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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651238/par-complex-and-crumbs-function-during-photoreceptor-morphogenesis-and-retinal-degeneration
#1
REVIEW
Franck Pichaud
The fly photoreceptor has long been used as a model to study sensory neuron morphogenesis and retinal degeneration. In particular, elucidating how these cells are built continues to help further our understanding of the mechanisms of polarized cell morphogenesis, intracellular trafficking and the causes of human retinal pathologies. The conserved PAR complex, which in flies consists of Cdc42-PAR6-aPKC-Bazooka, and the transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) are key players during photoreceptor morphogenesis. While the PAR complex regulates polarity in many cell types, Crb function in polarity is relatively specific to epithelial cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649836/-flight-routes-to-germany-of-seriously-ill-children-and-adolescents-from-former-eastern-bloc-countries-for-treatment-of-renal-failure
#2
Dilbar Mammadova, Ines Marek, Matthias Galiano, Wolfgang Rascher
BACKGROUND: Increased patient mobility and restricted treatment of children with end-stage renal disease forced families from the former Eastern Bloc countries to flee with their children to Germany for adequate medical treatment. METHODS: In a case study, the patients' charts were analysed retrospectively. In structured interviews, parents and patients were asked about their flight routes to Germany, their medical treatment and their integration. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2013, eight children and adolescents with renal failure were treated with dialysis or renal transplantation in Erlangen...
April 12, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649427/vegfr-3-signaling-is-regulated-by-a-g-protein-activator-activator-of-g-protein-signaling-8-in-lymphatic-endothelial-cells
#3
Miho Sakima, Hisaki Hayashi, Abdullah Al Mamun, Motohiko Sato
Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) and its cognate receptor VEGFR-3 play a key role in lymphangiogenesis. We previously reported that an ischemia-inducible Gβγ signal regulator, activator of G-protein signaling 8 (AGS8), regulated the subcellular distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and influenced VEGFA-induced signaling in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we report that AGS8 regulates VEGFR-3, which is another subtype of the VEGF receptor family, and mediates VEGFC signaling in human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs)...
April 9, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643474/histone-deacetylase-6-controls-notch3-trafficking-and-degradation-in-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#4
Marica Pinazza, Margherita Ghisi, Sonia Minuzzo, Valentina Agnusdei, Gianluca Fossati, Vincenzo Ciminale, Laura Pezzè, Yari Ciribilli, Giorgia Pilotto, Carolina Venturoli, Alberto Amadori, Stefano Indraccolo
Several studies have revealed that endosomal sorting controls the steady-state levels of Notch at the cell surface in normal cells and prevents its inappropriate activation in the absence of ligands. However, whether this highly dynamic physiologic process can be exploited to counteract dysregulated Notch signaling in cancer cells remains unknown. T-ALL is a malignancy characterized by aberrant Notch signaling, sustained by activating mutations in Notch1 as well as overexpression of Notch3, a Notch paralog physiologically subjected to lysosome-dependent degradation in human cancer cells...
April 12, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643117/sft-4-surf4-control-er-export-of-soluble-cargo-proteins-and-participate-in-er-exit-site-organization
#5
Keiko Saegusa, Miyuki Sato, Nobukatsu Morooka, Taichi Hara, Ken Sato
Lipoproteins regulate the overall lipid homeostasis in animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lipoprotein trafficking remain poorly understood. Here, we show that SFT-4, a Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of the yeast Erv29p, is essential for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export of the yolk protein VIT-2, which is synthesized as a lipoprotein complex. SFT-4 loss strongly inhibits the ER exit of yolk proteins and certain soluble cargo proteins in intestinal cells. SFT-4 predominantly localizes at ER exit sites (ERES) and physically interacts with VIT-2 in vivo, which suggests that SFT-4 promotes the ER export of soluble proteins as a cargo receptor...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642908/putative-human-sperm-interactome-a-networks-study
#6
Alessandra Ordinelli, Nicola Bernabò, Massimiliano Orsini, Mauro Mattioli, Barbara Barboni
BACKGROUND: For over sixty years, it has been known that mammalian spermatozoa immediately after ejaculation are virtually infertile. They became able to fertilize only after they reside for long time (hours to days) within female genital tract where they complete their functional maturation, the capacitation. This process is finely regulated by the interaction with the female environment and involves, in spermatozoa, a myriad of molecules as messengers and target of signals. Since, to date, a model able to represent the molecular interaction that characterize sperm physiology does not exist, we realized the Human Sperm Interactme Network3...
April 11, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625175/magi-proteins-can-differentially-regulate-the-signaling-pathways-of-5-ht-2a-r-by-enhancing-receptor-trafficking-and-plc-recruitment
#7
Maha M Hammad, Henry A Dunn, Stephen S G Ferguson
MAGI proteins are Membrane-Associated Guanylate Kinase Inverted proteins that belong to the MAGUK family. They are scaffolding proteins that were shown to mediate the trafficking and signaling of various G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They contain PDZ domains in their structure and most GPCRs interact with these proteins via the PDZ motifs on the carboxyl terminal end of a receptor. In a PDZ overlay assay performed with the carboxyl terminal tail of 5-HT2A R, we were able to detect all three members of the MAGI subfamily, MAGI-1, MAGI-2 and MAGI-3 as interacting PDZ proteins...
April 3, 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622675/sorting-nexin-9-snx9-regulates-levels-of-the-transmembrane-disintegrin-and-metalloproteinase-adam-9-at-the-cell-surface
#8
Kasper Johansen Mygind, Theresa Störiko, Marie L Freiberg, Jacob Samsøe-Petersen, Jeanette Schwarz, Olav M Andersen, Marie Kveiborg
ADAM9 is an active member of the family of transmembrane a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs). It plays a role in processes such as bone formation and retinal neovascularization, and importantly, its expression in human cancers correlates with disease stage and poor prognosis. Functionally, ADAM9 can cleave several transmembrane proteins, thereby shedding their ectodomains from the cell surface. Moreover, ADAM9 regulates cell behaviour by binding cell-surface receptors such as integrin and membrane-type matrix metalloproteases...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618761/qil1-dependent-assembly-of-micos-complex-lethal-mutation-in-c19orf70-resulting-in-liver-disease-and-severe-neurological-retardation
#9
J Gödiker, M Grüneberg, I DuChesne, J Reunert, S Rust, C Westermann, Y Wada, G Classen, C D Langhans, K P Schlingmann, R J Rodenburg, R Pohlmann, T Marquardt
Seven subunits of the mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction (CJ) organizing system (MICOS) in humans have been recently described in function and structure. QIL1 (also named MIC13) is a small complex that is crucial for the maintenance and assembling of MICOS. A novel mutation of an essential splice site in the C19orf70 gene encoding QIL1 induces severe mitochondrial encephalopathy, hepatopathy and lactate acidosis consistent with psychomotor retardation. In addition, bilateral kidney stones were observed...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618664/macrophage-microrna-150-promotes-pathological-angiogenesis-as-seen-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#10
Jonathan B Lin, Harsh V Moolani, Abdoulaye Sene, Rohini Sidhu, Pamela Kell, Joseph B Lin, Zhenyu Dong, Norimitsu Ban, Daniel S Ory, Rajendra S Apte
Macrophage aging is pathogenic in diseases of the elderly, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in older adults. However, the role of microRNAs, which modulate immune processes, in regulating macrophage dysfunction and thereby promoting age-associated diseases is underexplored. Here, we report that microRNA-150 (miR-150) coordinates transcriptomic changes in aged murine macrophages, especially those associated with aberrant lipid trafficking and metabolism in AMD pathogenesis...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617409/microvasculature-directed-thrombopoiesis-in-a-3d-in-vitro-marrow-microenvironment
#11
Surya Kotha, Sijie Sun, Amie Adams, Brian Hayes, Kiet T Phong, Ryan Nagao, Jo-Anna Reems, Dayong Gao, Beverly Torok-Storb, José A López, Ying Zheng
Vasculature is an interface between the circulation and the hematopoietic tissue providing the means for hundreds of billions of blood cells to enter the circulation every day in a regulated fashion. The precise mechanisms that control the interactions of hematopoietic cells with the vessel wall are largely undefined. Here, we report on the development of an in vitro 3D human marrow vascular microenvironment (VME) to study hematopoietic trafficking and the release of blood cells, specifically platelets. We show that mature megakaryocytes from aspirated marrow as well as megakaryocytes differentiated in culture from CD34+ cells can be embedded in a collagen matrix containing engineered microvessels to create a thrombopoietic VME...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616874/porphyromonas-gingivalis-traffics-into-endoplasmic-reticulum-rich-autophagosomes-for-successful-survival-in-human-gingival-epithelial-cells
#12
Kyulim Lee, JoAnn S Roberts, Chul Hee Choi, Kalina R Atanasova, Özlem Yilmaz
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an opportunistic pathogen usurps gingival epithelial cells (GECs) as primary intracellular niche for its colonization in the oral mucosa. However, the precise characterization of the intracellular trafficking and fate of P. gingivalis in GECs remains incomplete. Therefore, we employed high-resolution three-dimensional-transmission-electron-microscopy to determine the subcellular location of P. gingivalis in human primary GECs upon invasion. Serial sections of infected-GECs and their tomographic reconstruction depicted ER-rich-double-membrane autophagosomal-vacuoles harboring P...
April 4, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615992/epstein-barr-virus-acquires-its-final-envelope-on-intracellular-compartments-with-golgi-markers
#13
Asuka Nanbo, Takeshi Noda, Yusuke Ohba
Herpesvirus subfamilies typically acquire their final envelope in various cytoplasmic compartments such as the trans -Golgi network (TGN), and endosomes prior to their secretion into the extracellular space. However, the sites for the final envelopment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous human gamma herpesvirus, are poorly understood. Here, we characterized the sites for the final envelopment of EBV in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines induced into the lytic cycle by crosslinking cell surface IgG. Electron microscopy revealed the various stages of maturation and egress of progeny virions including mature EBV in irregular cytoplasmic vesicles...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613769/protein-protein-interactions-in-the-molecular-chaperone-network
#14
Rebecca Freilich, Taylor Arhar, Jennifer L Abrams, Jason E Gestwicki
Molecular chaperones play a central role in protein homeostasis (a.k.a. proteostasis) by balancing protein folding, quality control, and turnover. To perform these diverse tasks, chaperones need the malleability to bind nearly any "client" protein and the fidelity to detect when it is misfolded. Remarkably, these activities are carried out by only ∼180 dedicated chaperones in humans. How do a relatively small number of chaperones maintain cellular and organismal proteostasis for an entire proteome? Furthermore, once a chaperone binds a client, how does it "decide" what to do with it? One clue comes from observations that individual chaperones engage in protein-protein interactions (PPIs)-both with each other and with their clients...
April 3, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611781/stars-experiential-group-intervention-a-complex-trauma-treatment-approach-for-survivors-of-human-trafficking
#15
Elizabeth K Hopper, Naomi Azar, Sriya Bhattacharyya, Dominique A Malebranche, Kelsey E Brennan
This is the abstract that was submitted online with the paper: Despite the fact that many survivors of human trafficking have experienced complex trauma, there are no established interventions designed to specifically address these impacts. Leaders in the field of complex trauma have advocated for the need for somatic approaches to intervention. This paper presents STARS Experiential Group treatment, the first structured bodybased group intervention that has been designed to address complex trauma in survivors of human trafficking...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610259/the-host-antimicrobial-protein-calgranulin-c-participates-in-the-control-of-campylobacter-jejuni-growth-via-zinc-sequestration
#16
Janette M Shank, Brittni R Kelley, Joseph W Jackson, Jessica L Tweedie, Dana Franklin, Steven M Damo, Jennifer A Gaddy, Caitlin N Murphy, Jeremiah G Johnson
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial-derived gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter is most commonly acquired through the consumption of undercooked poultry meat or through drinking contaminated water. Following ingestion, Campylobacter adheres to the intestinal epithelium and mucus layer, causing toxin-mediated inflammation and inhibition of fluid reabsorption. Currently, the human response to infection is relatively unknown and animal hosts that model those responses are rare. As such, we examined patient fecal samples for the accumulation of the neutrophil protein, calgranulin C, during infection with Campylobacter jejuni...
April 2, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606617/functional-studies-of-missense-trem2-mutations-in-human-stem-cell-derived-microglia
#17
Philip W Brownjohn, James Smith, Ravi Solanki, Ebba Lohmann, Henry Houlden, John Hardy, Sabine Dietmann, Frederick J Livesey
The derivation of microglia from human stem cells provides systems for understanding microglial biology and enables functional studies of disease-causing mutations. We describe a robust method for the derivation of human microglia from stem cells, which are phenotypically and functionally comparable with primary microglia. We used stem cell-derived microglia to study the consequences of missense mutations in the microglial-expressed protein triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), which are causal for frontotemporal dementia-like syndrome and Nasu-Hakola disease...
April 10, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603364/a-unique-signal-sequence-of-the-chemokine-receptor-ccr7-promotes-package-into-copii-vesicles-for-efficient-receptor-trafficking
#18
Edith Uetz-von Allmen, Alexandra V Rippl, Hesso Farhan, Daniel F Legler
Chemokine receptors are considered to belong to the group of G protein-coupled receptors that use the first transmembrane domain as signal anchor sequence for membrane insertion instead of a cleavable N-terminal signal sequence. Chemokine recognition is determined by the N-termini of chemokine receptors. Here, we show that the chemokine receptor CCR7, which is essential for directed migration of adaptive immune cells, possesses a 24 amino acids long N-terminal signal sequence that is unique among chemokine receptors...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602783/quantitative-imaging-flow-cytometry-of-legionella-infected-dictyostelium-reveals-the-impact-of-retrograde-trafficking-on-pathogen-vacuole-composition
#19
Amanda Welin, Stephen Weber, Hubert Hilbi
The ubiquitous environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila survives and replicates within amoebae and human macrophages by forming a Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV). In an intricate process governed by the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and a plethora of "effector proteins" the nascent LCV interferes with a number of intracellular trafficking pathways, including retrograde transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Conserved retrograde trafficking components such as the retromer coat complex or the phosphoinositide (PI) 5-phosphatase Dd5P4/OCRL restrict intracellular replication of L...
March 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602512/emerging-roles-of-dhhc-mediated-protein-s-palmitoylation-in-physiological-and-pathophysiological-context
#20
REVIEW
Indranil De, Sushabhan Sadhukhan
Protein S-palmitoylation refers to a post-translational modification (PTM) wherein palmitic acid, a 16-carbon long saturated fatty acid gets covalently attached to Cys sidechain of a protein. It has been known to the literature for almost 50 years and in general, this PTM is believed to facilitate membrane attachments of proteins for the obvious hydrophobicity of the palmitoyl group. But after the discovery of the protein palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs, also known as DHHC-PATs), a major paradigm shift has been observed in the field of protein S-palmitoylation...
March 22, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
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