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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332398/high-performance-thermoelectric-bulk-colusite-by-process-controlled-structural-disordering
#1
Cédric Bourgès, Yohan Bouyrie, Andrew R Supka, Rabih Al Rahal Al Orabi, Pierric Lemoine, O I Lebedev, Michihiro Ohta, Koichiro Suekuni, Vivian Nassif, Vincent Hardy, Ramzy Daou, Yuzuru Miyazaki, Marco Fornari, Emmanuel Guilmeau
High-performance thermoelectric bulk sulfide with the colusite structure is achieved by controlling the densification process and forming short-to-medium range structural defects. A simple and powerful way to adjust carrier concentration combined with enhanced phonon scattering through point defects and disordered regions is described. By combining experiments with band structure and phonons calculations, we elucidate, for the first time, the underlying mechanism at the origin of intrinsically low thermal conductivity in colusite samples as well as the effect of S vacancies and antisite defects on the carrier concentration...
January 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331927/honeycomb-like-polysulphone-polyurethane-nanofiber-filter-for-the-removal-of-organic-inorganic-species-from-air-streams
#2
Xin Chen, Yang Xu, Meimei Liang, Qinfei Ke, Yuanyuan Fang, He Xu, Xiangyu Jin, Chen Huang
Nanofiber nonwoven filters, especially those prepared by electrospinning, are of particular interest because of their high filtration efficiency. However, existing electrospun filters suffer from inherent limitations in that both strengths and filtration resistances of the filters leave much to be desired. Herein, we present a novel nonwoven filter that is composed of polysulphone and polyurethane nanofibers. By mimicking the honeycomb structure, a heterogeneous distribution of both fiber diameter and fiber density has been achieved...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331721/understanding-protein-drug-interactions-using-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry
#3
REVIEW
Claire E Eyers, Matthias Vonderach, Samantha Ferries, Kiani Jeacock, Patrick A Eyers
Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is an important addition to the analytical toolbox for the structural evaluation of proteins, and is enhancing many areas of biophysical analysis. Disease-associated proteins, including enzymes such as protein kinases, transcription factors exemplified by p53, and intrinsically disordered proteins, including those prone to aggregation, are all amenable to structural analysis by IM-MS. In this review we discuss how this powerful technique can be used to understand protein conformational dynamics and aggregation pathways, and in particular, the effect that small molecules, including clinically-relevant drugs, play in these processes...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330955/intrinsic-constraints-on-the-diversification-of-neotropical-cichlid-adductor-mandibulae-size
#4
Jessica Arbour, Hernán López-Fernández
The diversification of functional traits may be constrained by intrinsic factors, such as structural, mechanical, developmental, or physiological limitations. We explored the biomechanical and constructional constraints on the size of the major jaw closing muscles, the adductor mandibulae complex (AM), in a diverse clade of freshwater fish - the Neotropical cichlids. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we contrasted patterns of size variation and diversification rates of three AM divisions with variables describing head size and biomechanical coefficients describing force and velocity transmission...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330931/teaching-learning-tips-4-motivation-and-emotion-in-learning
#5
Elizabeth R Lemoine, Janelle S Nassim, Jasmine Rana, Susan Burgin
Challenge: Trainees' motivational and emotional states can influence their learning and career decisions, but historically these "affective" learning factors have received little attention in medical education. In this "Tips" piece, we outline strategies to positively influence trainees' intrinsic motivation and emotion toward their training to ultimately enhance their overall learning experience.
February 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330835/international-guidelines-for-groin-hernia-management
#6
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
January 12, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330580/-lichen-ruber-planus-better-understanding-better-treatment
#7
REVIEW
L Schilling, T Vogt
Lichen ruber, also called lichen ruber planus or lichen planus (LP), is a noncontagious inflammatory skin disease. LP is the main representative and namesake of the group of lichenoid diseases, which are characterized by small papules often accompanied by severe itching. With 65% of cases, LP is primarily a disease of the mucous membranes. In 20% of the cases, the disease is found on the skin and mucous membranes; skin involvement alone is seen in only about 10% of cases. Cutaneous LP has a very favorable 1‑year prognosis of almost 80% healing as opposed to the mucosa and the adnexal organs...
January 12, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330519/large-scale-aggregation-analysis-of-eukaryotic-proteins-reveals-an-involvement-of-intrinsically-disordered-regions-in-protein-folding
#8
Eri Uemura, Tatsuya Niwa, Shintaro Minami, Kazuhiro Takemoto, Satoshi Fukuchi, Kodai Machida, Hiroaki Imataka, Takuya Ueda, Motonori Ota, Hideki Taguchi
A subset of the proteome is prone to aggregate formation, which is prevented by chaperones in the cell. To investigate whether the basic principle underlying the aggregation process is common in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, we conducted a large-scale aggregation analysis of ~500 cytosolic budding yeast proteins using a chaperone-free reconstituted translation system, and compared the obtained data with that of ~3,000 Escherichia coli proteins reported previously. Although the physicochemical properties affecting the aggregation propensity were generally similar in yeast and E...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329929/detoxification-genes-polymorphisms-in-sids-exposed-to-tobacco-smoke
#9
Laura Filonzi, Cinzia Magnani, Anna Maria Lavezzi, Marina Vaghi, Luana Nosetti, Francesco Nonnis Marzano
The best hypothesis to explain Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) pathogenesis is offered by the "triple risk model", which suggests that an interaction of different variables related to exogenous stressors and infant vulnerability may lead to the syndrome. Environmental factors are triggers that act during a particular sensible period, modulated by intrinsic genetic characteristics. Although literature data show that one of the major SIDS risk factors is smoking exposure, a specific involvement of molecular components has never been highlighted...
January 9, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328368/identification-of-significant-biomarkers-and-pathways-associated-with-gastric-carcinogenesis-by-whole-genome-wide-expression-profiling-analysis
#10
Hong-Jun Fei, Song-Chang Chen, Jun-Yu Zhang, Shu-Yuan Li, Lan-Lan Zhang, Yi-Yao Chen, Chun-Xin Chang, Chen-Ming Xu
The incidence of gastric cancer (GC) is extremely high in East Asia. GC is also one of the most common and lethal forms of cancer from a global perspective. However, to date, we have not been able to determine one or several genes as biomarkers in the diagnosis of GC and have also been unable to identify the genes which are important in the therapy of GC. In this study, we analyzed all genome-wide expression profiling arrays uploaded onto the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to filtrate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between normal stomach tissues and GC tissues...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327911/enhanced-charge-separation-efficiency-accelerates-hydrogen-evolution-from-water-of-carbon-nitride-3-4-9-10-perylenetetracarboxylic-dianhydride-composite-photocatalyst
#11
Chen Ye, Jia-Xin Li, Hao-Lin Wu, Xu-Bing Li, Bin Chen, Chen-Ho Tung, Li-Zhu Wu
The catalytic ability of graphitic carbon nitride is greatly affected by its intrinsic electronic properties. Though combination with chromophore has been demonstrated to be one of the promising approaches to improve the catalytic performance of carbon nitride, it is imperative to understand the key factors governed the whole process. Here we report a composite photocatalyst CN-P by embedding perylene unit into the matrix of carbon nitride. The composite photocatalyst could catalyze hydrogen evolution with a high rate of 17...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327158/comparison-of-warfarin-requirements-in-post-cardiac-surgery-patients-valve-replacement-versus-non-valve-replacement
#12
Logan M Olson, Andrea M Nei, David L Joyce, Narith N Ou, Ross A Dierkhising, Scott D Nei
INTRODUCTION: Anticoagulation with warfarin affects approximately 140,000 post-cardiac surgery patients every year, yet there remains limited published data in this patient population. Dosing remains highly variable due to intrinsic risk factors that plague cardiac surgery candidates and a lack of diverse literature that can be applied to those who have undergone a cardiac surgery alternative to heart valve replacement (HVR). In the present study, our aim was to compare the warfarin requirements between HVR and non-HVR patients...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326065/hydrogen-sulfide-supplement-attenuates-the-apoptosis-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-experimental-glaucoma
#13
Shouyue Huang, Ping Huang, Zhongjing Lin, Xiaohong Liu, Xing Xu, Lei Guo, Xi Shen, Changwei Li, Yisheng Zhong
Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative eye diseases characterized by progressive impairment of visual function due to loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). As hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was reported to play a role in the process of glaucomatous neuropathy and improve RGC survival in experimental glaucoma, the authors aimed to investigate the anti-apoptosis effect of H2S supplement in a rat glaucoma model, and further tried to explore the involved factors in the neuroprotection. A chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rat model induced by intracameral injection of cross-linking hydrogel was employed to simulate glaucoma and 288 rats were subjected to experimental procedures in the present study...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325962/systematic-review-of-factors-influencing-surgical-performance-practical-recommendations-for-microsurgical-procedures-in-neurosurgery
#14
Evgenii Belykh, Naomi R Onaka, Iraklii T Abramov, Kaan Yağmurlu, Vadim A Byvaltsev, Robert F Spetzler, Peter Nakaji, Mark C Preul
BACKGROUND: Microneurosurgical techniques involve complex manual skills and hand-eye coordination that require substantial training. Many factors affect microneurosurgical skills. The goal of this study was to use a systematic evidence-based approach to analyze the quality of evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence microneurosurgical performance and to make weighted practical recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search of factors that may impact microsurgical performance was conducted using PubMed and Embase...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325627/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nervous-system-diseases
#15
Irfan A Qureshi, Mark F Mehler
Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325104/eukaryotic-translational-termination-efficiency-is-influenced-by-the-3-nucleotides-within-the-ribosomal-mrna-channel
#16
Andrew G Cridge, Caillan Crowe-McAuliffe, Suneeth F Mathew, Warren P Tate
When a stop codon is at the 80S ribosomal A site, there are six nucleotides (+4 to +9) downstream that are inferred to be occupying the mRNA channel. We examined the influence of these downstream nucleotides on translation termination success or failure in mammalian cells at the three stop codons. The expected hierarchy in the intrinsic fidelity of the stop codons (UAA>UAG>UGA) was observed, with highly influential effects on termination readthrough mediated by nucleotides at position +4 and position +8...
January 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324292/use-of-sperm-dna-integrity-as-a-marker-for-exposure-to-contamination-in-palaemon-serratus-pennant-1777-intrinsic-variability-baseline-level-and-in-situ-deployment
#17
Alexandre Erraud, Marc Bonnard, Arnaud Chaumot, Olivier Geffard, Aurélie Duflot, Joëlle Forget-Leray, Frank Le Foll, Alain Geffard, Benoit Xuereb
In a previous study, the Comet assay was optimized for Palaemon serratus prawns in order to propose a biomarker for sperm quality in this species. However, better knowledge of its basal level and its natural variability, related to intrinsic biotic and environmental abiotic factors, is required before any relevant use of this biomarker in the field. To fulfill this goal, the present study proceeded in three steps: (i) the temporal variability of DNA integrity was followed monthly in a reference population over a 2-year period, (ii) the correlation between the main intrinsic biotic (i...
December 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324226/human-specific-adaptations-in-vpu-conferring-anti-tetherin-activity-are-critical-for-efficient-early-hiv-1-replication-in%C3%A2-vivo
#18
Eri Yamada, Shinji Nakaoka, Lukas Klein, Elisabeth Reith, Simon Langer, Kristina Hopfensperger, Shingo Iwami, Gideon Schreiber, Frank Kirchhoff, Yoshio Koyanagi, Daniel Sauter, Kei Sato
The HIV-1-encoded accessory protein Vpu exerts several immunomodulatory functions, including counteraction of the host restriction factor tetherin, downmodulation of CD4, and inhibition of NF-κB activity to facilitate HIV-1 infection. However, the relative contribution of individual Vpu functions to HIV-1 infection in vivo remained unclear. Here, we used a humanized mouse model and HIV-1 strains with selective mutations in vpu to demonstrate that the anti-tetherin activity of Vpu is a prerequisite for efficient viral spread during the early phase of infection...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323485/spark-plasma-sintering-sps-assisted-synthesis-and-thermoelectric-characterization-of-magn%C3%A3-li-phase-v6o11
#19
Markus Joos, Giacomo Cerretti, Igor Veremchuk, Patrick Hofmann, Hajo Frerichs, Dalaver H Anjum, Tobias Reich, Ingo Lieberwirth, Martin Panthöfer, Wolfgang G Zeier, Wolfgang Tremel
The Magnéli phase V6O11 was synthesized in gram amounts from a powder mixture of V6O11/V7O13 and vanadium metal, using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Its structure was determined with synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data from a phase-pure sample synthesized by conventional solid-state synthesis. A special feature of Magnéli-type oxides is a combination of crystallographic shear and intrinsic disorder that leads to relatively low lattice thermal conductivities. SPS prepared V6O11 has a relatively low thermal conductivity of κ = 2...
January 11, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323385/2d-end-to-end-carbon-nanotube-conductive-networks-in-polymer-nanocomposites-a-conceptual-design-to-dramatically-enhance-the-sensitivities-of-strain-sensors
#20
Jun-Hong Pu, Xiang-Jun Zha, Min Zhao, Shengyao Li, Rui-Ying Bao, Zheng-Ying Liu, Bang-Hu Xie, Ming-Bo Yang, Zhanhu Guo, Wei Yang
New generation wearable devices require mechanically compliant strain sensors with a high sensitivity in a full detecting range. Herein, novel 2D end-to-end contact conductive networks of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were designed and realized in an ethylene-α-octene block copolymer (OBC) matrix. The prepared strain sensor showed a high gauge factor (GF) of 248 even at a small strain (5%) and a linear resistance response throughout the whole strain range. The sensors also exhibited very good stretchability up to 300% and high cycling durability...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale
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