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Intrinsic Factor

Stefano Schiaffino, Bert Blaauw, Kenneth A Dyar
The circadian oscillations of muscle genes are controlled either directly by the intrinsic muscle clock or by extrinsic factors, such as feeding, hormonal signals, or neural influences, which are in turn regulated by the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. A unique feature of circadian rhythms in skeletal muscle is motor neuron-dependent contractile activity, which can affect the oscillation of a number of muscle genes independently of the muscle clock. The role of the intrinsic muscle clock has been investigated using different Bmal1 knockout (KO) models...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
C Tonus, D Connan, O Waroux, B Vandenhove, J Wayet, L Gillet, D Desmecht, N Antoine, F J Ectors, L Grobet
In the present study, we compare a classical slow freezing (SLF) method and an aseptic vitrification (Vitrif) technique to cryopreserve a stable primordial germ cell (PGCs) line issued from the Ardennaise chicken breed. Viability immediately after warming was close to 80% and did not differ between the two cryopreservation methods. Proliferation tended to be slower for both cryopreservation methods compared with controls, but the difference was significant only for Vitrif. No difference was found between the two methods after flow cytometry analysis of stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 expression and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on several factors related to PGC phenotype...
September 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Cristian Picioreanu, Julio Pérez, Mark C M van Loosdrecht
A three-dimensional (3-D) diffusion-reaction model was used to assess the effects of nitrifiers growing in cell clusters on the apparent oxygen half-saturation coefficients in activated sludge flocs. The model allows conciliation of seemingly contradictory reports by several research groups. Although intrinsic half-saturation coefficients (i.e., not affected by diffusion) show a better affinity for oxygen for ammonia oxidizing (AOB) than for nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) (KO,AOB < KO,NOB), measurements in flocs often produced reversed apparent values (KO,AOB,app > KO,NOB,app), which can now be explained by the 3-D model with AOB and NOB microcolonies...
October 8, 2016: Water Research
G N Nguyen, L A George, J I Siner, R J Davidson, C B Zander, X L Zheng, V R Arruda, R M Camire, D E Sabatino
BACKGROUND: The major challenge for developing gene-based therapies for hemophilia A is that human factor VIII (hFVIII) has intrinsic properties that result in inefficient biosynthesis. During intracellular processing, hFVIII is predominantly cleaved at a Paired basic Amino acid Cleaving Enzyme (PACE) or furin cleavage site to yield a heterodimer that is the major form of secreted protein. Previous studies with B-domain deleted (BDD) canine FVIII and hFVIII-R1645H, both differing from hFVIII by a single amino acid at this site, suggested that these proteins are secreted mainly in a single polypeptide chain (SC) form and exhibit enhanced function...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Lin Xu, Zhu Wang, Shan-Yang He, Su-Fen Zhang, Hong-Jiao Luo, Kai Zhou, Xiao-Fei Li, Shao-Peng Qiu, Kai-Yuan Cao
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignant tumors and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among males. Bax-interacting factor-1 (Bif-1) is a member of Endophilin family, which binds to and activates the BAX protein in response to the apoptosis signaling pathway. Loss of Bif-1 may suppress the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and promote tumorigenesis, but there is also converse evidence that Bif-1 could in part be responsible for the tumorigenesis and the role of Bif-1 in PCa development is not clear...
October 14, 2016: Oncology Reports
Bor-Show Tzang, Szu-Yi Chiang, Hsu-Chin Chan, Chung-Hsien Liu, Tsai-Ching Hsu
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is harmful during pregnancy since it can be vertically transmitted to the developing fetus. In addition, the anti‑B19 antibodies induced by B19 infection are believed to have a cytopathic role in B19 transmission; however, knowledge regarding the effects of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy is limited. To investigate the possible roles of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy, the present study examined the effects of anti‑B19‑VP1 unique region (VP1u), anti‑B19‑VP2 and anti‑B19‑nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies on BeWo trophoblasts...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ashkan Heshmatzadeh Behzadi, Martin R Prince
Although the low incidence of immediate-type gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) allergic reactions is widely known, preventing these reactions and properly managing them to reduce their adverse sequel can improve the already exceedingly favorable GBCA safety profile. This review article should help those who order, supervise, or administer GBCA contrast agents, including recognizing and handling allergic reaction risks intrinsic to their use. Areas of focus include factors indicating increased allergic reaction risk, patient selection strategies, skin testing, premedication, and treatment of adverse events...
June 29, 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Fereshteh Esfandiari, Mohammad Kazemi Ashtiani, Mehdi Sharifi-Tabar, Maryam Saber, Hamed Daemi, Mohammad Hossein Ghanian, Abdolhossein Shahverdi, Hossein Baharvand
Producing meiosis-competent germ cells (GCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is essential for developing advanced therapies for infertility. Here, a novel approach is presented for generation of GCs from ESCs. In this regard, microparticles (MPs) have been developed from alginate sulfate loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4). The results here show that BMP4 release from alginate sulfate MPs is significantly retarded by the sulfated groups compared to neat alginate. Then, BMP4-laden MPs are incorporated within the aggregates during differentiation of GCs from ESCs...
October 17, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Stephanie Noble, Dustin Scheinost, Emily S Finn, Xilin Shen, Xenophon Papademetris, Sarah C McEwen, Carrie E Bearden, Jean Addington, Bradley Goodyear, Kristin S Cadenhead, Heline Mirzakhanian, Barbara A Cornblatt, Doreen M Olvet, Daniel H Mathalon, Thomas H McGlashan, Diana O Perkins, Aysenil Belger, Larry J Seidman, Heidi Thermenos, Ming T Tsuang, Theo G M van Erp, Elaine F Walker, Stephan Hamann, Scott W Woods, Tyrone D Cannon, R Todd Constable
Recent years have witnessed an increasing number of multisite MRI functional connectivity (fcMRI) studies. While multisite studies are an efficient way to speed up data collection and increase sample sizes, especially for rare clinical populations, any effects of site or MRI scanner could ultimately limit power and weaken results. Little data exists on the stability of functional connectivity measurements across sites and sessions. In this study, we assess the influence of site and session on resting state functional connectivity measurements in a healthy cohort of traveling subjects (8 subjects scanned twice at each of 8 sites) scanned as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS)...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Huimin Bai, Dongyan Cao, Fang Yuan, Guihua Sha, Jiaxin Yang, Jie Chen, Yue Wang, Zhenyu Zhang, Keng Shen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic value of endometriosis in patients with stage I ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). METHODS: The medical records of patients with stage I OCCC who had undergone complete staging surgery followed by systemic chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 237 women were included in this study. Univariate analysis revealed that the patients with endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC) had significantly improved recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those without EAOC (5-year RFS: 91...
October 13, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Ioulia Vardaki, Claire Sanchez, Pedro Fonseca, Magnus Olsson, Dimitrios Chioureas, George Rassidakis, Anders Ullén, Boris Zhivotovsky, Magnus Björkholm, Theocharis Panaretakis
The intercellular crosstalk between hematological malignancies and the tumor microenvironment is mediated by cell to cell interactions and soluble factors. One component of the secretome that is gaining increasing attention are the extracellular vesicles and in particular the exosomes. Apart from the role as vectors of molecular information, exosomes have been shown to possess intrinsic biological activity. In this study we have found that caspase-3 is activated in L88 bone marrow stroma cell-derived exosomes and identified one of the substrates to be the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL...
October 14, 2016: Blood
Caron Jacobson, Nadja Kopp, Jacob V Layer, Robert A Redd, Sebastian Tschuri, Sarah Haebe, Diederik van Bodegom, Liat Bird, Amanda L Christie, Alexandra Christodoulou, Amy Saur, Trevor Tivey, Stefanie Zapf, Deepak Bararia, Ursula Zimber-Strobl, Scott J Rodig, Oliver Weigert, David M Weinstock
The BTK inhibitor ibrutinib induces responses in 70% of patients with relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma. Intrinsic resistance can occur through activation of the non-classical NFκB pathway and acquired resistance may involve the BTK C481S mutation. Outcomes after ibrutinib failure are dismal, indicating an unmet medical need. We reasoned that newer HSP90 inhibitors could overcome ibrutinib resistance by targeting multiple oncogenic pathways in MCL. HSP90 inhibition induced the complete degradation of both BTK and IKKα in MCL lines and CD40-dependent B cells, with downstream loss of MAP kinase and non-classical NFκB signaling...
October 14, 2016: Blood
Brent Robert Heard, Shelie A Miller
The unbroken global refrigerated supply chain, or cold chain, is rapidly expanding in developing countries. In addition to increasing the energy intensity of the food system, the expanded cold chain may facilitate changes in the global diet, food waste patterns, food production and distribution, and shopping habits. The sustainability impacts of many of these changes chain are unknown, given the complexity of interacting social, economic, and technical factors. The current literature surrounding the environmental impacts of refrigeration in the food system focuses on the direct impacts of energy use and coolant emissions, and lacks a critical evaluation of the accompanying systemic societal changes that potentially carry greater environmental impacts...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Guillermo Rodrigo, Juan F Poyatos
Cellular decision making is based on regulatory circuits that associate signal thresholds to specific physiological actions. This transmission of information is subjected to molecular noise what can decrease its fidelity. Here, we show instead how such intrinsic noise enhances information transfer in the presence of multiple circuit copies. The result is due to the contribution of noise to the generation of autonomous responses by each copy, which are altogether associated with a common decision. Moreover, factors that correlate the responses of the redundant units (extrinsic noise or regulatory cross-talk) contribute to reduce fidelity, while those that further uncouple them (heterogeneity within the copies) can lead to stronger information gain...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Christina Stoeckle, Barbara Geering, Shida Yousefi, Saša Rožman, Nicola Andina, Charaf Benarafa, Hans-Uwe Simon
Eosinophils are frequently elevated in pathological conditions and can cause tissue damage and disease exacerbation. The number of eosinophils in the blood is largely regulated by factors controlling their production in the bone marrow. While several exogenous factors, such as interleukin-5, have been described to promote eosinophil differentiation, comparatively little is known about eosinophil-intrinsic factors that control their de novo generation. Here, we report that the small atypical GTPase RhoH is induced during human eosinophil differentiation, highly expressed in mature blood eosinophils and further upregulated in patients suffering from a hypereosinophilic syndrome...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Michael Groszmann, Hannah L Osborn, John R Evans
Aquaporins are channel proteins that function to increase the permeability of biological membranes. In plants, aquaporins are encoded by multigene families that have undergone substantial diversification in land plants. The Plasma membrane Intrinsic Proteins (PIPs) subfamily of aquaporins are of particular interest given their potential to improve plant water relations and photosynthesis. Flowering plants have between 7 and 28 PIP genes. Their expression varies with tissue and cell type, through development and in response to a variety of factors, contributing to the dynamic and tissue specific control of permeability...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Andrew J Coristine, Jerome Yerly, Matthias Stuber
BACKGROUND: Two-dimensional (2D) spatially selective radiofrequency (RF) pulses may be used to excite restricted volumes. By incorporating a "pencil beam" 2D pulse into a T2-Prep, one may create a "2D-T2-Prep" that combines T2-weighting with an intrinsic outer volume suppression. This may particularly benefit parallel imaging techniques, where artefacts typically originate from residual foldover signal. By suppressing foldover signal with a 2D-T2-Prep, image quality may therefore improve...
2016: PloS One
Jacob Kjell, Lars Olson
A long-standing goal of spinal cord injury research is to develop effective spinal cord repair strategies for the clinic. Rat models of spinal cord injury provide an important mammalian model in which to evaluate treatment strategies and to understand the pathological basis of spinal cord injuries. These models have facilitated the development of robust tests for assessing the recovery of locomotor and sensory functions. Rat models have also allowed us to understand how neuronal circuitry changes following spinal cord injury and how recovery could be promoted by enhancing spontaneous regenerative mechanisms and by counteracting intrinsic inhibitory factors...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Fang Wang, Zhu-Liang Wei, Xian-Rui Sun, Qiang Zhang, Cai-Xia Zhang, Wen-Xin Jiang, Xiao Yan, Jia-Ning Liu, Xiao Yuan
The apoptosis of myoblast in response to excessive cyclic stretch is crucial in adaptive construction of skeletal muscles in orthopedic functional therapy. Mitochondria signaling pathway is the central links in the execution of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade, but its molecular mechanism in stretch-induced apoptosis in myoblasts remains incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanobiological roles of caspase-9 and Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), two important components in mitochondrial pathway, in stretch-induced apoptosis of myoblast...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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