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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656208/akt-mtor-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-activation-in-treponema-pallidum-stimulates-m1-macrophages
#1
Li-Rong Lin, Zheng-Xiang Gao, Yong Lin, Xiao-Zhen Zhu, Wei Liu, Dan Liu, Kun Gao, Man-Li Tong, Hui-Lin Zhang, Li-Li Liu, Yao Xiao, Jian-Jun Niu, Fan Liu, Tian-Ci Yang
The polarization of macrophages and the molecular mechanism involved during the early process of syphilis infection remain unknown. This study was conducted to explore the influence of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) treatment on macrophage polarization and the Akt-mTOR-NFκB signaling pathway mechanism involved in this process. M0 macrophages derived from the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 were cultured with T. pallidum. T. pallidum induced inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β and TNF-α) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
April 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653280/the-beneficial-effect-of-a-speaker-s-gestures-on-the-listener-s-memory-for-action-phrases-the-pivotal-role-of-the-listener-s-premotor-cortex
#2
Francesco Ianì, Dalila Burin, Adriana Salatino, Lorenzo Pia, Raffaella Ricci, Monica Bucciarelli
Memory for action phrases improves in the listeners when the speaker accompanies them with gestures compared to when the speaker stays still. Since behavioral studies revealed a pivotal role of the listeners' motor system, we aimed to disentangle the role of primary motor and premotor cortices. Participants had to recall phrases uttered by a speaker in two conditions: in the gesture condition, the speaker performed gestures congruent with the action; in the no-gesture condition, the speaker stayed still. In Experiment 1, half of the participants underwent inhibitory rTMS over the hand/arm region of the left premotor cortex (PMC) and the other half over the hand/arm region of the left primary motor cortex (M1)...
April 10, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653264/helminth-infection-in-mice-improves-insulin-sensitivity-via-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#3
Fernanda Pace, Bruno M Carvalho, Tamires M Zanotto, Andrey Santos, Dioze Guadagnini, Kelly L C Silva, Maria Carolina S Mendes, Guilherme Z Rocha, Silmara M Alegretti, Gustavo A Santos, Rodrigo R Catharino, Rita Paroni, Franco Folli, Mário José A Saad
Intestinal helminths are prevalent in individuals who live in rural areas of developing countries, where obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are rare. In the present study, we analyzed the modulation of the gut microbiota in mice infected with the helminth Strongyloides venezuelensis, and fed either a standard rodent chow diet or high-fat diet (HFD). To investigate the effects of the microbiota modulation on the metabolism, we analyzed the expression of tight-junction proteins present in the gut epithelium, inflammatory markers in the serum and tissue and quantified glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and resistance...
April 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652553/mahonia-oiwakensis-extract-and-its-bioactive-compounds-exert-anti-inflammatory-activities-and-vegf-production-through-m2-macrophagic-polarization-and-stat6-activation
#4
Yea-Chen Liu, Yu-Ying Hsiao, Kuo-Lung Ku, Hui-Fen Liao, Wei-Chun Chao
Macrophages play an indispensable role in the host immune defense. Macrophages can undergo polarization into classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages. M1 macrophages activate immune and inflammatory response, while M2 macrophages are involved in tissue remodeling. Mahonia oiwakensis (Mo) is a herbal medicine in Asia used for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties; however, the mechanism is unclear. This study analyzed the effect of Mo extracts and its effects on the polarization of both macrophage RAW264...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652033/the-effect-of-virulence-genotypes-of-helicobacter-pylori-on-eradication-therapy-in-children
#5
Shuang-Hong Zhang, Xuan Zhu, Bi-Min Li, Hong Li
Background/Aim: It is important to eradicate Helicobacter pylori at an early stage in patients during childhood to potentially prevent the development of H. pylori-related diseases. Studies have demonstrated that the virulence genotype of H. pylori influences the efficacy of eradication therapy. The efficacy of triple therapy has decreased significantly, which has seriously affected the clinical outcome of children with H. pylori infection. In this study we aimed to investigate the influence of virulence genotypes of H...
April 13, 2018: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651636/aflatoxin-m-1-detoxification-ability-of-probiotic-lactobacilli-of-indian-origin-in-in-vitro-digestion-model
#6
Rohit Panwar, Narendra Kumar, Vipul Kashyap, Chand Ram, Rajeev Kapila
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is known to be a potent carcinogen and continues to pose a public health concern through the consumption of contaminated dairy foods. It is anticipated that consumption of lactic acid bacteria capable of binding aflatoxins can reduce the risk of AFM1 on human health to a certain extent. Seldom reports have hinted the possibility of using lactic acid bacteria for the biological detoxification of AFM1 . Hence, the present study was conducted to assess the ability of selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains for their AFM1 binding ability in PBS and to reduce its bioaccessibility in artificially contaminated skim milk using an in vitro digestion model...
April 12, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651295/development-and-phenotypic-screening-of-an-ethyl-methane-sulfonate-mutant-population-in-soybean
#7
Mary J Espina, C M Sabbir Ahmed, Angelina Bernardini, Ekundayo Adeleke, Zeinab Yadegari, Prakash Arelli, Vince Pantalone, Ali Taheri
Soybean is an important oil-producing crop in the Fabaceae family and there are increasing demands for soybean oil and other soybean products. Genetic improvement of soybean is needed to increase its production. In order to provide genetic diversity and resources for identifying important genes, a new ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenized soybean population was generated using the newly released germplasm, JTN-5203 (maturity group V). Treatment of soybean seeds with 60 mM EMS concentration was found to be suitable for inducing mutation...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651241/intra-and-inter-regional-priming-of-ipsilateral-human-primary-motor-cortex-with-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation-does-not-induce-consistent-neuroplastic-effects
#8
Michael Do, Melissa Kirkovski, Charlotte B Davies, Soukayna Bekkali, Linda K Byrne, Peter G Enticott
Human responses to non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques can be highly variable. Recently, priming protocols involving a conditioning round of NIBS applied to a target brain region prior to the application of a test protocol have shown promise in inducing more reliable effects. We investigated whether intra- or inter-regional priming of the left primary motor cortex (M1) using continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) can induce consistent, and reliable modulation of corticospinal excitability. Twenty healthy adults (six males) underwent four cTBS protocols...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650911/-a-case-of-advanced-gastric-cancer-with-multiple-liver-metastases-treated-with-curative-conversion-therapy-after-s-1-plus-cddp
#9
Yukito Shindo, Shinichiro Fukuda, Ryoko Kataoka, Nobutsuna Kuwamoto, Hitomi Takaishi, Yasuaki Miura, Ryoichi Hirayama, Ryo Otsuka, Shuji Saito, Rikiya Fujita
A57 -year-old man was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer(adenocarcinoma[tub2/por1])with multiple(S3, S4, S5, S6, S8)liver and para-aortic lymph node metastases. The tumor was classified as cT4a, N3, M1, HEP, cStage IV, and the patient received chemotherapy with S-1 plus CDDP(SP). After 10 courses of SP, a CT scan revealed that the primary tumor and the metastases disappeared. The patient presented with cCR and underwent distal gastrectomy, D2 lymph node dissection, partial hepatic resection, and cholecystectomy...
March 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649924/polarization-of-microglia-to-the-m2-phenotype-in-a-ppar-%C3%AE-dependent-manner-attenuates-axonal-injury-induced-by-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#10
Liang Wen, Wen-Dong You, Hao Wang, Yuanyuan Meng, Jun-Feng Feng, Xiaofeng Yang
Increasing evidence indicated that activated microglia play an important role in the inflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inhibiting M1 and stimulating M2 activated microglia have demonstrated protective effects in several animal models of central nervous system diseases. However, it is not clear whether the polarization of microglia to M2 attenuates axonal injury following TBI. In this study, we used a lateral fluid percussion injury device to induce axonal injury in mice. Mice were randomly assigned to the sham, TBI, TBI + rosiglitazone (PPAR-γ agonist), and TBI + GW9662 (PPAR-γ antagonist) groups...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649513/neurofeedback-control-of-the-human-gabaergic-system-using-non-invasive-brain-stimulation
#11
Satoko Koganemaru, Yusuke Mikami, Hitoshi Maezawa, Satoshi Ikeda, Katsunori Ikoma, Tatsuya Mima
Neurofeedback has been a powerful method for self-regulating brain activities to elicit potential ability of human mind. GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool that can evaluate the GABAergic system within the primary motor cortex (M1) using paired-pulse stimuli, short intracortical inhibition (SICI). Herein we investigated whether neurofeedback learning using SICI enabled us to control the GABAergic system within the M1 area...
April 9, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649237/bronchoalveolar-lavage-bal-cells-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-express-a-complex-pro-inflammatory-pro-repair-angiogenic-activation-pattern-likely-associated-with-macrophage-iron-accumulation
#12
Jungnam Lee, Ivan Arisi, Ermanno Puxeddu, Lazarus K Mramba, Massimo Amicosante, Carmen M Swaisgood, Marco Pallante, Mark L Brantly, C Magnus Sköld, Cesare Saltini
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease of unknown cause characterized by alveolar epithelial damage, patchy interstitial fibrosis and diffuse microvascular abnormalities. In IPF, alveolar clustering of iron-laden alveolar macrophages-a common sign of microhemorrhage, has been associated with vascular abnormalities and worsening of pulmonary hypertension. As iron-dependent ROS generation has been shown to induce unrestrained macrophage activation in disease models of vascular damage, we explored alveolar macrophage activation phenotype in IPF patients (n = 16) and healthy controls (CTR, n = 7) by RNA sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644945/quantitative-evaluation-of-ruminal-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-formation-from-formate-through-c-13-stable-isotope-analysis-in-a-batch-culture-system
#13
Z X He, J Y Qiao, Q X Yan, Z L Tan, M Wang
Methane produced from formate is one of the important methanogensis pathways in the rumen. However, quantitative information of CH4 production from formate has been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to characterize the conversion rate (CR) of formic acid into CH4 and CO2 by rumen microorganisms. Ground lucerne hay was incubated with buffered ruminal fluid for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Before the incubation, 13C-labeled H13COOH was also supplied into the incubation bottle at a dose of 0, 1.5, 2.2 or 2.9 mg/g of DM substrate...
April 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644598/essential-roles-of-lactate-in-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-survival-and-function
#14
Rupali Vohra, Blanca I Aldana, Dorte M Skytt, Kristine Freude, Helle Waagepetersen, Linda H Bergersen, Miriam Kolko
Müller cells are pivotal in sustaining retinal ganglion cells, and an intact energy metabolism is essential for upholding Müller cell functions. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of lactate on Müller cell survival and function. Primary mice Müller cells and human Müller cell lines (MIO-M1) were treated with or without lactate (10 or 20 mM) for 2 and 24 hours. Simultaneously, Müller cells were incubated with or without 6 mM of glucose. L-lactate exposure increased Müller cell survival independently of the presence of glucose...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644092/the-grafts-modified-by-heparinization-and-catalytic-nitric-oxide-generation-used-for-vascular-implantation-in-rats
#15
Jingchen Gao, Li Jiang, Qinge Liang, Jie Shi, Ding Hou, Di Tang, Siyuan Chen, Deling Kong, Shufang Wang
Small-diameter (<6 mm) vascular grafts are increasingly needed in peripheral vascular surgery but have few successes because of acute thrombosis, incomplete endothelialization and intimal hyperplasia after implantation. This study used electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) as the matrix material. Heparin and selenium-containing catalyst-organoselenium modified polyethyleneimine were introduced through layer-by-layer assembly in order to build a vascular graft with in situ nitric oxide (NO) generation. The aim of this study was to explore the application of the graft with improved histocompatibility and biological function for vascular implantation in rats...
March 2018: Regenerative Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643831/altered-intracortical-inhibition-in-chronic-traumatic-diffuse-axonal-injury
#16
Cintya Yukie Hayashi, Iuri Santana Neville, Priscila Aparecida Rodrigues, Ricardo Galhardoni, André Russowsky Brunoni, Ana Luiza Zaninotto, Vinicius Monteiro de Paula Guirado, Ana Sofia Cueva, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
Background: Overactivation of NMDA-mediated excitatory processes and excess of GABA-mediated inhibition are attributed to the acute and subacute phases, respectively, after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there are few studies regarding the circuitry during the chronic phase of brain injury. Objective: To evaluate the cortical excitability (CE) during the chronic phase of TBI in victims diagnosed with diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Methods: The 22 adult subjects were evaluated after a minimum of 1 year from the onset of moderate or severe TBI...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643574/the-effectiveness-of-raising-the-heel-height-of-shoes-to-reduce-heel-pain-in-patients-with-calcaneal-spurs
#17
Dwi Basuki Wibowo, Rudiansyah Harahap, Achmad Widodo, Gunawan Dwi Haryadi, Mochammad Ariyanto
[Purpose] To investigate the effect of heel height on the distribution of plantar foot force and heel pain in patients with a heel spur. [Subjects and Methods] Plantar force was measured using 8 force sensors in 16 patients (3 men, 13 women), with symptomatic heel spur for 4 heel heights (0-4 cm). Sensors were located at the hallux (T1); medial to lateral metatarsals (M1 through M3), mid-foot (MF); and at the central, lateral, and medial heel (CH, LH, and MH). Pain was evaluated using the minimum compression force that caused pain and was measured using an algometer...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643252/-in-vitro-pharmacological-characterization-and-in-vivo-validation-of-lsn3172176-a-novel-m1-selective-muscarinic-receptor-agonist-tracer-molecule-for-positron-emission-tomography-pet
#18
Adrian J Mogg, Thomas Eessalu, Megan Johnson, Rebecca Wright, Helen E Sanger, Hongling Xiou, Michael Crabtree, Alex Smith, Ellen Colvin, Douglas Schober, Donald Gehlert, Cynthia Jesudason, Paul Goldsmith, Michael P Johnson, Christian C Felder, Vanessa N Barth, Lisa M Broad
In the search for improved symptomatic treatment options for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, muscarinic acetylcholine M1 receptors (M1 mAChRs) have received significant attention. Drug development efforts have identified a number of novel ligands, some of which have advanced to the clinic. However, a significant issue for progressing these therapeutics is the lack of robust, translatable and validated biomarkers. One valuable approach to assessing target engagement is to utilize PET tracers...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643136/orbital-metastasis-from-an-occult-breast-carcinoma-t0-n1-m1
#19
Rita Pinto Proença, Júlia Fernandes, Miguel N Burnier, Rui Proença
The authors report a case of an orbital metastasis from an occult breast carcinoma. A 66-year-old woman presented with a growing left orbital tumour. Orbital CT scan was consistent with lymphoma. However, ocular pathology revealed small neoplastic cells showing an 'indian file pattern' suggestive of metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemistry was positive for CK7, CK CAM5.2 and oestrogen receptor. A systemic evaluation was then performed with mammogram, breast ultrasound and MRI considered normal. An exhaustive systemic evaluation revealed multiple bone lesions, a right axillary lymph node lesion, which presented the same pattern on pathology and immunohistochemistry, with no evidence of a primary tumour...
April 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642953/impact-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-immunomodulation-on-the-osteogenic-effects-of-laponite
#20
Tao Li, Zhong Long Liu, Ming Xiao, Ze Zheng Yang, Ming Zheng Peng, Cui Di Li, Xiao Jun Zhou, Jin Wu Wang
BACKGROUND: With the development of osteoimmunology and bone tissue engineering (BTE), it has been recognized that the immunomodulatory properties of bone biomaterials have considerable impact in determining their fate after implantation. In this regard, the polarization of macrophages secondary to biomaterials is postulated to play a crucial role in modulating their osteogenesis; thus, strategies that may facilitate this process engender increasing levels of attention. Whereas a variety of reports highlight the immunomodulation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in cell therapy or their osteogenesis in BTE, few have focused on the effect of BMSCs in promoting osteogenesis in BTE through regulating the phenotype of macrophages...
April 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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