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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320134/post-hemorrhagic-hydrocephalus-recent-advances-and-new-therapeutic-insights
#1
REVIEW
Qianwei Chen, Zhou Feng, Qiang Tan, Jing Guo, Jun Tang, Liang Tan, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen
Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH), also referred to as progressive ventricular dilatation, is caused by disturbances in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow or absorption following hemorrhage in the brain. As one of the most serious complications of neonatal/adult intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and traumatic brain injury (TBI), PHH is associated with increased morbidity and disability of these events. Common sequelae of PHH include neurocognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and growth impairment...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319908/the-sociology-of-space-as-a-catalyst-for-innovation-in-the-health-sector
#2
Trust Saidi, Katusha de Villiers, Tania S Douglas
This paper reviews the role of space in facilitating innovation. It draws on the sociology of space in exploring the social practices, institutional forces and material complexity of how people and spaces interact. We assess how space influences the development of innovative solutions to challenges in the health sector. Our aim is to advance an understanding of the social production of space for healthcare innovation. We draw empirical examples from the Innovation Hub at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town to illustrate that innovation does not take place in an institutional vacuum, but requires space that facilitates interaction of different players...
March 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319854/extremely-thermophilic-energy-metabolisms-biotechnological-prospects
#3
REVIEW
Christopher T Straub, Benjamin M Zeldes, Gerrit J Schut, Michael Ww Adams, Robert M Kelly
New strategies for metabolic engineering of extremely thermophilic microorganisms to produce bio-based fuels and chemicals could leverage pathways and physiological features resident in extreme thermophiles for improved outcomes. Furthermore, very recent advances in genetic tools for these microorganisms make it possible for them to serve as metabolic engineering hosts. Beyond providing a higher temperature alternative to mesophilic platforms, exploitation of strategic metabolic characteristics of high temperature microorganisms grants new opportunities for biotechnological products...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319812/exploring-sequence-space-harnessing-chemical-and-biological-diversity-towards-new-peptide-leads
#4
REVIEW
Richard Obexer, Louise J Walport, Hiroaki Suga
From their early roots in natural products, peptides now represent an expanding class of novel drugs. Their modular structures make them ideal candidates for pooled library screening approaches. Key technologies for library generation and screening, such as SICLOPPS, phage display and mRNA display, give unparalleled access to tight binding peptides. Through combination with genetic code reprogramming and chemical modifications, access to more natural product-like libraries, spanning non-canonical peptide space, is readily achievable...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319221/fluorescent-chemical-probes-for-accurate-tumor-diagnosis-and-targeting-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Min Gao, Fabiao Yu, Changjun Lv, Jaebum Choo, Lingxin Chen
Surgical resection of solid tumors is currently the gold standard and preferred therapeutic strategy for cancer. Chemotherapy drugs also make a significant contribution by inhibiting the rapid growth of tumor cells and these two approaches are often combined to enhance treatment efficacy. However, surgery and chemotherapy inevitably lead to severe side effects and high systemic toxicity, which in turn results in poor prognosis. Precision medicine has promoted the development of treatment modalities that are developed to specifically target and kill tumor cells...
March 20, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319168/targeting-chronic-cardiac-remodeling-with-cardiac-progenitor-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#6
Janine C Deddens, Dries A Feyen, Peter-Paul Zwetsloot, Maike A Brans, Sailay Siddiqi, Linda W van Laake, Pieter A Doevendans, Joost P Sluijter
BACKGROUND: Translational failure for cardiovascular disease is a substantial problem involving both high research costs and an ongoing lack of novel treatment modalities. Despite the progress already made, cell therapy for chronic heart failure in the clinical setting is still hampered by poor translation. We used a murine model of chronic ischemia/reperfusion injury to examine the effect of minimally invasive application of cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) in cardiac remodeling and to improve clinical translation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319119/evaluating-the-combined-effects-of-ballast-water-management-and-trade-dynamics-on-transfers-of-marine-organisms-by-ships
#7
Katharine J Carney, Mark S Minton, Kimberly K Holzer, A Whitman Miller, Linda D McCann, Gregory M Ruiz
Global trade by merchant ships is a leading mechanism for the unintentional transfer of marine organisms, including non-indigenous species, to bays and estuaries worldwide. To reduce the likelihood of new invasions, ships are increasingly being required to manage their ballast water (BW) prior to discharge in coastal waters. In the United States, most overseas arrivals have been required to manage BW discharge since 2004, primarily through ballast water exchange (BWE), which flushes out ballast tanks in the open ocean (>200 miles from shore)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319067/the-histone-demethylase-kdm3a-and-its-downstream-target-mcam-promote-ewing-sarcoma-cell-migration-and-metastasis
#8
M Sechler, J K Parrish, D K Birks, P Jedlicka
Ewing Sarcoma is the second most common solid pediatric malignant neoplasm of bone and soft tissue. Driven by EWS/Ets, or rarely variant, oncogenic fusions, Ewing Sarcoma is a biologically and clinically aggressive disease with a high propensity for metastasis. However, the mechanisms underpinning Ewing Sarcoma metastasis are currently not well understood. In the present study, we identify and characterize a novel metastasis-promotional pathway in Ewing Sarcoma, involving the histone demethylase KDM3A, previously identified by our laboratory as a new cancer-promoting gene in this disease...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319061/ccdc178-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-metastasis-through-modulation-of-anoikis
#9
X Hu, Y Zhao, L Wei, B Zhu, D Song, J Wang, L Yu, J Wu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant tumors with high rate of recurrence and metastasis. Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 178 (CCDC178) has been reported to be mutated in HCC, whereas its role in physiological and pathologic process, including in human cancer, remains largely unknown. Here, we found that CCDC178 is upregulated in HCC tissues and its overexpression is correlated with pathological stage (P=0.003). CCDC178 deficiency reduced the anchorage-independent growth and anoikis resistance of HCC cells, and inhibited the HCC metastasis in vivo...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319059/camk2%C3%AE-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-modulates-colitis-associated-colorectal-carcinogenesis-via-enhancing-stat3-activation
#10
X Ma, Z Meng, L Jin, Z Xiao, X Wang, W M Tsark, L Ding, Y Gu, J Zhang, B Kim, M He, X Gan, J E Shively, H Yu, R Xu, W Huang
Inflammation is one of the major risk factors for cancer. Here, we show that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CAMK2γ) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) modulates inflammatory signals and promotes colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in mice. We have identified CAMK2γ as a downstream target of colitis-induced WNT5A signaling. Furthermore, we have shown that CAMK2γ protects against intestine tissue injury by increasing IEC survival and proliferation. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma knockout mice displayed reduced CAC...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318881/targeted-therapy-in-thyroid-cancer-state-of-the-art
#11
L Valerio, L Pieruzzi, C Giani, L Agate, V Bottici, L Lorusso, V Cappagli, L Puleo, A Matrone, D Viola, C Romei, R Ciampi, E Molinaro, R Elisei
Thyroid cancer typically has a good outcome following standard treatments, which include surgery, radioactive iodine ablation for differentiated tumours and treatment with thyrotropine hormone-suppressive levothyroxine. Thyroid cancers that persist or recur following these therapies have a poorer prognosis. Cytotoxic chemotherapy or external beam radiotherapy has a low efficacy in these patients. 'Target therapy' with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent an important therapeutic option for the treatment of advanced cases of radioiodine refractory (RAI-R) differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and possibly for cases of poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC)...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318674/organ-donor-management-eight-common-recommendations-and-actions-that-deserve-reflection
#12
C Chamorro-Jambrina, M R Muñoz-Ramírez, J L Martínez-Melgar, M S Pérez-Cornejo
Despite major advances in our understanding of the physiopathology of brain death (BD), there are important controversies as to which protocol is the most appropriate for organ donor management. Many recent reviews on this subject offer recommendations that are sometimes contradictory and in some cases are not applied to other critically ill patients. This article offers a review of the publications (many of them recent) with an impact upon these controversial measures and which can help to confirm, refute or open new areas of research into the most appropriate measures for the management of organ donors in BD, and which should contribute to discard certain established recommendations based on preconceived ideas, that lead to actions lacking a physiopathological basis...
March 16, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318532/modern-approach-to-an-old-technique-narrative-revision-of-techniques-used-to-locate-the-epidural-space
#13
N Brogly, E Guasch Arévalo, A Kollmann Camaiora, E Alsina Marcos, C García García, F Gilsanz Rodríguez
Since the first description of the epidural technique during the 1920s, the continuous progress of knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the epidural space has allowed the development of different techniques to locate this space while increasing both the safety and efficacy of the procedure. The most common techniques used today are based on the two main characteristics of the epidural space: the difference in distensibility between the ligamentum flavum and the epidural space, and the existence of negative pressure within the epidural space...
March 16, 2017: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318502/efficacy-of-virtual-reality-in-pedestrian-safety-research
#14
Shuchisnigdha Deb, Daniel W Carruth, Richard Sween, Lesley Strawderman, Teena M Garrison
Advances in virtual reality technology present new opportunities for human factors research in areas that are dangerous, difficult, or expensive to study in the real world. The authors developed a new pedestrian simulator using the HTC Vive head mounted display and Unity software. Pedestrian head position and orientation were tracked as participants attempted to safely cross a virtual signalized intersection (5.5 m). In 10% of 60 trials, a vehicle violated the traffic signal and in 10.84% of these trials, a collision between the vehicle and the pedestrian was observed...
March 16, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318483/automated-atom-by-atom-three-dimensional-3d-reconstruction-of-field-ion-microscopy-data
#15
Michal Dagan, Baptiste Gault, George D W Smith, Paul A J Bagot, Michael P Moody
An automated procedure has been developed for the reconstruction of field ion microscopy (FIM) data that maintains its atomistic nature. FIM characterizes individual atoms on the specimen's surface, evolving subject to field evaporation, in a series of two-dimensional (2D) images. Its unique spatial resolution enables direct imaging of crystal defects as small as single vacancies. To fully exploit FIM's potential, automated analysis tools are required. The reconstruction algorithm developed here relies on minimal assumptions and is sensitive to atomic coordinates of all imaged atoms...
March 20, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317608/food-processing-antioxidants
#16
F J Hidalgo, R Zamora
Food processing has been carried out since ancient times as a way to preserve and improve food nutritional and organoleptic properties. Although it has some undesirable consequences, such as the losses of some nutrients and the potential formation of toxic compounds, a wide range of benefits can be enumerated. Among them, the increased total antioxidant capacity of many processed foods has been known for long. This consequence has been related to both the release or increased availability of natural antioxidants and the de novo formation of substances with antioxidant properties as a consequence of the produced reactions...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317584/dealing-with-microscopic-peritoneal-metastases-of-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-a-surgical-challenge
#17
REVIEW
Henri Azaïs, Juan Pablo Estevez, Périne Foucher, Yohan Kerbage, Serge Mordon, Pierre Collinet
Understanding biology and progression mechanisms of peritoneal metastases of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a cornerstone in the knowledge and the comprehensive management of the disease. Despite clinical remission after the association of complete cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, peritoneal recurrence still occurs in 60% of patients. Eligible studies, published from 1980 to June 2016, were retrieved through ClinicalTrials.gov, MEDLINE, Cochrane databases and bibliography searches...
March 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317452/recent-advances-in-diagnostic-testing-for-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#18
Rishi D Naik, Michael F Vaezi
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has a large economic burden with important complications that include esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and adenocarcinoma. Despite endoscopy, validated patient questionnaires, and traditional ambulatory pH monitoring, the diagnosis of GERD continues to be challenging. Areas covered: This review will explore the difficulties in diagnosing GERD with a focus on new developments, ranging from basic fundamental changes (histology and immunohistochemistry) to direct patient care (narrow-band imaging, impedance, and response to anti-reflux surgery)...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317403/intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-current-management-and-emerging-therapies
#19
Amir A Rahnemai-Azar, Allison B Weisbrod, Mary Dillhoff, Carl Schmidt, Timothy M Pawlik
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a malignancy with an increasing incidence and a high-case fatality. While surgery offers the best hope at long-term survival, only one-third of tumors are amenable to surgical resection at the time of the diagnosis. Unfortunately, conventional chemotherapy offers limited survival benefit in the management of unresectable or metastatic disease. Recent advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of iCCA and the use of next-generation sequencing techniques have provided a chance to identify "target-able" molecular aberrations...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317249/getting-back-to-the-dissecting-room-an-evaluation-of-an-innovative-course-in-musculoskeletal-anatomy-for-uk-based-rheumatology-training
#20
Tim Blake, Debbi Marais, Andrew B Hassell, Kay Stevenson, Zoe Paskins
BACKGROUND: The rheumatologist relies heavily on clinical skills to diagnose diverse conditions, something that is correlated with one's knowledge of clinical anatomy. More recently, rheumatology has offered further career flexibility with opportunities to develop skills such as joint injection and musculoskeletal (MSK) ultrasound, both of which require a sound understanding of anatomy. Currently, there are no formal strategies to support competency-based anatomy learning in rheumatology in the UK...
March 20, 2017: Musculoskeletal Care
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