenous Retroviruses (ERVs), have been transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian way, being relatively stable components of the host genome even long after their exogenous counterparts went extinct. Among human ERVs (HERVs), the HERV-W group is of particular interest for our physiology and pathology...
January 19, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350435/from-micro-to-macro-structures-in-multiple-sclerosis-what-is-the-added-value-of-diffusion-imaging
#7
Mara Cercignani, Claudia Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott
Diffusion imaging has been instrumental in understanding damage to the central nervous system as a result of its sensitivity to microstructural changes. Clinical applications of diffusion imaging have grown exponentially over the past couple of decades in many neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). For several reasons, MS has been extensively researched using advanced neuroimaging techniques, which makes it an 'example disease' to illustrate the potential of diffusion imaging for clinical applications...
January 19, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350300/the-relationship-between-gait-variability-and-cognitive-functions-differs-between-fallers-and-non-fallers-in-ms
#8
Alon Kalron, Roy Aloni, Mark Dolev, Lior Frid, Uri Givon, Shay Menascu
The objective of the study was to determine if cognitive function is associated with step time variability in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The study included 355 PwMS (218 women), average age 41.1 (SD = 13.5), disease duration 5.9 (SD = 7.3) years, and a median expanded disability status scale score of 2.5. We separately analyzed the sample group of fallers and non-fallers based on their fall history. Gait variability was measured by an electronic walkway and all participants completed a computerized cognitive test battery designed to evaluate multiple cognitive domains...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349985/-risk-factors-analysis-for-low-back-pain-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Meng-Qi Na, Shan Deng, Xian-Lei Yan, Yu-Lin Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate musculoskeletal disorders and risk factors of low back pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: In this study, patients in our hospital with confirmed MS with an expanded disabilitystatus scale (EDSS) score between 4 to 7 were selected. Data of MS history, pain, musculoskeletal disorders, muscle strength and spasticity in lower limbs were collected. RESULTS: Among 190 patients, there were 61 males and 129 females, with an average age of(54...
April 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348927/improved-cognitive-performance-and-event-related-potential-changes-following-working-memory-training-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Thomas J Covey, Janet L Shucard, Ralph Hb Benedict, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, David W Shucard
Background: Few studies of cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS) have targeted working memory specifically. Objective: We examined the effects of n-back working memory training on cognitive performance and brain function in patients with MS. Methods: Patients with MS (n = 12) and healthy controls (HC; n = 12) underwent 20 sessions of n-back working memory training. Before and after training (pre- and posttest) cognitive event-related potential (ERP) measures were obtained during a 3-back task...
January 2018: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348926/a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-single-ascending-dose-study-of-remyelinating-antibody-rhigm22-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Andrew Eisen, Benjamin M Greenberg, James D Bowen, Douglas L Arnold, Anthony O Caggiano
Objective: The objective of this paper is to assess, in individuals with clinically stable multiple sclerosis (MS), the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and exploratory pharmacodynamics of the monoclonal recombinant human antibody IgM22 (rHIgM22). Methods: Seventy-two adults with stable MS were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single ascending-dose, Phase 1 trial examining rHIgM22 from 0.025 to 2.0 mg/kg. Assessments included MRI, MR spectroscopy, plasma PK, and changes in clinical status, laboratory values and adverse events for three months...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348591/relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-diagnosis-from-cerebrospinal-fluids-via-fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy-coupled-with-multivariate-analysis
#12
Dilek Yonar, Levent Ocek, Bedile Irem Tiftikcioglu, Yasar Zorlu, Feride Severcan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory and degenerative disease of central nervous system. Here, we aimed to develop a method for differential diagnosis of Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients, as well as to identify CIS patients who will progress to RRMS, from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and multivariate analysis. Spectral analyses demonstrated significant differences in the molecular contents, especially in the lipids and Z conformation of DNA of CSF from CIS, CIS to RRMS transformed (TCIS) and RRMS groups...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348137/accuracy-of-the-compressed-sensing-accelerated-3d-flair-sequence-for-the-detection-of-ms-plaques-at-3t
#13
S Toledano-Massiah, A Sayadi, R de Boer, J Gelderblom, R Mahdjoub, S Gerber, M Zuber, M Zins, J Hodel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of 3D FLAIR improves the detection of brain lesions in MS patients, but requires long acquisition times. Compressed sensing reduces acquisition time by using the sparsity of MR images to randomly undersample the k-space. Our aim was to compare the image quality and diagnostic performance of 3D-FLAIR with and without compressed sensing for the detection of multiple sclerosis lesions at 3T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three patients with relapsing-remitting MS underwent both conventional 3D-FLAIR and compressed sensing 3D-FLAIR on a 3T scanner (reduction in scan time 1 minute 25 seconds, 27%; compressed sensing factor of 1...
January 18, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347989/bal%C3%A3-s-concentric-sclerosis-is-immunologically-distinct-from-multiple-sclerosis-results-from-retrospective-analysis-of-almost-150-lumbar-punctures
#14
S Jarius, C Würthwein, J R Behrens, J Wanner, J Haas, F Paul, B Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Baló's concentric sclerosis (BCS) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterised by concentric layers of demyelination. It is unclear whether BCS is a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS) or a disease entity in its own right. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) features of BCS to those of MS. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the CSF profile of all patients with BCS reported in the medical literature between 1980 and 2017...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346980/fractional-cable-equation-for-general-geometry-a-model-of-axons-with-swellings-and-anomalous-diffusion
#15
Erick J López-Sánchez, Juan M Romero, Huitzilin Yépez-Martínez
Different experimental studies have reported anomalous diffusion in brain tissues and notably this anomalous diffusion is expressed through fractional derivatives. Axons are important to understand neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Indeed, abnormal accumulation of proteins and organelles in axons is a hallmark of these diseases. The diffusion in the axons can become anomalous as a result of this abnormality. In this case the voltage propagation in axons is affected...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346658/potential-for-diet-to-prevent-and-remediate-cognitive-deficits-in-neurological-disorders
#16
Heather M Francis, Richard J Stevenson
The pathophysiology of many neurological disorders involves oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is now substantial evidence that diet can decrease these forms of pathophysiology, and an emerging body of literature relatedly suggests that diet can also prevent or even remediate the cognitive deficits observed in neurological disorders that exhibit such pathology (eg, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, age-related cognitive decline, epilepsy). The current review summarizes the emerging evidence in relation to whole diets prominent in the scientific literature-ketogenic, caloric restriction, high polyphenol, and Mediterranean diets-and provides a discussion of the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms...
January 15, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346446/osteopontin-opn-as-a-csf-and-blood-biomarker-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Elmira Agah, Arshia Zardoui, Amene Saghazadeh, Mona Ahmadi, Abbas Tafakhori, Nima Rezaei
Identifying a reliable biomarker may accelerate diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and lead to early management of the disease. Accumulating evidence suggest that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood concentration of osteopontin (OPN) may have diagnostic and prognostic value in MS. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that measured peripheral blood and CSF levels of OPN in MS patients and controls to evaluate the diagnostic potential of this biomarker better. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases to find articles that measured OPN concentration in peripheral blood and CSF samples from MS patients up to October 19, 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346320/c-phycocyanin-and-phycocyanobilin-as-remyelination-therapies-for-enhancing-recovery-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-ischemic-stroke-a-preclinical-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Javier Marín-Prida, Viviana Falcón-Cama
Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced demyelination in stroke survivors is correlated with a poorer behavioral recovery. Here, we show the experimental findings of our group and others supporting the remyelinating effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of Spirulina platensis and its linked tetrapyrrole Phycocyanobilin (PCB), in models of these illnesses...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346161/promotion-of-exercise-in-multiple-sclerosis-through-healthcare-providers
#19
Robert W Motl, Elizabeth A Barstow, Sarah Blaylock, Emma Richardson, Yvonne C Learmonth, Matthew Fifolt
Participation in exercise yields meaningful benefits among persons with multiple sclerosis(MS), yet this population engages in low rates of health-promoting physical activity. The disconnect between evidence of benefits and rates of participation requires consideration of new opportunities for changing this health behavior. The current paper hypothesizes that the patient-provider interaction offers a fertile opportunity for promoting exercise behavior in MS.
January 15, 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345065/fingolimod-targets-cerebral-endothelial-activation-to-block-leukocyte-recruitment-in-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Yawei Zhao, Dongyan Shi, Kelei Cao, Fengjiao Wu, Xingxing Zhu, Shuang Wen, Qiang You, Keqi Zhang, Lixin Liu, Hong Zhou
Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunomodulator, is approved as an oral treatment for patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Its effects are largely attributed to its mechanism of selectively retaining lymphocytes in the lymph nodes to reduce autoreactive T-cell recruitment in the CNS. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of FTY720 on an animal model of CNS inflammation induced by intracerebral ventricle LPS injection. We found that FTY720 treatment significantly prevented LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment in the CNS by inhibiting leukocyte recruitment in cerebral microvessels...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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