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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437453/three-dominant-awnless-genes-in-common-wheat-fine-mapping-interaction-and-contribution-to-diversity-in-awn-shape-and-length
#1
Motohiro Yoshioka, Julio C M Iehisa, Ryoko Ohno, Tatsuro Kimura, Hiroyuki Enoki, Satoru Nishimura, Shuhei Nasuda, Shigeo Takumi
The awn is a long needle-like structure formed at the tip of the lemma in the florets of some grass species. It plays a role in seed dispersal and protection against animals, and can contribute to the photosynthetic activity of spikes. Three main dominant inhibitors of awn development (Hd, B1 and B2) are known in hexaploid wheat, but the causal genes have not been cloned yet and a genetic association with awn length diversity has been found only for the B1 allele. To analyze the prevalence of these three awning inhibitors, we attempted to predict the genotypes of 189 hexaploid wheat varieties collected worldwide using markers tightly linked to these loci...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436563/an-in-vitro-system-for-measuring-genotoxicity-mediated-by-human-cyp3a4-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Michael Fasullo, Julian Freedland, Nicholas St John, Cinzia Cera, Patricia Egner, Matthew Hartog, Xinxin Ding
P450 activity is required to metabolically activate many chemical carcinogens, rendering them highly genotoxic. CYP3A4 is the most abundantly expressed P450 enzyme in the liver, accounting for most drug metabolism and constituting 50% of all hepatic P450 activity. CYP3A4 is also expressed in extrahepatic tissues, including the intestine. However, the role of CYP3A4 in activating chemical carcinogens into potent genotoxins is unclear. To facilitate efforts to determine whether CYP3A4, per se, can activate carcinogens into potent genotoxins, we expressed human CYP3A4 in the DNA-repair mutant (rad4 rad51) strain of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tested the novel, recombinant yeast strain for ability to report CYP3A4-mediated genotoxicity of a well-known genotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 )...
April 24, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436021/burning-mouth-syndrome-results-of-screening-tests-for-vitamin-and-mineral-deficiencies-thyroid-hormone-and-glucose-levels-experience-at-mayo-clinic-over-a-decade
#3
Claudia S Morr Verenzuela, Mark D P Davis, Alison J Bruce, Rochelle R Torgerson
BACKGROUND: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a disorder characterized by chronic mouth pain in the absence of objective clinical abnormalities. Vitamin or mineral deficiencies may have a role in BMS, but data regarding the prevalence and relevance of hematinic deficiencies are conflicting. We aimed to determine the frequency of specific laboratory abnormalities in patients with BMS. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the results of screening blood tests in patients with BMS at our institution between January 2003 and December 2013...
April 23, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435194/molecular-characterization-of-velogenic-viscerotropic-ranikhet-newcastle-disease-virus-from-different-outbreaks-in-desi-chickens
#4
V S Dhaygude, G K Sawale, M M Chawak, N R Bulbule, S D Moregaonkar, D S Gavhane
AIM: Diagnosis of velogenic viscerotropic Ranikhet disease from six different flocks of desi chicken in and around Mumbai by gross and histopathological examination, isolation of virus and molecular methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25 carcasses (varying between 2 and 6 carcasses from each flock) of six different flocks of adult desi chicken were subjected to necropsy examination for diagnosis of the disease during the span of a year (2014-2015). After thorough gross examination, the tissue samples were collected and processed for virus isolation and histopathological examination...
March 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435103/magnetization-transfer-contrast-and-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-mri-features-and-analysis-of-the-field-dependent-saturation-spectrum
#5
Peter C M van Zijl, Wilfred W Lam, Jiadi Xu, Linda Knutsson, Greg J Stanisz
Magnetization Transfer Contrast (MTC) and Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) experiments measure the transfer of magnetization from molecular protons to the solvent water protons, an effect that becomes apparent as an MRI signal loss ("saturation"). This allows molecular information to be accessed with the enhanced sensitivity of MRI. In analogy to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), these saturation data are presented as a function of the chemical shift of participating proton groups, e.g. OH, NH, NH2, which is called a Z-spectrum...
April 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434971/prevalence-and-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-badgers-melogale-moschata-in-southern-china-by-pcr-rflp
#6
Kai Chen, Si-Yang Huang, Jin-Lei Wang, Rong-Liang Hu, Qiu-Xia Yao, Shou-Feng Zhang, Xing-Quan Zhu, Quan Liu
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite which is able to infect almost all warm-blooded animals. There is no information about the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii in badgers (Melogale moschata) in China. Here, a total of 367 badgers were captured from different cities in Jiangxi province, Southern China. Genomic DNA was extracted from brain tissues of each badgers, and 57 (15.45%) of them were positive for T. gondii by semi-nested PCR of the B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 11 genetic markers, including 10 nuclear loci (SAG1, 5'-SAG2 and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1) and an apicoplast locus (Apico), with multilocus polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology...
April 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434149/solvent-dependent-transformation-of-aflatoxin-b1-in-soil
#7
James M Starr, Blake R Rushing, Mustafa I Selim
To date, all studies of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) transformation in soil or in purified mineral systems have identified aflatoxins B2 (AFB2) and G2 (AFG2) as the primary transformation products. However, identification in these studies was made using thin layer chromatography which has relatively low resolution, and these studies did not identify a viable mechanism by which such transformations would occur. Further, the use of methanol as the solvent delivery vehicle in these studies may have contributed to formation of artifactual transformation products...
April 22, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433770/preparation-of-low-digestible-and-viscoelastic-tigernut-cyperus-esculentus-starch-by-bacillus-acidopullulyticus-pullulanase
#8
Xiaolei Li, Jingchao Fu, Yujuan Wang, Fumin Ma, Dan Li
Tigernut starch is an underutilized food resource. In this study, pullulanase (PUL) hydrolysis was used to change its physiochemical properties for different food applications. The content of low digestible fractions, resistant starch and slow digestible starch, in PUL modified tigernut starch significantly increased from 2.03% to 25.08% (P <0.05) using 120U/g starch of PUL in the debranching reaction. The paste or dispersion of PUL modified tigernut starch had a significantly decreased viscoelasticity (P <0...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433593/tissue-distribution-and-metabolism-of-triadimefon-and-triadimenol-enantiomers-in-chinese-lizards-eremias-argus
#9
Jitong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Wei Li, Peng Xu, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Huili Wang
Triadimefon (TF, S-(+)-TF, R-(-)-TF) and its metabolite triadimenol (TN, TN-A1, A2 and TN-B1, B2) are two systemic fungicides and both of them are chiral pharmaceuticals which are widely used in agricultural industry. Many researches focused on the toxicity effects of triadimefon on mammals, while the ecotoxicological data of tiradimefon on reptiles is limited. In order to understand the toxicity mechanism of triadimefon in reptiles, the current study administrated S-(+)-TF or R-(-)-TF traidimefon (50mg/kg(bw)) to Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) respectively, the absorption, distribution of triadimefon and the formation of triadimenol were analysed at different sampling times...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433057/low-cost-humic-acid-bonded-silica-as-an-effective-solid-phase-extraction-sorbent-for-convenient-determination-of-aflatoxins-in-edible-oils
#10
Neng-Zhi Zhou, Ping Liu, Xiao-Chuan Su, Yan-Hua Liao, Ning-Sheng Lei, Yong-Hong Liang, Shao-Huan Zhou, Wen-Si Lin, Jie Chen, Yu-Qi Feng, Yang Tang
Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic secondary metabolites produced by the toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. AFs tend to contaminate a wide range of foods which is a serious and recurring food safety problem worldwide. Currently, immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) has become the most conventional sample clean-up method for determining AFs in foodstuffs. However, IAC method is limited in the large-scale food analysis because it requires the use of expensive disposable cartridges and the IA procedure is time-consuming...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432936/the-immunosuppressive-characteristics-of-fb1-by-inhibition-of-maturation-and-function-of-bmdcs
#11
Yinhuan Li, Yanhong Fan, Bingbing Xia, Qiuping Xiao, Qingqing Wang, Weidong Sun, Haibin Zhang, Chenghua He
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is one kind of mycotoxins that has the neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides, which commonly infects corn and other crops and is harmful to animal and human health upon consumption of FB1-contaminated feed or food. However, the mechanism of immunotoxicity, especially the immunosuppression induced by FB1 is still unclear. The most pivotal cells in the induction of immune responses are dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we used murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) as a model system to elucidate the effect of FB1 on the function of BMDCs through biological methods...
April 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432843/vitamin-b1-in-critically-ill-patients-needs-and-challenges
#12
REVIEW
Jake T B Collie, Ronda F Greaves, Oliver A H Jones, Que Lam, Glenn M Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Thiamine has a crucial role in energy production, and consequently thiamine deficiency (TD) has been associated with cardiac failure, neurological disorders, oxidative stress (lactic acidosis and sepsis) and refeeding syndrome (RFS). This review aims to explore analytical methodologies of thiamine compound quantification and highlight similarities, variances and limitations of current techniques and how they may be relevant to patients. CONTENT: An electronic search of Medline, PubMed and Embase databases for original articles published in peer-reviewed journals was conducted...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431575/heterogeneous-ribonuclear-protein-a3-hnrnp-a3-is-present-in-dipeptide-repeat-protein-containing-inclusions-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-and-motor-neurone-disease-associated-with-expansions-in-c9orf72-gene
#13
Yvonne S Davidson, Louis Flood, Andrew C Robinson, Yoshihiro Nihei, Kohji Mori, Sara Rollinson, Anna Richardson, Bridget C Benson, Matthew Jones, Julie S Snowden, Stuart Pickering-Brown, Christian Haass, Tammaryn Lashley, David M A Mann
Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) encompasses certain related neurodegenerative disorders which alter behaviour, personality and language. Heterogeneous ribonuclear proteins (hnRNPs) maintain RNA metabolism and changes in their function may underpin the pathogenesis of FTLD. Immunostaining for hnRNP A1, A2/B1 and A3 was performed on sections of temporal cortex with hippocampus from 61 patients with FTLD, stratified by pathological hallmarks into FTLD-tau and FTLD-TDP type A, B and C subtypes, and by genetics into patients with C9orf72 expansions, MAPT or GRN mutations, or those without known mutation...
April 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431009/artefact-free-late-gadolinium-enhancement-imaging-in-patients-with-implanted-cardiac-devices-using-a-modified-broadband-sequence-current-strategies-and-results-from-a-real-world-patient-cohort
#14
Sebastian Hilbert, Alexander Weber, Kay Nehrke, Peter Börnert, Bernhard Schnackenburg, Sabrina Oebel, Ricardo Spampinato, Cathleen Rogge, Sergio Richter, Gerhard Hindricks, Ingo Paetsch, Cosima Jahnke
Aims: Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with implanted cardiac devices is often limited by device-related imaging artefacts. Limitations can potentially be overcome by employing a broadband late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)-CMR imaging technique. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between implanted cardiac devices and the optimal frequency offset on broadband LGE-CMR imaging to increase the artefact-free visibility of myocardial segments. Methods and results: A phantom study was performed to characterize magnetic field disturbances related to 15 different cardiac devices...
April 18, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430950/effects-of-dissolved-oxygen-concentration-and-iron-addition-on-immediate-early-gene-expression-of-magnetospirillum-gryphiswaldense-msr-1
#15
Shiwen Zhuang, Diana Chinyere Anyaogu, Takeshi Kasama, Mhairi Workman, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen, Timothy John Hobley
We report effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and iron addition on gene expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 cells during fermentations, focusing on 0.25-24 h after iron addition. The DO was strictly controlled at 0.5% or 5% O2, and compared with aerobic condition. Uptake of iron (and formation of magnetosomes) was only observed in the 0.5% O2 condition where there was little difference in cell growth and carbon consumption compared to the 5% O2 condition. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis showed a rapid (within 0...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430746/serial-radiographs-do-not-change-the-clinical-course-of-nonoperative-stable-ota-ao-44-b1-ankle-fractures
#16
Lucas S Marchand, Zachary M Working, Ajinkya A Rane, Lance G Jacobson, Erik N Kubiak, Thomas F Higgins, David L Rothberg
OBJECTIVE: To assess radiographic markers of ankle stability in stable OTA/AO 44-B1 ankle fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Academic Level-I trauma hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred thirty-four patients with stable OTA/AO 44-B1 (Danis-Weber B, Supination-External Rotation-II) ankle fractures. INTERVENTION: Analysis of mortise view radiographs at the time of initial evaluation and final follow-up...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430006/evolutionary-changes-in-lamin-expression-in-the-vertebrate-lineage
#17
Reimer Stick, Annette Peter
The nuclear lamina is involved in fundamental nuclear functions and provides mechanical stability to the nucleus. Lamin filaments form a meshwork closely apposed to the inner nuclear membrane and a small fraction of lamins exist in the nuclear interior. Mutations in lamin genes cause severe hereditary diseases, the laminopathies. During vertebrate evolution the lamin protein family has expanded. While most vertebrate genomes contain four lamin genes, encoding the lamins A, B1, B2, and LIII, the majority of non-vertebrate genomes harbor only a single lamin gene...
April 21, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429858/trauma-related-disgust-in-veterans-with-interpersonal-trauma
#18
Jessica Bomyea, Carolyn B Allard
Although traditionally conceptualized as an anxiety disorder, variability in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be explained by individual differences in peri- or posttraumatic disgust. We examined relationships between disgust reactions and other trauma-related symptoms in 100 veterans with a history of interpersonal trauma and gender differences in these variables. We also evaluated the mediating role of posttraumatic disgust and guilt in the relationship between peritraumatic disgust and PTSD symptoms...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429318/biochemistry-and-physiology-of-vitamins-in-euglena
#19
Fumio Watanabe, Kazuya Yoshimura, Shigeru Shigeoka
Euglena gracilis Z requires vitamins B1 and B12 for growth. It takes up and accumulates large amounts of these exogenous vitamins through energy-dependent active transport systems. Except for these essential vitamins, E. gracilis Z has the ability to synthesize all human vitamins. Euglena synthesizes high levels of antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E, and, thus, are used as nutritional supplements for humans and domestic animals. Methods to effectively produce vitamins in Euglena have been investigated...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428252/low-frequency-blood-pressure-oscillations-and-inotrope-treatment-failure-in-premature-infants
#20
Zachary Andrew Vesoulis, Jessica Hao, Christopher McPherson, Nathalie El Ters, Amit M Mathur
BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanism as to why some hypotensive preterm infants do not respond to inotropic medications remains unclear. For these infants, we hypothesize that impaired vasomotor function is a significant factor and is manifested through a decrease in low-frequency blood pressure variability across regulatory components of vascular tone. METHODS: Infants born 28 weeks estimated gestational age underwent prospective recording of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) for 72h after birth...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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