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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156862/the-prevalence-of-abdominal-obesity-is-remarkable-for-underweight-and-normal-weight-adolescent-girls
#1
Nilüfer Acar Tek, Nevin Şanlıer, Duygu Türközü
Background/aim: Obesity is a global public health challenge. This study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in Turkish adolescent girls. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 1111 adolescent girls aged 12?18 years. The subjects were classified into four groups: underweight, normal, overweight, and obese. Abdominal obesity was defined according to waist circumference (WC) ≥ 90th percentile for Turkish adolescent population references (12-17 years) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) ≥ 0...
August 23, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156529/alpinetin-improved-high-fat-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-through-improving-oxidative-stress-inflammatory-response-and-lipid-metabolism
#2
Yong Zhou, Yin-Lu Ding, Jian-Liang Zhang, Peng Zhang, Jin-Qing Wang, Zhao-Hua Li
The non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious medical problem and an increasing threat to public health. It is characterized by the abnormal fat accumulation in liver without excessive alcohol intake. The concurrent NAFLD might up-regulate the risk of chronic kidney disease as well as the mortality rate. Though various drugs have been investigated to attenuate NAFLD, further study is still necessary to find new therapeutic strategy and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism. In the present study, NAFLD animal models were induced by feeding with high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks...
November 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156490/-the-citizen-is-stepping-into-a-new-role-policy-interpretations-of-patient-and-public-involvement-in-finland
#3
Marjaana Jones, Ilkka Pietilä
Involving patients and the public in healthcare decision-making is on the policy agenda in several countries. The aim of our study was to describe and analyse the development of patient and public involvement from a policy perspective. We argue that the language of health policies can influence both the aims and the development of involvement methods. In this study health policy documents, which have guided the development of patient and public involvement in Finland have been analysed using methods of Membership Categorisation Analysis...
November 20, 2017: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156311/impacts-from-urban-water-systems-on-receiving-waters-how-to-account-for-severe-wet-weather-events-in-lca
#4
Eva Risch, Johnny Gasperi, Marie-Christine Gromaire, Ghassan Chebbo, Sam Azimi, Vincent Rocher, Philippe Roux, Ralph K Rosenbaum, Carole Sinfort
Sewage systems are a vital part of the urban infrastructure in most cities. They provide drainage, which protects public health, prevents the flooding of property and protects the water environment around urban areas. On some occasions sewers will overflow into the water environment during heavy rain potentially causing unacceptable impacts from releases of untreated sewage into the environment. In typical Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of urban wastewater systems (UWS), average dry-weather conditions are modelled while wet-weather flows from UWS, presenting a high temporal variability, are not currently accounted for...
October 23, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156297/associations-between-causal-attributions-and-personal-stigmatizing-attitudes-in-untreated-persons-with-current-mental-health-problems
#5
Susanne Stolzenburg, Simone Freitag, Silke Schmidt, Georg Schomerus
Past research has shown that among the general public, certain causal explanations like biomedical causes are associated with stronger desire for social distance from persons with mental illness. Aim of this study was to find out how different causal attributions of persons with untreated mental health problems regarding their own complaints are associated with stigmatizing attitudes, anticipated self-stigma when seeking help and perceived stigma-stress. Altogether, 207 untreated persons with a current depressive syndrome were interviewed...
November 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156258/developing-an-online-tool-for-identifying-at-risk-populations-to-wildfire-smoke-hazards
#6
Ambarish Vaidyanathan, Fuyuen Yip, Paul Garbe
Wildfire episodes pose a significant public health threat in the United States. Adverse health impacts associated with wildfires occur near the burn area as well as in places far downwind due to wildfire smoke exposures. Health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter arising from wildfires can range from mild eye and respiratory tract irritation to more serious outcomes such as asthma exacerbation, bronchitis, and decreased lung function. Real-time operational forecasts of wildfire smoke concentrations are available but they are not readily integrated with information on vulnerable populations necessary to identify at-risk communities during wildfire smoke episodes...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156250/fear-family-and-the-placing-of-emotion-black-women-s-responses-to-a-breast-cancer-awareness-intervention
#7
Tim Brown, Isabel Dyck, Beth Greenhough, Menah Raven-Ellison, Melanie Dembinsky, Mark Ornstein, Stephen W Duffy
This paper is based upon findings from the qualitative element of a mixed-methods study on the response of Black women aged 25-50 to a public health intervention related to breast cancer. The focus groups were conducted in the London Borough of Hackney, UK between 2013 and 2016, and were part of an evaluation of the effectiveness of a breast awareness DVD. While the content of the DVD was generally well-received by the participants, the focus group discussions revealed a complex and, at times, contradictory response to the women's construction as an 'at risk' community...
November 17, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156212/history-and-purpose-of-postpartum-support-international
#8
Wendy Newhouse Davis, Christena Raines, Pec Indman, Birdie Gunyon Meyer, Ann Smith
Postpartum Support International provides training for professionals and supports families who experience perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. The purpose of this article is to describe Postpartum Support International, which was founded in 1987 to increase awareness among public and professional communities about the emotional difficulties women experience during and after pregnancy. We recommend strategies with which health care professionals can support families, reduce stigma, and offer resources for treatment and support...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156047/immunopathogenesis-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#9
Tai-Chung Tseng, Li-Rung Huang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health issue. There are >250 million people chronically infected with HBV, and these chronic carriers are at high risk of developing end-stage liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) usually acquire the virus perinatally, while most patients infected during adulthood develop acute hepatitis B (AHB), which usually results in viral clearance. HBV infection is noncytopathic, and liver injury is mostly contributed by host immune responses...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156005/abiofilm-a-resource-of-anti-biofilm-agents-and-their-potential-implications-in-targeting-antibiotic-drug-resistance
#10
Akanksha Rajput, Anamika Thakur, Shivangi Sharma, Manoj Kumar
Biofilms play an important role in the antibiotic drug resistance, which is threatening public health globally. Almost, all microbes mimic multicellular lifestyle to form biofilm by undergoing phenotypic changes to adapt adverse environmental conditions. Many anti-biofilm agents have been experimentally validated to disrupt the biofilms during last three decades. To organize this data, we developed the 'aBiofilm' resource (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/abiofilm/) that harbors a database, a predictor, and the data visualization modules...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155955/changes-in-sleep-difficulties-during-the-transition-to-statutory-retirement
#11
Saana Myllyntausta, Paula Salo, Erkki Kronholm, Jaana Pentti, Mika Kivimäki, Jussi Vahtera, Sari Stenholm
Objectives: This study examined changes in sleep during the transition from full-time work to statutory retirement. Both the prevalence of any sleep difficulty and the prevalence of specific sleep difficulties, such as difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, waking up too early in the morning and nonrestorative sleep, were examined. Methods: Data from the Finnish Public Sector study were used. The study population consisted of 5,807 Finnish public sector employees who retired on statutory basis between 2000-2011...
November 16, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155951/public-awareness-and-healthcare-professional-advice-for-obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-cancer-in-the-uk-a-cross-sectional-survey
#12
Lucie Hooper, Annie S Anderson, Jack Birch, Alice S Forster, Gillian Rosenberg, Linda Bauld, Jyotsna Vohra
Background: Overweight and obesity is the second biggest preventable cause of cancer after smoking, causing ~3.4 million deaths worldwide. This study provides current UK data on awareness of the link between obesity and cancer by socio-demographic factors, including BMI, and explores to what degree healthcare professionals provide weight management advice to patients. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 3293 adults completed an online survey in February/March 2016, weighted to be representative of the UK population aged 18+...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155877/immune-response-profiles-of-calves-following-vaccination-with-live-bcg-and-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-vaccine-candidates
#13
E M D L van der Heijden, J Chileshe, J C M Vernooij, C Gortazar, R A Juste, I Sevilla, J E Crafford, V P M G Rutten, A L Michel
Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155840/indications-and-determinants-of-caesarean-section-delivery-evidence-from-a-population-based-study-in-matlab-bangladesh
#14
Tahmina Begum, Aminur Rahman, Herfina Nababan, Dewan Md Emdadul Hoque, Al Fazal Khan, Taslim Ali, Iqbal Anwar
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Caesarean section (C-section) is a major obstetric intervention for saving lives of women and their newborns from pregnancy and childbirth related complications. Un-necessary C-sections may have adverse impact upon maternal and neonatal outcomes. In Bangladesh there is paucity of data on clinical indication of C-section at population level. We conducted a retrospective study in icddr,b Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area of Matlab to look into the indications and determinants of C-sections...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155831/prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-leishmania-infection-in-trang-province-southern-thailand
#15
Jipada Manomat, Saovanee Leelayoova, Lertwut Bualert, Peerapan Tan-Ariya, Suradej Siripattanapipong, Mathirut Mungthin, Tawee Naaglor, Phunlerd Piyaraj
BACKGROUND: Autochthonous cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis and Leishmania siamensis have been considered emerging infectious diseases in Thailand. The disease burden is significantly underestimated, especially the prevalence of Leishmania infection among HIV-positive patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Leishmania infection among patients with HIV/AIDS living in Trang province, southern Thailand, between 2015 and 2016...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155829/environmental-and-socio-demographic-individual-family-and-neighborhood-factors-associated-with-children-intestinal-parasitoses-at-iguaz%C3%A3%C2%BA-in-the-subtropical-northern-border-of-argentina
#16
Maria Romina Rivero, Carlos De Angelo, Pablo Nuñez, Martín Salas, Carlos E Motta, Alicia Chiaretta, Oscar D Salomón, Song Liang
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitoses are a major concern for public health, especially in children from middle and low-income populations of tropical and subtropical areas. We examined the presence and co-infection of parasites in humans as well as parasitic environmental contamination in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We explored the environmental and socio-demographic characteristics of the persistence of parasites in children and their environment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-section survey was conducted among children population comprised into the area of the public health care centers of Iguazú during June 2013 to May 2016...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155824/reducing-the-rate-of-cesarean-delivery-on-maternal-request-through-institutional-and-policy-interventions-in-wenzhou-china
#17
Yushan Yu, Xiangyang Zhang, Caixia Sun, Huijie Zhou, Qi Zhang, Chun Chen
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of institutional and policy interventions on reducing the rate of cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) in Wenzhou, China. Institutional interventions included health education, painless delivery introduction, and doula care. Additionally, a series of health policies were developed by the Chinese central and local governments to control cesarean section rates, mostly through controlling CDMR rates. We conducted a pre-/post-intervention study using 131,312 deliveries between 2006 and 2014 in three tertiary-level public hospitals in Wenzhou, China...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155815/allopurinol-attenuates-acute-kidney-injury-following-bothrops-jararaca-envenomation
#18
Pedro Henrique França Gois, Monique Silva Martines, Daniela Ferreira, Rildo Volpini, Daniele Canale, Ceila Malaque, Renato Crajoinas, Adriana Castello Costa Girardi, Maria Heloisa Massola Shimizu, Antonio Carlos Seguro
Snakebites have been recognized as a neglected public health problem in several tropical and subtropical countries. Bothrops snakebites frequently complicate with acute kidney injury (AKI) with relevant morbidity and mortality. To date, the only treatment available for Bothrops envenomation is the intravenous administration of antivenom despite its several limitations. Therefore, the study of novel therapies in Bothrops envenomation is compelling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Allopurinol (Allo) in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BJ)-associated AKI...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155812/fluevidencesynthesis-an-r-package-for-evidence-synthesis-based-analysis-of-epidemiological-outbreaks
#19
Edwin van Leeuwen, Petra Klepac, Dominic Thorrington, Richard Pebody, Marc Baguelin
Public health related decisions often have to balance the cost of intervention strategies with the benefit of the reduction in disease burden. While the cost can often be inferred, forward modelling of the effect of different intervention options is complicated and disease specific. Here we introduce a package that is aimed to simplify this process. The package allows one to infer parameters using a Bayesian approach, perform forward modelling of the likely results of the proposed intervention and finally perform cost effectiveness analysis of the results...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155678/joint-external-evaluation-development-and-scale-up-of-global-multisectoral-health-capacity-evaluation-process
#20
Elizabeth Bell, Jordan W Tappero, Kashef Ijaz, Maureen Bartee, Jose Fernandez, Hannah Burris, Karen Sliter, Simo Nikkari, Stella Chungong, Guenael Rodier, Hamid Jafari
The Joint External Evaluation (JEE), a consolidation of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005) Monitoring and Evaluation Framework and the Global Health Security Agenda country assessment tool, is an objective, voluntary, independent peer-to-peer multisectoral assessment of a country's health security preparedness and response capacity across 19 IHR technical areas. WHO approved the standardized JEE tool in February 2016. The JEE process is wholly transparent; countries request a JEE and are encouraged to make its findings public...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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