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Alasdair Gibb, Kevin K Ogden, Miranda J McDaniel, Katie M Vance, Steven A Kell, Chris Butch, Pieter Burger, Dennis C Liotta, Stephen F Traynelis
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are tetrameric complexes comprising two glycine-binding GluN1 and two glutamate-binding GluN2 subunits. Four GluN2 subunits encoded by different genes can produce up to ten different di- and triheteromeric receptors. In addition, some neurological patients contain a de novo mutation or inherited rare variant in only one subunit. There is currently no mechanistic framework to describe tetrameric receptor function that can be extended to receptors with two different GluN1 or GluN2 subunits...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Jonathan A Grossberg, Leticia C Rebello, Diogo C Haussen, Mehdi Bouslama, Meredith Bowen, Clara M Barreira, Samir R Belagaje, Michael R Frankel, Raul G Nogueira
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endovascular therapy is the standard of care for the treatment of proximal large vessel occlusion strokes. Its safety and efficacy in the treatment of distal intracranial occlusions has not been well studied. METHODS: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request. Retrospective review of a prospectively collected endovascular database (2010-2015, n=949) for all patients with distal intracranial occlusions treated endovascularly...
June 18, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Jai W Mehat, Simon F Park, Arnoud H M van Vliet, Roberto M La Ragione
Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as an important causative agent of bacterial gastroenteritis in the developed world. Despite the identification of several factors contributing to infection, characterization of the virulence strategies employed by C. jejuni remains a significant challenge. Bacterial autotransporter proteins are a major class of secretory proteins in Gram-negative bacteria and notably many autotransporter proteins contribute to bacterial virulence. The aim of this study was to characterise the C...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Viviane Dias Faustino, Simone Costa Alarcon Arias, Victor Ferreira Ávila, Orestes Foresto-Neto, Fernanda Florencia Fregnan Zambom, Flavia Gomes Machado, Luciene Machado Dos Reis, Denise Maria Avancini Costa Malheiros, Rildo Aparecido Volpini, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara, Roberto Zatz, Clarice Kazue Fujihara
Protein overload of proximal tubular cells can promote interstitial injury by unclear mechanisms that may involve activation of innate immunity. We investigated whether prolonged exposure of tubular cells to high protein concentrations stimulates innate immunity, triggering progressive interstitial inflammation and renal injury, and whether specific inhibition of innate or adaptive immunity would provide renoprotection in an established model of massive proteinuria, adriamycin (ADR) nephropathy. Adult male Munich-Wistar rats received a single dose of ADR (5 mg/kg iv), being followed for 2, 4 or 20 weeks...
June 18, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Shang-Hung Lin, Hung-Yi Chuang, Ji-Chen Ho, Chih-Hung Lee, Chang-Chun Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease with dramatic responses to TNF-α inhibitors. TNF-α is mainly produced by macrophages. However, how macrophage polarization contributes to psoriasis remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of macrophage polarization in psoriasis. METHODS: 8 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis (Male/Female: 4/4, average age: 47.9 years old) and 8 healthy controls (Male/Female: 4/4, average age: 49...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
P Olausson, N Ghafouri, D Sjöström, E Blixt, B Gerdle, B Ghafouri
Aim This study aims to investigate the proteome of trapezius muscle biopsies of women with chronic widespread pain (CWP) compared to female pain-free controls using proteomic tools. CWP has a high prevalence (10%) resulting in prominent negative individual and societal consequences. There is no clear consensus concerning the etiology behind CWP although alterations in the central processing of nociception maintained by peripheral nociceptive input has been suggested. Methods Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis and nano-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (nLC/MS) was used to study the proteome differences of biopsies from the trapezius muscle between 18 female patients diagnosed with CWP and 19 healthy female controls...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Naomi Larsen, Katharina Oberbeck, Rodrigo Lima de Miranda, Jens Trentmann, Jawid Madjidyar, Eckhard Quandt, Olav Jansen
PURPOSE:  Various stent retrievers differing in stent design and mechanical properties are currently available for the treatment of ischemic stroke. We conducted this in vitro study to compare the efficacy, embolism rate, and safety of commercially available stent retrievers and prototypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Whole blood thrombi were produced in a Chandler loop. The thrombi were inserted into the curved M1 segment of a silicone model of the anterior cerebral circulation...
June 18, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Tobias Otto, Fred R H Zijlstra, Rainer Goebel
Investing mental effort is costly, and the investment has to be matched by a reward to make a person engage in task performance. However, the neural structures underlying the continued management of mental effort are not known. Previous work has identified left-lateralized structures, most prominently the left anterior Insular Cortex (aIC) as regions implied in post-hoc evaluation and also anticipation of mental effort investment. We present a study aimed at identifying neural structures that are sensitive to changes in both task load and fatigue-induced state load...
2018: PloS One
Min Dai, Ingegerd Hellstrom, Yuen Y Yip, Hans Olov Sjögren, Karl Erik Hellstrom
While immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have therapeutic efficacy against many tumors, few patients are cured. Attempting to improve their therapeutic efficacy we have applied the TC1 mouse lung carcinoma model and injected established subcutaneous tumors intratumorally with 3 weekly doses of various combinations of mAbs. Combinations of mAbs to CTLA4/PD1/CD137 (the 3 mAb combination) and to CTLA4/PD1/CD137/CD19 (the 4 mAb combination) were most efficacious to induce complete regression of both the injected tumor and an untreated tumor in the same mouse...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
Paweł Kubasiewicz-Ross, Jakub Hadzik, Marzena Dominiak
BACKGROUND: Zirconium - a bioinert metal - in comparison with titanium implants, offers a variety of potential advantages for use in the esthetic area of dentistry due to its tooth-like color. Zirconium dental implants are considered to be an alternative method of treatment to conventional titanium dental implants for patients with a thin gingival biotype. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to study the bone tissue response to new zirconia implants with modified surfaces in comparison with commercially available titanium dental implants and commercially available zirconia implants...
June 18, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Cong Wang, Weisheng Cheng, Qian Yu, Tian Xing, Shoubin Chen, Lei Liu, Li Yu, Jian Du, Qingli Luo, Jilong Shen, Yuanhong Xu
Toxoplasma gondii infection evokes a strong Th1-type response with interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ secretion. Recent studies suggest that the infection of pregnant mice with T. gondii may lead to adverse pregnancy results caused by subversion of physiological immune tolerance at maternofetal interface rather than direct invasion of the parasite. Genotype-associated dense granule protein GRA15II tends to induce classically activated macrophage (M1) differentiation and subsequently activating NK, Th1, and Th17 cells whereas rhoptry protein ROP16I/III drives macrophages to alternatively activated macrophage (M2) polarization and elicits Th2 immune response...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Akram Firouzi-Amandi, Mehdi Dadashpour, Mohammad Nouri, Nosratollah Zarghami, Hamed Serati-Nouri, Davoud Jafari-Gharabaghlou, Bita Hazhir Karzar, Hassan Mellatyar, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Zohreh Babaloo, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a natural flavonoid, Chrysin (Chr), encapsulated in PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) for the modulation of macrophage polarity from the pro-inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. The synthetized NPs were characterized using FTIR, DLS and FE-SEM. MTT assay was used to assess the toxicity of different concentration of Chr-encapsulated NPs on LPS/IFN-γ stimulated peritoneal exudate macrophages. To investigate the repolarization efficiency of Chr-encapsulated NPs, real-time PCR was applied to measure M1 (iNOS and SOCS3) and M2 (Arg1 and Fizz) markers expression...
June 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Douglas T Hidlay, Ryan A McTaggart, Grayson Baird, Shadi Yaghi, Morgan Hemendinger, Eric L Tung, Eleanor L Dibiasio, Richard A Haas, Mahesh V Jayaraman
OBJECTIVES: Mechanical thrombectomy is the standard of care for stroke caused by an emergent large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, and the ability to rapidly review CTA is one hurdle in minimizing the time from diagnosis to intervention. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy and confidence in review of stroke CTA for ELVO via a smartphone-based application as compared to PACS workstation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-six head and neck CTA studies performed for stroke from one comprehensive and seven primary stroke centers were independently reviewed remotely on smartphone by two blinded interventional neuroradiologists in actual-use circumstances...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Shujuan Sun, Kai Yao, Sijun Zhao, Pimiao Zheng, Sihan Wang, Yuyang Zeng, Demei Liang, Yuebin Ke, Haiyang Jiang
Six aflatoxins (AFs; AF B1 , B2 , G1 , G2 , M1 and M2 ) and six zearalenone (ZEN) analogs (ZEN, zearalanone, α-zeralanol, β-zeralanol, α-zearalenol, and β-zearalenol) were simultaneously extracted from edible and medicinal herbs using a group-specific immunoaffinity column (IAC) and then identified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The IAC was prepared by coupling N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated Sepharose 4B Fast Flow gel with two group-specific monoclonal antibodies...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ji-Eun Bae, Kwang Yeon Hwang, Ki Hyun Nam
Glucose isomerase (GI) catalyzes the reversible enzymatic isomerization of d-glucose and d-xylose to d-fructose and d-xylulose, respectively. This is one of the most important enzymes in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and biofuel. We recently determined the crystal structure of GI from S. rubiginosus (SruGI) complexed with a xylitol inhibitor in one metal binding mode. Although we assessed inhibitor binding at the M1 site, the metal binding at the M2 site and the substrate recognition mechanism for SruGI remains the unclear...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Farajzadah Sheikh Ahmad, Mohammad Jaafar Yadyad, Hamed Goodarzi, Seyed Jalal Hashemi, Sajad Aslani, Mohammad-Ali Assarzadegan, Reza Ranjbar
BACKGROUND: Allelic variation of the virulence genes, vacA and cagA, as the most important virulence associated genes play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe gastrointestinal disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify the diversity of the virulence genes in patients with Gastric Cancer (GC), who were referred to the gastro-endoscopy unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical science, Ahvaz, Iran. METHODS: Gastric biopsy specimens from 301 patients suspected to gastrointestinal disorders, were analyzed for H...
June 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Chi Zhang, Guifang Jia
More than 100 modifications have been found in RNA. Analogous to epigenetic DNA methylation, epitranscriptomic modifications can be written, read, and erased by a complex network of proteins. Apart from N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A), N1 -methyladenosine (m1 A) has been found as a reversible modification in tRNA and mRNA. m1 A occurs at positions 9, 14, and 58 of tRNA, with m1 A58 being critical for tRNA stability. Other than the hundreds of m1 A sites in mRNA and long non-coding RNA transcripts, transcriptome-wide mapping of m1 A also identifies > 20 m1 A sites in mitochondrial genes...
June 13, 2018: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
A Yin, P H Tseng, S Rajangam, M A Lebedev, M A L Nicolelis
Primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (PMd) cortical areas of rhesus monkeys previously have been associated only with sensorimotor control of limb movements. Here we show that a significant number of neurons in these areas also represent body position and orientation in space. Two rhesus monkeys (K and M) used a wheelchair controlled by a brain-machine interface (BMI) to navigate in a room. During this whole-body navigation, the discharge rates of M1, S1, and PMd neurons correlated with the two-dimensional (2D) room position and the direction of the wheelchair and the monkey head...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
William D Cornwell, Victor Kim, Xiaoxuan Fan, Marie Elena Vega, Frederick V Ramsey, Gerard J Criner, Thomas J Rogers
BACKGROUND: The ability of circulating monocytes to develop into lung macrophages and promote lung tissue damage depends upon their phenotypic pattern of differentiation and activation. Whether this phenotypic pattern varies with COPD severity is unknown. Here we characterize the activation and differentiation status of circulating monocytes in patients with moderate vs. severe COPD. METHODS: Blood monocytes were isolated from normal non-smokers (14), current smokers (13), patients with moderate (9), and severe COPD (11)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Qianping Luo, Yong Fan, Lili Lin, Jingjing Wei, Zuanfang Li, Yongkun Li, Susumu Nakae, Wei Lin, Qi Chen
Interleukin-33 (IL-33), a novel member of the IL-1 family, expressed in many tissue and cell types, and is involved in inflammation and immune functions. Previous studies suggest that IL-33 may play a role in ischemic stroke. We tried to investigate the role of IL-33 in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury and its underlying mechanism. Our data indicated that IL-33 deficiency exacerbated the neurological dysfunction caused by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice and led to the formation of larger cerebral infarct volume as shown by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and magnetic resonance imaging...
June 12, 2018: Neuroscience
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