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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109190/qtl-mapping-and-candidate-genes-for-resistance-to-fusarium-ear-rot-and-fumonisin-contamination-in-maize
#1
Valentina Maschietto, Cinzia Colombi, Raul Pirona, Giorgio Pea, Francesco Strozzi, Adriano Marocco, Laura Rossini, Alessandra Lanubile
BACKGROUND: Fusarium verticillioides is a common maize pathogen causing ear rot (FER) and contamination of the grains with the fumonisin B1 (FB1) mycotoxin. Resistance to FER and FB1 contamination are quantitative traits, affected by environmental conditions, and completely resistant maize genotypes to the pathogen are so far unknown. In order to uncover genomic regions associated to reduced FER and FB1 contamination and identify molecular markers for assisted selection, an F2:3 population of 188 progenies was developed crossing CO441 (resistant) and CO354 (susceptible) genotypes...
January 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109017/clostridium-butyricum-b1-alleviates-high-fat-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-in-mice-via-enterohepatic-immunoregulation
#2
Da Zhou, Qin Pan, Xiao-Lin Liu, Rui-Xu Yang, Yuan-Wen Chen, Chang Liu, Jian-Gao Fan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Enterohepatic immunologic derangement is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here, we investigated whether Clostridium butyricum B1 (CB) would be an effective immune-targeted substance to attenuate steatohepatitis in mice. METHODS: Thirty mice were randomized into a control group fed with common forage, a high-fat diet (HFD) group fed a HFD for 16 weeks, and a HFD + CB group treated with CB for the latter 8 weeks. Inflammation- or metabolism-associated genes in the liver or epididymal fat tissue were quantified, intrahepatic and intestinal immune factors were detected...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108877/a-moderated-mediation-model-of-hiv-related-stigma-depression-and-social-support-on-health-related-quality-of-life-among-incarcerated-malaysian-men-with-hiv-and-opioid-dependence
#3
Roman Shrestha, Michael Copenhaver, Alexander R Bazazi, Tania B Huedo-Medina, Archana Krishnan, Frederick L Altice
Although it is well established that HIV-related stigma, depression, and lack of social support are negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLH), no studies to date have examined how these psychosocial factors interact with each other and affect HRQoL among incarcerated PLH. We, therefore, incorporated a moderated mediation model (MMM) to explore whether depression mediates the effect of HIV-related stigma on HRQoL as a function of the underlying level of social support...
January 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108734/valproic-acid-inhibits-glioblastoma-multiforme-cell-growth-via-paraoxonase-2-expression
#4
Jen-Ho Tseng, Cheng-Yi Chen, Pei-Chun Chen, Sheng-Huang Hsiao, Chi-Chen Fan, Yu-Chih Liang, Chie-Pein Chen
We studied the potential mechanisms of valproic acid (VPA) in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Using the human U87, GBM8401, and DBTRG-05MG GBM-derived cell lines, VPA at concentrations of 5 to 20 mM induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Stress-related molecules such as paraoxonase 2 (PON2), cyclin B1, cdc2, and Bcl-xL were downregulated, but p27, p21 and Bim were upregulated by VPA treatment. VPA response element on the PON2 promoter was localized at position -400/-1...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108517/sdhd-promoter-mutations-ablate-gabp-transcription-factor-binding-in-melanoma
#5
Tongwu Zhang, Mai Xu, Matthew M Makowski, Christine Lee, Michael Kovacs, Jun Fang, Esther Willems, Jeffrey M Trent, Nicholas K Hayward, Michiel Vermeulen, Kevin M Brown
SDHD encodes subunit D of the succinate dehydrogenase complex, an integral membrane protein. Across cancer types, recurrent SDHD promoter mutations were reported to occur exclusively in melanomas, at a frequency of 4-5%. These mutations are predicted to disrupt consensus ETS-transcription factor binding sites and are correlated with both reduced SDHD gene expression and poor prognosis. However, the consequence of these mutations on SDHD expression in melanoma is still unclear. Here, we found that expression of SDHD in melanoma correlated with the expression of multiple ETS-transcription factors, particularly in SDHD promoter wild-type samples...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108514/somatic-ephrin-receptor-mutations-are-associated-with-metastasis-in-primary-colorectal-cancer
#6
Lucy Mathot, Snehangshu Kundu, Viktor Ljungström, Jessica Svedlund, Lotte Moens, Tom Adlerteg, Elin Falk-Sörqvist, Verónica Rendo, Claudia Bellomo, Markus Mayrhofer, Carme Cortina, Magnus Sundström, Patrick Micke, Johan Botling, Anders Isaksson, Aristidis Moustakas, Eduard Batlle, Helgi Birgisson, Bengt Glimelius, Mats Nilsson, Tobias Sjöblom
The contribution of somatic mutations to metastasis of colorectal cancers (CRC) is currently unknown. To find mutations involved in the CRC metastatic process, we performed deep mutational analysis of 676 genes in 107 stages II-IV primary CRC, of which half had metastasized. The mutation prevalence in the ephrin (Eph) family of tyrosine kinase receptors was ten-fold higher in primary tumors of metastatic CRC than in non-metastatic cases and preferentially occurred in stage III and IV tumours. Mutational analyses in situ confirmed expression of mutant Eph receptors...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107943/development-of-a-nanoarray-capable-of-the-rapid-and-simultaneous-detection-of-zearalenone-t2-toxin-and-fumonisin
#7
Sara E McNamee, Francesca Bravin, Giulia Rosar, Christopher T Elliott, Katrina Campbell
Fusarium mycotoxins such as trichothecenes, zearalenone and fumonisins occur on a worldwide basis in cereal grains, animal feeds and forages. Practical solutions for multiple mycotoxin determination in samples are required by industry and regulators for cost effective screening purposes. The feasibility of developing a novel multiplex nanoarray for the simultaneous and semi-quantitative detection of three regulated mycotoxins: zearalenone (ZEA), T2-toxin (T2) and fumonisin B1 (FUM) was examined. Additionally, the assay was also able to detect HT2 toxin and fumonisin B2 and B3 due to the cross reactivity profiles of the antibodies used...
March 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107436/a-micro-ct-study-in-patients-with-breast-microcalcifications-using-a-mathematical-algorithm-to-assess-3d-structure
#8
David Kenkel, Zsuzsanna Varga, Heike Heuer, Konstantin J Dedes, Nicole Berger, Lukas Filli, Andreas Boss
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of breast microcalcifications (MC) as a predictor of malignancy using highly resolved micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) datasets of biopsy samples. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 28 women with suspicious MC in their mammogram undergoing vacuum-assisted biopsy. Directly after the intervention, the specimens were scanned in a micro-CT with an isometric spatial resolution of 9 μm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107425/using-an-inducible-promoter-of-a-gene-encoding-penicillium-verruculosum-glucoamylase-for-production-of-enzyme-preparations-with-enhanced-cellulase-performance
#9
Alexander G Bulakhov, Pavel V Volkov, Aleksandra M Rozhkova, Alexander V Gusakov, Vitaly A Nemashkalov, Aidar D Satrutdinov, Arkady P Sinitsyn
BACKGROUND: Penicillium verruculosum is an efficient producer of highly active cellulase multienzyme system. One of the approaches for enhancing cellulase performance in hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates is to enrich the reaction system with β -glucosidase and/or accessory enzymes, such as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) displaying a synergism with cellulases. RESULTS: Genes bglI, encoding β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger (AnBGL), and eglIV, encoding LPMO (formerly endoglucanase IV) from Trichoderma reesei (TrLPMO), were cloned and expressed by P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106288/nuclear-inositide-signaling-via-phospholipase-c
#10
Stefano Ratti, Sara Mongiorgi, Giulia Ramazzotti, Matilde Y Follo, Giulia A Mariani, Pann-Ghill Suh, James A McCubrey, Lucio Cocco, Lucia Manzoli
The existence of an independent nuclear inositide pathway distinct from the cytoplasmic one has been demonstrated in different physiological systems and in diseases. In this prospect we analyze the role of PI-PLCβ1 nuclear isoform in relation to the cell cycle regulation, the cell differentiation and different physiopathological pathways focusing on the importance of the nuclear localization from both molecular and clinical point of view. PI-PLCβ1 is essential for G1/S transition through DAG and Cyclin D3 and plays also a central role in G2/M progression through Cyclin B1 and PKCα...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105956/vrn1-genes-variability-in-tetraploid-wheat-species-with-a-spring-growth-habit
#11
Irina Konopatskaia, Valeriya Vavilova, Elena Ya Kondratenko, Alexandr Blinov, Nikolay P Goncharov
BACKGROUND: Vernalization genes VRN1 play a major role in the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in wheat. In di-, tetra- and hexaploid wheats the presence of a dominant allele of at least one VRN1 gene homologue (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-G1 or Vrn-D1) determines the spring growth habit. Allelic variation between the Vrn-1 and vrn-1 alleles relies on mutations in the promoter region or the first intron. The origin and variability of the dominant VRN1 alleles, determining the spring growth habit in tetraploid wheat species have been poorly studied...
November 16, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105557/the-anticancer-drug-sunitinib-promotes-autophagyand-protects-from-neurotoxicity-in-an-hiv-1-tat-model-of-neurodegeneration
#12
Jerel A Fields, Jeff Metcalf, Cassia Overk, Anthony Adame, Brian Spencer, Wolfgang Wrasidlo, Jazmin Florio, Edward Rockenstein, Johnny J He, Eliezer Masliah
Despite the success of antiretroviral therapies to control systemic HIV-1 infection, the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) has not decreased among aging patients with HIV. Autophagy pathway alterations, triggered by HIV-1 proteins including gp120, Tat, and Nef, might contribute to the neurodegenerative process in aging patients with HAND. Although no treatments are currently available to manage HAND, we have previously shown that sunitinib, an anticancer drug that blocks receptor tyrosine-kinase and cyclin kinase pathways, might be of interest...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105216/identification-of-potential-therapeutic-targets-for-colorectal-cancer-by-bioinformatics-analysis
#13
Ming Yan, Maomin Song, Rixing Bai, Shi Cheng, Wenmao Yan
The aim of the present study was to identify potential therapeutic targets for colorectal cancer (CRC). The gene expression profile GSE32323, containing 34 samples, including 17 specimens of CRC tissues and 17 of paired normal tissues from CRC patients, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Following data preprocessing using the Affy and preprocessCore packages, the differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) between the two types of samples were identified with the Linear Models for Microarray Analysis package...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104816/ift57-stabilizes-assembled-intraflagellar-transport-complex-and-mediates-transport-of-motility-related-flagellar-cargo
#14
Xue Jiang, Daniel Hernandez, Catherine Hernandez, Zhaolan Ding, Beiyan Nan, Karl Aufderheide, Hongmin Qin
Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) is essential for flagella/cilia assembly and maintenance. Recent biochemical studies have shown that IFT-B is comprised of two subcomplexes, IFT-B1 and IFT-B2. The IFT-B2 subunit IFT57 lies at the interface between IFT-B1 and IFT-B2. Here, using a Chlamydomonas mutant for IFT57, we tested whether IFT57 is critical for IFT-B complex assembly by bridging IFT-B1 and IFT-B2 together. In the ift57-1 mutant, IFT57 and other IFT-B proteins were greatly reduced at the whole-cell level...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103786/crh-receptor-signalling-potential-roles-in-pathophysiology
#15
Styliani Ourailidou, Dimitris Grammatopoulos
To maintain homeostatic equilibrium, living organisms have evolved complex adaptation systems that control an array of behavioural, autonomic, neuroendocrine and immune responses. One of the important switches The master switch of this system is the hypothalamic hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which together with a family of related peptides (urocortins, UCNs) orchestrate stress-coping responses that reinstate homeostasis. Persistent disturbances in the homeostatic equilibrium either due to inadequate or persistently uncontrolled responses have been associated with pathogenic mechanisms of disease...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103783/understanding-corticotropin-releasing-factor-receptor-crfr-activation-using-structural-models
#16
Arnau Cordomi, George Liapakis, Minos Timotheos Matsoukas
The corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 and 2 receptors (CRF1R and CRF2R) belong to the secretin-like family, also known as class B1, of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Several endogenous hormones mediate their responses through the CRF receptors, such as CRF and the urocortins. The structures for the N-terminus extracellular domain of both CRF1R and CRF2R in complex with peptidic ligands were released a few years ago and permitted the study of hormone binding to the orthosteric binding site. It was not until more recently, when the crystal structure of the transmembrane domain of human CRF1R in its inactive state bound to an allosteric antagonist became available...
January 10, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103666/molecular-dynamics-simulations-reveal-isoform-specific-contact-dynamics-between-the-plexin-rho-gtpase-binding-domain-rbd-and-small-rho-gtpases-rac1-and-rnd1
#17
Liqun Zhang, Matthias Buck
The Plexin family of transmembrane receptors are unique in that their intracellular region interacts directly with small GTPases of the Rho family. The Rho GTPase Binding Domain of plexin (RBD) -that is responsible for these interactions- can bind with Rac1 as well as Rnd1 GTPases. GTPase complexes have been crystallized with the RBDs of plexinA1, -A2 and -B1. The protein association is thought to elicit different functional responses, possibly in a GTPase/plexin isoform specific manner. In this project, we investigated complexes between several RBD and Rac1/Rnd1 GTPases using multi-microsecond length all atom molecular dynamics simulations, also with reference to the free forms of the RBDs and GTPases...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102957/rf-safety-assessment-of-a-bilateral-four-channel-transmit-receive-7-tesla-breast-coil-sar-versus-tissue-temperature-limits
#18
Thomas M Fiedler, Mark E Ladd, Andreas K Bitz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to perform an RF safety evaluation for a bilateral four-channel transmit/receive breast coil and to determine the maximum permissible input power for which RF exposure of the subject stays within recommended limits. The safety evaluation was done based on SAR as well as on temperature simulations. In comparison to SAR, temperature is more directly correlated with tissue damage, which allows a more precise safety assessment. The temperature simulations were performed by applying three different blood perfusion models as well as two different ambient temperatures...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102665/cosolute-and-crowding-effects-on-a-side-by-side-protein-dimer
#19
Alex J Guseman, Gary J Pielak
The effects of small (~102 Da) and larger (>103 Da) cosolutes on protein stability are broadly understood: excluding volume stabilizes proteins, and chemical interactions are stabilizing when repulsive, but destabilizing when attractive. Proteins, however, rarely work alone. Here, we investigate the effects of small and larger cosolutes on the equilibrium stability of the simplest defined protein-protein interactions, the side-by-side homodimer formed by the A34F variant of the 56-residue B1 domain of protein G...
January 19, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102071/temperature-induced-misfolding-in-prion-protein-evidences-of-multiple-partially-disordered-states-stabilized-by-non-native-hydrogen-bonds
#20
Neharika G Chamachi, Suman Chakrabarty
The structural basis of misfolding pathways of a cellular Prion (PrP(C)) into the toxic scrapie form (PrP(SC)) and identification of possible intermediates (e.g. PrP(*)) still eludes us. In this work, we have used a cumulative ~65µs of Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics simulation data to construct the conformational free energy landscapes and capture the structural and thermodynamic characteristics associated with various stages of the thermal denaturation process in human Prion protein. The temperature dependent free energy surfaces consist of multiple metastable states stabilized by non-native contacts and hydrogen bonds, thus rendering the protein prone towards misfolding...
January 19, 2017: Biochemistry
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