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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901179/visualizing-a-monumental-past-archeology-nasser-s-egypt-and-the-early-cold-war
#1
William Carruthers
This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898981/performance-of-the-cobas-mrsa-sa-test-for-simultaneous-detection-of-methicillin-susceptible-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-nasal-swabs
#2
Lance R Peterson, Christopher W Woods, Thomas E Davis, Zi-Xuam Wang, Stephen A Young, John C Osiecki, Michael A Lewinski, Oliver Liesenfeld
Objectives: Health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections are continuing problems. Rapidly determining the MRSA colonization status of a patient facilitates practice to reduce spread of MRSA clinical disease. Sensitive detection of all SA prior to surgery, followed by decolonization, can significantly reduce postoperative infection from this pathogen. Our goal was to validate a new automated assay for this testing. Methods: We compared performance of the cobas MRSA/SA Test on the cobas 4800 System to direct and enriched chromogenic culture using nasal swabs collected from patients at six United States sites...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872735/in-vitro-efficacy-of-disinfectants-utilised-for-skin-decolonization-and-environmental-decontamination-during-a-hospital-outbreak-with-candida-auris
#3
A Abdolrasouli, D Armstrong-James, L Ryan, S Schelenz
Candida auris has caused nosocomial infections and transmissions within hospital settings. As little is known about the efficacy of skin and environmental decontamination products to kill C. auris this study investigated the in vitro activity of chlorine, chlorhexidine, iodine povidone and vaporized hydrogen peroxide products against C. auris. H2 O2 vapour showed 96.6-100% effective killing of C. auris. All isolates were inhibited by chlorhexidine gluconate concentrations at 0.125 to 1.5% and for iodinated povidone at 0...
September 5, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870730/mrsa-decolonization-control-comparing-a-single-day-swabbing-regimen-with-an-established-three-day-protocol
#4
Hagen Frickmann, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Andreas Hahn, Alicja Ludyga, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski
OBJECTIVES: Success of MRSA decolonization procedures is usually verified by control swabs of the colonized body region. This prospective controlled study compared a single-day regimen with a well-established 3-day scheme for noninferiority and adherence to the testing scheme. METHODS: Two sampling schemes for screening MRSA patients of a single study cohort at a German tertiary hospital 2 days after decolonization were compared regarding their ability to identify MRSA colonization in throat or nose...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865636/clinical-issues-september-2017
#5
Amber Wood
Performing Staphylococcus aureus decolonization for urgent procedures Key words: decolonization, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, MSSA, mupirocin. Hand hygiene before donning gloves Key words: hand hygiene, glove, personal protective equipment. Hand hygiene before skin prep Key words: hand hygiene, skin prep, sterile task, aseptic task. Scrubbing by stroke versus timed method Key words: surgical hand rub, surgical scrub, stroke method, timed method.
September 2017: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859349/from-expert-protocols-to-standardized-management-of-infectious-diseases
#6
Jean-Christophe Lagier, Camille Aubry, Marion Delord, Pierre Michelet, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Matthieu Million, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
We report here 4 examples of management of infectious diseases (IDs) at the University Hospital Institute Méditerranée Infection in Marseille, France, to illustrate the value of expert protocols feeding standardized management of IDs. First, we describe our experience on Q fever and Tropheryma whipplei infection management based on in vitro data and clinical outcome. Second, we describe our management-based approach for the treatment of infective endocarditis, leading to a strong reduction of mortality rate...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843819/eradication-of-mrsa-throat-carriage-a-randomized-trial-comparing-topical-treatment-with-rifampicin-based-systemic-therapy
#7
Anna-Karin Lindgren, Anna C Nilsson, Per Åkesson, Eva Gustafsson, Eva Melander
OBJECTIVES: Eradication of MRSA colonization may prevent transmission of strains between patients and reduces the risk of clinical infection. Colonization of the throat is associated with prolonged carriage and is more difficult to eradicate. METHODS: An open randomized study was conducted to evaluate two eradication protocols. Patients with pharyngeal carriage of MRSA were enrolled at six Swedish centers during four years. One treatment group received oral rifampicin and clindamycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for seven days, in combination with nasal mupirocin...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834892/the-association-between-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-and-symptomatic-infection-in-children-in-korea-where-st72-is-the-major-genotype-a-prospective-observational-study
#8
Sunghan Kang, Jina Lee, Mina Kim
This study was performed to investigate the concordance in terms of molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility between colonizing and clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from children in Korea, where ST72 is the major genotype.This was a prospective observational descriptive study of culture-confirmed S aureus infections obtained from children ≤18 years old admitted to Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital in Seoul, Korea, from March 2014 to April 2015. Molecular studies including multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec typing, polymerase chain reaction amplification of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on S aureus isolates obtained from nares and clinical specimens...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830510/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-carriage-on-admission-among-patients-attending-regional-hospitals-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#9
Agricola Joachim, Sabrina J Moyo, Lillian Nkinda, Mtebe Majigo, Elia Mbaga, Naboth Mbembati, Said Aboud, Eligius F Lyamuya
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen responsible for hospital and community acquired infection. Colonization with MRSA is associated with a high risk of developing infection. This study aimed to determine the rate of MRSA carriage on admission and the associated risk factors among patients attending regional hospitals, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. RESULTS: A total of 258 patients were included in this study. Nasal swabs were collected on admission to the hospital and after 48 h of hospital stay for detection of MRSA...
August 22, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821421/exploring-canadian-physicians-experiences-with-diabetes-care-for-indigenous-patients
#10
Lynden Lindsay Crowshoe, Rita I Henderson, Michael E Green, Kristen M Jacklin, Leah M Walker, Betty Calam
OBJECTIVES: The perspectives of physicians caring for Indigenous patients with diabetes offer important insights into the provision of health-care services. The purpose of this study was to describe Canadian physicians' perspectives on diabetes care of Indigenous patients, a preliminary step in developing a continuing medical education intervention described elsewhere. METHODS: Through in-depth semistructured interviews, Canadian family physicians and specialists with sizeable proportions of Indigenous clientele shared their experiences of working with Indigenous patients who have type 2 diabetes...
August 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811074/management-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-set-gesitra-seimc-reipi-recommendations
#11
REVIEW
J M Aguado, J T Silva, M Fernández-Ruiz, E Cordero, J Fortún, C Gudiol, L Martínez-Martínez, E Vidal, L Almenar, B Almirante, R Cantón, J Carratalá, J J Caston, E Cercenado, C Cervera, J M Cisneros, M G Crespo-Leiro, V Cuervas-Mons, J Elizalde-Fernández, M C Fariñas, J Gavaldà, M J Goyanes, B Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, D Hernández, O Len, R López-Andujar, F López-Medrano, P Martín-Dávila, M Montejo, A Moreno, A Oliver, A Pascual, E Pérez-Nadales, A Román-Broto, R San-Juan, D Serón, A Solé-Jover, M Valerio, P Muñoz, J Torre-Cisneros
Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are especially at risk of developing infections by multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), as they are frequently exposed to antibiotics and the healthcare setting, and are regulary subject to invasive procedures. Nevertheless, no recommendations concerning prevention and treatment are available. A panel of experts revised the available evidence; this document summarizes their recommendations: (1) it is important to characterize the isolate's phenotypic and genotypic resistance profile; (2) overall, donor colonization should not constitute a contraindication to transplantation, although active infected kidney and lung grafts should be avoided; (3) recipient colonization is associated with an increased risk of infection, but is not a contraindication to transplantation; (4) different surgical prophylaxis regimens are not recommended for patients colonized with carbapenem-resistant GNB; (5) timely detection of carriers, contact isolation precautions, hand hygiene compliance and antibiotic control policies are important preventive measures; (6) there is not sufficient data to recommend intestinal decolonization; (7) colonized lung transplant recipients could benefit from prophylactic inhaled antibiotics, specially for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; (8) colonized SOT recipients should receive an empirical treatment which includes active antibiotics, and directed therapy should be adjusted according to susceptibility study results and the severity of the infection...
July 26, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810104/strategies-for-prevention-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-infections-and-decolonization
#12
Ashlesha Kaushik, Cassie Wagner, Hollie Consoer, Archana Chatterjee
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) invasive infections can be severe in the pediatric population with high morbidity and mortality. MRSA colonization can predispose to recurrent skin and soft tissue infections and invasive MRSA disease and is a frequent challenge faced by clinicians. This article reviews the importance of MRSA as a pathogen, MRSA colonization and various MRSA decolonization strategies.
December 2016: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799881/prevalence-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-qaca-b-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-a-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#13
Oh-Hyun Cho, Ki-Ho Park, Ji Young Song, Jeong Min Hong, Taeeun Kim, Sun In Hong, Sunjoo Kim, In-Gyu Bae
The increasing use of chlorhexidine for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization has raised concerns about the emergence of resistance to or tolerance of this antiseptic. We examined the frequency and characteristics of qacA/B chlorhexidine tolerance genes among MRSA isolates in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) where MRSA-colonized patients are decolonized by chlorhexidine bathing. The MRSA isolates were evaluated for chlorhexidine susceptibility, mupirocin resistance, molecular typing, agr functionality, and the heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750615/implications-of-male-circumcision-for-women-in-papua-new-guinea-a-transformational-grounded-theory-study
#14
Michelle Redman-MacLaren, Jane Mills, Rachael Tommbe, David MacLaren, Rick Speare, William J H McBride
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision reduces the risk of female-to-male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is being explored for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea (PNG). PNG has a concentrated HIV epidemic which is largely heterosexually transmitted. There are a diverse range of male circumcision and penile modification practices across PNG. Exploring the implications of male circumcision for women in PNG is important to inform evidence-based health policy that will result in positive, intended consequences...
July 27, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734717/preoperative-doxycycline-does-not-decolonize-propionibacterium-acnes-from-the-skin-of-the-shoulder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Surena Namdari, Thema Nicholson, Javad Parvizi, Matthew Ramsey
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium acnes is frequently cultured in patients undergoing both primary and revision shoulder surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative oral administration of doxycycline in decreasing the colonization of skin around the shoulder by P. acnes. METHODS: This was a single-institution, prospective, randomized controlled trial of male patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy. Patients were randomized to receive oral doxycycline (100 mg twice a day) for 7 days or to the standard of care (no drug)...
September 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729237/development-and-use-of-health-related-technologies-in-indigenous-communities-critical-review
#16
Louise Jones, Kristen Jacklin, Megan E O'Connell
BACKGROUND: Older Indigenous adults encounter multiple challenges as their age intersects with health inequities. Research suggests that a majority of older Indigenous adults prefer to age in place, and they will need culturally safe assistive technologies to do so. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this critical review was to examine literature concerning use, adaptation, and development of assistive technologies for health purposes by Indigenous peoples. METHODS: Working within Indigenous research methodologies and from a decolonizing approach, searches of peer-reviewed academic and gray literature dated to February 2016 were conducted using keywords related to assistive technology and Indigenous peoples...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726558/epidemiology-and-clinical-relevance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-intestinal-carriage-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Julie Gagnaire, Paul O Verhoeven, Florence Grattard, Josselin Rigaill, Frédéric Lucht, Bruno Pozzetto, Philippe Berthelot, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers
Recent data highlight the importance of screening more than one site for improving the detection of S. aureus colonization. Intestinal carriage is frequently under-investigated and its clinical impact ought to be defined a better way. Areas covered: This review and meta-analysis provide an updated overview of prevalence, characteristics and clinical significance of S. aureus intestinal carriage in different populations, both for methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. aureus strains. Expert commentary: Intestinal S...
August 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704818/active-surveillance-cultures-and-targeted-decolonization-are-associated-with-reduced-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-vlbw-infants
#18
Lukas Wisgrill, Johanna Zizka, Lukas Unterasinger, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Thomas Waldhör, Athanasios Makristathis, Angelika Berger
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) is a major contributor to infectious episodes of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of surveillance cultures and the decolonization of MSSA-colonized VLBWI. METHODS: VLBWI admitted to our neonatal wards in 2011-2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Rates of MSSA-attributable infections were compared before and after the implementation of active surveillance cultures and the decolonization of MSSA-colonized patients...
July 14, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702468/antimicrobial-stewardship-lessons-from-mupirocin-use-and-resistance-in-methicillin-resitant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Lance R Peterson, Noelle I Samia, Andrew M Skinner, Amit Chopra, Becky Smith
BACKGROUND: The quantitative relationship between antimicrobial agent consumption and rise or fall of antibiotic resistance has rarely been studied. We began all admission surveillance testing for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in August 2005 with subsequent contact isolation and decolonization using nasally applied mupirocin ointment for those colonized. In October 2012, we discontinued decolonization of medical (nonsurgical service) patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from 2007 through 2014 of 445680 patients; 35235 were assessed because of mupirocin therapy and positive test results for MRSA...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690877/colonization-with-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-on-the-efficiency-of-local-decolonization-procedures
#20
Julia Münch, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Martin Müller, Viktor Kellert, Dorothea Franziska Wiemer, Rebecca Hinz, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Hagen Frickmann
The effectiveness of a disinfectant-based decolonization strategy for multidrug-resistant bacteria like extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Gram-negative bacteria with or without additional fluoroquinolon and carbapenem resistance as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was assessed. Between 2011 and 2015, 25 patients from Libya, Syria, and the Ukraine with war traumata were treated at the Bundeswehr hospital Hamburg. The patients were heavily colonized and infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria, altogether comprising 371 distinct combinations of pathogens and isolation sites...
June 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
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