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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667670/two-dimensional-transition-metal-carbides-and-nitrides-mxenes-for-biomedical-applications
#1
Kai Huang, Zhongjun Li, Jing Lin, Gang Han, Peng Huang
Two-dimensional transition metal carbides and nitrides known as MXenes, with a general formula of Mn+1Xn (n = 1-3), integrate the advantages of metallic conductive transition metals with large groups of carbides, nitrides, or carbonitrides. They have led to a burgeoning research interest in biomedical applications due to their ultrathin structure and fascinating physiochemical (electronic, optical, magnetic, etc.) properties. In this review, we summarize recent advances in biomedical applications for MXenes...
April 18, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667626/eus-fna-in-cystic-pancreatic-lesions-where-are-we-now-and-where-are-we-headed-in-the-future
#2
REVIEW
Jose Lariño-Noia, Julio Iglesias-Garcia, Daniel de la Iglesia-Garcia, J Enrique Dominguez-Muñoz
EUS-FNA is often performed in the evaluation of Cystic Pancreatic Lesions (CPL) for a better preoperative characterization. The objective is to identify premalignant lesions as Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms, and/or a malignant transformation of them (adenocarcinoma). The role of cytological evaluation in this setting is discouraging and intracystic markers analysis, mainly CEA, lacks of a good specificity for the detection of mucinous neoplasms. New devices and approaches have emerged to overcome these problems as the cytology brush (Echobrush), the small mini-biopsy foceps, the cystoscopy and the needle Confocal LASER Endomicroscopy (nCLE), showing in some studies good rates of accuracy for distinguishing among mucinosus and non-mucinous neoplasms...
March 2018: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667475/how-family-caregivers-help-older-relatives-navigate-statutory-services-at-the-end-of-life-a-descriptive-qualitative-study
#3
Lisa Ann Williams, Tess Moeke-Maxwell, Janine Wiles, Stella Black, Gabriella Trussardi, Ngaire Kerse, Merryn Gott
BACKGROUND: A key challenge in meeting the palliative care needs of people in advanced age is the multiple healthcare and social service agencies typically involved in their care. The 'patient navigator' model, originally developed in cancer care, is the professional solution most often recommended to address this challenge. However, little attention has been paid, or is known, about the role that family carers play in enabling their dying relatives to negotiate service gaps. AIM: To explore the role family caregivers play in helping people dying in advanced old age navigate health services at the end of life...
April 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667444/akt2-sirna-delivery-with-amphiphilic-based-polymeric-micelles-show-efficacy-against-cancer-stem-cells
#4
Diana Rafael, Petra Gener, Fernanda Andrade, Joaquin Seras-Franzoso, Sara Montero, Yolanda Fernández, Manuel Hidalgo, Diego Arango, Joan Sayós, Helena F Florindo, Ibane Abasolo, Simó Schwartz, Mafalda Videira
Development of RNA interference-based therapies with appropriate therapeutic window remains a challenge for advanced cancers. Because cancer stem cells (CSC) are responsible of sustaining the metastatic spread of the disease to distal organs and the progressive gain of resistance of advanced cancers, new anticancer therapies should be validated specifically for this subpopulation of cells. A new amphihilic-based gene delivery system that combines Pluronic® F127 micelles with polyplexes spontaneously formed by electrostatic interaction between anionic siRNA and cationic polyethylenimine (PEI) 10K, was designed (PM)...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667071/optimizing-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-an-update-on-new-insights-and-advancements
#5
REVIEW
Adam Grimaldi, Eiran Z Gorodeski, John Rickard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the current advancements in optimizing patient response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). RECENT FINDINGS: It has been well known that not every patient will derive benefit from CRT, and of those that do, there are varying levels of response. Optimizing CRT begins well before device implant and involves appropriate patient selection and an understanding of the underlying substrate. After implant, there are different CRT device programming options that can be enabled to help overcome barriers as to why a patient may not respond...
April 17, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667006/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-c57bl-6-mouse-model-of-bone-metastasis-of-breast-cancer
#6
Toru Hiraga, Tadashi Ninomiya
Bone is one of the most common sites of metastasis in patients with advanced breast cancer; however, the mechanisms of bone metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. Animal models are essential research tools for investigating the mechanisms of diseases and drug actions. To date, there have only been a few reports in which C57BL/6 mice were used for the study of bone metastases of breast cancer. In the current study, we found that intracardiac inoculation of C57BL/6 mouse-derived parental E0771 breast cancer cells (E0771/Pa) frequently lead to bone metastases in C57BL/6 mice within 2 weeks...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666806/the-frontline-of-esophageal-cancer-treatment-questions-to-be-asked-and-answered
#7
REVIEW
Cheng-Che Tu, Po-Kuei Hsu
Achieving a good treatment for esophageal cancer is a great challenge. For early stage cancer, endoscopic treatment is considered the first line and a possible curative therapy. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery are all used for the treatment of locally advanced esophageal cancer, administered either alone or combined. Some combinations have proven to be feasible, effective, and superior, such as neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) plus surgery in the Chemoradiotherapy for Oesophageal Cancer Followed by Surgery Study (CROSS) trial...
February 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666782/new-perspectives-on-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#8
REVIEW
Marika Rossini, Paola Rizzo, Ilaria Bononi, Anthony Clementz, Roberto Ferrari, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare, but severe form of cancer, with an incidence that varies significantly within and among different countries around the world. It develops in about one to two persons per million of the general population, leading to thousands of deaths every year worldwide. To date, the MPM is mostly associated with occupational asbestos exposure. Asbestos represents the predominant etiological factor, with approximately 70% of cases of MPM with well-documented occupational exposure to asbestos, with the exposure time, on average greater than 40 years...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666566/-enheduanna-a-manifesto-of-falling-live-brain-computer-cinema-performance-performer-and-audience-participation-cognition-and-emotional-engagement-using-multi-brain-bci-interaction
#9
Polina Zioga, Frank Pollick, Minhua Ma, Paul Chapman, Kristian Stefanov
The fields of neural prosthetic technologies and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have witnessed in the past 15 years an unprecedented development, bringing together theories and methods from different scientific fields, digital media, and the arts. More in particular, artists have been amongst the pioneers of the design of relevant applications since their emergence in the 1960s, pushing the boundaries of applications in real-life contexts. With the new research, advancements, and since 2007, the new low-cost commercial-grade wireless devices, there is a new increasing number of computer games, interactive installations, and performances that involve the use of these interfaces, combining scientific, and creative methodologies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666461/the-neural-encoding-of-information-prediction-errors-during-non-instrumental-information-seeking
#10
Maja Brydevall, Daniel Bennett, Carsten Murawski, Stefan Bode
In a dynamic world, accurate beliefs about the environment are vital for survival, and individuals should therefore regularly seek out new information with which to update their beliefs. This aspect of behaviour is not well captured by standard theories of decision making, and the neural mechanisms of information seeking remain unclear. One recent theory posits that valuation of information results from representation of informative stimuli within canonical neural reward-processing circuits, even if that information lacks instrumental use...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666146/identification-of-circadian-clock-modulators-from-existing-drugs
#11
T Katherine Tamai, Yusuke Nakane, Wataru Ota, Akane Kobayashi, Masateru Ishiguro, Naoya Kadofusa, Keisuke Ikegami, Kazuhiro Yagita, Yasufumi Shigeyoshi, Masaki Sudo, Taeko Nishiwaki-Ohkawa, Ayato Sato, Takashi Yoshimura
Chronic circadian disruption due to shift work or frequent travel across time zones leads to jet-lag and an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The development of new pharmaceuticals to treat circadian disorders, however, is costly and hugely time-consuming. We therefore performed a high-throughput chemical screen of existing drugs for circadian clock modulators in human U2OS cells, with the aim of repurposing known bioactive compounds. Approximately 5% of the drugs screened altered circadian period, including the period-shortening compound dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA; also known as prasterone)...
April 17, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666026/cervical-cancer-state-of-the-science-from-angiogenesis-blockade-to-checkpoint-inhibition
#12
REVIEW
Lindsey E Minion, Krishnansu S Tewari
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has emerged as a therapeutic target in several malignancies, including cervical cancer. Chemotherapy doublets combined with the fully humanized monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, now constitute first-line therapy for women struggling with recurrent/metastatic cervical carcinoma. Regulatory approval for this indication was based on the phase III randomized trial, GOG 240, which demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in overall survival when bevacizumab was added to chemotherapy: 17...
March 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665979/crosstalk-between-yap-taz-and-notch-signaling
#13
REVIEW
Antonio Totaro, Martina Castellan, Daniele Di Biagio, Stefano Piccolo
How the behavior of cells in living tissues is orchestrated according to tissue needs, size, and developmental stage is still poorly understood. Advances in these directions are essential to understand morphogenesis, 'self-organization' phenomena, to build new tissues for regenerative medicine or to reverse the changes in deranged organs, such as in cancer or in genetic disorders. This review outlines a new scenario by which the crosstalk between the Yes-associated protein/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (YAP/TAZ) transcription factors and Notch signaling influences cell self-renewal, stem cell differentiation, cell fate decisions, epithelial-stromal interactions, inflammation, morphogenesis, and large-scale gene oscillations...
April 14, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665576/radiocesium-interaction-with-clay-minerals-theory-and-simulation-advances-post-fukushima
#14
Masahiko Okumura, Sebastien Kerisit, Ian C Bourg, Laura N Lammers, Takashi Ikeda, Michel Sassi, Kevin M Rosso, Masahiko Machida
Insights at the microscopic level of the process of radiocesium adsorption and interaction with clay mineral particles have improved substantially over the past several years, triggered by pressing social issues such as management of huge amounts of waste soil accumulated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. In particular, computer-based molecular modeling supported by advanced hardware and algorithms has proven to be a powerful approach. Its application can now generally encompass the full complexity of clay particle adsorption sites from basal surfaces to interlayers with inserted water molecules, to edges including fresh and weathered frayed ones...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665552/emission-of-volatile-organic-compounds-from-plants-shows-a-biphasic-pattern-within-an-hormetic-context
#15
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Edward J Calabrese
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are released to the atmosphere from vegetation. BVOCs aid in maintaining ecosystem sustainability via a series of functions, however, VOCs can alter tropospheric photochemistry and negatively affect biological organisms at high concentrations. Due to their critical role in ecosystem and environmental sustainability, BVOCs receive particular attention by global change biologists. To understand how plant VOC emissions affect stress responses within a dose-response context, dose responses should be evaluated...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665409/epigenomic-biomarkers-for-prognostication-and-diagnosis-of-gastrointestinal-cancers
#16
REVIEW
Chi Chun Wong, Weilin Li, Bertina Chan, Jun Yu
Altered epigenetic regulation is central to many human diseases, including cancer. Over the past two decade, major advances have been made in our understanding of the role of epigenetic alterations in carcinogenesis, particularly for DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs. Aberrant hypermethylation of DNA at CpG islands is a well-established phenomenon that mediates transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes, and it is an early event integral to gastrointestinal cancer development...
April 14, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665244/dafi-a-directed-recursive-data-filtering-and-clustering-approach-for-improving-and-interpreting-data-clustering-identification-of-cell-populations-from-polychromatic-flow-cytometry-data
#17
Alexandra J Lee, Ivan Chang, Julie G Burel, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Aishwarya Mandava, Daniela Weiskopf, Bjoern Peters, Alessandro Sette, Richard H Scheuermann, Yu Qian
Computational methods for identification of cell populations from polychromatic flow cytometry data are changing the paradigm of cytometry bioinformatics. Data clustering is the most common computational approach to unsupervised identification of cell populations from multidimensional cytometry data. However, interpretation of the identified data clusters is labor-intensive. Certain types of user-defined cell populations are also difficult to identify by fully automated data clustering analysis. Both are roadblocks before a cytometry lab can adopt the data clustering approach for cell population identification in routine use...
April 17, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665168/application-of-in-situ-techniques-for-the-characterization-of-nife-based-oxygen-evolution-reaction-oer-electrocatalysts
#18
Weishen Yang, Kaiyue Zhu, Xuefeng Zhu
Developing high-efficiency and affordable electrocatalysts for the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) remains a crucial bottleneck on the way to the practical applications of rechargeable energy storage technologies and water splitting for producing clean fuel (H2). In recent years, NiFe based materials have demonstrated to be excellent electrocatalysts for OER. Understanding the characteristics that affect OER activity and determining the OER mechanism are of vital importance for the development of OER electrocatalysts...
April 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665147/detrimental-effects-of-a-novel-flow-regime-on-the-functional-trajectory-of-an-aquatic-invertebrate-metacommunity
#19
Albert Ruhi, Xiaoli Dong, Courtney H McDaniel, Darold P Batzer, John L Sabo
Novel flow regimes resulting from dam operations and overallocation of freshwater resources are an emerging consequence of global change. Yet, anticipating how freshwater biodiversity will respond to surging flow regime alteration requires overcoming two challenges in environmental flow science: shifting from local to riverscape-level understanding of biodiversity dynamics, and from static to time-varying characterizations of the flow regime. Here, we used time-series methods (wavelets and multivariate autoregressive models) to quantify flow-regime alteration and to link time-varying flow regimes to the dynamics of multiple local communities potentially connected by dispersal (i...
April 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664847/ovarian-cancer-surgery-in-australia-and-new-zealand-a-survey-to-determine-changes-in-surgical-practice-over-10-years
#20
Rhonda Farrell, Winston Spencer Liauw, Alison Hilary Brand
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to survey all practicing certified gynecological oncologists (CGOs) in Australia and New Zealand to determine their current surgical practice for primary advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and compare the findings with an identical survey conducted 10 years previously. METHODS/MATERIALS: A questionnaire was e-mailed to all 53 practicing CGOs in Australia and New Zealand in July 2017 assessing their definition of optimal debulking for EOC, their use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the surgical procedures they use to achieve cytoreduction...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
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