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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154409/sensitive-topics-missing-data-and-refusal-in-social-network-studies-an-ethical-examination
#1
Erin Rose Ellison, Regina Day Langhout
We describe our ethics-driven process of addressing missing data within a social network study about accountability for racism, classism, sexism, heterosexism, cis-sexism, ableism, and other forms of oppression among social justice union organizers. During data collection, some would-be participants did not return emails and others explicitly refused to engage in the research. All refusals came from women of color. We faced an ethical dilemma: Should we continue to seek participation from those who had not yet responded, with the hopes of recruiting more women of color from within the network so their perspectives would not be tokenized? Or, should we stop asking those who had been contacted multiple times, which would compromise the social network data and analysis? We delineate ways in which current discussions of the ethics of social network studies fell short, given our framework and our community psychology (CP) values...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120455/manipulating-the-microbiome-evolution-of-a-strategy-to-prevent-s-aureus-disease-in-children
#2
D F Khamash, A Voskertchian, A M Milstone
Hospitalized infants have the highest rates of invasive Staphylococcus aureus disease of any population and infection control strategies such as decolonization have been insufficient. For decades, researchers began studying the microbiome in search of new prevention strategies. The resident microbiota was found to be closely associated with susceptibility and at times, resistance to S. aureus colonization. The evolution of nucleic acid based techniques has enhanced our understanding of the complex relationship between the nasal microbiota and S...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111353/clinical-factors-predicting-persistent-carriage-of-kpc-producing-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-among-patients-with-known-carriage
#3
Yong Kyun Kim, Sae Am Song, Jeong Nyeo Lee, Minkyung Oh, Kyeong Min Jo, Hyo-Jung Kim, Jae Ha Lee, Jin-Han Park, Hang-Jea Jang, Hyeon-Kuk Kim, Sungmin Kiem
BACKGROUND: Information on the natural duration of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) carriage and factors associated with persistence of carriage is limited. AIM: To evaluate the clinical variables associated with persistent carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing CRE. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data for patients admitted between June 2015 and December 2016 who were identified as KPC-producing CRE carriers by either rectal swabs or clinical cultures...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078249/-prevention-of-surgical-site-infections-with-special-focus-on-vascular-surgery
#4
Peter Bischoff, Petra Gastmeier
Background Surgical site infections range between the most commonly and second most commonly reported health-care-associated infections worldwide, depending on the analysis. They are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Not only for the individual patient, the negative consequences of acquiring a surgical site infection affect the patient's relatives, the hospital and health systems in general. In vascular surgery, gram-positive pathogens of the normal flora of the patient's skin and mucosa (nose/throat) represent the almost half of the number of pathogens detected at the infected surgical site...
October 2017: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040678/extended-models-for-nosocomial-infection-parameter-estimation-and-model-selection
#5
Alun Thomas, Karim Khader, Andrew Redd, Molly Leecaster, Yue Zhang, Makoto Jones, Tom Greene, Matthew Samore
We consider extensions to previous models for patient level nosocomial infection in several ways, provide a specification of the likelihoods for these new models, specify new update steps required for stochastic integration, and provide programs that implement these methods to obtain parameter estimates and model choice statistics. Previous susceptible-infected models are extended to allow for a latent period between initial exposure to the pathogen and the patient becoming themselves infectious, and the possibility of decolonization...
October 12, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023567/carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-colonization-cre-and-subsequent-risk-of-infection-and-90-day-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-an-observational-study
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Thomas Howe McConville, Sean Berger Sullivan, Angela Gomez-Simmonds, Susan Whittier, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged as an urgent public health threat. Intestinal colonization with CRE has been identified as a risk factor for the development of systemic CRE infection, but has not been compared to colonization with third and/or fourth generation cephalosporin-resistant (Ceph-R) Enterobacteriaceae. Moreover, the risk conferred by colonization on adverse outcomes is less clear, particularly in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987394/staphylococcus-aureus-prevention-strategies-in-cardiac-surgery-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#7
Jonathan C Hong, Manoj K Saraswat, Trevor A Ellison, J Trent Magruder, Todd Crawford, Julia M Gardner, William V Padula, Glenn J Whitman
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery patients colonized with Staphylococcus aureus have a greater risk of surgical site infection (SSI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of decolonization strategies to prevent SSIs. METHODS: We compared three decolonization strategies: universal decolonization (UD), all subjects treated; targeted decolonization (TD), only S aureus carriers treated; and no decolonization (ND). Decolonization included mupirocin, chlorhexidine, and vancomycin...
October 4, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981543/bacterial-colonization-patterns-in-daily-chlorhexidine-care-at-the-exit-site-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hsi-Hao Wang, Shih-Yuan Hung, Min-Yu Chang, Yi-Che Lee, Hsiu-Fang Lin, Tsun-Mei Lin, Su-Pen Yang, Hsi-Hsun Lin, Su-Ching Yang, Jiun-Ling Wang
Bacterial colonization patterns in daily chlorhexidine care at the exit site in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were not known. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial enrolling 89 PD patients. After stratification by initial Staphylococcus aureus (SA) carrier status, patients were randomly assigned to receive daily 4% chlorhexidine care (intervention group) or normal saline (control group) at the exit site. Monthly, we cultured bacteria from the exit site and nasal swabs for 1 year. The SA colonization rates at exit site at 6 and 12 months were significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966483/screening-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-healthcare-workers-and-students-and-its-susceptibility-to-mupirocin-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-south-india
#9
Jutang Babat Ain Tiewsoh, Meena Dias
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus is the most common pathogen causing infection in hospitals. They also colonize the healthcare workers who serve as reservoir of infection. Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a burning issue throughout the world contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. Use of mupirocin to eradicate the carrier state is the need of the hour. OBJECTIVES: To screen healthcare workers (HCWs) and medical students for MRSA and to know the susceptibility of mupirocin in this group...
October 2017: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939607/multidrug-and-mupirocin-resistance-in-environmental-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-collected-from-the-homes-of-people-diagnosed-with-a-community-onset-co-mrsa-infection
#10
J H Shahbazian, P D Hahn, S Ludwig, J Ferguson, P Baron, A Christ, K Spicer, P Tolomeo, A M Torrie, W B Bilker, V C Cluzet, B Hu, K Julian, I Nachamkin, S C Rankin, D O Morris, E Lautenbach, M F Davis
Patients with community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) infections contribute to MRSA contamination of the home environment, and may be re-exposed to MRSA strains from this reservoir. This study evaluates One Health risk factors that focus on the relationship between humans, animals and the environment for increased prevalence of multiple antimicrobial resistant MRSA in the home environment. During a trial of patients with CO-MRSA infection, MRSA was isolated from the household environment at baseline and three months later, following randomization of patients and household members to mupirocin-based decolonization therapy or education control...
September 22, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901179/visualizing-a-monumental-past-archeology-nasser-s-egypt-and-the-early-cold-war
#11
William Carruthers
This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies...
September 2017: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898981/performance-of-the-cobas-mrsa-sa-test-for-simultaneous-detection-of-methicillin-susceptible-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-from-nasal-swabs
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
Lance R Peterson, Christopher W Woods, Thomas E Davis, Zi-Xuam Wang, Stephen A Young, John C Osiecki, Michael A Lewinski, Oliver Liesenfeld
Objectives: Health care-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections are continuing problems. Rapidly determining the MRSA colonization status of a patient facilitates practice to reduce spread of MRSA clinical disease. Sensitive detection of all SA prior to surgery, followed by decolonization, can significantly reduce postoperative infection from this pathogen. Our goal was to validate a new automated assay for this testing. Methods: We compared performance of the cobas MRSA/SA Test on the cobas 4800 System to direct and enriched chromogenic culture using nasal swabs collected from patients at six United States sites...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872735/in-vitro-efficacy-of-disinfectants-utilised-for-skin-decolonisation-and-environmental-decontamination-during-a-hospital-outbreak-with-candida-auris
#13
Alireza Abdolrasouli, Darius Armstrong-James, Lisa Ryan, Silke Schelenz
Candida auris has caused nosocomial infections and transmissions within hospital settings. As little is known about the efficacy of skin and environmental decontamination products to kill C. auris, this study investigated the in vitro activity of chlorine, chlorhexidine, iodine povidone and vaporised hydrogen peroxide products against C. auris. H2 O2 vapour showed 96.6%-100% effective killing of C. auris. All isolates were inhibited by chlorhexidine gluconate concentrations at 0.125%-1.5% and for iodinated povidone at 0...
September 5, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870730/comparing-a-single-day-swabbing-regimen-with-an-established-3-day-protocol-for-mrsa-decolonization-control
#14
H Frickmann, N G Schwarz, A Hahn, A Ludyga, P Warnke, A Podbielski
OBJECTIVES: Success of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization procedures is usually verified by control swabs of the colonized body region. This prospective controlled study compared a single-day regimen with a well-established 3-day scheme for noninferiority and adherence to the testing scheme. METHODS: Two sampling schemes for screening MRSA patients of a single study cohort at a German tertiary-care hospital 2 days after decolonization were compared regarding their ability to identify MRSA colonization in throat or nose...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865636/clinical-issues-september-2017
#15
Amber Wood
Performing Staphylococcus aureus decolonization for urgent procedures Key words: decolonization, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, MSSA, mupirocin. Hand hygiene before donning gloves Key words: hand hygiene, glove, personal protective equipment. Hand hygiene before skin prep Key words: hand hygiene, skin prep, sterile task, aseptic task. Scrubbing by stroke versus timed method Key words: surgical hand rub, surgical scrub, stroke method, timed method.
September 2017: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859349/from-expert-protocols-to-standardized-management-of-infectious-diseases
#16
Jean-Christophe Lagier, Camille Aubry, Marion Delord, Pierre Michelet, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Matthieu Million, Philippe Brouqui, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola
We report here 4 examples of management of infectious diseases (IDs) at the University Hospital Institute Méditerranée Infection in Marseille, France, to illustrate the value of expert protocols feeding standardized management of IDs. First, we describe our experience on Q fever and Tropheryma whipplei infection management based on in vitro data and clinical outcome. Second, we describe our management-based approach for the treatment of infective endocarditis, leading to a strong reduction of mortality rate...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843819/eradication-of-mrsa-throat-carriage-a-randomized-trial-comparing-topical-treatment-with-rifampicin-based-systemic-therapy
#17
Anna-Karin Lindgren, Anna C Nilsson, Per Åkesson, Eva Gustafsson, Eva Melander
OBJECTIVES: Eradication of MRSA colonization may prevent transmission of strains between patients and reduces the risk of clinical infection. Colonization of the throat is associated with prolonged carriage and is more difficult to eradicate. METHODS: An open randomized study was conducted to evaluate two eradication protocols. Patients with pharyngeal carriage of MRSA were enrolled at six Swedish centers during four years. One treatment group received oral rifampicin and clindamycin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for seven days, in combination with nasal mupirocin...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834892/the-association-between-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-and-symptomatic-infection-in-children-in-korea-where-st72-is-the-major-genotype-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
Sunghan Kang, Jina Lee, Mina Kim
This study was performed to investigate the concordance in terms of molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility between colonizing and clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from children in Korea, where ST72 is the major genotype.This was a prospective observational descriptive study of culture-confirmed S aureus infections obtained from children ≤18 years old admitted to Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital in Seoul, Korea, from March 2014 to April 2015. Molecular studies including multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec typing, polymerase chain reaction amplification of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on S aureus isolates obtained from nares and clinical specimens...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830510/prevalence-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-carriage-on-admission-among-patients-attending-regional-hospitals-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#19
Agricola Joachim, Sabrina J Moyo, Lillian Nkinda, Mtebe Majigo, Elia Mmbaga, Naboth Mbembati, Said Aboud, Eligius F Lyamuya
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogen responsible for hospital and community acquired infection. Colonization with MRSA is associated with a high risk of developing infection. This study aimed to determine the rate of MRSA carriage on admission and the associated risk factors among patients attending regional hospitals, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. RESULTS: A total of 258 patients were included in this study. Nasal swabs were collected on admission to the hospital and after 48 h of hospital stay for detection of MRSA...
August 22, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821421/exploring-canadian-physicians-experiences-with-diabetes-care-for-indigenous-patients
#20
Lynden Lindsay Crowshoe, Rita I Henderson, Michael E Green, Kristen M Jacklin, Leah M Walker, Betty Calam
OBJECTIVES: The perspectives of physicians caring for Indigenous patients with diabetes offer important insights into the provision of health-care services. The purpose of this study was to describe Canadian physicians' perspectives on diabetes care of Indigenous patients, a preliminary step in developing a continuing medical education intervention described elsewhere. METHODS: Through in-depth semistructured interviews, Canadian family physicians and specialists with sizeable proportions of Indigenous clientele shared their experiences of working with Indigenous patients who have type 2 diabetes...
August 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
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