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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452334/seed-2-a-user-friendly-platform-for-amplicon-high-throughput-sequencing-data-analyses
#1
Tomáš Vetrovský, Petr Baldrian, Daniel Morais, Bonnie Berger
Motivation: Modern molecular methods have increased our ability to describe microbial communities. Along with the advances brought by new sequencing technologies, we now require intensive computational resources to make sense of the large numbers of sequences continuously produced. The software developed by the scientific community to address this demand, although very useful, require experience of the command-line environment, extensive training and have steep learning curves, limiting their use...
February 14, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452098/features-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-as-predictors-of-lung-cancer
#2
Laurie L Carr, Sean Jacobson, David A Lynch, Marilyn G Foreman, Eric L Flenaugh, Craig P Hersh, Frank C Sciurba, David O Wilson, Jessica C Sieren, Patrick Mulhall, Victor Kim, C Matthew Kinsey, Russell P Bowler
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a leading cause of death and hospitalization for patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, (COPD); a detailed understanding of which clinical features of COPD increase risk is needed. METHODS: To identify clinical and imaging features of smokers, with and without COPD, that are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, we performed a nested case-control study of COPDGene subjects with and without lung cancer, age 45-80, who smoked at least 10-pack years...
February 13, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451922/identifying-classifier-input-signals-to-predict-a-cross-slope-during-transtibial-amputee-walking
#3
Courtney E Shell, Glenn K Klute, Richard R Neptune
Advanced prosthetic foot designs often incorporate mechanisms that adapt to terrain changes in real-time to improve mobility. Early identification of terrain (e.g., cross-slopes) is critical to appropriate adaptation. This study suggests that a simple classifier based on linear discriminant analysis can accurately predict a cross-slope encountered (0°, -15°, 15°) using measurements from the residual limb, primarily from the prosthesis itself. The classifier was trained and tested offline using motion capture and in-pylon sensor data collected during walking trials in mid-swing and early stance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451790/copper-ii-chlorate-complexes-the-renaissance-of-a-forgotten-and-misjudged-energetic-anion
#4
Maximilian H H Wurzenberger, Norbert Szimhardt, Jörg Stierstorfer
A convenient synthetic route toward new copper(II) chlorate complexes with potential use in modern advanced igni-tion or initiation systems is described. Obtained compounds were not only accurately characterized (XRD, IR, UV/Vis EA and DTA) but also investigated for their energetic character (sensitivities, initiation capability and laser ignition). The copper 4-aminotriazolyl chlorate complex showed excellent initiation of PETN, while also being thermally stable and safe to handle. Solid-state UV-Vis measurements were performed to get a possible insight toward the laser initia-tion mechanism...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451407/advancements-in-drug-development-for-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
Giovanni Dothel, Maria Raffaell Barbaro, Emanuel Raschi, Giovanni Barbara, Fabrizio De Ponti
Introduction Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a common disorder characterized by a complex pathophysiology hampering optimal targeted drug development. Recent advances in our understanding of key underlying mechanisms prompted novel therapeutics including novel pharmacological approaches. Areas covered This review summarizes the latest advancements in the pipeline of IBS-D drugs focusing on new pharmacological targets, efficacy and safety of medicinal products considering the recent harmonization of regulatory requirements by the FDA and the EMA...
February 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451396/vacuum-assisted-breast-biopsy-vab-excision-of-subcentimeter-microcalcifications-as-an-alternative-to-open-biopsy-for-atypical-ductal-hyperplasia
#6
Schiaffino Simone, Massone Elena, Gristina Licia, Fregatti Piero, Rescinito Giuseppe, Alessandro Villa, Friedman Daniele, Calabrese Massimo
OBJECTIVE: To report the results of the conservative management with mammographic checks of patients with ADH diagnosed by vacuum assisted breast biopsy (VAB), without residual calcifications. METHODS: The authors accessed the institutional database of radiological, surgical and pathologic anatomy. Inclusion criteria were: ADH diagnosed by VAB on a single group of microcalcifications, without residual post-procedure; follow-up at least of 12 months. Exclusion criteria were the presence of personal history of breast cancer or other high risk lesions; association with other synchronous lesions, both more and less advanced proliferative lesions...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451277/tivozanib-a-new-treatment-option-for-renal-cell-carcinoma
#7
L Saes, F A L M Eskens
Tivozanib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets all vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), causing inhibition of angiogenesis. It has recently been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for first-line treatment of adult patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and for adult patients who are VEGFR and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway inhibitor-naive, following disease progression after one prior treatment with cytokine therapy for advanced RCC. This review will focus on mechanisms of action, early drug development and results of published and ongoing clinical trials of tivozanib...
November 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451090/study-of-changes-in-lipid-profile-and-insulin-resistance-in-egyptian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4-in-the-era-of-daas
#8
Ghada El Sagheer, Elwy Soliman, Asmaa Ahmad, Lamiaa Hamdy
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with altered metabolism, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. These contribute to disease progression and influences the response to therapy. To investigate the relationships of new direct-acting antiviral drugs, simeprevir/sofosbuvir, with lipid profile and insulin resistance (IR). Eighty chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 patients were included; they were divided into four groups according to the severity of fibrosis as detected by fibroscan. Forty healthy persons volunteered as a control group...
December 2018: Libyan Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451021/the-uva-padova-type-1-diabetes-simulator-goes-from-single-meal-to-single-day
#9
Roberto Visentin, Enrique Campos-Náñez, Michele Schiavon, Dayu Lv, Martina Vettoretti, Marc Breton, Boris P Kovatchev, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli
BACKGROUND: A new version of the UVA/Padova Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Simulator is presented which provides a more realistic testing scenario. The upgrades to the previous simulator, which was accepted by the Food and Drug Administration in 2013, are described. METHOD: Intraday variability of insulin sensitivity (S I ) has been modeled, based on clinical T1D data, accounting for both intra- and intersubject variability of daily S I . Thus, time-varying distributions of both subject's basal insulin infusion and insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio were calculated and made available to the user...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451020/the-brigatinib-experience-a-new-generation-of-therapy-for-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Idoroenyi Amanam, Rohan Gupta, Isa Mambetsariev, Ravi Salgia
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world with 1.69 million deaths in 2015. A total of 85% of lung cancer cases are non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Driver mutations associated with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have been identified in a variety of malignancies, including NSCLC. An ALK inhibitor (crizotinib, ceritinib and alectinib) is the preferred therapeutic approach to those advanced ALK fusion variant-positive NSCLC patients. Brigatinib, a next-generation ALK inhibitor, shows promising activity in ALK-rearranged NSCLC that have previously received crizotinib with response rates in ALTA ranging from 42-50%, intracranial response 42-67% and median progression-free survival 9...
February 16, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450944/nrf2-addiction-in-cancer-cells
#11
REVIEW
Hiroshi Kitamura, Hozumi Motohashi
The KEAP1-NRF2 system is a pivotal defense mechanism against oxidative and electrophilic stress. While transient NRF2 activation in response to stress is beneficial for health, persistent NRF2 activation in cancer cells has deleterious effects on cancer-bearing hosts by conferring therapeutic resistance and aggressive tumorigenic activity on cancer cells. Because NRF2 increases the anti-oxidant and detoxification capability of cancer cells, persistently high levels of NRF2 activity enhance therapeutic resistance of the cancer cells...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450919/looking-into-the-future-toward-advanced-3d-biomaterials-for-stem-cell-based-regenerative-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Zhongmin Liu, Mingliang Tang, Jinping Zhao, Renjie Chai, Jiuhong Kang
Stem-cell-based therapies have the potential to provide novel solutions for the treatment of a variety of diseases, but the main obstacles to such therapies lie in the uncontrolled differentiation and functional engraftment of implanted tissues. The physicochemical microenvironment controls the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells, and the key step in mimicking the stem cell microenvironment is to construct a more physiologically relevant 3D culture system. Material-based 3D assemblies of stem cells facilitate the cellular interactions that promote morphogenesis and tissue organization in a similar manner to that which occurs during embryogenesis...
February 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450905/a-tramp-derived-orthotopic-prostate-syngeneic-tops-cancer-model-for-investigating-anti-tumor-treatments
#13
Justin Lardizabal, Jun Ding, Zahid Delwar, Paul S Rennie, William Jia
BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced prostate cancer have limited curative options, therefore new treatments are needed. Mouse models play a pivotal role in the discovery and development of new treatments. In the present study, a TRAMP-derived Orthotopic Prostate Syngeneic (TOPS) mouse model was developed and found to provide a consistent means of monitoring tumor and metastatic responses to novel treatments. METHODS: The mouse TOPS model was generated using luciferase transduced TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cells that were orthotopically injected into Bl6 mice by ultrasound guidance...
February 16, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450666/recent-advances-in-hyaluronic-acid-based-therapy-for-osteoarthritis
#14
REVIEW
Steven Bowman, Mohamed E Awad, Mark W Hamrick, Monte Hunter, Sadanand Fulzele
Osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease that has increased in prevalence across the world due to the aging population. Currently, physicians use a plethora of treatment strategies to try and slow down the progression of the disease, but none have been shown to ubiquitously treat and cure the disease. One of the strategies uses the high molecular weight molecule hyaluronic acid as either an injectable or oral supplement for treatment. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a relatively new treatment that has shown varied results through several clinical trials...
February 16, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450405/building-with-intent-technologies-and-principles-for-engineering-mammalian-cell-based-therapies-to-sense-and-respond
#15
Joseph J Muldoon, Patrick S Donahue, Taylor B Dolberg, Joshua N Leonard
The engineering of cells as programmable devices has enabled therapeutic strategies that could not otherwise be achieved. Such strategies include recapitulating and enhancing native cellular functions and composing novel functions. These novel functions may be composed using both natural and engineered biological components, with the latter exemplified by the development of synthetic receptor and signal transduction systems. Recent advances in implementing these approaches include the treatment of cancer, where the most clinical progress has been made to date, and the treatment of diabetes...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449955/prospects-for-precision-medicine-in-glomerulonephritis-treatment
#16
REVIEW
Yulu Cherry Liu, Justin Chun
Background: Glomerulonephritis (GN) consists of a group of kidney diseases that are categorized based on shared histopathological features. The current classifications for GN make it difficult to distinguish the individual variability in presentation, disease progression, and response to treatment. GN is a significant cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and improved therapies are desperately needed because current immunosuppressive therapies sometimes lack efficacy and can lead to significant toxicities...
2018: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449939/innovative-approaches-to-genome-editing-in-avian-species
#17
REVIEW
Caitlin A Cooper, Timothy J Doran, Arjun Challagulla, Mark L V Tizard, Kristie A Jenkins
The tools available for genome engineering have significantly improved over the last 5 years, allowing scientist to make precise edits to the genome. Along with the development of these new genome editing tools has come advancements in technologies used to deliver them. In mammals genome engineering tools are typically delivered into in vitro fertilized single cell embryos which are subsequently cultured and then implanted into a recipient animal. In avian species this is not possible, so other methods have been developed for genome engineering in birds...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449798/dna-methylation-master-or-slave-of-neural-fate-decisions
#18
REVIEW
Stefan H Stricker, Magdalena Götz
The pristine formation of complex organs depends on sharp temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms have been frequently attributed a central role in controlling cell fate determination. A prime example for this is the first discovered and still most studied epigenetic mark, DNA methylation, and the development of the most complex mammalian organ, the brain. Recently, the field of epigenetics has advanced significantly: new DNA modifications were discovered, epigenomic profiling became widely accessible, and methods for targeted epigenomic manipulation have been developed...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449689/current-and-emerging-therapies-for-pnets-in-patients-with-or-without-men1
#19
REVIEW
Morten Frost, Kate E Lines, Rajesh V Thakker
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs) might occur as a non-familial isolated endocrinopathy or as part of a complex hereditary syndrome, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). MEN1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the combined occurrence of PNETs with tumours of the parathyroids and anterior pituitary. Treatments for primary PNETs include surgery. Treatments for non-resectable PNETs and metastases include biotherapy (for example, somatostatin analogues, inhibitors of receptors and monoclonal antibodies), chemotherapy and radiological therapy...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449602/diamond-finfet-without-hydrogen-termination
#20
Biqin Huang, Xiwei Bai, Stephen K Lam, Kenneth K Tsang
In this letter we report the first diamond fin field-effect transistor (diamond FinFET) without a hydrogen-terminated channel. The device operates with hole accumulation by metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures built on fins to maintain effective control of the channel conduction. Devices with 100-nm-wide fins were designed and fabricated to ensure that the channel pinched off at zero gate bias. The transfer characteristic of FinFET showed a greater than 3000 on/off ratio, successfully demonstrating the transistor behavior...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
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