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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910911/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-program-macrophage-plasticity-by-altering-their-metabolic-status-via-a-pge2-dependent-mechanism
#1
Anoop Babu Vasandan, Sowmya Jahnavi, Chandanala Shashank, Priya Prasad, Anujith Kumar, S Jyothi Prasanna
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are speculated to act at macrophage-injury interfaces to mediate efficient repair. To explore this facet in-depth this study evaluates the influence of MSCs on human macrophages existing in distinct functional states. MSCs promoted macrophage differentiation, enhanced respiratory burst and potentiated microbicidal responses in naïve macrophages (Mφ). Functional attenuation of inflammatory M1 macrophages was associated with a concomitant shift towards alternatively activated M2 state in MSC-M1 co-cultures...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910729/identification-of-cytochrome-p450s-involved-in-the-metabolism-of-6-benzyl-1-benzyloxymethyl-5-iodouracil-w-1-using-human-recombinant-enzymes-and-rat-liver-microsomes-in-vitro
#2
Ying-Yuan Lu, Hai-Xu Cheng, Xin Wang, Xiao-Wei Wang, Jun-Yi Liu, Pu Li, Ya-Qing Lou, Jun Li, Chuang Lu, Guo-Liang Zhang
1. The aim of this study was to identify the hepatic metabolic enzymes, which involved in the biotransformation of 6-benzyl-1-benzyloxymethyl-5-iodouracil (W-1), a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) in rat and human in vitro. 2. The parent drug of W-1 was incubated with RLMs or recombinant CYPs (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, respectively) in the presence or absence of NADPH regenerating system. The metabolites of W-1 were analyzed with liquid chromatography-ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS)...
December 2, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909560/induction-of-heme-oxygenase-1-with-dietary-quercetin-reduces-obesity-induced-hepatic-inflammation-through-macrophage-phenotype-switching
#3
Chu-Sook Kim, Hye-Seon Choi, Yeonsoo Joe, Hun Taeg Chung, Rina Yu
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity-induced steatohepatitis accompanied by activated hepatic macrophages/Kupffer cells facilitates the progression of hepatic fibrinogenesis and exacerbates metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance. Heme oxyganase-1 (HO-1) modulates tissue macrophage phenotypes and thus is implicated in protection against inflammatory diseases. Here, we show that the flavonoid quercetin reduces obesity-induced hepatic inflammation by inducing HO-1, which promotes hepatic macrophage polarization in favor of the M2 phenotype...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909072/the-mirror-illusion-increases-motor-cortex-excitability-in-children-with-and-without-hemiparesis
#4
Sebastian Grunt, Christopher J Newman, Stefanie Saxer, Maja Steinlin, Christian Weisstanner, Alain Kaelin-Lang
Background Mirror therapy provides a visual illusion of a normal moving limb by using the mirror reflection of the unaffected arm instead of viewing the paretic limb and is used in rehabilitation to improve hand function. Little is known about the mechanism underlying its effect in children with hemiparesis. Objective To investigate the effect of the mirror illusion (MI) on the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) in children and adolescents. Methods Twelve patients with hemiparesis (10-20 years) and 8 typically developing subjects (8-17 years) participated...
November 30, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908841/study-of-gene-polymorphisms-of-glutathione-s-transferase-t1-m1-in-egyptian-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Naglaa Barseem, Mona Elsamalehy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of glutathione S- transferase mu 1 (GST M1) and glutathione S- transferase theta 1 (GST T1) polymorphisms with the development of T1DM and disease-related risk factors. METHODS: Sixty-four diabetic children and 41 controls were enrolled and subjected to fasting glucose, serum creatinine, lipid profile, HbA1c and evaluation of GST T1 and M1 genetic polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: There were significantly higher fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and cholesterol in the diabetics...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908619/correlation-of-dna-repair-gene-polymorphisms-with-clinical-outcome-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-receiving-induction-chemotherapy-followed-by-surgery
#6
Mariacarmela Santarpia, Jose Luis Ramirez, Itziar de Aguirre, Pilar Garrido, Maria Pérez Cano, Cristina Queralt, Jose Luis Gonzalez-Larriba, Amelia Insa, Mariano Provencio, Dolores Isla, Carlos Camps, Remei Blanco, Teresa Moran, Rafael Rosell
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) polymorphisms influenced clinical outcome in patients with stage IIIA-B non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with neoadjuvant gemcitabine/cisplatin/docetaxel followed by surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 109 patients with stage IIIA and IIIB NSCLC were prospectively genotyped to examine a potential association between XPD 312 (aspartic acid [Asp]/asparagine [Asn]), XPD 751 (lysine [Lys]/glutamine [Gln]), and RRM1 (-37 C/A) polymorphisms with response and survival...
November 9, 2016: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907187/substance-p-induces-ho-1-expression-in-raw-264-7-cells-promoting-switch-towards-m2-like-macrophages
#7
Giovanna Montana, Nadia Lampiasi
Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide that mediates many physiological as well as inflammatory responses. Recently, SP has been implicated in the resolution of inflammation through induction of M2 macrophages phenotype. The shift between M1-like and M2-like, allowing the resolution of inflammatory processes, also takes place by means of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 is induced in response to oxidative stress and inflammatory stimuli and modulates the immune response through macrophages polarisation. SP induces HO-1 expression in human periodontal ligament (PDL), the latter potentially plays a role in cytoprotection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906162/activation-of-myeloid-and-endothelial-cells-by-cd40l-gene-therapy-supports-t-cell-expansion-and-migration-into-the-tumor-microenvironment
#8
E Eriksson, R Moreno, I Milenova, L Liljenfeldt, L C Dieterich, L Christiansson, H Karlsson, G Ullenhag, S Mangsbo, A Dimberg, R Alemany, A Loskog
CD40 is an interesting target in cancer immunotherapy due to its ability to stimulate Th1 immunity via maturation of dendritic cells and to drive M2 to M1 macrophage differentiation. Pancreatic cancer has a high M2 content that has shown responsive to anti-CD40 agonist therapy and CD40 may thus be a suitable target for immune activation in these patients. In this study, a novel oncolytic adenovirus armed with a trimerized membrane-bound extracellular CD40L (TMZ-CD40L) was evaluated as a treatment of pancreatic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906076/pgc-1%C3%AE-modulates-necrosis-inflammatory-response-and-fibrotic-tissue-formation-in-injured-skeletal-muscle
#9
Ivana Dinulovic, Regula Furrer, Sabrina Di Fulvio, Arnaud Ferry, Markus Beer, Christoph Handschin
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle tissue has an enormous regenerative capacity that is instrumental for a successful defense against muscle injury and wasting. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) exerts therapeutic effects in several muscle pathologies, but its role in damage-induced muscle regeneration is unclear. METHODS: Using muscle-specific gain- and loss-of-function models for PGC-1α in combination with the myotoxic agent cardiotoxin (CTX), we explored the role of this transcriptional coactivator in muscle damage and inflammation...
November 8, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904488/effects-of-different-frequencies-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-the-recovery-of-upper-limb-motor-dysfunction-in-patients-with-subacute-cerebral-infarction
#10
Jiang Li, Xiang-Min Meng, Ru-Yi Li, Ru Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Yi-Feng Du
Studies have confirmed that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can decrease the activity of cortical neurons, and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can increase the excitability of cortical neurons. However, there are few studies concerning the use of different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the recovery of upper-limb motor function after cerebral infarction. We hypothesized that different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with cerebral infarction would produce different effects on the recovery of upper-limb motor function...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903705/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#11
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. While studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically-arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903585/autophagy-in-chronic-liver-diseases-the-two-faces-of-janus
#12
Philippe Gual, Helene Gilgenkrantz, Sophie Lotersztajn
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the leading causes of cirrhosis and increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death. ALD and NAFLD share common pathogenic features extending from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis, steatofibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the progression of NAFLD and ALD are complex and still unclear. Important links between the regulation of autophagy (Macroautophagy and Chaperome-mediated autophagy) and chronic liver diseases have been reported...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903001/right-in-front-of-our-eyes-evolution-of-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-with-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#13
Salaheldin M Elhamamsy, Mazen O Al-Qadi, Taro Minami, Marguerite Neill
INTRODUCTION: Toxic shock syndrome occurs from dysregulation of host inflammatory responses. Toxin- producing strains of Group A streptococcus cause TSS. Ischemic optic neuropathy rarely complicates septic shock. We present a rare case of streptococcal pharyngitis complicated by septic arthritis and TSS with reversible blindness due to non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. CASE: A 28-year-old man drove to our ED with exudative pharyngitis. A rapid streptococcal test was positive...
December 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902864/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-metabolic-activation-of-berbamine-to-quinone-methide-intermediate
#14
Yao Sun, Tong Yao, Hui Li, Ying Peng, Jiang Zheng
Berbamine (BBM) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from herbal medicine Berberis amurensis. BBM has been widely used for the treatment of leukemia. Recent studies demonstrated that exposure to BBM can give rise to cytotoxicity. The major objective of this study was to explore the metabolic activation of BBM in vitro and in vivo. Two oxidative metabolites (M1 and M2) and an N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugate (M3) were detected in human liver microsomal incubations of BBM supplemented with NAC, and the formation of all metabolites was NADPH dependent...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902323/one-freshwater-cyclidium-species-c-sinicum-spec-nov-protozoa-ciliophora-with-an-improved-diagnosis-of-the-genus-cyclidium
#15
Xuming Pan, Chengdong Liang, Chundi Wang, Alan Warren, Wejie Mu, Hui Chen, Lijie Yu, Ying Chen
The morphology and infraciliature of one freshwater ciliate, Cyclidium sinicum spec. nov., isolated from a farmland pond in Harbin, northeastern China, was investigated using living observation and silver staining methods. Cyclidium sinicum spec. nov. is distinguished by the following features: body approximately 20-25 × 10-15 μm in vivo; buccal field about 45-50 % of body length; 11 somatic kineties; somatic kinety n terminating sub-caudally; two macronuclei and one micronucleus; M1 almost as long as M2; M2 triangle-shaped...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902292/terrimonas-crocea-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-till-of-high-arctic-glacier-midtre-lov%C3%A3-nbreen-in-the-west-svalbard-archipelago
#16
Myong Chol Kim, Ok Chol Kang, Chol Myong Kim, Yumin Zhang, Zuobing Liu, Ziyan Wei, Yao Huang, Wangmu Danzeng, Fang Peng
A yellow-pigmented bacteria strain, designated M1-33108T, was isolated from the till of high Arctic glacier Midtre Lovénbreen (MLB) near Ny-Ålesund, in the West Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain M1-33108T belonged to the genus Terrimonas and its closest neighbor was Terrimonas arctica R9-86T with 96.12% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Strain M1-33108T was Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that lacked motility...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901270/adipose-tissue-inflammation-by-intermittent-hypoxia-mechanistic-link-between-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#17
Silke Ryan
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition and recognized as a major public health burden conveying a significant risk of cardiometabolic diseases and mortality. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), insulin resistance (IR) and glucose tolerance are common in subjects with OSA and this association is at least in part independent of the effects of obesity. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with OSA but the benefit of CPAP on glycaemic health is uncertain...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900437/bdnf-and-ltp-ltd-like-plasticity-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#18
L Marsili, A Suppa, F Di Stasio, D Belvisi, N Upadhyay, I Berardelli, M Pasquini, S Petrucci, M Ginevrino, G Fabbrini, F Cardona, G Defazio, A Berardelli
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics and often associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Responses to intermittent/continuous theta-burst stimulation (iTBS/cTBS), which probe long-term potentiation (LTP)-/depression (LTD)-like plasticity in the primary motor cortex (M1), are reduced in GTS. ITBS-/cTBS-induced M1 plasticity can be affected by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism. We investigated whether the BDNF polymorphism influences iTBS-/cTBS-induced LTP-/LTD-like M1 plasticity in 50 GTS patients and in 50 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899232/expression-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-hepatocytes-from-rat-fibrotic-liver
#19
Lin Luo, Tingting Xu, Pengbo Wang, Liuliu Mao, Chenghao Xi, Jinhua Huang, Wei Zhang
The pathological changes of parasympathetic nerve are considered as an independent prognostic factor of the survival rate of patients with chronic liver disease. The non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) agonists and antagonists can affect the proliferation of hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, but the subtypes of mAchR expressions in HCs are still uncertain. Here, we investigate the expression of mAchR in hepatic fibrosis on rats. 3ml/kg 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) was given to induce hepatic fibrosis on rats and the hepatocytes were isolated...
November 26, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898364/liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-assay-for-the-quantification-of-niraparib-and-its-metabolite-m1-in-human-plasma-and-urine
#20
L van Andel, Z Zhang, S Lu, V Kansra, S Agarwal, L Hughes, M M Tibben, A Gebretensae, H Rosing, J H M Schellens, J H Beijnen
Niraparib (MK-4827) is a novel poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor currently investigated in phase III clinical trials to treat cancers. The development of a new drug includes the characterisation of absorption, metabolism and excretion (AME) of the compound. AME studies are a requirement of regulatory agencies and for this purpose bioanalytical assays are essential. This article describes the development and validation of a bioanalytical assay for niraparib and its carboxylic acid metabolite M1 in human plasma and urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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