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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925633/shock-wave-enhances-angiogenesis-through-vegfr2-activation-and-recycling
#1
Tien-Hung Huang, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Yi-Ling Chen, Ching-Jen Wang, Tsung-Cheng Yin, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
Although low-energy shock wave (SW) is adopted to treat ischemic diseases because of its pro-angiogenic properties, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed at testing whether SW-induced angiogenesis may be through endothelial vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling and trafficking. Phosphorylation of VEGFR2-Akt-eNOS axis and production of nitric oxide (NO) were determined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with SW. Carotid artery in ob/ob mice was treated with SW before evaluation with sprouting assay...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924931/global-proteomic-analysis-of-prenylated-proteins-in-plasmodium-falciparum-using-an-alkyne-modified-isoprenoid-analogue
#2
Kiall F Suazo, Chad Schaber, Charuta C Palsuledesai, Audrey R Odom John, Mark D Distefano
Severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum infection remains a serious threat to health worldwide and new therapeutic targets are highly desirable. Small molecule inhibitors of prenyl transferases, enzymes that catalyze the post-translational isoprenyl modifications of proteins, exhibit potent antimalarial activity. The antimalarial actions of prenyltransferase inhibitors indicate that protein prenylation is required for malaria parasite development. In this study, we used a chemical biology strategy to experimentally characterize the entire complement of prenylated proteins in the human malaria parasite...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923879/orosomucoid-proteins-interact-with-the-small-subunit-of-serine-palmitoyltransferase-and-contribute-to-sphingolipid-homeostasis-and-stress-responses-in-arabidopsis
#3
Jian Li, Jian Yin, Chan Rong, Kai-En Li, Jian-Xin Wu, Li-Qun Huang, Hong-Yun Zeng, Sunil Kumar Sahu, Nan Yao
Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), a pyridoxyl-5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. In humans and yeast, orosomucoid proteins (ORMs) negatively regulate SPT and thus play an important role in maintaining sphingolipid levels. Despite the importance of sphingoid intermediates as bioactive molecules, the regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis through SPT is not well understood in plants. Here, we identified and characterized the Arabidopsis thaliana ORMs, ORM1 and ORM2...
December 6, 2016: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923836/the-swi-snf-complex-protein-snr1-is-a-tumor-suppressor-in-drosophila-imaginal-tissues
#4
Gengqiang Xie, Hanqing Chen, Dongyu Jia, Zhiqiang Shu, William Hunt Palmer, Yi-Chun Huang, Xiankun Zeng, Steven X Hou, Renjie Jiao, Wu-Min Deng
Components of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex are among the most frequently mutated genes in various human cancers, yet only SMARCB1/hSNF5, a core member of the SWI/SNF complex, is mutated in malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT). How SMARCB1/hSNF5 functions differently from other members of the SWI/SNF complex remains unclear. Here we use Drosophila imaginal epithelial tissues to demonstrate that Snr1, the conserved homolog of human SMARCB1/hSNF5, prevents tumorigenesis by maintaining normal endosomal trafficking-mediated signaling cascades...
December 6, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923544/niemann-pick-disease-type-c-and-roscoe-brady
#5
REVIEW
Marc C Patterson, Steven U Walkley
The Niemann-Pick family of diseases was poorly understood until Roscoe Brady and his colleagues began their investigations in the 1960s. Following Brady's discovery of the defect in acid sphingomyelinase in Niemann-Pick disease, types A and B, Peter Pentchev, a senior scientist in the group, launched a series of investigations of an unusual lipid storage disease in a spontaneous mouse model. These led initially to identification of the cholesterol trafficking defect in the mouse, and then in human Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC)...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913633/chemorepellent-semaphorin-3e-negatively-regulates-neutrophil-migration-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Hesam Movassagh, Abeer Saati, Saravanan Nandagopal, Ashfaque Mohammed, Nazanin Tatari, Lianyu Shan, Jonathan S Duke-Cohan, Keith R Fowke, Francis Lin, Abdelilah S Gounni
Neutrophil migration is an essential step in leukocyte trafficking during inflammatory responses. Semaphorins, originally discovered as axon guidance cues in neural development, have been shown to regulate cell migration beyond the nervous system. However, the potential contribution of semaphorins in the regulation of neutrophil migration is not well understood. This study examines the possible role of a secreted chemorepellent, Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), in neutrophil migration. In this study, we demonstrated that human neutrophils constitutively express Sema3E high-affinity receptor, PlexinD1...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913309/sequence-determinants-of-the-caenhorhabditis-elegansdopamine-transporter-dictating-in-vivoaxonal-export-and-synaptic-localization
#7
Sarah B Robinson, J Andrew Hardaway, Shannon L Hardie, Jane Wright, Ryan M Glynn, Daniel P Bermingham, Qiao Han, Sarah M Sturgeon, Phyllis Freeman, Randy D Blakely
The monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) acts across phylogeny to modulate both simple and complex behaviors. The presynaptic DA transporter (DAT) is a major determinant of DA signaling capacity in ensuring efficient extracellular DA clearance. In humans, DAT is also a major target for prescribed and abused psychostimulants. Multiple structural determinants of DAT function and regulation have been defined, though largely these findings have arisen from heterologous expression or ex vivo cell culture studies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911384/analysis-of-scap-n-glycosylation-and-trafficking-in-human-cells
#8
Chunming Cheng, Jeffrey Yunhua Guo, Feng Geng, Xiaoning Wu, Xiang Cheng, Qiyue Li, Deliang Guo
Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905542/defining-an-olfactory-receptor-function-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#9
William H Aisenberg, Jessie Huang, Wanqu Zhu, Premraj Rajkumar, Randy Cruz, Lakshmi Santhanam, Niranjana Natarajan, Hwan Mee Yong, Breann De Santiago, Jung Jin Oh, A-Rum Yoon, Reynold A Panettieri, Oliver Homann, John K Sullivan, Stephen B Liggett, Jennifer L Pluznick, Steven S An
Pathways that control, or can be exploited to alter, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and cellular remodeling that occur in asthma are not well defined. Here we report the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), as well as the canonical olfaction machinery (Golf and AC3) in the smooth muscle of human bronchi. In primary cultures of isolated human ASM, we identified mRNA expression for multiple ORs. Strikingly, OR51E2 was the most highly enriched OR transcript mapped to the human olfactome in lung-resident cells...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903492/angiotensinogen-import-in-isolated-proximal-tubules-evidence-for-mitochondrial-trafficking-and-uptake
#10
Bryan A Wilson, Nildris Cruz-Diaz, Yixin Su, James C Rose, TanYa M Gwathmey, Mark C Chappell
The renal proximal tubules are a key functional component of the kidney and express the angiotensin precursor angiotensinogen; however, it is unclear the extent that tubular angiotensinogen reflects local synthesis or internalization. Therefore, the current study established the extent that angiotensinogen is internalized by proximal tubules and the intracellular distribution. Proximal tubules were isolated from the kidney cortex of male sheep by enzymatic digestion and a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Tubules were incubated with radiolabeled 125I-angiotensinogen for 2 hrs at 37°C in serum/phenol-free DMEM/F12 media...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901001/ultraviolet-a-enhances-cathepsin-l-expression-and-activity-via-jnk-pathway-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts
#11
Qing-Fang Xu, Yue Zheng, Jian Chen, Xin-Ya Xu, Zi-Jian Gong, Yun-Fen Huang, Chun Lu, Howard I Maibach, Wei Lai
BACKGROUND: Cathepsin L (CatL) is a cysteine protease with strong matrix degradation activity that contributes to photoaging. Mannose phosphate-independent sorting pathways mediate ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced alternate trafficking of CatL. Little is known about signaling pathways involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatL expression and activity. This study aims to investigate whether a single UVA irradiation affects CatL expression and activity and whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathway is involved in the regulation of UVA-induced CatL expression and activity in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs)...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900370/a-patient-with-multisystem-dysfunction-carries-a-truncation-mutation-in-human-slc12a2-the-gene-encoding-the-na-k-2cl-cotransporter-nkcc1
#12
Eric Delpire, Lynne Wolfe, Bianca Flores, Rainelli Koumangoye, Cara C Schornak, Salma Omer, Barbara Pusey, Christopher Lau, Thomas Markello, David R Adams
This study describes a 13-yr-old girl with orthostatic intolerance, respiratory weakness, multiple endocrine abnormalities, pancreatic insufficiency, and multiorgan failure involving the gut and bladder. Exome sequencing revealed a de novo, loss-of-function allele in SLC12A2, the gene encoding the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter-1. The 11-bp deletion in exon 22 results in frameshift (p.Val1026Phefs*2) and truncation of the carboxy-terminal tail of the cotransporter. Preliminary studies in heterologous expression systems demonstrate that the mutation leads to a nonfunctional transporter, which is expressed and trafficked to the plasma membrane alongside wild-type NKCC1...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900285/a-t4ss-effector-targets-host-cell-alpha-enolase-contributing-to-brucella-abortus-intracellular-lifestyle
#13
María I Marchesini, Susana M Morrone Seijo, Francisco F Guaimas, Diego J Comerci
Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, invades and replicates within cells inside a membrane-bound compartment known as the Brucella containing vacuole (BCV). After trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways, BCVs mature into endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartments permissive for bacterial replication. Brucella Type IV Secretion System (VirB) is a major virulence factor essential for the biogenesis of the replicative organelle. Upon infection, Brucella uses the VirB system to translocate effector proteins from the BCV into the host cell cytoplasm...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899652/production-of-dna-minicircles-less-than-250-base-pairs-through-a-novel-concentrated-dna-circularization-assay-enabling-minicircle-design-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibition-activity
#14
Thomas Thibault, Jeril Degrouard, Patrick Baril, Chantal Pichon, Patrick Midoux, Jean-Marc Malinge
Double-stranded DNA minicircles of less than 1000 bp in length have great interest in both fundamental research and therapeutic applications. Although minicircles have shown promising activity in gene therapy thanks to their good biostability and better intracellular trafficking, minicircles down to 250 bp in size have not yet been investigated from the test tube to the cell for lack of an efficient production method. Herein, we report a novel versatile plasmid-free method for the production of DNA minicircles comprising fewer than 250 bp...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899210/comparative-analysis-of-the-internalization-of-the-macrophage-receptor-sialoadhesin-in-human-and-mouse-primary-macrophages-and-cell-lines
#15
Marjorie De Schryver, Annelies Leemans, Isabel Pintelon, Davie Cappoen, Louis Maes, Guy Caljon, Paul Cos, Peter L Delputte
Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a surface receptor expressed on resident macrophages with the ability to bind with sialic acids. During inflammation, an upregulation of Sn is observed. Upon binding of monoclonal antibodies to Sn, the receptor becomes internalized and this has been observed in multiple species. The latter characteristic, combined with the strong upregulation of Sn on inflammatory macrophages and the fact that Sn-positive macrophages contribute to certain inflammatory diseases, makes Sn an interesting entry portal for phenotype-modulating or cytotoxic drugs...
November 21, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899122/endocytosed-nanoparticles-hold-endosomes-and-stimulate-binucleated-cells-formation
#16
Lin Xia, Weihong Gu, Mingyi Zhang, Ya-Nan Chang, Kui Chen, Xue Bai, Lai Yu, Juan Li, Shan Li, Gengmei Xing
BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology developed rapidly in cellular diagnosis and treatment, the endocytic system was an important pathway for targeting cell. In the research of developing macrophages as drug carriers or important therapeutic targets, an interesting phenomenon, internalized nanoparticles induced to form binucleated macrophages, was found although the particles dose did not cause obvious cytotoxicity. RESULTS: Under 25 μg/ml, internalized 30 nm polystyrene beads(30 nm Ps nanoparticles) induced the formation of binucleated macrophages when they entered into endosomes via the endocytic pathway...
November 29, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898523/role-of-corin-in-the-regulation-of-blood-pressure
#17
Hui Li, Yue Zhang, Qingyu Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Corin is a transmembrane protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), an important hormone in regulating salt-water balance and blood pressure. This review focuses on the regulation of corin function and potential roles of corin defects in hypertensive, heart, and renal diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-6 has been identified as a primary enzyme that converts zymogen corin to an active protease. Genetic variants that impair corin intracellular trafficking, cell surface expression, and zymogen activation have been found in patients with hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and pre-eclampsia...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895585/feto-maternal-trafficking-of-exosomes-in-murine-pregnancy-models
#18
Samantha Sheller-Miller, Jun Lei, George Saade, Carlos Salomon, Irina Burd, Ramkumar Menon
Timing and initiation of labor are well-orchestrated by signals communicated between the fetal and maternal compartments; however, how these signals are communicated is not completely understood. Fetal exosomes, intercellular signaling vesicles, may play a key role in the process. The objective of this study was to evaluate exosome trafficking in vivo from fetal to maternal compartments. Pregnant CD-1 mice were intra-amniotically injected on gestational day 16 and 17 with exosomes isolated from primary human amnion epithelial cells fluorescently labeled with the lipophilic dye 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR)...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895171/impairment-of-ccr6-and-cxcr3-th-cell-migration-in-hiv-1-infection-is-rescued-by-modulating-actin-polymerization
#19
Valentina Cecchinato, Enos Bernasconi, Roberto F Speck, Michele Proietti, Ulrike Sauermann, Gianluca D'Agostino, Gabriela Danelon, Tanja Rezzonico Jost, Fabio Grassi, Lorenzo Raeli, Franziska Schöni-Affolter, Christiane Stahl-Hennig, Mariagrazia Uguccioni
CD4(+) T cell repopulation of the gut is rarely achieved in HIV-1-infected individuals who are receiving clinically effective antiretroviral therapy. Alterations in the integrity of the mucosal barrier have been indicated as a cause for chronic immune activation and disease progression. In this study, we present evidence that persistent immune activation causes impairment of lymphocytes to respond to chemotactic stimuli, thus preventing their trafficking from the blood stream to peripheral organs. CCR6(+) and CXCR3(+) Th cells accumulate in the blood of aviremic HIV-1-infected patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy, and their frequency in the circulation positively correlates to levels of soluble CD14 in plasma, a marker of chronic immune activation...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893774/multivalent-interactions-of-human-primary-amine-oxidase-with-the-v-and-c22-domains-of-sialic-acid-binding-immunoglobulin-like-lectin-9-regulate-its-binding-and-amine-oxidase-activity
#20
Heli Elovaara, Vimal Parkash, Ruth Fair-Mäkelä, Outi M H Salo-Ahen, Gabriela Guédez, Eva Bligt-Lindén, Janne Grönholm, Sirpa Jalkanen, Tiina A Salminen
Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-9 (Siglec-9) on leukocyte surface is a counter-receptor for endothelial cell surface adhesin, human primary amine oxidase (hAOC3), a target protein for anti-inflammatory agents. This interaction can be used to detect inflammation and cancer in vivo, since the labeled peptides derived from the second C2 domain (C22) of Siglec-9 specifically bind to the inflammation-inducible hAOC3. As limited knowledge on the interaction between Siglec-9 and hAOC3 has hampered both hAOC3-targeted drug design and in vivo imaging applications, we have now produced and purified the extracellular region of Siglec-9 (Siglec-9-EC) consisting of the V, C21 and C22 domains, modeled its 3D structure and characterized the hAOC3-Siglec-9 interactions using biophysical methods and activity/inhibition assays...
2016: PloS One
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