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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169177/acute-kidney-injury-in-elderly-population-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Cássia Gomes da Silveira Santos, Rafael Fernandes Romani, Ricardo Benvenutti, João Otávio Ribas Zahdi, Miguel Carlos Riella, Marcelo Mazza do Nascimento
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported as a recognized condition among the elderly population; however, its clinical epidemiology is still poorly evaluated. We propose to evaluate the epidemiological profile of AKI in hospitalized elderly patients and the variables associated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) dependency at discharge after an episode of AKI. METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled 286 elderly patients (aged ≥60 years), who had a diagnosis of AKI and were admitted to a tertiary care hospital...
November 23, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169155/rho-kinase-regulates-aortic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-stiffness-via-actin-srf-myocardin-in-hypertension
#2
Ning Zhou, Jia-Jye Lee, Shaunrick Stoll, Ben Ma, Kevin D Costa, Hongyu Qiu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our previous studies demonstrated that intrinsic aortic smooth muscle cell (VSMC) stiffening plays a pivotal role in aortic stiffening in aging and hypertension. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. We here hypothesized that Rho kinase (ROCK) acts as a novel mediator that regulates intrinsic VSMC mechanical properties through the serum response factor (SRF) /myocardin pathway and consequently regulates aortic stiffness and blood pressure in hypertension...
November 23, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168660/the-interplay-between-extracellular-matrix-remodelling-and-kinase-signalling-in-cancer-progression-and-metastasis
#3
Joanna N Skhinas, Thomas R Cox
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a master regulator of cellular phenotype and behaviour. It plays a crucial role in both normal tissue homeostasis and complex diseases such as cancer. The interplay between the intrinsic factors of cancer cells themselves, including their genotype and signalling networks; and the extrinsic factors of the tumour stroma, such as the ECM and ECM remodelling; together determine the fate and behaviour of cancer cells. As a consequence, tumour progression, metastatic spread and response to therapy are ultimately controlled by ECM-driven fine-tuning of intracellular kinase signalling...
November 23, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168155/in-silico-and-experimental-data-claiming-safety-aspects-and-beneficial-attributes-of-the-bacteriocinogenic-strain-enterococcus-faecalis-b3a-b3b
#4
Alaa Al Seraih, Yanath Belguesmia, Benoit Cudennec, John Baah, Djamel Drider
This study aimed at comparing the genome of Enterococcus faecalis B3A-B3B, a bacteriocinogenic strain recently isolated from a healthy Iraqi infant to those of Enterococci of clinical and beneficial grades. The putative genes gelE, cpd, efaAfm, ccf, agg, and cob coding for virulence factors were detected in B3A-B3B strain, which meanwhile resulted to be non-cytotoxic, non-hemolytic, devoid of inflammatory effects, and sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested except for clindamycin and trimethoprim, which resistance is usually ascribed to intrinsic nature...
November 22, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168063/abundant-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-after-primary-systemic-chemotherapy-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-her2-negative-breast-cancers
#5
Takahiro Watanabe, Akira I Hida, Natsuko Inoue, Michiko Imamura, Yukie Fujimoto, Kouhei Akazawa, Seiichi Hirota, Yasuo Miyoshi
PURPOSE: The therapeutic effect of systemic treatment for breast cancer (BC) generally depends on its intrinsic subtypes. In addition, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are considered to be an independent factor for tumor shrinkage and disease prognosis. High TILs at baseline or after primary systemic chemotherapy are reported to be associated with better survival in triple-negative or human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive BCs. However, the prognostic value of TILs in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and HER2-negative (ER+/HER2-) BC is still controversial...
November 22, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167504/tunable-plasmonic-substrates-with-ultrahigh-q-factor-resonances
#6
Hamid T Chorsi, Youngkyu Lee, Andrea Alù, John X J Zhang
Precisely tailored plasmonic substrates can provide a platform for a variety of enhanced plasmonic applications in sensing and imaging. Despite the significant advances made in plasmonics, most plasmonic devices suffer critically from intrinsic absorption losses at optical frequencies, fatally restricting their efficiency. Here, we describe and engineer plasmonic substrates based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmon resonances with ultra-sharp optical transmission responses. Due to their sharp transmission spectrum, the proposed substrates can be utilized for high quality (Q)-factor multi-functional plasmonic applications...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166261/pressure-injury-risk-factors-in-adult-critical-care-patients-a-review-of-the-literature
#7
Jill Cox
Critically ill patients require complex care in a technologically sophisticated environment where they are highly vulnerable to pressure-related injuries. However, pressure injury (PI) development remains a multifactorial phenomenon in critically ill persons; true risk is both pervasive and elusive. The purpose of this comprehensive review of the empirical literature was to examine the risk factors associated with PIs among adult patients admitted to contemporary intensive care units (ICUs). Inclusion criteria stipulated publications were to be peer-reviewed, quantitative studies with a focus on pressure ulcer (PU) risk factors in adult critical care patients published between 2010 and 2016 in which statistical analysis involved multivariate analysis using PU development as the outcome variable...
November 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164272/signaling-pathways-and-mesenchymal-transition-in-pediatric-high-grade-glioma
#8
REVIEW
Michaël H Meel, Sophie A Schaper, Gertjan J L Kaspers, Esther Hulleman
Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG), including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG), are the most lethal types of cancer in children. In recent years, it has become evident that these tumors are driven by epigenetic events, mainly mutations involving genes encoding Histone 3, setting them apart from their adult counterparts. These tumors are exceptionally resistant to chemotherapy and respond only temporarily to radiotherapy. Moreover, their delicate location and diffuse growth pattern make complete surgical resection impossible...
November 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163599/a-growing-stem-inhibits-bud-outgrowth-the-overlooked-theory-of-apical-dominance
#9
Tesfamichael H Kebrom
Three theories of apical dominance, direct, diversion, and indirect, were proposed in the 1930s to explain how auxin synthesized in the shoot apex might inhibit axillary bud outgrowth, and thus shoot branching. The direct and diversion theories of apical dominance have been investigated in detail, and they are replaced with the current auxin transport canalization and second messenger theories, respectively. These two current theories still cannot entirely explain the phenomenon of apical dominance. Although there is ample evidence that the inhibition of bud outgrowth by auxin from the shoot apex is linked to stem elongation and highly branched auxin biosynthesis or signaling mutants are dwarf, the third theory proposed in the 1930s, the indirect theory, that explains apical dominance as auxin-induced stem growth indirectly inhibits bud outgrowth has been overlooked...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163007/from-mice-to-mole-rats-species-specific-modulation-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#10
Maria K Oosthuizen
Rodent populations living in their natural environments have very diverse ecological and life history profiles that may differ substantially from that of conventional laboratory rodents. Free-living rodents show species-specific neurogenesis that are dependent on their unique biology and ecology. This perspective aims to illustrate the benefit of studying wild rodent species in conjunction with laboratory rodents. African mole-rats are discussed in terms of habitat complexity, social structures, and longevity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162549/diversification-dynamics-and-transoceanic-eurasian-australian-disjunction-in-the-genus-picris-compositae-induced-by-the-interplay-of-shifts-in-intrinsic-extrinsic-traits-and-paleoclimatic-oscillations
#11
Marek Slovák, Jaromír Kučera, Hans Walter Lack, Jotham Ziffer-Berger, Andrea Melicharková, Eliška Záveská, Peter Vďačný
Understanding transcontinental biogeographic patterns has been one of the main foci of the field of biogeography. While multiple explanations for transcontinental disjunctions have been proposed, little is still known about the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic traits for the diversification dynamics of disjunct taxa. Here, we study the evolutionary history of the genus Picris L. (Compositae), a great model for investigating the diversification dynamics of transoceanic bipolar disjunct organisms...
November 18, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162141/more-than-meets-the-i-the-diverse-antiviral-and-cellular-functions-of-interferon-induced-transmembrane-proteins
#12
REVIEW
Guoli Shi, Olivier Schwartz, Alex A Compton
The first responders of human antiviral immunity are components of the intrinsic immune response that reside within each and every one of our cells. This cell-autonomous arsenal consists of nucleic acid sensors and antiviral effectors strategically placed by evolution to detect and restrict invading viruses. While some factors are present at baseline to allow for constant surveillance of the cell interior, others are upregulated by cytokines (such as interferons) that signal a viral infection underway in neighboring cells...
November 21, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162094/threats-to-patient-safety-in-primary-care-reported-by-older-people-with-multimorbidity-baseline-findings-from-a-longitudinal-qualitative-study-and-implications-for-intervention
#13
Rebecca Hays, Gavin Daker-White, Aneez Esmail, Wendy Barlow, Brian Minor, Benjamin Brown, Thomas Blakeman, Caroline Sanders, Peter Bower
BACKGROUND: In primary care, older patients with multimorbidity (two or more long-term conditions) are especially likely to experience patient safety incidents. Risks to safety in this setting arise as a result of patient, staff and system factors; particularly where these interact or fail to do so. Recent research and policy highlight the important contribution patients can make to improving safety. Older patients with multimorbidity may have the most to gain from increasing their involvement but before interventions can be developed to support them to improve their patient safety, more needs to be known about how this is threatened and how patients respond to perceived threats...
November 21, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161860/modulation-of-first-passage-time-for-bursty-gene-expression-via-random-signals
#14
Qiuying Li, Lifang Huang, Jianshe Yu
The stochastic nature of cell-specific signal molecules (such as transcription factor, ribosome, etc.) and the intrinsic stochastic nature of gene expression process result in cell-to-cell variations at protein levels. Increasing experimental evidences suggest that cell phenotypic variations often depend on the accumulation of some special proteins. Hence, a natural and fundamental question is: How does input signal affect the timing of protein count up to a given threshold? To this end, we study effects of input signal on the first-passage time (FPT), the time at which the number of proteins crosses a given threshold...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161709/impact-of-local-and-systemic-factors-on-kidney-dysfunction-in-bardet-biedl-syndrome
#15
Miriam Zacchia, Giovanna Capolongo, Francesco Trepiccione, Vincent Marion
Bardet Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a rare inherited syndromic condition characterized by renal and extra-renal disorders. Renal defect, at either structural or functional level, is one of the cardinal clinical features, and is a major cause of morbidity. However, the pathogenic mechanism underlying its dysfunction remains largely unknown, and to date only symptomatic treatment with no specific therapy is available for these patients. Elucidating aberrant cellular and/or systemic processes that impact kidney function is therefore a prerequisite to develop targeted innovative therapeutic strategies for the BBS patients...
November 21, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160738/h4k20me2-distinguishes-pre-replicative-from-post-replicative-chromatin-to-appropriately-direct-dna-repair-pathway-choice-by-53bp1-rif1-mad2l2
#16
Marco Simonetta, Inge de Krijger, Judit Serrat, Nathalie Moatti, Diogo Fortunato, Liesbeth Hoekman, Onno B Bleijerveld, A F Maarten Altelaar, Jacqueline J L Jacobs
The main pathways for the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination directed repair (HDR). These operate mutually exclusive and are activated by 53BP1 and BRCA1, respectively. As HDR can only succeed in the presence of an intact copy of replicated DNA, cells employ several mechanisms to inactivate HDR in the G1 phase of cell cycle. As cells enter S-phase, these inhibitory mechanisms are released and HDR becomes active. However, during DNA replication, NHEJ and HDR pathways are both functional and non-replicated and replicated DNA regions co-exist, with the risk of aberrant HDR activity at DSBs in non-replicated DNA...
November 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158527/azole-sensitivity-in-leptosphaeria-pathogens-of-oilseed-rape-the-role-of-lanosterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase
#17
Thomas R Sewell, Nichola J Hawkins, Henrik U Stotz, YongJu Huang, Steven L Kelly, Diane E Kelly, Bart Fraaije, Bruce D L Fitt
Lanosterol 14-α demethylase is a key enzyme intermediating the biosynthesis of ergosterol in fungi, and the target of azole fungicides. Studies have suggested that Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa, the causal agents of phoma stem canker on oilseed rape, differ in their sensitivity to some azoles, which could be driving pathogen frequency change in crops. Here we used CYP51 protein modelling and heterologous expression to determine whether there are interspecific differences at the target-site level...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158444/hnf1b-controls-epithelial-organization-and-cell-polarity-during-ureteric-bud-branching-and-collecting-duct-morphogenesis
#18
Audrey Desgrange, Claire Heliot, Ilya Skovorodkin, Saad U Akram, Janne Heikkilä, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Ilkka Miinalainen, Seppo J Vainio, Silvia Cereghini
Kidney development depends critically on proper ureteric bud branching giving rise to the entire collecting duct system. The transcription factor HNF1B is required for the early steps of ureteric bud branching. Yet, the molecular and cellular events regulated by HNF1B are poorly understood. We report that specific removal of Hnf1b from the ureteric bud leads to defective cell-cell contacts and apico-basal polarity during the early branching events. High resolution ex vivo imaging combined with a membranous fluorescent reporter strategy show decreased mutant cell-rearrangements during mitosis-associated cell dispersal and severe epithelial disorganisation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158293/gfzf-a-glutathione-s-transferase-protein-implicated-in-cell-cycle-regulation-and-hybrid-inviability-is-a-transcriptional-co-activator
#19
Douglas G Baumann, Mu-Shui Dai, Hua Lu, David S Gilmour
The core promoter of protein-encoding genes plays a central role in regulating transcription. M1BP is a transcriptional activator that associates with a core promoter element known as Motif 1 that resides at thousand of genes in Drosophila. To gain insight into how M1BP functions, we identified an interacting protein called GFZF. GFZF had been previously identified in genetic screens for factors involved in maintenance of hybrid inviability, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint, and RAS/MAPK signaling but its contribution to these processes was unknown...
November 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158282/fluconazole-resistant-candida-auris-is-susceptible-to-salivary-histatin-5-killing-and-to-intrinsic-host-defenses
#20
Ruvini U Pathirana, Justin Friedman, Hannah L Norris, Ornella Salvatori, Andrew D McCall, Jason Kay, Mira Edgerton
Candida auris is a newly identified species causing invasive candidemia and candidiasis, and has broad multidrug resistance (MDR) not observed for other pathogenic Candida species. Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a well-studied salivary cationic peptide with significant antifungal activity against C. albicans, and is an attractive candidate to treat MDR fungi since antimicrobial peptides induce minimal drug resistance. We investigated the susceptibility of C. auris to Hst 5 and neutrophils, two first-line innate defenses in the human host...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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