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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909723/inhibition-of-jnk-suppresses-autophagy-and-attenuates-insulin-resistance-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#1
Hua Yan, Yanqiong Gao, Ying Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease, the pathological process of which is complex. Activation of the c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is associated with the mechanism underlying obesity-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, the JNK signaling pathway and dysfunctional autophagy serve important roles in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the exact role of JNK in autophagy and obesity‑induced insulin resistance is not fully understood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which the JNK signaling pathway regulates autophagy and insulin resistance in fatty liver...
November 24, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899860/leptin-attenuates-the-contractile-function-of-adult-rat-cardiomyocytes-involved-in-oxidative-stress-and-autophagy
#2
Liu-Jin Luo, Ying-Ping Liu, Xun Yuan, Gui-Ping Zhang, Ning Hou, Xiao-Qian Wu, Jian-Dong Luo, Gen-Shui Zhang
BACKGROUND: Leptin has been identified as an important protein involved in obesity. As a chronic metabolic disorder, obesity is associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including heart failure. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects and the mechanism of leptin on the contractile function of cardiomyocytes in the adult rat. METHODS: Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to leptin (1, 10, and 100 nmol/L) for 1 hour...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897089/anti-aging-effect-of-metformin-on-brain-in-naturally-aged-and-accelerated-senescence-model-of-rat
#3
Geetika Garg, Sandeep Singh, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Metformin, a biguanide, is a widely used anti-diabetic drug which inhibits gluconeogenesis and is used to treat hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Through activation of AMPK pathway, metformin also mimics caloric restriction health benefits. Aging causes substantial molecular to morphological changes in brain, the brain cells being more susceptible towards oxidative stress mediated damages due to the presence of high lipid content and higher oxygen consumption. Wistar rats (naturally aged and D Galactose induced rat model) were supplemented with metformin (300 mg/kg b...
November 29, 2016: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895725/ehhm-a-novel-phenolic-natural-product-from-livistona-chinensis-induces-autophagy-related-apoptosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#4
Xinsheng Cheng, Feng Zhong, Kun He, Shibo Sun, Hongbo Chen, Jie Zhou
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks the second cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. In the present study, the effects and mechanisms of a new phenolic natural product E-[6'-(5'-hydroxypentyl)tricosyl]-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (EHHM) isolated from Livistona chinensis on the growth of HCC cells were investigated. It was observed that EHHM treatment significantly suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation, and induced cell apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent caspase pathway in HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894666/ouabain-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-burkitt-s-lymphoma-raji-cells
#5
Li Meng, Yanting Wen, Min Zhou, Jian Li, Ting Wang, Peipei Xu, Jian Ouyang
The steroid Na+/K+-ATPase blocker ouabain has been shown to exhibit cytotoxic effects in various tumor cell systems. This study aimed to determine the effects of ouabain on Burkitt's lymphoma Raji cells. Ouabain treatment of Raji cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and increased the morphological changes associated with apoptosis. Additionally, increased numbers of both early and late apoptotic cells were observed by annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry assay. Increased levels of caspase-3 and cleaved-caspase-3, higher Bax activity and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were detected in ouabain-treated Raji cells...
November 25, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889779/tanshinone-iia-affects-autophagy-and-apoptosis-of-glioma-cells-by-inhibiting-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway
#6
Lijuan Ding, Shudong Wang, Weiyao Wang, Peng Lv, Donghai Zhao, Feier Chen, Tianjiao Meng, Lihua Dong, Ling Qi
OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) on cell viability, cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy of human glioma cell U251 by regulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal pathway. METHODS: Tan IIA and PI3K agonist (740 Y-P) were used to treat glioma cells U251. MTT assay was used to assess cell viability and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis and cell cycle. The expressions of apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2 and Bax), autophagy-related proteins (LC3B and Beclin 1) and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway-associated proteins (p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR) were evaluated by Western blotting...
November 26, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889531/sirt1-protects-cardiac-cells-against-apoptosis-induced-by-zearalenone-or-its-metabolites-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-zearalenol-through-an-autophagy-dependent-pathway
#7
Intidhar Ben Salem, Manel Boussabbeh, Julie Pires Da Silva, Arnaud Guilbert, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-Essefi, Christophe Lemaire
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium in cereals and agricultural products. The major ZEN metabolites are α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL). In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of the toxicity induced by ZEN, α-ZOL and β-ZOL in cardiac cells (H9c2). We show that treatment with ZEN or its metabolites induces the activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis as characterized by an increase in ROS generation, a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and an activation of caspases...
November 23, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887947/berberine-enhances-the-ampk-activation-and-autophagy-and-mitigates-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-of-mouse-podocytes
#8
Yingli Jin, Shuping Liu, Qingshan Ma, Dong Xiao, Li Chen
High glucose concentration can induce injury of podocytes and berberine has a potent activity against diabetic nephropathy. However, whether and how berberine can inhibit high glucose-mediated injury of podocytes have not been clarified. This study tested the effect of berberine on high glucose-mediated apoptosis and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and autophagy in podocytes. The results indicated that berberine significantly mitigated high glucose-decreased cell viability, and nephrin and podocin expression as well as apoptosis in mouse podocytes...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885243/di-n-butyl-phthalate-induced-hypospadias-relates-to-autophagy-in-genital-tubercle-via-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#9
Xiang Li, Jinhao Li, Ya Zhang, Yun Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanisms of hypospadias induced by in utero exposure to din-butyl phthalate (DBP). METHODS: Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 750 mg/kg of DBP by gavage from GD (gestation days) 13 to GD 18, whereas control group received corn oil. Genital tubercles (GTs) and blood samples were collected from male fetuses on GD 19. The serum testosterone concentration, apoptosis activity, autophagosomes and their related proteins (light chain 3 (LC3-I, LC3-II)), and sequestosomes (SQSTM1/p62) in the GTs were then measured...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882308/prognostic-impact-of-autophagy-biomarkers-for-cutaneous-melanoma
#10
REVIEW
Diana Y L Tang, Robert A Ellis, Penny E Lovat
Prognosis and survival for malignant melanoma is highly dependent on early diagnosis and treatment. While the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) criterion provides a means of staging melanomas and guiding treatment approaches, it is unable to identify the risk of disease progression of early stage tumors or provide reliable stratification for novel adjuvant therapies. The demand for credible prognostic/companion biomarkers able to identify high-risk melanoma subgroups as well as guide more effective personalized/precision-based therapy is therefore of paramount importance...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880899/lc3c-contributes-to-vpu-mediated-antagonism-of-bst2-tetherin-restriction-on-hiv-1-release-through-a-non-canonical-autophagy-pathway
#11
Ursula Madjo, Olivier Leymarie, Stéphane Frémont, Aurelia Kuster, Mélanie Nehlich, Sarah Gallois-Montbrun, Katy Janvier, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent
BST2 (bone marrow stromal antigen 2)/tetherin is a restriction factor of enveloped viruses, which blocks the release of viral particles. HIV-1 encodes proteins that antagonize this innate barrier, including the accessory protein Vpu. Here, we investigate whether the autophagy pathway and/or ATG proteins are hijacked by HIV-1 Vpu to circumvent BST2 restriction of viral release. We report that BST2 and Vpu are present in LC3-positive compartments. We found that Vpu selectively interacts with the ATG8 ortholog LC3C through the Vpu L63VEM66 sequence...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878276/expression-pattern-of-hmgb1-and-its-association-with-autophagy-in-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis
#12
Can Yu, Xiao Yu, Hong-Wei Zhu, Xia Li, Li-Hua Huang, Zhi-Qiang Li, Duo Han, Hui Huang
High-motility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) has an important role in autophagy; however, its exact role in acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of HMGB1 in ANP, and to determine its association with autophagy. Sprague Dawley rats (weight, 350±30 g, n=48) were randomly divided into control (n=12) and experimental (n=36) groups. Experimental rats were retrogradely injected with 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct to induce ANP...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874084/silymarin-attenuates-cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-inflammation-via-simultaneous-inhibition-of-autophagy-and-erk-p38-mapk-pathway-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#13
Diandian Li, Jun Hu, Tao Wang, Xue Zhang, Lian Liu, Hao Wang, Yanqiu Wu, Dan Xu, Fuqiang Wen
Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), contributing to airway inflammation. Our previous study revealed that silymarin had an anti-inflammatory effect in CS-exposed mice. In this study, we attempt to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of silymarin in CS extract (CSE)-induced inflammation using human bronchial epithelial cells. Silymarin significantly suppressed autophagy activation and the activity of ERK/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in Beas-2B cells...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871466/autophagy-protects-against-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-mediated-inflammation-associated-with-preeclampsia
#14
Yan Zhang, Xiaoyu Hu, Guoqiang Gao, Yufang Wang, Pingping Chen, Yuanhua Ye
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory responses play an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Recently, the anti-inflammatory role played by autophagy has drawn increasing attention. Our aim was to investigate variations in autophagy in preeclampsia and protection against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-mediated inflammation by autophagy. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting to analyze the expression of autophagy proteins (beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3I) in preeclampsia placentas and in JEG-3 cells treated with oxLDL and rapamycin...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871457/minocycline-is-effective-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage-by-inhibition-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy
#15
Zehan Wu, Xiang Zou, Wei Zhu, Ying Mao, Liang Chen, Fan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable type of stroke and affects millions of people worldwide. Treatment for ICH varies from medicine to surgery, but the rate of mortality and mobility still remains high. Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic increasingly recognized for its neuroprotective potential. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that many secondary injuries caused by ICH could be significantly reduced by injection of minocycline in rat models. The following research investigates the role of minocycline in reducing brain injury...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867537/aquaporin-3-facilitates-chemoresistance-in-gastric-cancer-cells-to-cisplatin-via-autophagy
#16
Xuqiang Dong, Yao Wang, Yangchun Zhou, Jianfei Wen, Shoulin Wang, Lizong Shen
Cisplatin (cDDP) remains one of the first-line chemotherapeutic agents for gastric cancer (GC) treatment, and resistance to cDDP is the major limitation in its clinical application. Mechanisms of cDDP resistance have been shown to be varied and complicated. Aquaporin 3 (AQP3) has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in GC tissues and is thought to be involved in GC carcinogenesis and progression. However, the role of AQP3 in chemosensitivity of GC to cytotoxic agents remains unknown. In this study, we show that AQP3 overexpression induced resistance to cDDP in AGS cells (P<0...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864418/ampk-ulk1-mediated-autophagy-confers-resistance-to-bet-inhibitor-jq1-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-stem-cells
#17
Ji Eun Jang, Ju In Eom, Hoi Kyung Jeung, June-Won Cheong, Jung Yeon Lee, Jin Seok Kim, Yoo Hong Min
PURPOSE: Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitors are promising epigenetic agents for the treatment of various subsets of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the resistance of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) to BET inhibitors remains a major challenge. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms underlying LSC resistance to the BET inhibitor JQ1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated the levels of apoptosis and autophagy induced by JQ1 in LSC-like leukemia cell lines and primary CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemic blasts obtained from AML cases with normal karyotype without recurrent mutations...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863407/induction-of-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-and-pi3k-akt-mtor-mediated-autophagy-by-aflatoxin-b2-in-hepatocytes-of-broilers
#18
Binlong Chen, Diyan Li, Miao Li, Sichen Li, Kenan Peng, Xian Shi, Lanyun Zhou, Pu Zhang, Zhongxian Xu, Huadong Yin, Yan Wang, Xiaoling Zhao
Aflatoxins have been shown to induce hepatotoxicity in animal models, but the effects of aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) on broiler hepatocytes is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of AFB2 on apoptosis and autophagy to provide an experimental basis for understanding the mechanism of aflatoxin-induced hepatotoxicity. One hundred-twenty Cobb500 broilers were allocated to four groups and exposed to 0 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg, 0.4 mg/kg, and 0.8 mg/kg of AFB2 per day for 21 d. AFB2 exerted potent proapoptotic and proautophagic effects on hepatocytes, with increased numbers of apoptotic and autophagic hepatocytes...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860187/autophagy-activated-by-tuberin-mtor-p70s6k-suppression-is-a-protective-mechanism-against-local-anaesthetics-neurotoxicity
#19
Jingwei Xiong, Qiuyue Kong, Leyang Dai, He Ma, Xiaofei Cao, Li Liu, Zhengnian Ding
The local anaesthetics (LAs) are widely used for peripheral nerve blocks, epidural anaesthesia, spinal anaesthesia and pain management. However, exposure to LAs for long duration or at high dosage can provoke potential neuronal damages. Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation process for proteins and organelles. However, both the effects of LAs on autophagy in neuronal cells and the effects of autophagy on LAs neurotoxicity are not clear. To answer these questions, both lipid LAs (procaine and tetracaine) and amide LAs (bupivacaine, lidocaine and ropivacaine) were administrated to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858064/-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-experimental-study-on-the-effect-of-fluoride-induced-autophagy-in-rat-hat-7-cell-line
#20
Shuang Lei, Ying Zhang, Kai-Qiang Zhang, Jian Li
PURPOSE: To study the effect of fluoride on autophagy in rat ameloblasts both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Logarithmic-phase HAT-7 cells were cultured in different concentrations of fluoride for 48h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to detect autophagosomes. Western blot and RT-qPCR were carried out to examine the expression of LC3 and Beclin 1. Forty Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups randomly. The expression of LC3 and Beclin 1 in rats was investigated by immunohistochemical staining in vivo...
August 2016: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
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