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Branching morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821490/serca-directs-cell-migration-and-branching-across-species-and-germ-layers
#1
Danielle V Bower, Nick Lansdale, Sonia Navarro, Thai V Truong, Dan J Bower, Neil C Featherstone, Marilyn G Connell, Denise Al-Alam, Mark R Frey, Le A Trinh, G Esteban Fernandez, David Warburton, Scott E Fraser, Daimark Bennett, Edwin C Jesudason
Branching morphogenesis underlies organogenesis in vertebrates and invertebrates, yet is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) reuptake pump (SERCA) directs budding across germ layers and species. Clonal knockdown demonstrated a cell-autonomous role for SERCA in Drosophila air sac budding. Live imaging of Drosophila tracheogenesis revealed elevated Ca(2+) levels in migratory tip cells as they form branches. SERCA blockade abolished this Ca(2+) differential, aborting both cell migration and new branching...
August 17, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809922/increased-signaling-by-the-autism-related-engrailed-2-protein-enhances-dendritic-branching-and-spine-density-alters-synaptic-structural-matching-and-exaggerates-protein-synthesis
#2
Asma Soltani, Solène Lebrun, Gilles Carpentier, Giulia Zunino, Sandrine Chantepie, Auriane Maïza, Yuri Bozzi, Claire Desnos, François Darchen, Olivier Stettler
Engrailed 1 (En1) and 2 (En2) code for closely related homeoproteins acting as transcription factors and as signaling molecules that contribute to midbrain and hindbrain patterning, to development and maintenance of monoaminergic pathways, and to retinotectal wiring. En2 has been suggested to be an autism susceptibility gene and individuals with autism display an overexpression of this homeogene but the mechanisms remain unclear. We addressed in the present study the effect of exogenously added En2 on the morphology of hippocampal cells that normally express only low levels of Engrailed proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799697/methylmalonate-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-mediated-metabolite-homeostasis-essentially-regulate-conidiation-polarized-germination-and-pathogenesis-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#3
Justice Norvienyeku, Zhenhui Zhong, Lili Lin, Xie Dang, Meilian Chen, Xiaolian Lin, Honghong Zhang, Wilfred Mabeche Anjago, Lianyu Lin, Waheed Abdul, Zonghua Wang
Plants generate multitude of aldehydes under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Ample demonstrations have shown that rice-derived aldehydes enhance the resistance of rice against the rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. However, how the fungal pathogen nullifies the inhibitory effects of host aldehydes to establish compatible interaction remains unknown. Here we identified and evaluated the in vivo transcriptional activities of M. oryzae aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes. Transcriptional analysis of M...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760809/genome-wide-identification-of-grainy-head-targets-in-drosophila-reveals-regulatory-interactions-with-the-pou-domain-transcription-factor-vvl
#4
Liqun Yao, Shenqiu Wang, Jakub Orzechowski-Westholm, Qi Dai, Ryo Matsuda, Chie Hosono, Sarah Bray, Eric C Lai, Christos Samakovlis
Grainy head (Grh) is a conserved transcription factor (TF) controlling epithelial differentiation and regeneration. To elucidate Grh functions, we identified embryonic Grh targets by ChIP-seq and gene expression analysis. We show that Grh controls hundreds of target genes. Repression or activation correlates with the distance of Grh binding sites to the transcription start sites of its targets. Analysis of 54 Grh-responsive enhancers during development and upon wounding suggests cooperation with distinct TFs in different contexts...
July 31, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746880/tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-is-necessary-and-sufficient-for-pharyngeal-arch-artery-angioblast-formation
#5
Maryline Abrial, Noëlle Paffett-Lugassy, Spencer Jeffrey, Daniel Jordan, Evan O'Loughlin, Charles J Frederick, C Geoffrey Burns, Caroline E Burns
The pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs) are transient embryonic blood vessels that mature into critical segments of the aortic arch and its branches. Although defects in PAA development cause life-threating congenital cardiovascular defects, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate PAA morphogenesis remain unclear. Through small-molecule screening in zebrafish, we identified TGF-β signaling as indispensable for PAA development. Specifically, chemical inhibition of the TGF-β type I receptor ALK5 impairs PAA development because nkx2...
July 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743639/bidirectional-mechanobiology-between-cells-and-their-local-extracellular-matrix-probed-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#6
REVIEW
Jordi Alcaraz, Jorge Otero, Ignasi Jorba, Daniel Navajas
There is growing recognition that the mechanical interactions between cells and their local extracellular matrix (ECM) are central regulators of tissue development, homeostasis, repair and disease progression. The unique ability of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to probe quantitatively mechanical properties and forces at the nanometer or micrometer scales in all kinds of biological samples has been instrumental in the recent advances in cell and tissue mechanics. In this review we illustrate how AFM has provided important insights on our current understanding of the mechanobiology of cells, ECM and cell-ECM bidirectional interactions, particularly in the context of soft acinar tissues like the mammary gland or pulmonary tissue...
July 22, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735443/retinoic-acid-regulates-avian-lung-branching-through-a-molecular-network
#7
Hugo Fernandes-Silva, Patrícia Vaz-Cunha, Violina Baranauskaite Barbosa, Carla Silva-Gonçalves, Jorge Correia-Pinto, Rute Silva Moura
Retinoic acid (RA) is of major importance during vertebrate embryonic development and its levels need to be strictly regulated otherwise congenital malformations will develop. Through the action of specific nuclear receptors, named RAR/RXR, RA regulates the expression of genes that eventually influence proliferation and tissue patterning. RA has been described as crucial for different stages of mammalian lung morphogenesis, and as part of a complex molecular network that contributes to precise organogenesis; nonetheless, nothing is known about its role in avian lung development...
July 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733410/radioactive-labeling-and-fractionation-of-fission-yeast-walls
#8
Pilar Pérez, Juan C Ribas
Fungal cells contain an essential structure external to the cell, made of polysaccharides and proteins, termed the cell wall. Polysaccharides represent ∼96% of the cell wall on a dry-weight basis. They are complex insoluble polymers connected to each other by covalent linkages and hydrogen bonds with specific localizations in the cell wall and septum. Fission yeast contains three β-glucans (a major branched β(1,3)-glucan, a minor linear β(1,3)-glucan, and a minor branched β(1,6)-glucan), two α-glucans (a major α(1,3)-glucan and a minor α(1,4)-glucan), and a minor amount of galactomannan-linked glycoproteins...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731465/pr-set7-deficiency-limits-uterine-epithelial-population-growth-hampering-postnatal-gland-formation-in-mice
#9
Tongtong Cui, Bo He, Shuangbo Kong, Chan Zhou, Hangxiao Zhang, Zhangli Ni, Haili Bao, Jingtao Qiu, Qiliang Xin, Danny Reinberg, John P Lydon, Jinhua Lu, Haibin Wang
Formation of secretary endometrial glands in the uterus known as adenogenesis is a typical process of branching morphogenesis involving dynamic epithelial growth and differentiation. Unsuccessful adenogenesis often leads to female infertility. However, it remains largely unexplored so far regarding the epigenetic machinery governing normal endometrial gland formation. Here, we demonstrated that PR-Set7, an epigenetic regulator for H4K20me1 modification, was extensively expressed in the postnatal uteri, and its conditional deletion resulted in a complete lack of endometrial glands and infertility in mice...
July 21, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729735/the-wnt-receptor-ryk-is-a-negative-regulator-of-mammalian-dendrite-morphogenesis
#10
Vanessa Lanoue, Michael Langford, Amanda White, Kai Sempert, Lily Fogg, Helen M Cooper
The unique dendritic architecture of a given neuronal subtype determines its synaptic connectivity and ability to integrate into functional neuronal networks. It is now clear that abnormal dendritic structure is associated with neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, however, the nature of the extrinsic factors that limit dendritic growth and branching within predetermined boundaries in the mammalian brain is poorly understood. Here we identify the Wnt receptor Ryk as a novel negative regulator of dendritic arborisation...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720834/chemical-inhibitors-of-candida-albicans-hyphal-morphogenesis-target-endocytosis
#11
Hagit Bar-Yosef, Nora Vivanco Gonzalez, Shay Ben-Aroya, Stephen J Kron, Daniel Kornitzer
Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen, typically found as a benign commensal yeast living on skin and mucosa, but poised to invade injured tissue to cause local infections. In debilitated and immunocompromised individuals, C. albicans may spread to cause life-threatening systemic infections. Upon contact with serum and at body temperature, C. albicans performs a regulated switch to filamentous morphology, characterized by emergence of a germ tube from the yeast cell followed by mold-like growth of branching hyphae...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720653/three-dimensional-structural-analysis-reveals-a-cdk5-mediated-kinase-cascade-regulating-hepatic-biliary-network-branching-in-zebrafish
#12
Manali Dimri, Cassandra Bilogan, Lain X Pierce, Gregory Naegele, Amit Vasanji, Isabel Gibson, Allyson McClendon, Kevin Tae, Takuya F Sakaguchi
The intrahepatic biliary network is a highly branched three-dimensional network lined by biliary epithelial cells, but how its branching patterns are precisely established is not clear. We designed a new computer-based algorithm that quantitatively computes the structural differences of the three-dimensional networks. Utilizing the algorithm, we showed that inhibition of Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) led to reduced branching in the intrahepatic biliary network in zebrafish. Further, we identified a previously unappreciated downstream kinase cascade regulated by Cdk5...
July 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709949/pulmonary-hypoplasia
#13
REVIEW
C Michael Cotten
To survive the transition to extrauterine life, newborn infants must have lungs that provide an adequate surface area and volume to allow for gas exchange. The dynamic activities of fetal breathing movements and accumulation of lung luminal fluid are key to fetal lung development throughout the various phases of lung development and growth, first by branching morphogenesis, and later by septation. Because effective gas exchange is essential to survival, pulmonary hypoplasia is among the leading findings on autopsies of children dying in the newborn period...
July 11, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705898/cellular-heterogeneity-in-the-ureteric-progenitor-niche-and-distinct-profiles-of-branching-morphogenesis-in-organ-development
#14
Elisabeth A Rutledge, Jean-Denis Benazet, Andrew P McMahon
Branching morphogenesis creates arborized epithelial networks. In the mammalian kidney, an epithelial progenitor pool at ureteric branch tips (UBT) creates the urine-transporting collecting system. Using region-specific mouse reporter strains, we performed an RNA-seq screen, identifying tip and stalk enriched gene sets in the developing collecting duct system. Detailed in situ hybridization studies of tip-enriched predictions identified UBT-enriched gene sets conserved between the mouse and human kidney. Comparative spatial analysis of their UBT niche expression highlighted distinct patterns of gene expression revealing novel molecular heterogeneity within the UBT progenitor population...
July 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701345/trim9-dependent-ubiquitination-of-dcc-constrains-kinase-signaling-exocytosis-and-axon-branching
#15
Melissa Plooster, Shalini Menon, Cortney C Winkle, Fabio L Urbina, Caroline Monkiewicz, Kristen D Phend, Richard J Weinberg, Stephanie L Gupton
Extracellular netrin-1 and its receptor DCC promote axon branching in developing cortical neurons. Netrin-dependent morphogenesis is preceded by multimerization of DCC, activation of FAK and Src family kinases, and increases in exocytic vesicle fusion, yet how these occurrences are linked is unknown. Here we demonstrate that TRIM9-dependent ubiquitination of DCC blocks the interaction with and phosphorylation of FAK. Upon netrin-1 stimulation TRIM9 promotes DCC multimerization, but TRIM9-dependent ubiquitination of DCC is reduced, which promotes an interaction with FAK and subsequent FAK activation...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698625/ectodysplasin-target-gene-fgf20-regulates-mammary-bud-growth-and-ductal-invasion-and-branching-during-puberty
#16
Teresa Elo, Päivi H Lindfors, Qiang Lan, Maria Voutilainen, Ewelina Trela, Claes Ohlsson, Sung-Ho Huh, David M Ornitz, Matti Poutanen, Beatrice A Howard, Marja L Mikkola
Mammary gland development begins with the appearance of epithelial placodes that invaginate, sprout, and branch to form small arborized trees by birth. The second phase of ductal growth and branching is driven by the highly invasive structures called terminal end buds (TEBs) that form at ductal tips at the onset of puberty. Ectodysplasin (Eda), a tumor necrosis factor-like ligand, is essential for the development of skin appendages including the breast. In mice, Eda regulates mammary placode formation and branching morphogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665931/foxd1-is-an-upstream-regulator-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-during-metanephric-kidney-development
#17
Renfang Song, Maria Luisa S Sequeira Lopez, Ihor V Yosypiv
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that Foxd1, a transcription factor essential for normal kidney development, is an upstream regulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) during ureteric bud (UB) branching morphogenesis. METHODS: UB branching, RAS gene and protein expression was determined in embryonic mouse kidneys. RAS mRNA expression was studied in mesenchymal MK4 cells. RESULTS: The number of UB tips was reduced in Foxd1(-/-) compared to Foxd1(+/+) metanephroi on embryonic day E12...
June 30, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649419/identification-of-transcription-factors-that-promote-the-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-lacrimal-gland-epithelium-like-cells
#18
Masatoshi Hirayama, Shigeru B H Ko, Tetsuya Kawakita, Tomohiko Akiyama, Sravan K Goparaju, Atsumi Soma, Yuhki Nakatake, Miki Sakota, Nana Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Shigeto Shimmura, Kazuo Tsubota, Minoru S H Ko
Dry eye disease is the most prevalent pathological condition in aging eyes. One potential therapeutic strategy is the transplantation of lacrimal glands, generated in vitro from pluripotent stem cells such as human embryonic stem cells, into patients. One of the preceding requirements is a method to differentiate human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium cells. As the first step for this approach, this study aims to identify a set of transcription factors whose overexpression can promote the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium-like cells...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634939/an-organotypic-3d-assay-for-primary-human-mammary-epithelial-cells-that-recapitulates-branching-morphogenesis
#19
Jelena R Linnemann, Lisa K Meixner, Haruko Miura, Christina H Scheel
We have developed a three-dimensional organotypic culture system for primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) in which the cells are cultured in free floating collagen type I gels. In this assay, luminal cells predominantly form multicellular spheres, while basal/myoepithelial cells form complex branched structures resembling terminal ductal lobular units (TDLUs), the functional units of the human mammary gland in situ. The TDLU-like organoids can be cultured for at least 3 weeks and can then be passaged multiple times...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634938/3d-coculture-of-mammary-organoids-with-fibrospheres-a-model-for-studying-epithelial-stromal-interactions-during-mammary-branching-morphogenesis
#20
Zuzana Koledova
Mammary gland is composed of branched epithelial structure embedded within a complex stroma formed by several stromal cell types, including fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix (ECM). Development of mammary gland is tightly regulated by bidirectional epithelial-stromal interactions that include paracrine signaling, ECM remodeling and mechanosensing. Importantly, these interactions play crucial role in mammary gland homeostasis and when deregulated they contribute to tumorigenesis. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying epithelial-stromal interactions is critical for elucidating regulation of normal mammary gland development and homeostasis and revealing novel strategies for breast cancer therapy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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