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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229205/-spectrum-of-pathogens-in-postoperative-complications-of-visceral-surgery-the-problem-of-multidrug-resistance
#1
A Kramer, J Pochhammer, P Walger, U Seifert, M Ruhnke, J C Harnoss
In general surgery the etiology of surgical site infections has not significantly changed over the last 30 years. Gram-positive bacteria, e.g. coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. as well as Gram-negative bacteria, e.g. Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are the most common findings. Although in general surgery 10% of the S. aureus causing postoperative wound infections were methicillin resistant (MRSA), no cases of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MRGN) bacteria were reported...
February 22, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215714/microbiological-effect-of-mupirocin-and-chlorhexidine-for-staphylococcus-aureus-decolonization-in-community-and-nursing-home-based-adults
#2
Mary-Claire Roghmann, Alison D Lydecker, Patricia Langenberg, Emmanuel F Mongodin, J Kristie Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To compare the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and pathogenic Gram-negative rods (GNR) in the anterior nares, posterior pharynx and three skin sites in community-based adults and nursing home-based adults before and after treatment with nasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine. METHODS: S. aureus-colonized adults were recruited from the community (n=26) and from nursing homes (n=8). Eligible participants were cultured for S. aureus and GNR during two study visits and then received intranasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine for 5days, with a 2-month follow-up period...
February 13, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194547/madness-decolonized-madness-as-transnational-identity-in-gail-hornstein-s-agnes-s-jacket
#3
Gavin Miller
The US psychologist Gail Hornstein's monograph, Agnes's Jacket: A Psychologist's Search for the Meanings of Madness (2009), is an important intervention in the identity politics of the mad movement. Hornstein offers a resignified vision of mad identity that embroiders the central trope of an "anti-colonial" struggle to reclaim the experiential world "colonized" by psychiatry. A series of literal and figurative appeals makes recourse to the inner world and (corresponding) cultural world of the mad as well as to the ethno-symbolic cultural materials of dormant nationhood...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162098/the-effect-of-universal-decolonization-with-screening-in-critical-care-to-reduce-mrsa-across-an-entire-hospital
#4
Craig W Bradley, Martyn A C Wilkinson, Mark I Garvey
OBJECTIVE To describe the effect of universal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonization therapy in a large intensive care unit (ICU) on the rates of MRSA cases and acquisitions in a UK hospital. DESIGN Descriptive study. SETTING University Hospitals Birmingham (UHB) NHS Foundation Trust is a tertiary referral teaching hospital in Birmingham, United Kingdom, that provides clinical services to nearly 1 million patients every year. METHODS A break-point time series analysis and kernel regression models were used to detect significant changes in the cumulative monthly numbers of MRSA bacteremia cases and acquisitions from April 2013 to August 2016 across the UHB system...
February 6, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116797/a-multidisciplinary-infection-control-bundle-to-reduce-the-number-of-spinal-cord-stimulator-infections
#5
Erlangga Yusuf, Sven Bamps, Bénédicte Thüer, Jan Mattheussen, Jean-Paul Ursi, Elke Del Biondo, Kris de Smedt, Raf Van Paesschen, Dirk Berghmans, Kaat Hofkens, Jef Van Schaeren, Tony van Havenbergh, Bruno Van Herendael
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a quality improvement project that resulted in an infection control bundle to reduce the number of spinal cord stimulator (SCS) infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in a single center for neuromodulation from January 1, 2014, through May 31, 2016. In response to a high number of surgical site infections (SSIs) after SCS surgery, a multidisciplinary team analyzed the surgical process and developed an infection prevention bundle consisting of five items: 1) showering and decolonization for five days prior to surgery and showering in the hospital on the morning of surgery; 2) performing the SCS implantation as the first in the daily operating room (OR) program; 3) maintaining a minimal number of people in the OR; 4) providing home care nurses with a folder with SCS wound care instructions including pictures; 5) giving oral specific wound care instructions to patients...
January 24, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109620/effect-of-pre-operative-octenidine-nasal-ointment-and%C3%A2-showering-on-surgical-site-infections-in-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#6
M Reiser, A Scherag, C Forstner, F M Brunkhorst, S Harbarth, T Doenst, M W Pletz, S Hagel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pre-operative octenidine (OCT) decolonization on surgical site infection (SSI) rates. DESIGN: Before-and-after cohort study. PATIENTS: Patients undergoing an elective isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure: control group (1(st) January to 31(st) December 2013), N=475; intervention group (1(st) January to 31(st) December 2014), N=428. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention consisted of nasal application of OCT ointment three times daily, beginning on the day before surgery, and showering the night before and on the day of surgery with OCT soap...
February 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046082/the-phage-lysin-plyss2-decolonizes-streptococcus-suis-from-murine-intranasal-mucosa
#7
Daniel B Gilmer, Jonathan E Schmitz, Mya Thandar, Chad W Euler, Vincent A Fischetti
Streptococcus suis infects pigs worldwide and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans with a mortality rate of up to 20%. S. suis has been shown to develop in vitro resistance to the two leading drugs of choice, penicillin and gentamicin. Because of this, we have pursued an alternative therapy to treat these pathogens using bacteriophage lysins. The bacteriophage lysin PlySs2 is derived from an S. suis phage and displays potent lytic activity against most strains of that species including serotypes 2 and 9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008840/-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-indications-and-perspectives
#8
Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult
Fecal transplantation demonstrated in a randomized trial its superiority compared to antibiotics in recurrent Clostridium difficile (CD) infections. Used in first-line treatment, it has reduced the mortality of patients suffering of CD infections caused by ribotype 027 and made it possible to cure patients with severe manifestations of CD infections caused by other ribotypes. The use of frozen microbiota, now validated, facilitates fecal microbiota transplantation. In addition, the frozen microbiota capsules have proven their efficiency...
November 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003353/this-article-has-been-temporarily-withdrawn-and-will-be-reposted-within-a-supplement-in-2017-the-press-apologizes-for-any-inconvenience-caused
#9
EDITORIAL
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982519/microbiome-precision-editing-using-peg-as-a-selective-fermentation-initiator-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Ming-Shan Kao, Stephen Huang, Wei-Lin Chang, Ming-Fa Hsieh, Chun-Jen Huang, Richard L Gallo, Chun-Ming Huang
Recent creation of a Unified Microbiome Initiative (UMI) has the aim of understanding how microbes interact with each other and with us. When pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infects the skin, the interplay between S. aureus and skin commensal bacteria occurs. Our previous data revealed that skin commensal bacteria can mediate fermentation against the growth of USA300, a community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA (CA-MRSA). By using a fermentation process with solid media on a small scale, we define poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) which can specifically intensify the probiotic ability of skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis (S...
December 16, 2016: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936260/-psychiatric-archives-archive-for-which-history-the-writings-and-drawings-of-ren%C3%A3-l
#11
Philippe Artières
The archives of the psychiatric institutions are often mobilized to investigate the history of the treatment of mental disorders and its modalities in our societies. From a patient's record, interned in the Hôpital du Bon Sauveur in the department of Manche in France in 1963, this article shows how these archives are part of writing a different story that of decolonization and particularly the independence of Algeria and the end of French colonization. In particular, studied the drawings by this patient and the way it reflects the collective history...
December 0: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923598/the-use-of-routine-postoperative-microscopy-and-culture-screening-following-elective-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty-an-unnecessary-cost-with-no-effect-on-clinical-management
#12
Mark A Kemp, Ka Martina, Claire L Collins, Lucy J Salmon, Benjamin R Gooden, Matthew C Lyons
BACKGROUND: The use of microscopy and culture screening to detect pathogenic microorganisms followed by a decolonization protocol is a widely performed practice prior to elective hip and knee arthroplasty. In our center, the routine care of hip and knee arthroplasty also involves postoperative screening including direct culture of the surgical site. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of pathogen detection following these tests and to determine whether routine postoperative screening, with particular reference to postoperative surgical site culture, led to any change in clinical management of these patients...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922625/infections-in-the-spinal-cord-injured-population-a-systematic-review
#13
L Y Garcia-Arguello, J C O'Horo, A Farrell, R Blakney, M R Sohail, C T Evans, N Safdar
STUDY DESIGN: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are an increasing population due to recent military conflicts. SCI patients are at an increased risk of infection, but the epidemiology management and prevention strategies for these infections are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To review the incidence, microbiology and management of pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), urinary tract infections (UTI) and bloodstream infections in the SCI population via literature review...
December 6, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887754/meticillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-acquisition-risk-in-an-endemic-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-with-an-active-surveillance-culture-and-decolonization-programme
#14
R Pierce, J Lessler, V O Popoola, A M Milstone
BACKGROUND: Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of healthcare-associated infection in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Decolonization may eliminate bacterial reservoirs that drive MRSA transmission. AIM: To measure the association between colonization pressure from decolonized and non-decolonized neonates and MRSA acquisition to inform use of this strategy for control of endemic MRSA. METHODS: An eight-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in a level-4 NICU that used active surveillance cultures and decolonization for MRSA control...
January 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856080/decolonization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-carriage-in-2016
#15
REVIEW
E Botelho-Nevers, J Gagnaire, P O Verhoeven, C Cazorla, F Grattard, B Pozzetto, P Berthelot, F Lucht
Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization is a well-known independent risk factor for infection caused by this bacterium. Screening and decolonization of carriers have been proven effective in reducing S. aureus infections in some populations. However, a gap remains between what has been proven effective and what is currently done. We aimed to summarize recommendations and current knowledge of S. aureus decolonization to answer the following questions: Why? For whom? How? When? And what are the perspectives?...
November 14, 2016: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836508/impact-of-probiotics-for-reducing-infections-in-veterans-improve-study-protocol-for-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-to-reduce-carriage-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Shoshannah Eggers, Anna Barker, Susan Valentine, Timothy Hess, Megan Duster, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an organism of great public health importance, causing 20,000 deaths annually. Decolonization of patients with S. aureus may prevent infections, yet current options are limited to antimicrobials that promote antibiotic resistance and can cause adverse side effects. Probiotics have potential to reduce colonization of pathogenic bacteria, representing a promising alternative for S. aureus decolonization, but thus far lack rigorous evaluation...
January 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832042/prior-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-colonization-a-risk-factor-for-surgical-site-infections-following-decolonization
#17
Nicholas Ramos, Anna Stachel, Michael Phillips, Jonathan Vigdorchik, James Slover, Joseph A Bosco
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) decolonization regimens are being used to mitigate the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). However, their efficacy is controversial, with mixed results reported in the literature. METHODS: Before undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), total hip arthroplasty (THA), or spinal fusion, 13,828 consecutive patients were screened for nasal S aureus and underwent a preoperative decolonization regimen. Infection rates of colonized and noncolonized patients were compared using unadjusted logistic regression...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828836/the-impact-of-a-universal-decolonization-protocol-on-hospital-acquired-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-burn-population
#18
Arthur T Johnson, Rachel M Nygaard, Ellie M Cohen, Ryan M Fey, Anne Lambert Wagner
Hospital-acquired (HA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of HA infections and a significant concern for burn centers. The use of 2% chlorhexidine-impregnated wipes and nasal mupirocin significantly decreases the rate of HA-MRSA in adult intensive care units. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of universal decolonization on the rate of MRSA conversion in an American Burn Association verified adult and pediatric burn center. Universal decolonization protocol consisting of daily chlorhexidine baths and a 5-day course of nasal mupirocin was implemented in the burn unit...
November 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823845/decreased-hospital-costs-and-surgical-site-infection-incidence-with-a-universal-decolonization-protocol-in-primary-total-joint-arthroplasty
#19
Jeffrey B Stambough, Denis Nam, David K Warren, James A Keeney, John C Clohisy, Robert L Barrack, Ryan M Nunley
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus colonization has been identified as a key modifiable risk factor in the reduction of surgical site infections (SSI) related to elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA). We investigated the incidence of SSIs and cost-effectiveness of a universal decolonization protocol without screening consisting of nasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine before elective TJA compared to a program in which all subjects were screened for S aureus and selectively treated if positive...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820584/ca-mrsa-decolonization-strategies-do-they-reduce-recurrence-rate
#20
Joling Tidwell, Lisa Kirk, Tim Luttrell, Caitlin A Pike
BACKGROUND: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus commonly presents as a skin and soft tissue infection. Recurrence of the infection is common even after incision and drainage of the affected area. OBJECTIVE: This Evidence-Based Report Card reviews whether decolonization strategies will reduce the rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infection (MRSA-SSTI) recurrence or colonization in patients with a history of MRSA-SSTI...
November 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
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