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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109144/-interferon-regulatory-factor-5-irf5-regulates-the-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-derived-macrophages-in-mice
#1
Kang Sun, Jianguo Qu, Jixiang Chen, Shengchun Dang, Songbing He, Jin Zhang, Rong Xie, Yun Wang, Jianxin Zhang
Objective To investigate the expression differences of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) between M1 and M2 macrophages derived from mouse bone marrow and the effects of small interfering RNA targeting IRF5 gene (IRF5 siRNA) on macrophage differentiation. Methods With the treatment of IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages were differentiated into M1 macrophages; while with the treatment of IL-4, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages were differentiated into M2 macrophages...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108630/macropinocytosis-of-nab-paclitaxel-drives-macrophage-activation-in-pancreatic-cancer
#2
Jane E Cullis, Despina Siolas, Antonina Avanzi, Sugata Barui, Anirban Maitra, Dafna Bar-Sagi
Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease that is largely refractory to currently available treatment strategies. Therapeutic resistance is partially attributed to the dense stromal reaction of PDAC tumors that includes a pervasive infiltration of immunosuppressive (M2) macrophages. Nab-paclitaxel (trade name Abraxane) is a nanoparticle albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel that, in combination with gemcitabine, is currently the first line treatment for pancreatic cancer. Here, we show that macrophages internalized nab-paclitaxel via macropinocytosis...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108216/the-phenomenon-of-atherosclerosis-reversal-and-regression-lessons-from-animal-models
#3
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Victor V Revin, Alexander N Orekhov, Yuri V Bobryshev
Studies in non-rodent and murine models showed that atherosclerosis can be reversed. Atherosclerosis progression induced by high-fat or cholesterol-rich diet can be reduced and reversed to plaque regression after switching to a normal diet or through administration of lipid-lowering agents. The similar process should exist in humans after implementation of lipid-lowering therapy and as a result of targeting of small rupture-prone plaques that are major contributors for acute atherosclerotic complications. Lowering of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the activation of reverse cholesterol transport lead to a decline in foam cell content, to the depletion of plaque lipid reservoirs, a decrease in lesional macrophage numbers through the activation of macrophage emigration and, probably, apoptosis, dampening plaque inflammation, and the induction of anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in clearance of the necrotic core and plaque healing...
January 17, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107775/beta-caryophyllene-protects-against-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-attenuating-inflammation-and-metabolic-dysregulation-in-mice
#4
Zoltan V Varga, Csaba Matyas, Katalin Erdelyi, Resat Cinar, Daniela Nieri, Andrea Chicca, Balazs Tamas Nemeth, Janos Paloczi, Tamas Lajtos, Lukas Corey, Gyorgy Hasko, Bin Gao, George Kunos, Jürg Gertsch, Pal Pacher
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a plant-derived FDA approved food additive with anti-inflammatory properties. Some of its beneficial effects in vivo reported to involve activation of cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2) that are predominantly expressed in immune cells. Herein, we evaluated the translational potential of BCP using a well-established model of chronic and binge alcohol-induced liver injury. METHODS: In this study we investigated the effects of BCP on liver injury induced by chronic plus binge alcohol feeding in mice in vivo by using biochemical assays, real-time PCR and histology analyses...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107661/targeting-nf-kb-signaling-with-polymeric-hybrid-micelles-that-co-deliver-sirna-and-dexamethasone-for-arthritis-therapy
#5
Qin Wang, Hao Jiang, Yan Li, Wenfei Chen, Hanmei Li, Ke Peng, Zhirong Zhang, Xun Sun
The transcription factor NF-kB plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Here we attempt to slow arthritis progression by co-delivering the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) and small-interfering RNA targeting NF-kB p65 using our previously developed polymeric hybrid micelle system. These micelles contain two similar amphiphilic copolymers: polycaprolactone-polyethylenimine (PCL-PEI) and polycaprolactone-polyethyleneglycol (PCL-PEG). The hybrid micelles loaded with Dex and siRNA effectively inhibited NF-kB signaling in murine macrophages more efficiently than micelles containing either Dex or siRNA on their own...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101568/puerarin-inhibits-m2-polarization-and-metastasis-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-from-nsclc-xenograft-model-via-inactivating-mek-erk-1-2-pathway
#6
Honggang Kang, Jing Zhang, Baozhong Wang, Meirong Liu, Jun Zhao, Mengxiang Yang, Yingxue Li
Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) metastasis is responsible for most of cancer-related mortality. The tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are known to be crucial cells in lung cancer and are usually divided into two antagonistic types, M1 and M2. Puerarin has a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. The present study explores puerarin on macrophage polarization and metastasis of NSCLC. The results demonstrated that puerarin inhibited tumor growth and tumor volumes in NSCLC xenograft model, increased M1 markers [CD197+, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)+, CD40+)] and reduced M2 markers (CD206+, Arg-1+ and CD163+)...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100654/dissociation-between-sustained-single-neuron-spiking-%C3%AE-rhythmicity-and-transient-%C3%AE-lfp-oscillations-in-primate-motor-cortex
#7
Michael Everett Rule, Carlos E Vargas-Irwin, John P Donoghue, Wilson Truccolo
Determining the relationship between single-neuron spiking and transient (~20 Hz) beta local field potential (β-LFP) oscillations is an important step for understanding the role of these oscillations in motor cortex. We show that while motor cortex firing rates and beta spiking rhythmicity remain sustained during steady-state movement preparation periods, β-LFP oscillations emerge, in contrast, as short transient events. Single-neuron mean firing rates within and outside transient β-LFP events showed no differences, and no consistent correlation was found between the beta oscillations' amplitude and firing rates, as was the case for movement and visual-cue related β-LFP suppression...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099522/anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-shows-minimal-measure-specific-effects-on-dynamic-postural-control-in-young-and-older-adults-a-double-blind-sham-controlled-study
#8
Chesney E Craig, Michail Doumas
We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18-35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition-M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant's body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098409/trpv4-contributes-to-resting-membrane-potential-in-retinal-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-implications-in-cell-volume-regulation
#9
Vanina Netti, Juan Fernández, Maia Kalstein, Alejandro Pizzoni, Gisela Di Giusto, Valeria Rivarola, Paula Ford, Claudia Capurro
Neural activity alters osmotic gradients favoring cell swelling in retinal Müller cells. This swelling is followed by a regulatory volume decrease (RVD), partially mediated by an efflux of KCl and water. The transient receptor potential channel 4 (TRPV4), a nonselective calcium channel, has been proposed as a candidate for mediating intracellular Ca(2+) elevation induced by swelling. We previously demonstrated in a human Müller cell line (MIO-M1) that RVD strongly depends on ion channel activation and, consequently, on membrane potential (Vm )...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096683/clinicopathological-and-immunohistochemical-features-of-lung-invasive-mucinous-adenocarcinoma-based-on-computed-tomography-findings
#10
Katsuhiko Shimizu, Riki Okita, Shinsuke Saisho, Ai Maeda, Yuji Nojima, Masao Nakata
BACKGROUND: We performed an analysis to clarify differences in clinicopathological and molecular features of lung invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) based on computed tomography (CT) findings and their impact on prognosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: On the basis of CT findings, we divided lung IMA into three subtypes: solid, bubbling, and pneumonic. We then investigated differences in clinicopathological characteristics, prognosis, and the expressions of well-identified biomarkers, including cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1), class III beta-tubulin, thymidylate synthase (TS), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), programmed cell death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1), and epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, among the three subtypes...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096401/ornithine-decarboxylase-regulates-m1-macrophage-activation-and-mucosal-inflammation-via-histone-modifications
#11
Dana M Hardbower, Mohammad Asim, Paula B Luis, Kshipra Singh, Daniel P Barry, Chunying Yang, Meredith A Steeves, John L Cleveland, Claus Schneider, M Blanca Piazuelo, Alain P Gobert, Keith T Wilson
Macrophage activation is a critical step in host responses during bacterial infections. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine metabolism, has been well studied in epithelial cells and is known to have essential roles in many different cellular functions. However, its role in regulating macrophage function during bacterial infections is not well characterized. We demonstrate that macrophage-derived ODC is a critical regulator of M1 macrophage activation during both Helicobacter pylori and Citrobacter rodentium infection...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095420/molecular-mechanism-of-disease-associated-mutations-in-the-pre-m1-helix-of-nmda-receptors-and-potential-rescue-pharmacology
#12
Kevin K Ogden, Wenjuan Chen, Sharon A Swanger, Miranda J McDaniel, Linlin Z Fan, Chun Hu, Anel Tankovic, Hirofumi Kusumoto, Gabrielle J Kosobucki, Anthony J Schulien, Zhuocheng Su, Joseph Pecha, Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Slavé Petrovski, Adam E Cohen, Elias Aizenman, Stephen F Traynelis, Hongjie Yuan
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), ligand-gated ionotropic glutamate receptors, play key roles in normal brain development and various neurological disorders. Here we use standing variation data from the human population to assess which protein domains within NMDAR GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B subunits show the strongest signal for being depleted of missense variants. We find that this includes the GluN2 pre-M1 helix and linker between the agonist-binding domain (ABD) and first transmembrane domain (M1). We then evaluate the functional changes of multiple missense mutations in the NMDAR pre-M1 helix found in children with epilepsy and developmental delay...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095306/the-role-of-pten-in-regulation-of-hepatic-macrophages-activation-and-function-in-progression-and-reversal-of-liver-fibrosis
#13
Yahui Cheng, Yuanyao Tian, Jialu Xia, Xiaoqin Wu, Yang Yang, Xiaofeng Li, Cheng Huang, Xiaoming Meng, Taotao Ma, Jun Li
Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The progression and reversal of CCl4-induced mouse liver fibrosis showed a mixed induction of hepatic classical (M1) and alternative (M2) macrophage markers. Although the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in modulating myeloid cell activation has recently been identified, its function in macrophage activation during hepatic fibrosis remains to be fully appreciated. In our study, PTEN expression of KCs was remarkably decreased in CCl4-induced mice but increased to a near-normal level in reversed mice...
January 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093306/establishing-between-session-reliability-of-tms-conditioned-soleus-h-reflexes
#14
W A Gray, M J Sabatier, T M Kesar, M R Borich
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) can be used to evaluate descending corticomotor influences on spinal reflex excitability through modulation of the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex). The purpose of this study was to characterize between-session reliability of cortical, spinal, and cortical-conditioned spinal excitability measures collected from the soleus muscle. Thirteen able-bodied young adult participants were tested over four sessions. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify between-session reliability of active motor threshold (AMT), unconditioned H-reflexes (expressed as a percentage of Mmax), and conditioned H-reflexes using short-latency facilitation (SLF) and long-latency facilitation (LLF)...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093111/efficacy-of-tildipirosin-metaphylaxis-for-the-prevention-of-respiratory-disease-otitis-and-mortality-in-pre-weaned-holstein-calves
#15
A G V Teixeira, J A A McArt, R C Bicalho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two metaphylactic approaches (long acting antibiotic injected once at 10 days of life or twice at 10 and 35 days of life) on the prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), otitis and mortality in high-risk group-housed pre-weaned Holstein heifer calves. The antibiotic of choice for the metaphylactic approach was a long acting macrolide (tildipirosin) administered subcutaneously at the base of the neck at a dose of 1 mL per 45 kg body weight. A clinical trial was carried out on one dairy farm with random allocation of newborn calves to one of three treatments: (1) control (CTR); (2) one injection at 10 days of life (M1); and (3) two injections at 10 and 35 days of life (M2)...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092793/high-dilutions-of-antimony-modulate-cytokines-production-and-macrophage-leishmania-l-amazonensis-interaction-in-vitro
#16
Fabiana Rodrigues de Santana, Luciane C Dalboni, Kátia F Nascimento, Fabiana Toshie Konno, Anuska M Alvares-Saraiva, Michelle S F Correia, Maristela Dutra Correa Bomfim, Renato C V Casarin, Elizabeth C Perez, Maria Anete Lallo, Giovani B Peres, Márcia Dalastra Laurenti, Nilson R Benites, Dorly F Buchi, Leoni Villano Bonamin
BACKGROUND: In previous results mice treated with high dilutions of antimony presented reduction of monocyte migration to the site of infection with increase in B lymphocytes population in the local lymph node. AIMS: To know the mechanisms involved, a series of in vitro studies was done, using co-cultures of macrophages (RAW 264.7) and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis treated with different dilutions of antimony (Antimonium crudum or AC), in different times. METHODOLOGY: Spreading, phagocytosis, the oxidative activity of macrophages, the viability of free promastigotes and the cytokines/chemokines concentration in the supernatant were evaluated...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091925/changes-in-the-neurochemical-composition-of-motor-neurons-of-the-spinal-cord-in-mice-under-conditions-of-space-flight
#17
V V Porseva, V V Shilkin, A A Strelkov, I B Krasnov, P M Masliukov
Expression of choline acetyltransferase, 200-kDa neurofilament protein, 28-kDa calbindin, neuronal NO synthase, caspase 3, and Ki-67 in the motor neurons of spinal cord segments T3-T5 in male C57Bl/6 mice after 30-day space flight in the Bion-M1 biosatellite was studied by immunohistochemical methods. Under conditions space flight, the size of motoneurons increased, the number of neurons containing choline acetyltransferase and neurofilaments, decreased, and the number of calbindin-positive neurons increased; motoneurons, expressing neuronal NO synthase and caspase 3 appeared, while Ki-67 was not detected...
January 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091578/temporal-dynamics-of-cerebellar-and-motor-cortex-physiological-processes-during-motor-skill-learning
#18
D Spampinato, P Celnik
Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091279/aflatoxin-m1-in-human-breast-milk-in-shahrekord-iran-and-association-with-dietary-factors
#19
Tina Jafari, Aziz A Fallah, Soleiman Kheiri, Abdolmajid Fadaei, Sayed Asadollah Amini
This survey was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in 250 breast milk samples of lactating mothers, obtained from urban and rural regions of Shahrekord, Iran. Moreover, the association between AFM1 occurrence levels and dietary factors were assessed. AFM1 analysis was carried out using the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for screening and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) for confirmatory purposes...
January 16, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090670/an-endoplasmic-reticulum-protein-nogo-b-facilitates-alcoholic-liver-disease-through-regulation-of-kupffer-cell-polarization
#20
Jin-Kyu Park, Mingjie Shao, Moon Young Kim, Soon Koo Baik, Mee Yon Cho, Teruo Utsumi, Ayano Satoh, Xinsho Ouyang, Chuhan Chung, Yasuko Iwakiri
Background Nogo-B (Reticulon 4B) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein that regulates ER structure and function. Since ER stress is known to induce M2 macrophage polarization, we examined whether Nogo-B regulates M1/M2 polarization of Kupffer cells and alters the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Methods M1 and M2 phenotypes were assessed in relation to Nogo-B expression and disease severity in liver specimens from ALD patients (NCT01875211). Liver specimens from wild-type (WT) and Nogo-B knockout (KO) mice fed control or Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid diet (5% ethanol) for 6 weeks were analyzed for liver injury and steatosis...
January 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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