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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830026/progesterone-therapy-induces-an-m1-to-m2-switch-in-microglia-phenotype-and-suppresses-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-a-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-mouse-model
#1
Roya Aryanpour, Parichehr Pasbakhsh, Kazem Zibara, Zeinab Namjoo, Fatemeh Beigi Boroujeni, Saeed Shahbeigi, Iraj Ragerdi Kashani, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendehdel
Demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated to reactive microglia in neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The M1 microglia phenotype plays a pro-inflammatory role while M2 is involved in anti-inflammatory processes in the brain. In this study, CPZ-induced demyelination mouse model was used to investigate the effect of progesterone (PRO) therapy on microglia activation and neuro-inflammation. Results showed that progesterone therapy (CPZ+PRO) decreased neurological behavioral deficits, as demonstrated by significantly decreased escape latencies, in comparison to CPZ mice...
August 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828401/abnormalities-in-dynamic-brain-activity-caused-by-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-are-partially-rescued-by-the-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-inverse-agonist-smm-189
#2
Yu Liu, Samuel S McAfee, Natalie M Guley, Nobel Del Mar, Wei Bu, Scott A Heldt, Marcia G Honig, Bob M Moore, Anton Reiner, Detlef H Heck
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can cause severe long-term cognitive and emotional deficits, including impaired memory, depression, and persevering fear, but the neuropathological basis of these deficits is uncertain. As medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus play important roles in memory and emotion, we used multi-site, multi-electrode recordings of oscillatory neuronal activity in local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice to determine if the functioning of these regions was abnormal after mTBI, using a closed-skull focal cranial blast model...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827726/classification-of-m1-m2-polarized-human-macrophages-by-label-free-hyperspectral-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-and-multivariate-analysis
#3
Francesca R Bertani, Pamela Mozetic, Marco Fioramonti, Michele Iuliani, Giulia Ribelli, Francesco Pantano, Daniele Santini, Giuseppe Tonini, Marcella Trombetta, Luca Businaro, Stefano Selci, Alberto Rainer
The possibility of detecting and classifying living cells in a label-free and non-invasive manner holds significant theranostic potential. In this work, Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) has been successfully applied to the analysis of macrophagic polarization, given its central role in several pathological settings, including the regulation of tumour microenvironment. Human monocyte derived macrophages have been investigated using hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy, and hyperspectral datasets have been analysed in terms of M1 vs...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827581/asian-zika-virus-strains-target-cd14-blood-monocytes-and-induce-m2-skewed-immunosuppression-during-pregnancy
#4
Suan-Sin Foo, Weiqiang Chen, Yen Chan, James W Bowman, Lin-Chun Chang, Younho Choi, Ji Seung Yoo, Jianning Ge, Genhong Cheng, Alexandre Bonnin, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Patrícia Brasil, Jae U Jung
Blood CD14(+) monocytes are frontline immunomodulators categorized into classical, intermediate or non-classical subsets, and subsequently differentiated into M1 pro- or M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages on stimulation. Although the Zika virus (ZIKV) rapidly establishes viraemia, the target cells and immune responses, particularly during pregnancy, remain elusive. Furthermore, it is unknown whether African- and Asian-lineage ZIKV have different phenotypic impacts on host immune responses. Using human blood infection, we identified CD14(+) monocytes as the primary target for African- or Asian-lineage ZIKV infection...
August 21, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827456/thioredoxin-and-nadph-dependent-thioredoxin-reductase-c-regulation-of-tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis
#5
Qingen Da, Peng Wang, Menglong Wang, Ting Sun, Honglei Jin, Bing Liu, Jinfa Wang, Bernhard Grimm, Hong-Bin Wang
In chloroplasts, thioredoxin (TRX) isoforms and NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) act as redox regulatory factors involved in multiple plastid biogenesis and metabolic processes. To date, less is known about the functional coordination between TRXs and NTRC in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis. In this study, we aimed to explore the potentially functions of TRX m and NTRC in the regulation of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TBS) pathway. Silencing of three genes, TRX m1, TRX m2, and TRX m4 (TRX ms), led to pale-green leaves, a significantly reduced 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-synthesizing capacity, and reduced accumulation of Chl and its metabolic intermediates in Arabidopsis thaliana...
August 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827109/chromofungin-chr-chga47-66-is-downregulated-in-persons-with-active-ulcerative-colitis-and-suppresses-pro-inflammatory-macrophage-function-through-the-inhibition-of-nf-kb-signaling
#6
Nour Eissa, Hayam Hussein, Laëtitia Kermarrec, Omar Elgazzar, Marie-Helene Metz-Boutigue, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
Chromogranin-A (CHGA) is a prohormone secreted by neuroendocrine cells and is a precursor of several bioactive peptides, which are implicated in different and distinctive biological and immune functions. Chromofungin (CHR: CHGA47-66) is a short peptide with antimicrobial effects and encodes from CHGA exon-IV. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by alterations in the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1), and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling leading to the perpetuation of the inflammatory process...
August 18, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826501/electrical-activity-controls-area-specific-expression-of-neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-developing-mouse-cerebral-cortex
#7
Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Werner Kilb, Salim Sharopov, Anne Sinning, Heiko J Luhmann
Programmed cell death widely but heterogeneously affects the developing brain, causing the loss of up to 50% of neurons in rodents. However, whether this heterogeneity originates from neuronal identity and/or network-dependent processes is unknown. Here, we report that the primary motor cortex (M1) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1), two adjacent but functionally distinct areas, display striking differences in density of apoptotic neurons during the early postnatal period. These differences in rate of apoptosis negatively correlate with region-dependent levels of activity...
August 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822837/delayed-pain-decrease-following-m1-tdcs-in-spinal-cord-injury-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Aurore Thibaut, Sandra Carvalho, Leslie Morse, Ross Zafonte, Felipe Fregni
Despite some encouraging findings for the treatment of neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) directed to the primary motor cortex (M1) has faced some mixed results. Prior to translating this technology to clinical care, consistent results and durable effects need to be found. We, therefore, aimed to assess the direct and long-term effects of tDCS on pain following SCI. We performed a two-phase randomized sham-controlled clinical trial where patients received 5days of tDCS followed by at 3-month follow-up period (Phase I); then, Phase II consisted of 10days of tDCS with an 8-week follow-up period...
August 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822654/polarity-independent-effects-of-tdcs-on-paired-associative-stimulation-induced-plasticity
#9
Hanna Faber, Alexander Opitz, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Ulf Ziemann
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can polarize the cortex of the human brain. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We sought to verify the hypothesis that posterior-anterior (PA) but not anterior-posterior (AP) tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1) produces cooperative effects with corticospinal plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) to M1 projection (PASSMA→M1) in a highly controlled experimental design...
July 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821730/infiltration-of-m1-but-not-m2-macrophages-is-impaired-after-unilateral-ureter-obstruction-in-nrf2-deficient-mice
#10
Yuji Sogawa, Hajime Nagasu, Shigeki Iwase, Chieko Ihoriya, Seiji Itano, Atsushi Uchida, Kengo Kidokoro, Shun'ichiro Taniguchi, Masafumi Takahashi, Minoru Satoh, Tamaki Sasaki, Takafumi Suzuki, Masayuki Yamamoto, Tiffany Horng, Naoki Kashihara
Chronic inflammation can be a major driver of the failure of a variety of organs, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). The NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been shown to play a pivotal role in inflammation in a mouse kidney disease model. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the master transcription factor for anti-oxidant responses, has also been implicated in inflammasome activation under physiological conditions. However, the mechanism underlying inflammasome activation in CKD remains elusive...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821677/disruption-of-m1-activity-during-performance-plateau-impairs-consolidation-of-motor-memories
#11
Raphaël Hamel, Maxime Trempe, Pierre-Michel Bernier
Upon exposure to a new sensorimotor relationship, motor behaviors iteratively change early in adaptation, but eventually stabilize as adaptation proceeds. Behavioral work suggests that motor memory consolidation is initiated upon the attainment of asymptotic levels of performance. Separate lines of evidence point to a critical role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in consolidation. However, a causal relationship between M1 activity during asymptote and consolidation has yet to be demonstrated. The present study investigated this issue in male and female participants using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to interfere with post-movement activity in M1 in two behavioral phases of a ramp-and-hold visuomotor adaptation paradigm...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821629/effects-of-spaceflight-on-the-muscles-of-the-murine-shoulder
#12
Hua Shen, Chanteak Lim, Andrea G Schwartz, Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alix C Deymier, Stavros Thomopoulos
Mechanical loading is necessary for the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Removal of loading via microgravity, paralysis, or bed rest leads to rapid loss of muscle mass and function; however, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these changes are largely unknown, particularly for the spaceflight (SF) microgravity environment. Furthermore, few studies have explored these effects on the shoulder, a dynamically stabilized joint with a large range of motion; therefore, we examined the effects of microgravity on mouse shoulder muscles for the 15-d Space Transportation System (STS)-131, 13-d STS-135, and 30-d Bion-M1 missions...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821329/cardiac-progenitor-cell-recruitment-drives-fetal-cardiac-regeneration-by-enhanced-angiogenesis
#13
Carlos Zgheib, Maggie M Hodges, Myron W Allukian, Junwang Xu, Kara L Spiller, Joseph H Gorman, Robert C Gorman, Kenneth W Liechty
BACKGROUND: In contrast to adults, the fetal response to myocardial infarction (MI) is regenerative, requiring the recruitment of cardiac progenitor cells to replace infarcted myocardium. Macrophage contribution to tissue repair depends on their phenotype: M1 are proinflammatory and initiate angiogenesis; M2a are profibrotic and contribute to blood vessels maturation; and M2c are proremodeling and proangiogenesis. The goal of the present study was to expand on this work by examining cardiac progenitor cells recruitment, and the role of macrophages in promoting angiogenesis and cardiac regeneration in the fetal heart after MI...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821221/acute-penicillium-marneffei-infection-stimulates-host-m1-m2a-macrophages-polarization-in-balb-c-mice
#14
Xiaoying Dai, Congzheng Mao, Xiuwan Lan, Huan Chen, Meihua Li, Jing Bai, Jingmin Deng, Qiuli Liang, Jianquan Zhang, Xiaoning Zhong, Yi Liang, Jiangtao Fan, Honglin Luo, Zhiyi He
BACKGROUND: Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is a thermally dimorphic fungus pathogen that causes fatal infection. Alveolar macrophages are innate immune cells that have critical roles in protection against pulmonary fungal pathogens and the macrophage polarization state has the potential to be a deciding factor in disease progression or resolution. The aim of this study was to investigate mouse alveolar macrophage polarization states during P. marneffei infection. RESULTS: We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Griess, arginase activity to evaluate the phenotypic markers of alveolar macrophages from BALB/C mice infected with P...
August 18, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821164/cape-gooseberry-physalis-peruviana-juice-as-a-modulator-agent-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-linked-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-arrest
#15
Hanaa A Hassan, Hanaa M Serag, Makwan S Qadir, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
BACKGROUND: Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) fruit is highly nutritious with high content of health-promoting compounds including minerals, phenolic compounds, as well as vitamins A and C. Physalis peruviana fruits were used as mutagenic, antispasmodic, anticoagulant, and antileucemis agents. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present work was to study the role of cape gooseberry juice (CG) as a natural modulator agent for adverse aspects associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
August 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820636/clinical-effects-of-cpg-based-treatment-on-the-efficacy-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-skewing-polarization-toward-m1-macrophage-from-m2
#16
Qing Zhang, Ru-Fei Yuan, Xiao-Huan Li, Tai-An Xu, Yan-Ni Zhang, Xiao-Lin Yuan, Yi-Fen Cui, Wan Shen, Qing-Lin Guan, Xiu-Yan Sun
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the clinical efficacy of CpG-based therapy for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by skewing polarization toward M1 macrophage from M2. METHODS: Pulmonary metastasis rate, overall survival time, and remission rate of 10 patients with HCC treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with CpG therapy and 10 age-, gender-, and TNM0-matched patients treated with TACE (control group) were compared. RESULTS: No pulmonary metastasis rate was 70% in the combined treatment group and 40% in the control group, respectively; and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (p < 0...
August 2017: Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820456/deciphering-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-and-evolutionary-trends-in-isolates-of-the-cydia-pomonella-granulovirus
#17
Jörg T Wennmann, Pit Radtke, Karolin E Eberle, Gianpiero Gueli Alletti, Johannes A Jehle
Six complete genome sequences of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) isolates from Mexico (CpGV-M and CpGV-M1), England (CpGV-E2), Iran (CpGV-I07 and CpGV-I12), and Canada (CpGV-S) were aligned and analyzed for genetic diversity and evolutionary processes. The selected CpGV isolates represented recently identified phylogenetic lineages of CpGV, namely, the genome groups A to E. The genomes ranged from 120,816 bp to 124,269 bp. Several common differences between CpGV-M, -E2, -I07, -I12 and -S to CpGV-M1, the first sequenced and published CpGV isolate, were highlighted...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820252/computational-study-on-m1-pom-single-atom-catalysts-m-cu-zn-ag-and-au-pom-pw12o40-3-metal-support-interactions-and-catalytic-cycle-for-alkene-epoxidation
#18
Chun-Guang Liu, Meng-Xu Jiang, Zhong-Min Su
Geometrical structures, metal-support interactions, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy of a series of M1/POM (M = Cu, Zn, Ag, and Au; POM = [PW12O40](3-)) single-atom catalysts (SACs), and catalytic cycle for alkene epoxidation catalyzed by M1/POM SACs were studied using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculations demonstrate that the most probable anchoring sties for the isolated single atoms studied here in the M1/POM SACs are the fourfold hollow sites on the surface of POM support. The bonding interaction between single metal atom and surface of POM support comes from the molecular orbitals with a mixture of d atomic orbital of metal and 2p group orbital of surface oxygen atoms of POM cage...
August 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819627/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-evaluation-of-tramadol-in-thermoreversible-gels
#19
Juliana Zampoli Boava Papini, Cíntia Maria Saia Cereda, José Pedrazzoli Júnior, Silvana Aparecida Calafatti, Daniele Ribeiro de Araújo, Giovana Radomille Tofoli
We evaluated pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) induced by new formulations of tramadol (TR) in thermoreversible gels. The poloxamer- (PL-) tramadol systems were prepared by direct dispersion of the drug in solutions with PL 407 and PL 188. The evaluated formulations were as follows: F1: TR 2% in aqueous solution and F2: PL 407 (20%) + PL 188 (10%) + TR 2%; F3: PL 407 (25%) + PL 188 (5%) + TR 2%; F4: PL 407 (20%) + TR 2%. New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups (n = 6) and treated by subcutaneous route with F1, F2, F3, or F4 (10 μg·kg(-1))...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817691/rac2-is-required-for-alternative-macrophage-activation-and-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-a-macrophage-autonomous-phenotype
#20
Shweta Joshi, Alok R Singh, Simon S Wong, Muamera Zulcic, Min Jiang, Annie Pardo, Moises Selman, James S Hagood, Donald L Durden
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by cellular phenotype alterations and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The alternative activation of macrophages in the lungs has been associated as a major factor promoting pulmonary fibrosis, however the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. In the present study, we have defined a molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the α4β1 integrin lead to the activation of Rac2 which regulates alternative macrophage differentiation, a signaling axis within the pulmonary macrophage compartment required for bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis...
2017: PloS One
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