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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689289/ebi2-sensor-for-dihydroxycholesterol-gradients-in-neuroinflammation
#1
REVIEW
Florian Kurschus, Florian Wanke
Dihydroxycholesterols such as 7α,25-dihydroxysterols (7α,25-OHC) and 7α,27-OHC are generated from cholesterol by the enzymes CH25H, CYP7B1 and CYP27A1 in steady state but also in the context of inflammation. The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2), also known as GPR183, senses these oxysterols and induces chemotactic migration of immune cells towards higher concentrations of these ligands. We recently showed that these ligands are upregulated in the CNS in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis and that EBI2 enhanced early infiltration of encephalitogenic T cells into the CNS...
April 21, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689227/how-the-ciliary-membrane-is-organized-inside-out-to-communicate-outside-in
#2
REVIEW
Galo Garcia, David R Raleigh, Jeremy F Reiter
Cilia, organelles that move to execute functions like fertilization and signal to execute functions like photoreception and embryonic patterning, are composed of a core of nine-fold doublet microtubules overlain by a membrane. Distinct types of cilia display distinct membrane morphologies, ranging from simple domed cylinders to the highly ornate invaginations and membrane disks of photoreceptor outer segments. Critical for the ability of cilia to signal, both the protein and the lipid compositions of ciliary membranes are different from those of other cellular membranes...
April 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688813/dual-signaling-of-wamide-myoinhibitory-peptides-through-a-peptide-gated-channel-and-a-gpcr-in-platynereis
#3
Axel Schmidt, Philipp Bauknecht, Elizabeth A Williams, Katrin Augustinowski, Stefan Gründer, Gáspár Jékely
Neuropeptides commonly signal by metabotropic GPCRs. In some mollusks and cnidarians, RFamide neuropeptides mediate fast ionotropic signaling by peptide-gated ion channels that belong to the DEG/ENaC family. Here we describe a neuropeptide system with a dual mode of signaling by both a peptide-gated ion channel and a GPCR. We identified and characterized a peptide-gated channel in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii that is specifically activated by Wamide myoinhibitory peptides derived from the same proneuropeptide...
April 24, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687827/characterization-of-active-antiplatelet-chemical-compositions-of-edible-citrus-limon-through-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-single-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-based-chemometrics
#4
Qian Zhang, Chengning Tan, Liang Cai, Fangbo Xia, Die Gao, Fengqing Yang, Hua Chen, Zhining Xia
Citrus limon L. (lemon, family: Rutaceae) is the third most popular edible fruit among the Citrus species. Our previous study has shown the significant antiplatelet activity of lemon extracts. The aim of the present study is to identify the features (retention time, m/z) associated with the antiplatelet activity of lemons by correlating a platelet aggregation assay with ultra-performance liquid chromatography single quadrupole mass spectrometry-based chemometrics analysis. The primary bioactivity-guided test results revealed that the butanol (BA) and ethyl acetate (EA) liquid-liquid extraction sections of the ethanol extract of lemons had significant inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation...
April 24, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686069/lifetime-of-muscarinic-receptor-g-protein-complexes-determines-coupling-efficiency-and-g-protein-subtype-selectivity
#5
Olga S Ilyaskina, Horst Lemoine, Moritz Bünemann
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for the detection of extracellular stimuli by cells and transfer the encoded information via the activation of functionally distinct subsets of heterotrimeric G proteins into intracellular signals. Despite enormous achievements toward understanding GPCR structures, major aspects of the GPCR-G-protein selectivity mechanism remain unresolved. As this can be attributed to the lack of suitable and broadly applicable assays, we set out to develop a quantitative FRET-based assay to study kinetics and affinities of G protein binding to activated GPCRs in membranes of permeabilized cells in the absence of nucleotides...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686062/synaptic-adhesion-protein-elfn1-is-a-selective-allosteric-modulator-of-group-iii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-trans
#6
Henry A Dunn, Dipak N Patil, Yan Cao, Cesare Orlandi, Kirill A Martemyanov
Functional characterization of the GPCR interactome has been focused predominantly on intracellular interactions, yet GPCRs are increasingly found in complex with extracellular proteins. Extracellular leucine-rich repeat fibronectin type III domain containing 1 (ELFN1) was recently reported to physically anchor mGluR6 and mGluR7 across retinal and hippocampal synapses, respectively; however, the consequence of transsynaptic interactions on properties and pharmacology of these receptors are unknown. In the current study, we explore the effects of ELFN1 on mGluR signaling and pharmacology...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685028/exploring-gpcr-lipid-interactions-by-molecular-dynamics-simulations-excitements-challenges-and-the-way-forward
#7
Durba Sengupta, Xavier Prasanna, Madhura Mohole, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane receptors that mediate a large number of cellular responses and are important drug targets. One of the current challenges in GPCR biology is to analyze the molecular signatures of receptor-lipid interactions, and their subsequent effects on GPCR structure, organization and function. Molecular dynamics simulation studies have been successful in predicting molecular determinants of receptor-lipid interactions. In particular, predicted cholesterol interaction sites appear to correspond well with experimentally determined binding sites and estimated time scales of association...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683449/optimizing-the-genetic-incorporation-of-chemical-probes-into-gpcrs-for-photo-crosslinking-mapping-and-bioorthogonal-chemistry-in-live-mammalian-cells
#8
Robert Serfling, Lisa Seidel, Thore Böttke, Irene Coin
The genetic incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) via amber stop codon suppression is a powerful technique to install artificial probes and reactive moieties onto proteins directly in the live cell. Each ncAA is incorporated by a dedicated orthogonal suppressor-tRNA/amino-acyl-tRNA-synthetase (AARS) pair that is imported into the host organism. The incorporation efficiency of different ncAAs can greatly differ, and be unsatisfactory in some cases. Orthogonal pairs can be improved by manipulating either the AARS or the tRNA...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681531/calhm3-is-essential-for-rapid-ion-channel-mediated-purinergic-neurotransmission-of-gpcr-mediated-tastes
#9
Zhongming Ma, Akiyuki Taruno, Makoto Ohmoto, Masafumi Jyotaki, Jason C Lim, Hiroaki Miyazaki, Naomi Niisato, Yoshinori Marunaka, Robert J Lee, Henry Hoff, Riley Payne, Angelo Demuro, Ian Parker, Claire H Mitchell, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Jessica E Tanis, Ichiro Matsumoto, Michael G Tordoff, J Kevin Foskett
Binding of sweet, umami, and bitter tastants to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in apical membranes of type II taste bud cells (TBCs) triggers action potentials that activate a voltage-gated nonselective ion channel to release ATP to gustatory nerves mediating taste perception. Although calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) is necessary for ATP release, the molecular identification of the channel complex that provides the conductive ATP-release mechanism suitable for action potential-dependent neurotransmission remains to be determined...
April 13, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680147/discovery-and-development-of-calcimimetic-and-calcilytic-compounds
#10
Edward F Nemeth, Bradford C Van Wagenen, Manuel F Balandrin
The extracellular calcium receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and the pivotal molecule regulating systemic Ca2+ homeostasis. The CaR was a challenging target for drug discovery because its physiological ligand is an inorganic ion (Ca2+ ) rather than a molecule so there was no structural template to guide medicinal chemistry. Nonetheless, small molecules targeting this receptor were discovered. Calcimimetics are agonists or positive allosteric modulators of the CaR, while calcilytics are antagonists and all to date are negative allosteric modulators...
2018: Progress in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678288/internalization-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-implication-in-receptor-function-physiology-and-diseases
#11
REVIEW
Davide Calebiro, Amod Godbole
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of membrane receptors and mediate the effects of numerous hormones and neurotransmitters. The nearly 1000 GPCRs encoded by the human genome regulate virtually all physiological functions and are implicated in the pathogenesis of prevalent human diseases such as thyroid disorders, hypertension or Parkinson's disease. As a result, 30-50% of all currently prescribed drugs are targeting these receptors. Once activated, GPCRs induce signals at the cell surface...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678287/novel-mechanisms-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-functions-at-1-angiotensin-receptor-acts-as-a-signaling-hub-and-focal-point-of-receptor-cross-talk
#12
REVIEW
András D Tóth, Gábor Turu, László Hunyady, András Balla
AT1 angiotensin receptor (AT1 R), a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is the main receptor, which mediates the effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). AT1 R plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure and salt-water homeostasis, and in the development of pathological conditions, such as hypertension, heart failure, cardiovascular remodeling, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. Stimulation of AT1 R leads to pleiotropic signal transduction pathways generating arrays of complex cellular responses...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678286/g-protein-coupled-receptors-gpcrs-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-current-view-and-future-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Guido Sebastiani, Elena Ceccarelli, Maria Grazia Castagna, Francesco Dotta
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest receptor family in the genome and are of great interest for the design of novel drugs in a wide variety of diseases including neurologic disorders, obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The latter is a chronic disease characterized by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion, affecting >400 million patients worldwide. Here we provide an overview on: a) The molecular basis of GPCR signalling and of its involvement in the regulation of insulin secretion and of glucose homeostasis; b) the role of GPCRs in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology and as therapeutic targets of current and future glucose-lowering drugs...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678284/aberrant-g-protein-coupled-hormone-receptor-in-adrenal-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Matthieu St-Jean, Nada El Ghorayeb, Isabelle Bourdeau, André Lacroix
The regulation of cortisol or aldosterone production when ACTH of pituitary origin or the renin-angiotensin systems are suppressed in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome or in primary aldosteronism is exerted by diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. In addition to recently identified mutations in various genes implicated in the cyclic AMP or ion channel pathways, steroidogenesis is not really autonomous as it is frequently regulated by the aberrant adrenocortical expression of diverse hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) which can substitute for the normal function of ACTH or angiotensin-II...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678280/the-kisspeptin-receptor-a-key-g-protein-coupled-receptor-in-the-control-of-the-reproductive-axis
#15
REVIEW
Delphine Franssen, Manuel Tena-Sempere
The kisspeptin receptor, Kiss1R, also known as Gpr54, is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), deorphanized in 2001, when it was recognized as canonical receptor for the Kiss1-derived peptides, kisspeptins. In 2003, inactivating mutations of Kiss1R gene were first associated to lack of pubertal maturation and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans and rodents. These seminal findings pointed out the previously unsuspected, essential role of Kiss1R and its ligands in control of reproductive maturation and function...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677505/a-mechanosensitive-gpcr-that-detects-the-bloody-force
#16
Adam J Iliff, X Z Shawn Xu
Mechanoreceptors mediate a wide variety of physiological processes, such as hearing, touch, proprioception, and blood flow regulation. It is generally believed that mechanoreceptors are force-gated ion channels. Now, Xu et al. uncover a GPCR that is activated by shear force in endothelial cells of blood vessels.
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673577/profiling-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-vagal-afferents-reveals-novel-gut-to-brain-sensing-mechanisms
#17
Kristoffer L Egerod, Natalia Petersen, Pascal N Timshel, Jens C Rekling, Yibing Wang, Qinghua Liu, Thue W Schwartz, Laurent Gautron
OBJECTIVES: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) act as transmembrane molecular sensors of neurotransmitters, hormones, nutrients, and metabolites. Because unmyelinated vagal afferents richly innervate the gastrointestinal mucosa, gut-derived molecules may directly modulate the activity of vagal afferents through GPCRs. However, the types of GPCRs expressed in vagal afferents are largely unknown. Here, we determined the expression profile of all GPCRs expressed in vagal afferents of the mouse, with a special emphasis on those innervating the gastrointestinal tract...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673107/could-adenosine-recognize-its-receptors-with-a-stoichiometry-other-than-1-1
#18
Giuseppe Deganutti, Veronica Salmaso, Stefano Moro
One of the most largely accepted concepts in the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) field is that the ligand, either agonist or antagonist, recognizes its receptor with a stoichiometry of 1 : 1. Recent experimental evidence, reporting ternary complexes formed by GPCR:orthosteric: allosteric ligands, has complicated the ligand-receptor 1 : 1 binding scenario. Molecular modeling simulations have been used to retrieve insights on the whole ligand-receptor recognition process, beyond information on the final bound state provided by experimental techniques...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671777/calcium-and-nuclear-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Ivan V Maly, Wilma A Hofmann
Recently, there have been a number of developments in the fields of calcium and nuclear signaling that point to new avenues for a more effective diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. An example is the discovery of new classes of molecules involved in calcium-regulated nuclear import and nuclear calcium signaling, from the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and myosin families. This review surveys the new state of the calcium and nuclear signaling fields with the aim of identifying the unifying themes that hold out promise in the context of the problems presented by prostate cancer...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671585/ligand-triggered-structural-changes-in-the-m2-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#20
Mireia Jiménez-Rosés, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, Gianluigi Caltabiano, Arnau Cordomí
Τhe muscarinic M2 acetylcholine receptor, one of the few G protein-coupled receptors that has not only been crystallized in both active and inactive conformations, but also in the presence of a positive allosteric modulator, is an interesting system to study the molecular mechanisms of GPCR activation and ligand allosterism. Here, we have employed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations (adding to 14μs in total) to study conformational changes triggered by the inverse agonist R-(-)-3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) in the structure of the active M2 muscarinic (PBD id 4MQS) after replacement of the agonist iperoxo by the inverse agonist QNB...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
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