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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913968/post-ganglionic-autonomic-neuropathy-associated-with-anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibodies
#1
E Fileccia, R Rinaldi, R Liguori, A Incensi, R D'Angelo, M P Giannoccaro, V Donadio
PURPOSE: Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-Abs) have been associated with several conditions, rarely involving the autonomic nervous system. Here, we describe two patients complaining of autonomic symptoms in whom a post-ganglionic autonomic neuropathy has been demonstrated in association with significantly elevated serum and CSF GAD-Abs levels. METHODS: Patients underwent nerve conduction studies, sympathetic skin response testing, evaluation of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system and skin biopsy...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913688/left-ventricle-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-connective-tissue-accumulation-associates-with-initial-age-dependent-decline-in-v%C3%AC-o2peak-from-its-lifetime-apex
#2
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch, Joshua F Braselton, Thomas E Childs, Frank W Booth
Peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) strongly predicts morbidity and mortality better than other established risk factors, yet mechanisms associated with its age-associated decline are unknown. Our lab has shown that V̇O2peak first begins to decrease at the same age of 19-20 weeks old in both sedentary and wheel-running, female Wistar rats (Toedebusch et al., Physiol Genomics. 48:101-15, 2016). Here, we employed a total systemic approach using unsupervised interrogation of mRNA with RNA-sequencing. The purpose of our study was to analyze transcriptomic profiles from both sedentary (SED) and wheel-running (RUN) conditions as a strategy to identify pathways in the left ventricle that may contribute to the initial reductions in V̇O2peak occurring between 19 and 27 weeks of age...
December 2, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909770/the-natural-history-of-takotsubo-syndrome-a-two-year-follow-up-study-with-myocardial-sympathetic-and-perfusion-g-spect-imaging
#3
Stelvio Sestini, Francesco Pestelli, Mario Leoncini, Francesco Bellandi, Christian Mazzeo, Luigi Mansi, Ignasi Carrio, Antonio Castagnoli
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in sympathetic activity, perfusion, and left ventricular (LV) functionality in takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) patients from onset (T0) to post-onset conditions at 1 month (T1), 1-2 years (T2, T3). METHODS: Twenty-two patients (70 ± 11 years) underwent serial gated single photon emission tomography (G-SPECT) studies with (123)I-mIBG and (99m)Tc-Sestamibi. Statistics were performed using ANOVA/Sheffé post-hoc, correlation test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis (p < 0...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909533/patient-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-for-drug-development-and-screening-in-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia
#4
REVIEW
Ben Jehuda Ronen, Barad Lili
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), an inherited arrhythmia often leading to sudden cardiac death in children and young adults, is characterized by polymorphic/bidirectional ventricular tachycardia induced by adrenergic stimulation associated with emotionally stress or physical exercise. There are two forms of CPVT: 1. CPVT1 is caused by mutations in the RYR2 gene, encoding for ryanodine receptor type 2. CPVT1 is the most common form of CPVT in the population, and is inherited by a dominant mechanism...
August 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909248/regulation-of-chemokine-receptor-ccr2-recycling-by-filamin-a-phosphorylation
#5
Mònica Pons, Ismael Izquierdo, Mireia Andreu-Carbó, Georgina Garrido, Jesús Planagumà, Olivia Muriel, M Isabel Geli, Anna M Aragay
Proper endosomal trafficking of ligand-activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is essential to spatiotemporally tune their physiological responses. For the monocyte chemoattractant receptor 2 (CCR2B), endocytic recycling is important to sustain monocyte migration; while filamin A (FLNa) is essential for CCL2-induced monocyte migration. Here, we analyze the role of FLNa in the trafficking of CCR2B along the endocytic pathway. In FLNa knockdown cells, activated CCR2B accumulated in enlarged EEA-1-positive endosomes, which exhibited slow movement and fast fluorescence recovery, suggesting an imbalance between receptor entry and exit rates...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909224/sarcomeric-protein-modification-during-adrenergic-stress-enhances-cross-bridge-kinetics-and-cardiac-output
#6
Kenneth S Gresham, Ranganath Mamidi, Jiayang Li, Hyerin Kwak, Julian E Stelzer
Molecular adaptations to chronic neurohormonal stress, including sarcomeric protein cleavage and phosphorylation, provide a mechanism to increase ventricular contractility and enhance cardiac output, yet the link between sarcomeric protein modifications and changes in myocardial function remains unclear. To examine the effects of neurohormonal stress on post-translational modifications of sarcomeric proteins, mice were administered combined α- and β-adrenergic receptor agonists (isoproterenol and phenylephrine; IPE) for 14 days using implantable osmotic pumps...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908837/angiotensin-type-1a-receptor-regulates-%C3%AE-arrestin-binding-of-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-via-heterodimerization
#7
András D Tóth, Pál Gyombolai, Bence Szalai, Péter Várnai, Gábor Turu, László Hunyady
Heterodimerization between angiotensin type 1A receptor (AT1R) and β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) has been shown to modulate G protein-mediated effects of these receptors. Activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to β-arrestin binding, desensitization, internalization and G protein-independent signaling of GPCRs. Our aim was to study the effect of heterodimerization on β-arrestin coupling. We found that β-arrestin binding of β2AR is affected by activation of AT1Rs. Costimulation with angiotensin II and isoproterenol markedly enhanced the interaction between β2AR and β-arrestins, by prolonging the lifespan of β2AR-induced β-arrestin2 clusters at the plasma membrane...
November 28, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908653/molecular-changes-in-children-with-heart-failure-undergoing-left-ventricular-assist-device-therapy
#8
Elizabeth Medina, Carmen C Sucharov, Penny Nelson, Shelley D Miyamoto, Brian L Stauffer
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether left ventricular assist device (LVAD) treatment in children with heart failure would result in the modification of molecular pathways involved in heart failure pathophysiology. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-seven explanted hearts from children were studied (16 nonfailing control, 20 failing, and 11 failing post-LVAD implantation [F-LVAD]). Protein expression and phosphorylation states were determined by receptor binding assays and Western blots...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907040/the-role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-in-cardiomyocytes-from-mice-with-the-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Monica Llano-Diez, Jon Sinclair, Takashi Yamada, Mei Zong, Jeremy Fauconnier, Shi-Jin Zhang, Abram Katz, Kent Jardemark, Håkan Westerblad, Daniel C Andersson, Johanna T Lanner
The metabolic syndrome is associated with prolonged stress and hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and afflicted subjects are prone to develop cardiovascular disease. Under normal conditions, the cardiomyocyte response to acute β-adrenergic stimulation partly depends on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we investigated the interplay between beta-adrenergic signaling, ROS and cardiac contractility using freshly isolated cardiomyocytes and whole hearts from two mouse models with the metabolic syndrome (high-fat diet and ob/ob mice)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904707/prognostic-significance-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Tomohiro Yazawa, Kyoichi Kaira, Kimihiro Shimizu, Akira Shimizu, Keita Mori, Toshiteru Nagashima, Yoichi Ohtaki, Tetsunari Oyama, Akira Mogi, Hiroyuki Kuwano
BACKGROUND: The β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) is associated with tumor growth and progression. However, the clinical significance of β2-AR expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unclear. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-eight patients with surgically resected NSCLC were retrospectively investigated. Tumor sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for assessing β2-AR and Ki-67 expression and microvessel density (MVD), which was using CD34 levels...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904493/beta-2-adrenergic-receptor-activation-enhances-neurogenesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#11
Gao-Shang Chai, Yang-Yang Wang, Amina Yasheng, Peng Zhao
Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis is one of the early pathological features of Alzheimer's disease. Enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been pursued as a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that environmental novelty activates β2-adrenergic signaling and prevents the memory impairment induced by amyloid-β oligomers. Here, we hypothesized that β2-adrenoceptor activation would enhance neurogenesis and ameliorate memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903755/homobivalent-conjugation-increases-the-allosteric-effect-of-9-aminoacridine-at-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors
#12
Adrian P Campbell, Laurence P G Wakelin, William A Denny, Angela M Finch
The α1 adrenergic receptors are targets for a number of cardiovascular and CNS conditions, however current drugs for these receptors lack specificity to be of optimal clinical value. Allosteric modulators offer an alternative mechanism of action to traditional α1 adrenergic ligands, yet there is little information describing this drug class at the α1 adrenergic receptors. We have identified a series of 9-aminoacridine compounds that demonstrate allosteric modulation of the α1A and α1B adrenergic receptors...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901063/regulation-of-%C3%AE-2b-adrenergic-receptor-cell-surface-transport-by-gga1-and-gga2
#13
Maoxiang Zhang, Wei Huang, Jie Gao, Alvin V Terry, Guangyu Wu
The molecular mechanisms that control the targeting of newly synthesized G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to the functional destinations remain poorly elucidated. Here, we have determined the role of Golgi-localized, γ-adaptin ear domain homology, ADP ribosylation factor-binding proteins 1 and 2 (GGA1 and GGA2) in the cell surface transport of α2B-adrenergic receptor (α2B-AR), a prototypic GPCR, and studied the underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that knockdown of GGA1 and GGA2 by shRNA and siRNA significantly reduced the cell surface expression of inducibly expressed α2B-AR and arrested the receptor in the perinuclear region...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900836/spectrofluorimetric-determination-of-certain-adrenergic-agonist-drugs-in-their-pure-forms-and-pharmaceutical-formulations-content-uniformity-test-application
#14
Khalid M Badr El-Din, Tamer Z Attia
A new, simple, sensitive and rapid spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for determination of certain adrenergic agonists such as isoxsuprine hydrochloride, ritodrine hydrochloride and etilefrine hydrochloride in their pure forms and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method depends on micellar enhancement of the native fluorescence of investigated drugs by using 2% w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an anionic surfactant. The enhanced fluorescence intensity of investigated drugs was measured at 305 nm after excitation at 278 nm...
November 29, 2016: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900465/polymorphisms-in-beta-2-adrenergic-receptor-gene-and-association-with-tuberculosis
#15
Abbas Farzin Azar, Nima Hosseini Jazani, Ahad Bazmani, Ali Vahhabi, Shahram Shahabi
PURPOSE: Genetic susceptibility for tuberculosis in human has been previously demonstrated. Polymorphisms in genes involved in immune responses may alter the susceptibility of individuals to tuberculosis. Polymorphisms of beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene can be possibly an important risk factor in tuberculosis. In this study, the association between rs1042713 (Arg16Gly +46A>G) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu +79C>G) polymorphisms in ADRB2 gene and tuberculosis was evaluated. METHODS: Genotype distributions of the rs1042713 (Arg16Gly +46A>G) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu +79C>G) polymorphisms in ADRB2 gene in 106 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 88 healthy subjects were studied by PCR-RFLP method in an Iranian population...
November 29, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899953/repurposing-drugs-in-oncology-redo-propranolol-as-an-anti-cancer-agent
#16
Pan Pantziarka, Gauthier Bouche, Vidula Sukhatme, Lydie Meheus, Ilse Rooman, Vikas P Sukhatme
Propranolol (PRO) is a well-known and widely used non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (beta-blocker), with a range of actions which are of interest in an oncological context. PRO displays effects on cellular proliferation and invasion, on the immune system, on the angiogenic cascade, and on tumour cell sensitivity to existing treatments. Both pre-clinical and clinical evidence of these effects, in multiple cancer types, is assessed and summarised and relevant mechanisms of action outlined. In particular there is evidence that PRO is effective at multiple points in the metastatic cascade, particularly in the context of the post-surgical wound response...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898948/%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptors-stimulation-relaxes-porcine-myometrium-in-the-peri-implantation-period
#17
W Markiewicz, J J Jaroszewski
These studies were to demonstrate whether the β-receptor is involved in regulating the contractility of the swine myometrium in the peri-implantation period and to compare a relaxing activity of selective β- and β-adrenergic agonists (salbutamol and BRL 37344, respectively). Myometrial strips were collected form the gilts ( = 8) on d 12 to 14 of pregnancy. Changes in the contractility of myometrial strips were assessed further to the administration of increasing concentrations of the agonists (10 to 10 ) with and without β-adrenergic receptor antagonists: butoxamine, propranolol, and bupranolol at 10 ...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898856/the-effect-of-zilpaterol-hydrochloride-supplementation-on-energy-metabolism-and-nitrogen-and-carbon-retention-of-steers-fed-at-maintenance-and-fasting-intake-levels
#18
L J Walter, N A Cole, J S Jennings, J P Hutcheson, B E Meyer, A N Schmitz, D D Reed, T E Lawrence
An indirect calorimetry trial examined energy metabolism, apparent nutrient digestibility, C retention (CR), and N retention (NR) of cattle supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH). Beef steers ( = 20; 463 ± 14 kg) blocked ( = 5) by weight and source were individually fed and adapted to maintenance energy intake for 21 d before allotment to ZH (90 mg/steer∙d) or no β-adrenergic agonist treatment (control [CONT]) for 20 d (455 ± 14 kg at the start of treatment). Respiration chambers = 4 were used to quantify heat production (HP) during maintenance (d 12 to 16 of the ZH period) and fasting heat production (FHP; d 19 to 20 of ZH period; total 4 d of fast)...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898588/the-gut-peptide-neuropeptide-y-and-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#19
Ann M Rasmusson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with which PTSD is highly comorbid. NPY is low in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of male combat veterans with PTSD and correlates negatively with sympathetic nervous system (SNS) hyperreactivity, PTSD symptoms and time to recovery. NPY regulation has not yet been evaluated in women with PTSD...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897972/mechanism-of-allosteric-regulation-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-by-cholesterol
#20
Moutusi Manna, Miia Niemelä, Joona Tynkkynen, Matti Javanainen, Waldemar Kulig, Daniel J Müller, Tomasz Rog, Ilpo Vattulainen
There is evidence that lipids can be allosteric regulators of membrane protein structure and activation. However, there are no data showing how exactly the regulation emerges from specific lipid-protein interactions. Here we show in atomistic detail how the human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) - a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor - is modulated by cholesterol in an allosteric fashion. Extensive atomistic simulations show that cholesterol regulates β2AR by limiting its conformational variability. The mechanism of action is based on the binding of cholesterol at specific high-affinity sites located near the transmembrane helices 5-7 of the receptor...
November 29, 2016: ELife
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