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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916337/angiotensin-ii-induces-calcium-mediated-autophagy-in-podocytes-through-enhancing-reactive-oxygen-species-levels
#1
Na Gao, Hui Wang, Hongqiang Yin, Zhuo Yang
As well known, abnormalities of Angiotensin II (Ang II) is closely related with glomerular damage. This study was to investigate whether Ang II could affect autophagy in podocytes via oxidative stress, and whether autophagy had a positive role in protecting podocytes impaired by Ang II. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that Ang II induced podocyte death. The measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 levels, and flow cytometry assay revealed that Ang II considerably increased ROS generation in podocytes...
September 12, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915706/the-role-of-autophagy-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-friend-or-foe
#2
REVIEW
Lian Liu, Jia-Zhi Liao, Xing-Xing He, Pei-Yuan Li
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-dependent catabolic process which degrades cell's components in order to recycle substrates to exert optimally and adapt to tough circumstances. It is a critical cellular homeostatic mechanism with stress resistance, immunity, antiaging, and pro-tumor or anti-tumor effects. Among these, the role of autophagy in cancer is the most eye-catching that is not immutable but dynamic and highly complex. Basal autophagy acts as a tumor suppressor by maintaining genomic stability in normal cells...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912474/rhus-coriaria-increases-protein-ubiquitination-proteasomal-degradation-and-triggers-non-canonical-beclin-1-independent-autophagy-and-apoptotic-cell-death-in-colon-cancer-cells
#3
Khawlah Athamneh, Hussain El Hasasna, Halima Al Samri, Samir Attoub, Kholoud Arafat, Nehla Benhalilou, Asma Al Rashedi, Yusra Al Dhaheri, Synan AbuQamar, Ali Eid, Rabah Iratni
Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Here, we investigated the anticancer effect of Rhus coriaria extract (RCE) on HT-29 and Caco-2 human colorectal cancer cells. We found that RCE significantly inhibited the viability and colony growth of colon cancer cells. Moreover, RCE induced Beclin-1-independent autophagy and subsequent caspase-7-dependent apoptosis. Blocking of autophagy by chloroquine significantly reduced RCE-induced cell death, while blocking of apoptosis had no effect on RCE-induced cell death...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912059/piracetam-inhibits-ethanol-etoh-induced-memory-deficit-by-mediating-multiple-pathways
#4
Yifan Yang, Jian Feng, Fangyuan Xu, Jianglin Wang
Excessive ethanol (EtOH) intake, especially to prenatal exposure, can significantly affect cognitive function and cause permanent learning and memory injures in children. As a result, how to protect children from EtOH neurotoxicity has gained increasing attention in recent years. Piracetam (Pir) is a nootropic drug derived from c-aminobutyric acid and can manage cognition impairments in multiple neurological disorders. Studies have shown that Pir can exert therapeutic effects on EtOH-induced memory impairments, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown...
September 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905936/combing-oncolytic-adenovirus-expressing-beclin-1-with-chemotherapy-agent-doxorubicin-synergistically-enhances-cytotoxicity-in-human-cml-cells-in-vitro
#5
Li Li, Liang-Shun You, Li-Ping Mao, Shen-He Jin, Xiao-Hui Chen, Wen-Bin Qian
Cancer virotherapy provides a new strategy to treat cancer that can directly kill cancer cells by oncolysis. Insertion of therapeutic genes into the genome of a modified adenovirus, thereby creating a so-called gene-virotherapy that shares the advantages of gene therapy and virotherapy. In this study we investigated whether a strategy that combines the oncolytic effects of an adenoviral vector with the simultaneous expression of the autophagy gene Beclin-1 offered a therapeutic advantage for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells with resistance to chemotherapy and evaluated the synergistic effects of SG511-BECN and doxorubicin (Dox) in human CML cells in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903766/fluoxetine-enhanced-autophagy-ameliorates-early-brain-injury-via-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-following-subrachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#6
Jian-Ru Li, Hang-Zhe Xu, Sheng Nie, Yu-Cong Peng, Lin-Feng Fan, Zhi-Jiang Wang, Cheng Wu, Feng Yan, Jing-Yin Chen, Chi Gu, Chun Wang, Jing-Sen Chen, Lin Wang, Gao Chen
BACKGROUND: The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that regulates the innate immune inflammatory response by activating caspase-1 and subsequent IL-1β and IL-18. Fluoxetine has been shown to have the anti-inflammatory properties in many disease models. However, the effects and mechanisms of these effects of fluoxetine in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have not been defined. METHODS: The SAH model was induced by an endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 300-320 g...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903184/dexmedetomidine-exerts-neuroprotective-effect-via-the-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Min Shen, Shan Wang, Xin Wen, Xin-Rui Han, Yong-Jian Wang, Xiu-Min Zhou, Man-He Zhang, Dong-Mei Wu, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) in rats suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. METHODS: A weight drop model was performed for TBI model establishment. A total of 150 Sprague Dawley rats were selected and assigned into control, sham, TBI, TBI+Dex, TBI+LY294002 (LY) and TBI+Dex+LY groups. Modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) was conducted in order to evaluate the neurological injury...
September 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902711/triggering-of-inflammasome-by-impaired-autophagy-in-response-to-acute-experimental-parkinson-s-disease-involvement-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#8
Sabrina Giacoppo, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Several lines of evidence suggest that the inflammasome activation is involved in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relation between Parkinson's disease (PD) and the inflammasome is still unclear. This study was designed to assess the involvement of inflammasome in acute experimental PD. Specifically, acute PD was induced in C57BL/6 mice by an injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). At seven days from MPTP induction, mice were euthanized and the midbrains were sampled to carry out immunohistochemical evaluations and western blot analysis...
September 11, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901440/autophagy-and-er-stress-in-lps-galn%C3%A2-induced-acute-liver-injury
#9
Ting Shi, Weifang Song, Ruiling Xu
Numerous mechanisms and factors have been implicated in liver damage; however, the involvement of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress during early‑stage liver injury remains to be fully elucidated. The present study was conducted to determine the expression of autophagy and ER‑stress‑associated proteins in hepatic tissues following injury. A murine model of liver injury was induced by intraperitoneally injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D‑galactosamine (GalN), and control mice were similarly injected with normal saline...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901396/effect-of-1-25-oh-2d3-on-high-glucose%C3%A2-induced-autophagy-inhibition-in-peritoneum
#10
Lina Yang, Yi Fan, Xiuli Zhang, Jin Liu, Jianfei Ma
High glucose (HG) may damage the structure and function of the peritoneal membrane, and is considered to be one of the most important factors that leads to peritoneal fibrosis and ultrafiltration failure. Recently, 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D, was demonstrated to protect against epithelial‑mesenchymal transition and fibrosis in peritoneal mesothelium and other organs. Accumulating evidence has suggested that autophagy serves a protective role in certain diseases by regulating cell survival...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901391/protective-effects-of-heme-oxygenase-1-transduced-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-reduced%C3%A2-size-liver-transplantation-role-of-autophagy-regulated-by-the-erk-mtor-signaling-pathway
#11
Raorao Wang, Zhongyang Shen, Liu Yang, Mingli Yin, Weiping Zheng, Bin Wu, Tao Liu, Hongli Song
Autophagy is a critical lysosomal pathway that degrades cytoplasmic components to maintain cell homeostasis and provide substrates for energy metabolism. A study revealed that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-transduced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) could protect 50% reduced-size liver transplantation (RSLT) in a rat model. However, the mechanisms remain mostly unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects and related mechanism of autophagy on the protection conferred by HO-1-transduced BM-MSCs (HO-1/BM-MSCs) on 50% RSLT in a rat model...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900044/regulation-of-autophagy-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-cell-viability-by-mir-124-in-kras-mutant-mesenchymal-like-nsclc-cells
#12
Anita K Mehta, Kevin Hua, William Whipple, Minh-Thuy Nguyen, Ching-Ti Liu, Johannes Haybaeck, Joanne Weidhaas, Jeff Settleman, Anurag Singh
KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may be classified into epithelial or mesenchymal subtypes. Despite having the same "driver" mutation, mesenchymal NSCLCs are less responsive than are epithelial NSCLCs to inhibition of the RAS pathway. Identifying alternative networks that promote survival specifically in mesenchymal NSCLC may lead to more effective treatments for this subtype. Through their numerous targets in cellular signaling pathways, noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) often function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes...
September 12, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899456/clc5-decreases-the-sensitivity-of-multiple-myeloma-cells-to-bortezomib-via-promoting-pro-survival-autophagy
#13
Huimin Zhang, Yuhui Pang, Chuanbao Ma, Jianying Li, Huaquan Wang, Zonghong Shao
Resistance to bortezomib (BZ) is the major problem that largely limits its clinical application in multiple myeloma treatment. In current study, we investigated whether ClC5, a member of the chloride channel family, involved in this process. The results of MTT assay showed that BZ treatment decreased cell viability in three multiple myeloma cell lines (ARH77, U266 and SKO-007), with the IC50 value of 2.83 nM, 4.37 nM and 1.91 nM, respectively. Moreover, BZ increased the conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II and expressions of Beclin-1 and ATG5, concomitantly with decreased p62 expression...
September 11, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895489/effects-of-mild-running-on-substantia-nigra-during-early-neurodegeneration
#14
Michael F Almeida, Carolliny M Silva, Rodrigo S Chaves, Nathan C R Lima, Renato S Almeida, Karla P Melo, Marilene Demasi, Tiago Fernandes, Edilamar M Oliveira, Luis E S Netto, Sandra M Cardoso, Merari F R Ferrari
Moderate physical exercise acts at molecular and behavioural levels, such as interfering in neuroplasticity, cell death, neurogenesis, cognition and motor functions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse the cellular effects of moderate treadmill running upon substantia nigra during early neurodegeneration. Aged male Lewis rats (9-month-old) were exposed to rotenone 1mg/kg/day (8 weeks) and 6 weeks of moderate treadmill running, beginning 4 weeks after rotenone exposure. Substantia nigra was extracted and submitted to proteasome and antioxidant enzymes activities, hydrogen peroxide levels and Western blot to evaluate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), alpha-synuclein, Tom-20, PINK1, TrkB, SLP1, CRMP-2, Rab-27b, LC3II and Beclin-1 level...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894987/the-induction-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-human-hepatoma-smmc-7721-cells-by-combined-treatment-with-vitamin-c-and-polysaccharides-extracted-from-grifola-frondosa
#15
Fei Zhao, Jin Zhao, Lei Song, Ya-Qing Zhang, Zhong Guo, Ke-Hu Yang
Polysaccharides extracted from the mushroom Grifola frondosa (GFP) are a potential anticancer agent. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of GFP and vitamin C (VC) alone and in combination on the viability of human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 and HepG2 cells. Studies designed to detect cell apoptosis and autophagy were also conducted to investigate the mechanism. Results from the cell viability assay indicated that a combination of GFP (0.2 or 0.25 mg/mL) and VC (0.3 mmol/L) (GFP/VC) led to 52...
September 11, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893091/lutein-induces-autophagy-via-beclin-1-upregulation-in-iec-6-rat-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#16
Chi-Jen Chang, Ji-Fan Lin, Chien-Yu Hsiao, Hsun-Hao Chang, Hsin-Ju Li, Hsun-Hsien Chang, Gon-Ann Lee, Chi-Feng Hung
Lutein is a carotenoid with anti-oxidant properties. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic cellular pathway for coping with stress conditions, is responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and degrades damaged organelles. We previously demonstrated that lutein can induce anti-oxidant enzymes to relieve methotrexate-induced ROS stress. We therefore hypothesized that lutein, which activates ROS-scavenging enzymes, can also induce autophagy for cell survival. In this study, we demonstrated that lutein treatment attenuated the reduction in cell viability caused by H2O2...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889023/suppression-of-foxo3a-attenuates-neurobehavioral-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury-through-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy
#17
Liqian Sun, Manman Zhao, Man Liu, Peng Su, Jingbo Zhang, Youxiang Li, Xinjian Yang, Zhongxue Wu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious insult that frequently leads to neurological impairments. Forkhead box O (FoxO) 3a, as transcription factor, has been confirmed to modulate autophagic process. Moreover, FoxO3a is expressed throughout the brain including the hippocampus. However, the role of FoxO3a in the pathophysiology of TBI is unclear. The present study is designed to investigate whether FoxO3a has the neuroprotective effects on rats subjected to TBI, and further to explore the potential molecular mechanisms...
September 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881721/lower-beclin-1-downregulates-her2-expression-to-enhance-tamoxifen-sensitivity-and-predicts-a-favorable-outcome-for-er-positive-breast-cancer
#18
Yu Gu, Tianxiang Chen, Guangliang Li, Cong Xu, Zhenzhen Xu, Jing Zhang, Kuifeng He, Linyan Zheng, Zhonghai Guan, Xinyun Su, Jiang Cao, Lisong Teng
Tamoxifen(TAM) is one of the most effective endocrine treatment for estrogen receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer, however drug resistance greatly limits benefit of it. Our purpose is to uncover the role of Beclin 1 in tamoxifen resistance and prognosis of ER positive breast cancer. We established a tamoxifen resistant ER-positive breast cancer cell subline MCF-7R presenting with higher Beclin 1 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2) levels than MCF-7. Silencing Beclin 1 decreased levels of HER2 and significantly promoted TAM sensitivity of MCF-7 and MCF-7R in vitro...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881653/identification-of-novel-small-molecule-beclin-1-mimetics-activating-autophagy
#19
Jia Yu, Lan Lan, Seth J Lewin, Steven A Rogers, Anuradha Roy, Xiaoqing Wu, Philip Gao, John Karanicolas, Jeffrey Aubé, Baiwang Sun, Liang Xu
Anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL could block autophagy by binding to Beclin 1 protein, an essential inducer of autophagy. Compounds mimicking Beclin 1 might be able to disrupt Bcl-xL/2-Beclin 1 interaction, free out Beclin 1, and thus trigger autophagy. In order to identify small molecule Beclin 1 mimetics, a fluorescence polarization-based high-throughput screening of 50,316 compounds was carried out with a Z' score of 0.82 ± 0.05, and an outcome of 58 hits. After the structure analysis, three acridine analogues were unveiled and confirmed using the fluorescence polarization assay and the surface plasmon resonance assay...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880428/induction-of-autophagy-by-an-oleanolic-acid-derivative-szc017-promotes-ros-dependent-apoptosis-through-akt-and-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway-in-human-lung-cancer-cells
#20
Yanlin Song, Lingqi Kong, Bin Sun, Lei Gao, Peng Chu, Anil Ahsan, Eskandar Qaed, Yuan Lin, Jinyong Peng, Xiaodong Ma, Jianbin Zhang, Shisheng Wang, Zeyao Tang
The signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway is a common feature in many solid tumors including non-small cell lung cancer, whereas current therapies usually fail to treat this disease in majority of cases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect and the underlying mechanisms of SZC017, an oleanolic acid derivative, on human lung cancer cells. Cell viability was significantly decreased in SZC017-treated lung cancer cells. Mechanistically, SZC017 reduced A549 cell viability by activating both apoptosis and autophagy pathways...
September 7, 2017: Cell Biology International
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