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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145140/fluoxetine-modulates-the-transcription-of-genes-involved-in-serotonin-dopamine-and-adrenergic-signalling-in-zebrafish-embryos
#1
V Cunha, P Rodrigues, M M Santos, P Moradas-Ferreira, M Ferreira
Neurotransmitters pathways in fish and mammals are phylogenetically conserved. Therefore, the environmental presence of psychopharmaceuticals, such as fluoxetine (FLU), are likely to interact with fish serotonergic, dopaminergic and adrenergic systems, affecting their response and associated biological functions. Hence, the present work aimed at evaluating the effects of FLU in the transcription of genes involved in serotonin, dopamine and adrenergic transporters and receptors signalling in early stages of Danio rerio development...
October 27, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144028/efficacy-and-safety-of-different-regimens-for-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-or-ocular-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#2
Fei Li, Wenbin Huang, Xiulan Zhang
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and safety of different regimens, including monotherapy and double therapy, for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and clinicaltrials.gov for studies that fit our inclusion criteria in this network meta-analysis. Randomized controlled trials that report data on efficacy and safety of medications for POAG or ocular hypertension are included. Data on intra-ocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect and incidence of adverse events including hyperaemia and ocular discomfort were extracted and used in mixed-comparison analysis...
November 16, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143881/rmce-based-insect-cell-platform-to-produce-membrane-proteins-captured-on-hiv-1-gag-virus-like-particles
#3
João Vidigal, Bárbara Fernandes, Mafalda M Dias, Marco Patrone, António Roldão, Manuel J T Carrondo, Paula M Alves, Ana P Teixeira
Conformationally complex membrane proteins (MPs) are therapeutic targets in many diseases, but drug discovery has been slowed down by the lack of efficient production tools. Co-expression of MPs with matrix proteins from enveloped viruses is a promising approach to obtain correctly folded proteins at the surface of virus-like particles (VLPs), preserving their native lipidic environment. Here, we implemented a site-specific recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) strategy to establish a reusable HIV-1 Gag-expressing insect cell line for fast production of target MPs on the surface of Gag-VLPs...
November 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141871/potential-approaches-to-prevent-hypoglycemia-associated-autonomic-failure
#4
REVIEW
Eric Lontchi-Yimagou, Jee Young You, Michelle Carey, Ilan Gabriely, Harry Shamoon, Meredith Hawkins
Clear health benefits are associated with intensive glucose control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, maintaining near-normal glycemia remains an elusive goal for many patients, in large part owing to the risk of severe hypoglycemia. In fact, recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia lead to 'hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure' (HAAF), characterized by defective counter-regulatory responses to hypoglycemia. Extensive studies to understand the mechanisms underlying HAAF have revealed multiple potential etiologies, suggesting various approaches to prevent the development of HAAF...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141540/polyphenols-antioxidants-and-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#5
Rosa Maria Bruno, Lorenzo Ghiadoni
BACKGROUND: A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. METHODS: This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138797/activation-of-adrenergic-receptor-%C3%AE-2-promotes-tumor-progression-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Haichao Liu, Cheng Wang, Nan Xie, Zehang Zhuang, Xiqiang Liu, Jinsong Hou, Hongzhang Huang
Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is more aggressive than other cancers in the head and neck region because of its potential for metastasis. Recently, β2‑adrenergic receptor (β2‑AR) has been reported to be a potential promoter in various types of solid cancer. However, the role of β2‑AR and its effect on TSCC is not well documented. Histological staining, western blot analysis, migration and invasion assay were used. In this study, the expression of β2‑AR was increased in TSCC tissue compared with adjacent non‑cancerous epithelium...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138470/obesity-promoting-and-anti-thermogenic-effects-of-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-in-mice
#7
Akira Ishii, Goro Katsuura, Hirotaka Imamaki, Hiroyuki Kimura, Keita P Mori, Takashige Kuwabara, Masato Kasahara, Hideki Yokoi, Kousaku Ohinata, Tomoko Kawanishi, Junichi Tsuchida, Yuji Nakamoto, Kazuwa Nakao, Motoko Yanagita, Masashi Mukoyama, Kiyoshi Mori
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, lipocalin 2 or LCN2) is an iron carrier protein whose circulating level is increased by kidney injury, bacterial infection and obesity, but its metabolic consequence remains elusive. To study physiological role of LCN2 in energy homeostasis, we challenged female Lcn2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with high fat diet (HFD) or cold exposure. Under normal diet, physical constitutions of Lcn2 KO and WT mice were indistinguishable. During HFD treatment, Lcn2 KO mice exhibited larger brown adipose tissues (BAT), consumed more oxygen, ate more food and gained less body weights as compared to WT mice...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138105/adrenergic-receptor-agonists-modulation-of-dopaminergic-and-non-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#8
Kamil Pradel, Tomasz Blasiak, Wojciech B Solecki
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuronal population consists of dopaminergic (DAergic) and non-DAergic neurons (mainly GABAergic), the activity of which is intertwined with VTA behavioural functions. Both DAergic and GABAergic neurons in the VTA have been shown to express adrenergic receptors (ARs) and respond to AR stimulation. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of selective AR agonists on DAergic and non-DAergic neuronal activity in the central and lateral parts of the VTA using in vivo electrophysiological recording combined with microiontophoretic drug application in anaesthetized rats...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136627/toll-like-receptor-4-reduces-occludin-and-zonula-occludens-1-to-increase-retinal-permeability-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Li Liu, Youde Jiang, Jena J Steinle
We reported that β-adrenergic receptors regulate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in the retina of diabetic mice and in retinal endothelial cells (REC) and Müller cells. We hypothesized that TLR4 regulates retinal permeability both in vitro and in vivo in the retinal vasculature. We used REC cultured in normal and high-glucose conditions and TLR4 siRNA treatments for cell culture studies of permeability and protein analyses of tumor necrosis factor α, occludin, and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1). We used endothelial cell (EC)-specific Cre-Lox TLR4 knockout mice to study retinal permeability and neuronal and vascular changes following exposure to ocular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) used as a retinal stressor...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135437/an-adaptation-of-astronomical-image-processing-enables-characterization-and-functional-3d-mapping-of-individual-sites-of-excitation-contraction-coupling-in-rat-cardiac-muscle
#10
Qinghai Tian, Lars Kaestner, Laura Schröder, Jia Guo, Peter Lipp
In beating cardiomyocytes, synchronized localized Ca(2+) transients from thousands of active excitation-contraction coupling sites (ECC couplons) comprising plasma and sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane calcium channels are important determinants of the heart's performance. Nevertheless, our knowledge about their properties is limited by the lack of appropriate experimental and analysis strategies. We designed CaCLEAN to untangle fundamental characteristics of ECC couplons by combining the astronomer's CLEAN algorithm with known properties of calcium diffusion...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135357/short-term-refractive-effects-of-propranolol-hydrochloride-prophylaxis-on-retinopathy-of-prematurity-in-very-preterm-newborns
#11
Levent Korkmaz, Cagatay Karaca, Mustafa Ali Akin, Osman Bastug, Mustafa Sahiner, Ahmet Ozdemir, Tamer Gunes, Mehmet Adnan Ozturk, Selim Kurtoglu
PURPOSE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the major problems of surviving premature infants with several ophthalmic morbidities such as increased risk of refractive errors, strabismus, and cortical visual impairment. Use of propranolol hydrochloride (PH) for the prevention of ROP is a new promising treatment modality. However, long-term effects are still to be defined. In our study, we aimed to investigate the short-term refractive effects of PH used for ROP prophylaxis in very preterm newborns...
November 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134973/effect-of-cortisol-on-plasma-lactate-levels-following-cortisolinduced-hyperglycaemia-in-common-african-toad-bufo-regularis
#12
G O Isehunwa, O T Oladun, J E Akpan, A R A Alada
Previous studies in man have shown that cortisol induces hyperglycemia through gluconeogenesis. However,the metabolic substrates involved in cortisol-induced hyperglycemia and the role of adrenergic receptors in lactate productionin toads have not been well studied. This study investigated the effects of adrenergic receptor blockers in cortisol-inducedhyperglycemia and blood lactate levels in the common African toad (Bufo regularis). Each toad was fasted and anaesthetizedwith sodium thiopentone given intraperitoneally (50mg/kg/i...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134568/%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-stimulation-of-dendritic-cells-favors-il-10-secretion-by-cd4-t-cells
#13
Julie Hervé, Karine Haurogné, Elodie Bacou, Sylvie Pogu, Marie Allard, Grégoire Mignot, Jean-Marie Bach, Blandine Lieubeau
Adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists are extensively used as drugs in medicine for a broad spectrum of indications. We examined the consequences of β2-adrenergic stimulation of murine dendritic cells (DCs) on CD4(+) T cell activation. We demonstrated in vitro that treatment of LPS-matured DCs with the β2-agonist salbutamol reduced their ability to trigger OT-II T cell proliferation specific for ovalbumin antigen. Salbutamol also induced a decrease in MHC class II molecule expression by DC through Gi protein activation...
November 14, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133340/effects-of-hawthorn-crataegus-pentagyna-leaf-extract-on-electrophysiologic-properties-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-cardiac-arrhythmia-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
Sara Pahlavan, Marziyeh Shalchi Tousi, Mahdi Ayyari, Abolfazl Alirezalu, Hassan Ansari, Tomo Saric, Hossein Baharvand
Cardiac arrhythmias are major life-threatening conditions. The landmark discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells has provided a promising in vitro system for modeling hereditary cardiac arrhythmias as well as drug development and toxicity testing. Nowadays, nutraceuticals are frequently used as supplements for cardiovascular therapy. Here we studied the cardiac effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pentagyna) leaf extract using cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from healthy human embryonic stem cells, long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia type 1 (CPVT1) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells...
November 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133063/octopamine-enhances-the-immune-responses-of-freshwater-giant-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii-via-octopamine-receptors
#15
Hsin-Wei Kuo, Winton Cheng
Octopamine (OA) is known to play an important role in regulating insect immune responses. In Macrobrachium rosenbergii (18.0 ± 1.7 g), OA at 25.0 and 250.0 pmol/prawn significantly increased THC, semigranular cells (SGCs) and PO activity in hemocytes per 50 μL hemolymph, hyaline cells, granular cells (GCs) and RBs in hemocytes per 10 μL hemolymph, and RBs per hemocyte, and however, significantly decreased PO activity per granulocyte (GC + SGC), which returned to control levels after 4 h of injection...
November 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132913/beta2-adrenergic-receptor-silencing-change-intraocular-pressure-in-new-zealand-rabbits
#16
Patricia Loma, Ana Guzman-Aranguez, Maria J Perez de Lara, Jesus Pintor
PURPOSE/AIM: Glaucoma consists of a group of progressive optic neuropathies that are characterized by degeneration of the optic nerve and irreversible visual filed loss. Elevated intraocular pressure is the only proven treatable risk factor and commercial products used for glaucoma treatment are focused in lowering intraocular pressure. These drugs can have various undesirable side effects and this invites to look for new strategies. The purpose of this work is to study the use of a siRNA (small interfering RNA) to selectively silence beta2 adrenergic receptors and to see whether it reduces IOP (intraocular pressure)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132297/association-between-%C3%A3-2-adrenergic-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-adverse-events-of-ritodrine-in-the-treatment-of-preterm-labor-a-prospective-observational-study
#17
Jee Eun Chung, Soo An Choi, Han Sung Hwang, Jin Young Park, Kyung Eun Lee, Jeong Yee, Young Ju Kim, Hye Sun Gwak
BACKGROUND: Ritodrine, a tocolytic β2-agonist, has been used extensively in Europe and Asia despite its safety concerns. This study was designed to identify associations between β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphisms and adverse drug events (ADEs) in patients with preterm labor treated with ritodrine. RESULTS: This follow-up study was prospectively conducted at Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital in Korea. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADRB2 gene (rs1042713, rs1042714, rs1042717, rs1042718, and rs1042719) were analyzed in 186 pregnant women with preterm labor...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132212/oil-exposure-impairs-in-situ-cardiac-function-in-response-to-%C3%AE-adrenergic-stimulation-in-cobia-rachycentron-canadum
#18
Georgina Kimberly Cox, Dane A Crossley, John D Stieglitz, Rachael M Heuer, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell
Aqueous crude oil spills expose fish to varying concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can have lethal and sub-lethal effects. The heart is particularly vulnerable in early life stages, as PAH toxicity causes developmental cardiac abnormalities and impaired cardiovascular function. However, cardiac responses of juvenile and adult fish to acute oil exposure remain poorly understood. We sought to assess cardiac function in a pelagic fish species, the cobia (Rachycentron canadum), following acute (24 hr) exposure to two ecologically relevant levels of dissolved PAH's...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131672/urethral-sphincter-mechanism-incompetence-in-dogs-an-update
#19
Rory Applegate, Shelly Olin, Bethany Sabatino
Urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) is the most common cause of acquired urinary incontinence in dogs. The pathogenesis of USMI is multifactorial and complex. Studies have shown variable results regarding the effects and timing of sterilization on the incidence of USMI. Diagnosis of USMI is often based on history, physical examination, and elimination of other differentials. Treatment options for USMI include medications, such as α-adrenergic agents and estrogen products, minimally-invasive urethral bulking procedures, surgical procedures (e...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131396/ractopamine-in-particulate-matter-emitted-from-beef-cattle-feedyards-and-playa-wetlands-in-the-central-plains
#20
Kimberly J Wooten, Melissa A Sandoz, Philip N Smith
Beef cattle in the United States are routinely administered ractopamine, a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, to enhance growth. This study is the first to quantify ractopamine in feedyard-emitted particulate matter (PM) and playa wetlands near feedyards. Ractopamine was present in 92% of PM samples, 16% of playa sediment samples, and 3% of playa water samples, at maximum concentrations of 4.7 μg/g, 5.2 ng/g (dry weight), and 271 ng/L, respectively. These data suggest that aerial transmission and deposition of PM is a transport mechanism for ractopamine between feedyards and aquatic systems in the region...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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