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Grzegorz Bauman, Francesco Santini, Orso Pusterla, Oliver Bieri
PURPOSE: To present a technique for simultaneous mapping of T1 , T2 , and relative spin density (M0 ) in human lung using inversion recovery ultra-fast steady-state free precession (IR-ufSSFP) imaging. METHODS: Pulmonary relaxometry with IR-ufSSFP is based on an interleaved time series acquisition of 2D images acquired at 1.5T. The technique was tested in a phantom and in four healthy volunteers using breath-hold and electrocardiogram triggering. Typically, 30 transient state images were acquired in a single breath-hold within < 10 s...
October 19, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Serap Sunar, Mustafa Anar, Meryem Sengul, Guleray Agar
In this research, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of methanol extract of Sempervivum armenum (MSA) were studied using micronucleus (MN) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test systems in cultured human peripheral blood cells. According to the SCE and MN tests results, MSA reduced the genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1. In order to explain the reason for the antigenotoxic effects of MSA, antioxidants levels were determined. Cotreatments of 5, 10, 20 mg/mL concentrations of MSA with aflatoxin B1 decreased the frequencies of SCE, MN and the malondialdehyde level and increased the amount of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase which were decreased by aflatoxin...
October 18, 2016: Cytotechnology
Shaozhou Zhu, Christopher D Fage, Julian D Hegemann, Andreas Mielcarek, Dushan Yan, Uwe Linne, Mohamed A Marahiel
Lasso peptides are a class of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) with a unique lariat knot-like fold that endows them with extraordinary stability and biologically relevant activity. However, the biosynthetic mechanism of these fascinating molecules remains largely speculative. Generally, two enzymes (B for processing and C for cyclization) are required to assemble the unusual knot-like structure. Several subsets of lasso peptide gene clusters feature a "split" B protein on separate open reading frames (B1 and B2), suggesting distinct functions for the B protein in lasso peptide biosynthesis...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sudhir Gupta, Sudhanshu Agrawal, Sastry Gollapudi, Hiromi Kubagawa
IgMFcR (FcμR) are expressed on B cell and B cell subsets. Mice deficient in secreted IgM and FcμR share properties of impaired specific antibody response and autoimmunity with patient with selective IgM deficiency (SIGMD). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IGIV) regulates immune response, including modulation of IgGFc receptors. However, there are no data on the expression of FcμR in patients with SIGMD, and the effects of IGIV on FcμR. In this study, we investigated FcμR expression in naïve marginal zone (MZ), IgM memory, and class-switched memory B cells in patients with selective IgM deficiency and healthy controls...
October 14, 2016: Human Immunology
Luis Sala-Icardo, Amalia Lamana, Ana María Ortiz, Elena García Lorenzo, Pablo Moreno Fresneda, Rosario García-Vicuña, Isidoro González-Álvaro
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with well-known functional impact of methylenetetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR; rs1801131 and rs1801133), the membrane transporter ABCB1 (rs1045642), the AICAR transformylase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC; rs2372536) and folyl-polyglutamatesynthetase (FPGS; rs1544105), on liver and bone marrow toxicity of methotrexate (MTX). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 1415 visits from 350 patients of the PEARL (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal) study: (732 with MTX, 683 without MTX)...
October 14, 2016: Reumatología Clinica
Mónica Díaz-Bao, Patricia Regal, Rocío Barreiro, Cristina A Fente, Alberto Cepeda
A fast and facile method for the fabrication of magnetic molecularly imprinted stir-bars (MMIP-SB) has been developed, using a combination of imprinting technology and magnetite. Magnetite was prepared in the laboratory from the raw and embedded into molecularly imprinted polymers through a process of bulk polymerization. This novel design was applied to the analysis of aflatoxins, one of the most important groups of mycotoxins in terms of occurrence and toxicity. In the context of food safety, molecularly imprinted polymers are a promising tool to achieve selective and accessible methods of extraction for different residues and contaminants...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations is a hallmark of cancer genomes, including those in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Particularly, in human HCC, epigenetic changes are more frequently observed than genetic changes in a variety of cancer-related genes, suggesting a potential role for epigenetic alterations during hepatocarcinogenesis. Several environmental factors, such as inflammation, obesity, and steatosis, are reported to affect the epigenetic status in hepatocytes, which could play a role in HCC development...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Tadaaki Arizumi, Kazuomi Ueshima, Mina Iwanishi, Tomohiro Minami, Hirokazu Chishina, Masashi Kono, Masahiro Takita, Satoshi Kitai, Tatsuo Inoue, Norihisa Yada, Satoru Hagiwara, Yasunori Minami, Hiroshi Ida, Toshiharu Sakurai, Masayuki Kitano, Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND: The standard treatment option that is available for patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). However, the condition of the patients with BCLC stage B disease is heterogeneous showing different tumor statuses and Child-Pugh scores; treatment strategies other than TACE are frequently employed for the patients in this stage. Based on the subclassification system proposed by Bolondi et al...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Roberta Frass-Kriegl, Elmar Laistler, Sajad Hosseinnezhadian, Albrecht Ingo Schmid, Ewald Moser, Marie Poirier-Quinot, Luc Darrasse, Jean-Christophe Ginefri
A novel design scheme for monolithic transmission line resonators (TLRs) is presented - the multi-turn multi-gap TLR (MTMG-TLR) design. The MTMG-TLR design enables the construction of TLRs with multiple turns and multiple gaps. This presents an additional degree of freedom in tuning self-resonant TLRs, as their resonance frequency is fully determined by the coil geometry (e.g. diameter, number of turns, conductor width, etc.). The novel design is evaluated at 4.7T and 7T by simulations and experiments, where it is demonstrated that MTMG-TLRs can be used for MRI, and that the B1 distribution of MTMG-TLRs strongly depends on the number and distribution of turns...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Nikele Nadur-Andrade, Camila Squarzoni Dale, Victoria Regina da Silva Oliveira, Elaine Flamia Toniolo, Regiane Dos Santos Feliciano, José Antonio da Silva, Stella Regina Zamuner
BACKGROUND: Envenoming induced by Bothrops snakebites is characterized by drastic local tissue damage that involves an intense inflammatory reaction and local hyperalgesia which are not neutralized by conventional antivenom treatment. Herein, the effectiveness of photobiomodulation to reduce inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (Bmv), as well as the mechanisms involved was investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bmv (1 μg) was injected through the intraplantar route in the right hind paw of mice...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Hongyan Zhou, Jie Li, Zhanqiang Zhang, Runyi Ye, Nan Shao, Tuckyun Cheang, Shenming Wang
Evidence suggests that RING1 and YY1 binding protein (RYBP) functions as a tumor suppressor. However, its role in breast cancer remains unclear. In the present study, the expression of RYBP was assessed in breast cancer patients and cell lines. Disease-free survival durations of breast cancer patients with high RYBP expression were determined based on the ATCG dataset. The effects of RYBP overexpression on cell growth, migration and invasive potency were also assessed. Nude mouse xenograft and lung metastasis models were also used to confirm the role of RYBP...
October 5, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Guangcai Li, Yuan He, Jun Yao, Chuying Huang, Xiusheng Song, Yan Deng, Sheng Xie, Jie Ren, Meng Jin, Huiguo Liu
Angelicin is a member of a well-known class of chemical photosensitizes that have anticancer proper-ties in several cancer cell lines. However, the effects and the potential underlying mechanisms of angelicin action on human lung cancer cells remain unclear. Here, we report that angelicin has an essential role in inhibiting human lung carcinoma growth and metastasis. We found that angelicin markedly induced cell apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle in vitro. Angelicin also inhibited the migration of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells in a Transwell assay in a dose-dependent manner...
October 12, 2016: Oncology Reports
Xia Zhang, Jingyu Hu, Yan Chen
Betulinic acid (BA), a lupane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin from tree bark, has the potential to induce the apoptosis of cancer cells without toxicity towards normal cells in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor pharmacological effects of BA consist of triggering apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, regulating the cell cycle and the angiogenic pathway via factors, including specificity protein transcription factors, cyclin D1 and epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibiting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor‑κB signaling pathways, preventing the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, and affecting the expression of topoisomerase I, p53 and lamin B1...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Annu Makker, Madhu Mati Goel, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Vikram Bhatia, Vinita Das, Anjoo Agarwal, Amita Pandey
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Despite their high occurrence and associated significant level of morbidity manifesting as spectrum of clinical symptoms, the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas (ULs) remains unclear. We investigated expression profile of tumour suppressor genes PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) and LKB1 (liver kinase B1), and key signaling components of P13K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt (protein kinase B)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway in leiomyomas and adjacent normal myometrium in women of reproductive age, to explore the possibility of targeting this pathway for future therapeutic implications...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Abdi Mohammed, Alemayehu Chala, Mashilla Dejene, Chemeda Fininsa, David A Hoisington, Victor S Sobolev, Renee S Arias
This study was conducted to assess major Aspergillus species and aflatoxins associated with groundnut seeds and cake in Eastern Ethiopia and evaluate growers' management practices. A total of 160 groundnut seed samples from farmers' stores and 50 groundnut cake samples from cafe and restaurants were collected. Fungal isolation was done from groundnut seed samples. Aspergillus flavus was the dominant species followed by Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin analyses of groundnut seed samples were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography; 22...
December 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Nicolas Geades, Benjamin A E Hunt, Simon M Shah, Andrew Peters, Olivier E Mougin, Penny A Gowland
PURPOSE: To develop a method that fits a multipool model to z-spectra acquired from non-steady state sequences, taking into account the effects of variations in T1 or B1 amplitude and the results estimating the parameters for a four-pool model to describe the z-spectrum from the healthy brain. METHODS: We compared measured spectra with a look-up table (LUT) of possible spectra and investigated the potential advantages of simultaneously considering spectra acquired at different saturation powers (coupled spectra) to provide sensitivity to a range of different physicochemical phenomena...
October 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Ehsan Mottaghianpour, Firouzeh Nazari, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ), as a toxic fungal metabolite, can be found in baby foods, which can lead to serious complications for children's health. In this study, 48 commercial baby foods available in the Iranian market were investigated for the presence of AFB1 , using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with post-column photochemical derivatization and a fluorescence detector. RESULTS: In this study, 33 out of 48 samples (68...
October 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Francesco Esposito, Evelina Fasano, Gelsomina Scognamiglio, Antonio Nardone, Maria Triassi, Teresa Cirillo
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species and affecting maize crops. Some analogues of fumonisins are known for their toxic and possible carcinogenic effects on humans and animals. Because of their occurrence in corn-based food, diet is the main source of exposure to these mycotoxins, especially among people affected by celiac disease. Hence, the purpose of this paper was to evaluate the amount of fumonisins B1, B2 and B3 in maize-based products and to assess the exposure of people affected by celiac disease to fumonisins...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Bui Thi Mai Huong, Le Danh Tuyen, Do Huu Tuan, Leon Brimer, Anders Dalsgaard
Aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A that contaminate various agricultural commodities are considered of significant toxicity and potent human carcinogens. This study took a total dietary study approach and estimated the dietary exposure of these mycotoxins for adults living in Lao Cai province, Vietnam. A total of 42 composite food samples representing 1134 individual food samples were prepared according to normal household practices and analysed for the three mycotoxins. Results showed that the dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (39...
October 13, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Alberto M Marchevsky, Ann E Walts
The checkpoint protein programmed cell death ligand-1 protein (PD-L1) binds to its receptor (PD-1) activating the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway, an important therapeutic target. There is limited information regarding PD-L1 and PD-1 expression in thymic lesions. Sections from non-neoplastic thymi (n=20), thymomas WHO types A, AB, B1, B2 and B3 (n=38) and thymic squamous cell carcinoma (n=8) were stained for PD-L1 (clone SP142 Spring BioScience), PD-1 (MRQ22 Cell Marque), CD4 (clone SPO32 Cell Marque) and CD8 (JCB117 Ventana)...
October 13, 2016: Human Pathology
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