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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931244/the-importance-of-frailty-in-the-assessment-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-against-influenza-related-hospitalization-in-elderly-people
#1
Melissa K Andrew, Vivek Shinde, Lingyun Ye, Todd Hatchette, François Haguinet, Gael Dos Santos, Janet E McElhaney, Ardith Ambrose, Guy Boivin, William Bowie, Ayman Chit, May ElSherif, Karen Green, Scott Halperin, Barbara Ibarguchi, Jennie Johnstone, Kevin Katz, Joanne Langley, Jason Leblanc, Mark Loeb, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Anne McCarthy, Allison McGeer, Jeff Powis, David Richardson, Makeda Semret, Grant Stiver, Sylvie Trottier, Louis Valiquette, Duncan Webster, Shelly A McNeil
Background: Influenza is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among older adults. Even so, effectiveness of influenza vaccine for older adults has been reported to be lower than for younger adults, and the impact of frailty on vaccine effectiveness (VE) and outcomes is uncertain. We aimed to study VE against influenza hospitalization in older adults, focusing on the impact of frailty. Methods: We report VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in people ≥65 years of age hospitalized during the 2011-2012 influenza season using a multicenter, prospective, test-negative case-control design...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931228/civil-registration-and-vital-statistics-emergencies-and-international-law-understanding-the-intersection
#2
Claire E Brolan, Hebe Gouda
Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are typically run by governments to record every birth, adoption, death, marriage, and divorce that occurs among a country's population. Registration of vital events provides individuals with a formal relationship with the State and each other, and is the foundation of a person's identity, nationality, and legal status. At a population level, vital statistics are essential for effective planning and implementation of policies and services. Globally, strong CRVS systems are increasingly recognised as a crucial backbone for redressing health inequities and as a priority in strengthening global health and development efforts...
May 1, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931219/long-term-chikungunya-sequelae-in-cura%C3%A3-ao-burden-determinants-and-a-novel-classification-tool
#3
Jelte Elsinga, Izzy Gerstenbluth, Symkje van der Ploeg, Yaskara Halabi, Norédiz T Lourents, Johannes G Burgerhof, Henry T van der Veen, Ajay Bailey, Martin P Grobusch, Adriana Tami
Background: Beyond the acute illness phase, chikungunya constitutes a public health problem given its chronic disease phase, which may include long-term arthralgia, arthritis, fatigue, and depression. Currently, there is no consensus on how to define chikungunya chronicity. Methods: A comprehensive cross-sectional survey was performed in Curaçao in June and July 2015 to evaluate 304 adult laboratory-confirmed chikungunya patients 3-16 months after diagnosis. We developed a novel tool, the Curaçao Long-Term Chikungunya Sequelae (CLTCS) score, to classify chronic chikungunya disease and estimate its burden regarding disease duration, clinical presentation, and impact on quality of life...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931165/adolescents-and-young-adults-perceptions-of-electronic-cigarettes-as-a-gateway-to-smoking-a-qualitative-study-in-switzerland
#4
Christina Akre, Joan-Carles Suris
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) acting as a gateway to smoking traditional cigarettes (TCs) is a growing public health concern of EC use among youths. To gather the opinions and perceptions of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) on whether and how EC can act as a gateway to smoking TC among youths. A qualitative method included 42 AYAs. Participants identified a significant risk of EC acting as a gateway to TC use, several factors contributing to this phenomenon such as a facilitated transition to smoking or its perception as a harmless toy...
October 1, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931151/global-trends-in-center-accreditation-by-the-joint-commission-international-growing-patient-implications-for-international-medical-and-surgical-care
#5
Ambar Mehta, Seth D Goldstein, Martin A Makary
Millions of patients travel internationally for medical and surgical care. We found that the annual number of centers accredited by the Joint Commission International increased from one center in 1999 to 132 centers in 2016; there are currently 939 accredited centers across 66 countries. Public health and medicolegal implications related to medical travel deserve attention.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931088/an-integrated-nutrition-and-health-program-package-on-iycn-improves-breastfeeding-but-not-complementary-feeding-and-nutritional-status-in-rural-northern-india-a-quasi-experimental-randomized-longitudinal-study
#6
Veena Singh, Saifuddin Ahmed, Michele L Dreyfuss, Usha Kiran, Deepika N Chaudhery, Vinod K Srivastava, Ramesh C Ahuja, Abdullah H Baqui, Gary L Darmstadt, Mathuram Santosham, Keith P West
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition below two years of age remains a major public health problem in India. We conducted an evaluation of an integrated nutrition and health program that aimed to improve nutritional status of young children by improving breast and complementary feeding practices over that offered by the Government of India's standard nutrition and health care program. METHODS: In Uttar Pradesh state, through multi-stage cluster random sampling, 81 villages in an intervention district and 84 villages in a comparison district were selected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931077/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-including-potential-new-species-in-human-head-lice-from-mali
#7
Nadia Amanzougaghene, Florence Fenollar, Abdoul Karim Sangaré, Mahamadou S Sissoko, Ogobara K Doumbo, Didier Raoult, Oleg Mediannikov
In poor African countries, where no medical and biological facilities are available, the identification of potential emerging pathogens of concern at an early stage is challenging. Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have a short life, feed only on human blood and do not transmit pathogens to their progeny. They are, therefore, a perfect tool for the xenodiagnosis of current or recent human infection. This study assessed the occurrence of bacterial pathogens from head lice collected in two rural villages from Mali, where a high frequency of head lice infestation had previously been reported, using molecular methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931058/molecular-characterization-of-neisseria-meningitidis-isolates-recovered-from-11-19-year-old-meningococcal-carriers-in-salvador-brazil
#8
Ana Rafaela Silva Simões Moura, Cécilia Batmalle Kretz, Italo Eustáquio Ferreira, Amélia Maria Pithon Borges Nunes, José Cássio de Moraes, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, Alan John Alexander McBride, Xin Wang, Leila Carvalho Campos
Characterization of meningococci isolated from the pharynx is essential towards understanding the dynamics of meningococcal carriage and disease. Meningococcal isolates, collected from adolescents resident in Salvador, Brazil during 2014, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, genotyping or whole-genome sequencing. Most were nongroupable (61.0%), followed by genogroups B (11.9%) and Y (8.5%). We identified 34 different sequence types (STs), eight were new STs, distributed among 14 clonal complexes (cc), cc1136 represented 20...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931025/the-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-enteric-fever-in-cambodia-2008-2015
#9
Laura M F Kuijpers, Thong Phe, Chhun H Veng, Kruy Lim, Sovann Ieng, Chun Kham, Nizar Fawal, Laetitia Fabre, Simon Le Hello, Erika Vlieghe, François-Xavier Weill, Jan Jacobs, Willy E Peetermans
BACKGROUND: Enteric fever remains a major public health problem in low resource settings and antibiotic resistance is increasing. In Asia, an increasing proportion of infections is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, which for a long time was assumed to cause a milder clinical syndrome compared to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review study was conducted of 254 unique cases of blood culture confirmed enteric fever who presented at a referral adult hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia between 2008 and 2015...
September 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930847/guillain-barr%C3%A3-like-axonal-polyneuropathy-associated-with-toscana-virus-infection-a-case-report
#10
Eugenia Rota, Nicola Morelli, Paolo Immovilli, Paola De Mitri, Donata Guidetti
RATIONALE: Numerous cases of post-infectious Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported in the literature. Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne emerging pathogen in the Mediterranean area. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 40-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital for acute facial weakness, associated to numbness paraesthesias at lower and upper limbs. The neurological examination revealed facial diplegia and reduced tendon reflexes. The nerve conduction studies documented an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN); the lumbar puncture detected albuminocytologic dissociation...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930729/uk-renal-registry-19th-annual-report-chapter-10-epidemiology-of-reported-infections-in-patients-receiving-dialysis-in-england-between-january-2015-and-december-2015-a-joint-report-from-public-health-england-and-the-uk-renal-registry
#11
Lisa Crowley, Stephanie MacNeill, Shona Methven, Olisaeloka Nsonwu, John Davies, Fergus J Caskey, Richard Fluck, Catherine Byrne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930700/economic-analysis-of-the-link-between-diet-quality-and-health-evidence-from-kosovo
#12
Kushtrim Braha, Andrej Cupák, Ján Pokrivčák, Artan Qineti, Marian Rizov
We analyse the link between diet diversity, (which is a proxy of diet quality) and health outcomes measured by body-mass index (BMI) in a representative sample of Kosovar adults using household expenditure micro-data. Building on a household model of health production we devise a two-stage empirical strategy to estimate the determinants of diet diversity and its effect on BMI. Economic factors and demographic characteristics play an important role in the choice of balanced diets. Results from the BMI analysis support the hypothesis that diet diversity is associated with optimal BMI...
September 8, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930690/the-self-inactivating-kamicas9-system-for-the-editing-of-cns-disease-genes
#13
Nicolas Merienne, Gabriel Vachey, Lucie de Longprez, Cécile Meunier, Virginie Zimmer, Guillaume Perriard, Mathieu Canales, Amandine Mathias, Lucas Herrgott, Tim Beltraminelli, Axelle Maulet, Thomas Dequesne, Catherine Pythoud, Maria Rey, Luc Pellerin, Emmanuel Brouillet, Anselme L Perrier, Renaud du Pasquier, Nicole Déglon
Neurodegenerative disorders are a major public health problem because of the high frequency of these diseases. Genome editing with the CRISPR/Cas9 system is making it possible to modify the sequence of genes linked to these disorders. We designed the KamiCas9 self-inactivating editing system to achieve transient expression of the Cas9 protein and high editing efficiency. In the first application, the gene responsible for Huntington's disease (HD) was targeted in adult mouse neuronal and glial cells. Mutant huntingtin (HTT) was efficiently inactivated in mouse models of HD, leading to an improvement in key markers of the disease...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930669/a-highly-specific-escherichia-coli-qpcr-and-its-comparison-with-existing-methods-for-environmental-waters
#14
David I Walker, Jonathan McQuillan, Michael Taiwo, Rachel Parks, Craig A Stenton, Hywel Morgan, Matthew C Mowlem, David N Lees
The presence of Escherichia coli in environmental waters is considered as evidence of faecal contamination and is therefore commonly used as an indicator in both water quality and food safety analysis. The long period of time between sample collection and obtaining results from existing culture based methods means that contamination events may already impact public health by the time they are detected. The adoption of molecular based methods for E. coli could significantly reduce the time to detection. A new quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to detect the ybbW gene sequence, which was found to be 100% exclusive and inclusive (specific and sensitive) for E...
August 25, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930628/estimation-and-inference-for-the-mediation-proportion
#15
Daniel Nevo, Xiaomei Liao, Donna Spiegelman
In epidemiology, public health and social science, mediation analysis is often undertaken to investigate the extent to which the effect of a risk factor on an outcome of interest is mediated by other covariates. A pivotal quantity of interest in such an analysis is the mediation proportion. A common method for estimating it, termed the "difference method", compares estimates from models with and without the hypothesized mediator. However, rigorous methodology for estimation and statistical inference for this quantity has not previously been available...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930622/awareness-of-and-knowledge-about-stis-among-nonmedical-students-in-iran
#16
Mohammad Karamouzian, Armita Shahesmaeili, Razieh Khajehkazemi, Samira Hosseini Hooshyar, Homeira Fallahi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Hamid Sharifi
CONTEXT: Evidence on STI knowledge among Iranian nonmedical university students is limited. Information is needed to inform research and policies to improve the sexual health of university students in Iran. METHODS: A convenience sample of 742 male and female undergraduate and graduate students was recruited from five nonmedical public and private universities in Iran in 2014. Respondents' awareness of and knowledge about STIs were assessed using a validated questionnaire...
July 7, 2017: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930615/role-for-apolipoprotein-e-in-neurodegeneration-and-mercury-intoxication
#17
Gabriela de Paula Fonseca Arrifano, Marcus Augusto de Oliveira, Jose Rogerio Souza-Monteiro, Ricardo Oliveira Paraense, Andrea Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Jose Richardo Dos Santos Vieira, Artur Luis da Costa Silva, Barbarella de Matos Macchi, Jose Luiz Martins do Nascimento, Rommel Mario Rodriguez Burbano, Maria Elena Crespo-Lopez
Mercury intoxication is a serious public health problem and a worldwide concern. The Minamata Convention on Mercury has been signed by 128 countries and endorsed by the World Health Organization with the recommendation of promoting the management of epidemiological information. The Central Nervous System is the main target organ for mercury. Symptoms of intoxication include altered motor coordination, visual and tactile dysfunction and paralysis, caused by neurodegeneration with a key role for oxidative damage...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930614/inter-species-functional-interactome-of-nuclear-steroid-receptors-r1
#18
Styliani A Geronikolou, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George Chrousos
Steroids exert their actions by binding to the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgen, estrogen and progesterone classes of receptors. Despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of steroid receptors, their interactions with other molecules, subcellular location and functions still need further elucidation. To unravel the mechanism(s) of action of the steroid hormones, as well as the function of their cognate nuclear receptors, an interaction network was created (henceforth referred to as "R1 Interactome")- illustrating that robust interactions have been preserved in rodents, frog, zebra fish and drosophila...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930592/choline-the-brain-and-neurodegeneration-insights-from-epigenetics
#19
Rola A Bekdash
  Neurodegenerative disorders are a major public health problem worldwide with huge socioeconomic effect. Recent evidence suggests that neurodegeneration is not only caused by genetic factors but also affected by environmental factors including nutrients. Environmental influences have been shown to cause epigenetic modifications in the brain with long-lasting effects on behavior if they occur in early life. It has been suggested that early nutritional intervention that includes choline, betaine, VitB6, VitB12 and/or folic acid could attenuate decline in cognitive functions...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930585/leishmaniasis-treatment-update-of-possibilities-for-drug-repurposing
#20
Valter Viana Andrade-Neto, Edezio Ferreira Cunha-Junior, Viviane Dos Santos Faioes, Thais Pereira Martins, Raphaela Lopes Silva, Leonor Laura Leon, Eduardo Caio Torres-Santos
The leishmaniases represent a public health problem in under-developed countries and are considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organization (WHO). They are cuased by Leishmania  parasites with different clinical manifestations. Currently, there is no vaccine, and treatment is in-efficient and is associated with both serious side effects often leading to resistance to the parasites. Thus, it is essential to search for new treatment strategies, such as drug repurposing, i.e., the use of drugs that are already used for other diseases...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
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