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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431396/skeletal-muscle-measures-and-physical-function-in-older-adults-with-cancer-sarcopenia-or-myopenia
#1
Grant R Williams, Allison M Deal, Hyman B Muss, Marc S Weinberg, Hanna K Sanoff, Kirsten A Nyrop, Mackenzi Pergolotti, Shlomit Strulov Shachar
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle loss, commonly known as sarcopenia, is highly prevalent in older adults and linked with adverse outcomes in cancer, yet the definition and role of sarcopenia remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the association of Computerized Tomography (CT) assessed skeletal muscle measures with physical function in older adults with cancer. RESULTS: CTs for 185 patients were available. Median age 73 (IQR 68-76) and 56.5% female. After controlling for sex and BMI, we found no evidence that SMI was associated with physical function impairments...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431172/quantitative-analysis-of-li-distributions-in-battery-material-li1-xfepo4-using-fe-m2-3-edge-and-valence-electron-energy-loss-spectra
#2
Shunsuke Kobayashi, Craig A J Fisher, Akihide Kuwabara, Yoshio Ukyo, Yuichi Ikuhara
The spatial distribution of Li ions in a lithium iron phosphate (Li1-xFePO4) single crystal after chemical delithiation is quantitatively investigated using Fe M2,3-edge and valence electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy techniques. Li contents between those of end-member compositions LiFePO4 and FePO4 are found to correspond to reproducible changes in Fe M2,3-edge and valence EEL spectra across an interface between LiFePO4 and FePO4 regions. Quantitative analysis of these changes is used to estimate the local valence states of Fe ions, from which the Li concentration in the intermediate phase can be deduced...
April 18, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431059/cardiac-structural-and-functional-profile-of-patients-with-delayed-qrs-transition-zone-and-sudden-cardiac-death
#3
Aapo L Aro, Derek Phan, Carmen Teodorescu, Audrey Uy-Evanado, Kyndaron Reinier, Karen Gunson, Jonathan Jui, Heikki V Huikuri, Sumeet S Chugh
Aims: Delayed QRS transition zone in the precordial leads of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) has been recently associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We correlated echocardiographic findings with ECG and clinical characteristics to investigate how alterations in cardiac structure and function contribute to this risk marker. Methods and Results: From the ongoing population-based Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (catchment population ∼1 million), SCD cases with prior ECG available (n = 627) were compared with controls (n = 801)...
April 1, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431023/safety-and-efficacy-of-the-sofia-6f-plus-distal-access-reperfusion-catheter-in-the-endovascular-treatment-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#4
Hussain Shallwani, Hakeem J Shakir, Leonardo Rangel-Castilla, Jason M Davies, Ashish Sonig, Mithun G Sattur, Bernard R Bendok, Kenneth V Snyder, Adnan H Siddiqui, Elad I Levy
BACKGROUND: Neuroendovascular intervention has become a key treatment option for acute ischemic stroke. The Sofia (6F) PLUS catheter was designed for neurovascular access for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. OBJECTIVE: To report the first series describing use of the Sofia PLUS intermediate/distal access reperfusion catheter in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 41 stroke cases were identified in which the catheter was utilized for thrombolysis/thrombectomy...
April 19, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430780/the-importance-of-standardization-for-biodiversity-comparisons-a-case-study-using-autonomous-reef-monitoring-structures-arms-and-metabarcoding-to-measure-cryptic-diversity-on-mo-orea-coral-reefs-french-polynesia
#5
Emma Ransome, Jonathan B Geller, Molly Timmers, Matthieu Leray, Angka Mahardini, Andrianus Sembiring, Allen G Collins, Christopher P Meyer
The advancement of metabarcoding techniques, declining costs of high-throughput sequencing and development of systematic sampling devices, such as autonomous reef monitoring structures (ARMS), have provided the means to gather a vast amount of diversity data from cryptic marine communities. However, such increased capability could also lead to analytical challenges if the methods used to examine these communities across local and global scales are not standardized. Here we compare and assess the underlying biases of four ARMS field processing methods, preservation media, and current bioinformatic pipelines in evaluating diversity from cytochrome c oxidase I metabarcoding data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430579/antiangiogenesis-and-gene-aberration-related-therapy-may-improve-overall-survival-in-patients-with-concurrent-kras-and-tp53-hotspot-mutant-cancer
#6
Zhijie Wang, Sarina Piha-Paul, Filip Janku, Vivek Subbiah, Naiyi Shi, Jing Gong, Chetna Wathoo, Kenna Shaw, Kenneth Hess, Russell Broaddus, Aung Naing, David Hong, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Daniel Karp, James Yao, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Siqing Fu
PURPOSE: Genetic alterations such as activating KRAS and/or inactivating TP53 are thought to be the most common drivers to tumorigenesis. Therefore, we assessed phase I cancer patients with KRAS+/TP53+ mutations. RESULTS: Approximately 8% of patients referred to phase I clinical trials harbored concurrent KRAS and TP53 mutations. Patients who received a phase I trial therapy (n = 57) had a median OS of 12 months, compared with 4.6 months in those who were not treated (n = 106; p = 0...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430296/effect-of-body-mass-index-on-the-outcome-of-surgical-patients-receiving-extracorporeal-devices-vv-ecmo-pecla-for-respiratory-failure
#7
Justyna Swol, Dirk Buchwald, Justus T Strauch, Thomas A Schildhauer, Christopher Ull
INTRODUCTION: To determine whether obese surgical patients are at a significant disadvantage in terms of outcomes after extracorporeal device (ECD) support, such as veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) or pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (pECLA), for respiratory failure, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and hospital outcomes was analyzed. METHODS: This retrospective study included data on patients who were supported with an ECD between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429908/pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-as-a-predictor-of-low-birth-weight-infants-in-japan
#8
Utako Murai, Kyoko Nomura, Michiko Kido, Takeaki Takeuchi, Mitsuhiro Sugimoto, Mahbubur Rahman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Japan has doubled in the last several decades. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on LBW infants of Japanese women. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective study was conducted using data on 1,336 mothers (mean age, 34.0 years)whose pre-pregnancy BMI was less than 23 kg/m2 and their singleton infants were born at full term between January and December in 2011...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428744/mutational-analysis-at-intersubunit-interfaces-of-an-anionic-glutamate-receptor-reveals-a-key-interaction-important-for-channel-gating-by-ivermectin
#9
Nurit Degani-Katzav, Revital Gortler, Marina Weissman, Yoav Paas
The broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM) activates and stabilizes an open-channel conformation of invertebrate chloride-selective glutamate receptors (GluClRs), thereby causing a continuous inflow of chloride ions and sustained membrane hyperpolarization. These effects suppress nervous impulses and vital physiological processes in parasitic nematodes. The GluClRs are pentamers. Homopentameric receptors assembled from the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) GluClα (GLC-1) subunit can inherently respond to IVM but not to glutamate (the neurotransmitter)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428275/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-contributes-to-immunosuppression-in-breast-carcinomas
#10
Anushka Dongre, Mohammad Rashidian, Ferenc Reinhardt, Aaron Bagnato, Zuzana Keckesova, Hidde L Ploegh, Robert A Weinberg
The Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cell-biological program that confers mesenchymal traits on carcinoma cells and drives their metastatic dissemination. It is, unclear, however, whether activation of EMT in carcinoma cells can change their susceptibility to immune attack. We demonstrate here that mammary tumor cells arising from more epithelial carcinoma cell lines expressed high levels of MHC-I, low levels of PD-L1 and contained within their stroma CD8+ T cells and M1 (anti-tumor) macrophages...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428011/cftr-dependent-defect-in-alternatively-activated-macrophages-in-cystic-fibrosis
#11
Abdullah A Tarique, Peter D Sly, Patrick G Holt, Anthony Bosco, Robert S Ware, Jayden Logan, Scott C Bell, Claire E Wainwright, Emmanuelle Fantino
BACKGROUND: The role of the macrophages in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease has been poorly studied. We hypothesized that alternatively activated M2 macrophages are abnormal in CF lung disease. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from adults (n=13) children (n=27) with CF on admission for acute pulmonary exacerbation and when clinically stable. Monocytes were differentiated into macrophages and polarized into classical (M1) and alternatively-activated (M2) phenotypes, function determined ex-vivo and compared with healthy controls...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427937/reactivity-of-anti-hnk-1-antibodies-to-branched-o-mannose-glycans-associated-with-demyelination
#12
Kanoko Sakuda, Yasuhiko Kizuka, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Katsunori Tanaka, Ken Ogiwara, Tatsuya Segawa, Yoshiaki Hagiwara, Ichiro Matsuo, Haruko Ogawa, Naoyuki Taniguchi, Shinobu Kitazume
Human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) epitope, a highly-expressed glycan in the nervous system, is critical for normal synaptic plasticity and spatial learning. HNK-1 epitope modifies N-glycans on several neural glycoproteins, and also modifies O-mannosyl glycans. A branching enzyme for O-mannosyl glycans (GnT-IX, Core M2 synthase) exhibits brain-specific expression, and the product core M2 glycans are also limited to the brain. In a previous study, we showed that cuprizone-induced demyelination increased HNK-1-capped core M2 glycan expression, while GnT-IX deficiency ameliorated demyelination, suggesting that these glycans could be useful diagnostic markers for demyelination status and act as therapeutic targets...
April 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427485/gender-specific-association-of-sleep-duration-with-body-mass-index-waist-circumference-and-body-fat-in-chinese-adults
#13
Liu Xia Yan, Xiao Rong Chen, Bo Chen, Ya Min Bai, Jian Hong Li, Xin Wei Zhang, Zhong Dong, Hao Wang, Sheng Quan Mi, Wen Hua Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between habitual sleep duration and obesity among Chinese adults. METHODS: The association of sleep duration and obesity was investigated among 7,094 community-dwelling Chinese adults. Sleep duration was self-reported. In this study, obesity was defined as follows: body mass index (BMI) ⋝ 28 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ⋝ 85 cm in men and ⋝ 80 cm in women, and percent body fat (%BF) ⋝ 25 in men and ⋝ 35 in women...
March 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427135/-effects-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-polarization-of-peritoneal-macrophages-in-rats-with-sepsis
#14
Y H Zheng, B Xiong, Y Y Deng, W Lai, S Y Zheng, H N Bian, Z A Liu, Z F Huang, C W Sun, H H Li, H M Luo, L H Ma, H X Chen
Objective: To explore the effects of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on polarization of peritoneal macrophages isolated from rats with sepsis induced by endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods: (1) BMSCs were isolated, cultured and purified from 5 SD rats with whole bone marrow adherent method. The third passage of cells were collected for morphologic observation, detection of expressions of stem cell surface markers CD29, CD44, CD45, and CD90 with flow cytometer, and identification of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426845/her2-specific-chimeric-antigen-receptor-modified-virus-specific-t-cells-for-progressive-glioblastoma-a-phase-1-dose-escalation-trial
#15
Nabil Ahmed, Vita Brawley, Meenakshi Hegde, Kevin Bielamowicz, Mamta Kalra, Daniel Landi, Catherine Robertson, Tara L Gray, Oumar Diouf, Amanda Wakefield, Alexia Ghazi, Claudia Gerken, Zhongzhen Yi, Aidin Ashoori, Meng-Fen Wu, Hao Liu, Cliona Rooney, Gianpietro Dotti, Adrian Gee, Jack Su, Yvonne Kew, David Baskin, Yi Jonathan Zhang, Pamela New, Bambi Grilley, Milica Stojakovic, John Hicks, Suzanne Z Powell, Malcolm K Brenner, Helen E Heslop, Robert Grossman, Winfried S Wels, Stephen Gottschalk
Importance: Glioblastoma is an incurable tumor, and the therapeutic options for patients are limited. Objective: To determine whether the systemic administration of HER2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified virus-specific T cells (VSTs) is safe and whether these cells have antiglioblastoma activity. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this open-label phase 1 dose-escalation study conducted at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, and Texas Children's Hospital, patients with progressive HER2-positive glioblastoma were enrolled between July 25, 2011, and April 21, 2014...
April 20, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426732/regulation-of-sesame-mediated-h3t11-phosphorylation-by-glycolytic-enzymes-and-metabolites
#16
Qi Yu, Chong Tong, Mingdan Luo, Xiangyan Xue, Qianyun Mei, Lixin Ma, Xiaolan Yu, Wuxiang Mao, Lingbao Kong, Xilan Yu, Shanshan Li
Cancer cells prefer aerobic glycolysis, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. Recent studies showed that the rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) directly phosphorylates H3 at threonine 11 (H3T11) to regulate gene expression and cell proliferation, revealing its non-metabolic functions in connecting glycolysis and histone modifications. We have reported that the yeast homolog of PKM2, Pyk1 phosphorylates H3T11 to regulate gene expression and oxidative stress resistance. But how glycolysis regulates H3T11 phosphorylation remains unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426104/a-randomized-open-label-phase-iii-trial-comparing-amrubicin-versus-docetaxel-in-patients-with-previously-treated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
H Yoshioka, N Katakami, H Okamoto, Y Iwamoto, T Seto, T Takahashi, N Sunaga, S Kudoh, K Chikamori, M Harada, H Tanaka, H Saito, H Saka, K Takeda, N Nogami, N Masuda, T Harada, H Kitagawa, H Horio, T Yamanaka, M Fukuoka, N Yamamoto, K Nakagawa
Background: Amrubicin is approved for treating non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer. However, no direct comparisons between amrubicin and docetaxel, a standard treatment for NSCLC, have been reported. Patients and methods: We conducted a randomized phase III trial of Japanese NSCLC patients after one or two chemotherapy regimens. Patients were randomized to amrubicin (35 mg/m2 on days 1-3 every 3 weeks) or docetaxel (60 mg/m2 on day 1 every 3 weeks)...
February 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425896/a-longitudinal-cohort-study-examining-determinants-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-adulthood
#18
Caroline Barakat-Haddad, Usman Saeed, Susan Elliott
OBJECTIVES: Adulthood overweight and obesity are multifaceted conditions influenced by a combination of biological, environmental and socio-cultural factors across the lifespan. Using a longitudinal study design, we aimed to identify determinants of adulthood overweight and obesity, in relation to: 1) childhood and life course factors, 2) geographical differences in air quality, and 3) gender-specific factors, in a cohort followed from childhood into adulthood. METHODS: Childhood data were acquired (1978-1986) from children residing in four distinct Hamilton neighbourhoods (Ontario, Canada), including air-quality assessments...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425709/beyond-structural-biology-to-functional-biology-solid-state-nmr-experiments-and-strategies-for-understanding-the-m2-proton-channel-conductance
#19
Huajun Qin, Yimin Miao, Timothy A Cross, Riqiang Fu
In terms of structural biology, solid-state NMR experiments and strategies have been well established for resonance assignments leading to the determination of three-dimensional structures of insoluble membrane proteins in their native-like environment. It is also known that NMR has the unique capabilities to characterize structure-function relationships of membrane-bound biological systems beyond structural biology. Here, we report on solid-state NMR experiments and strategies for extracting functional activities on a sub-msec time scale...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425576/bone-marrow-adipose-and-lung-tissue-derived-murine-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-release-different-mediators-and-differentially-affect-airway-and-lung-parenchyma-in-experimental-asthma
#20
Soraia C Abreu, Mariana A Antunes, Debora G Xisto, Fernanda F Cruz, Vivian C Branco, Elga Bandeira, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Almair F de Araújo, Ludmilla Dellatorre-Texeira, Priscilla C Olsen, Daniel J Weiss, Bruno L Diaz, Marcelo M Morales, Patricia R M Rocco
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from different sources have differential effects on lung injury. To compare the effects of murine MSCs from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AD), and lung tissue (LUNG) on inflammatory and remodeling processes in experimental allergic asthma, female C57BL/6 mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline (C). Twenty-four hours after the last challenge, mice received either saline (50 µl, SAL), BM-MSCs, AD-MSCs, or LUNG-MSCs (10(5) cells per mouse in 50 µl total volume) intratracheally...
April 20, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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