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Branching morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240767/mitf-a-controls-branching-morphogenesis-and-nephron-endowment
#1
Aurélie Phelep, Denise Laouari, Kapil Bharti, Martine Burtin, Salvina Tammaccaro, Serge Garbay, Clément Nguyen, Florence Vasseur, Thomas Blanc, Sophie Berissi, Francina Langa-Vives, Evelyne Fischer, Anne Druilhe, Heinz Arnheiter, Gerard Friedlander, Marco Pontoglio, Fabiola Terzi
Congenital nephron number varies widely in the human population and individuals with low nephron number are at risk of developing hypertension and chronic kidney disease. The development of the kidney occurs via an orchestrated morphogenetic process where metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud reciprocally interact to induce nephron formation. The genetic networks that modulate the extent of this process and set the final nephron number are mostly unknown. Here, we identified a specific isoform of MITF (MITF-A), a bHLH-Zip transcription factor, as a novel regulator of the final nephron number...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229667/prostate-organogenesis
#2
Jeffrey C Francis, Amanda Swain
The prostate is a male exocrine gland that secretes components of the seminal fluid. In men, prostate tumors are one of the most prevalent cancers. Studies on the development of the prostate have given a better understanding of the processes and genes that are important in the formation of this organ and have provided insights into the mechanisms of prostate tumorigenesis. These developmental studies have provided evidence that some of the genes and signaling pathways involved in development are reactivated or deregulated during prostate cancer...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219039/morphogenesis-and-mucus-production-of-epithelial-tissues-of-three-major-salivary-glands-of-embryonic-mouse-in-3d-culture
#3
Azusa Nakao, Takumi Inaba, Akiko Murakami-Sekimata, Hiroyuki Nogawa
Embryonic mouse submandibular epithelia initiate branching morphogenesis within two days when embedded in Matrigel and stimulated by members of the epidermal growth factor family. However, it is unknown whether the end buds further branch over longer culture periods, and whether saliva-producing cells differentiate there. In the present study, we cultivated three major (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) salivary epithelia from 13-day embryos for 14 days in mesenchyme-free cultures. All epithelia continued to grow and branch to form numerous acinus-like structures in medium supplemented with neuregulin 1, fibroblast growth factor 1, and insulintransferrin-sodium selenite...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212472/autism-risk-classification-using-placental-chorionic-surface-vascular-network-features
#4
Jen-Mei Chang, Hui Zeng, Ruxu Han, Ya-Mei Chang, Ruchit Shah, Carolyn M Salafia, Craig Newschaffer, Richard K Miller, Philip Katzman, Jack Moye, Margaret Fallin, Cheryl K Walker, Lisa Croen
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the fastest-growing developmental disorders in the United States. It was hypothesized that variations in the placental chorionic surface vascular network (PCSVN) structure may reflect both the overall effects of genetic and environmentally regulated variations in branching morphogenesis within the conceptus and the fetus' vital organs. This paper provides sound evidences to support the study of ASD risks with PCSVN through a combination of feature-selection and classification algorithms...
December 6, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196881/gata-6-expression-is-decreased-in-diaphragmatic-and-pulmonary-mesenchyme-of-fetal-rats-with-nitrofen-induced-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#5
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and associated pulmonary hypoplasia are thought to be caused by a malformation of the underlying diaphragmatic and airway mesenchyme. GATA binding protein 6 (Gata-6) is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor that plays a crucial role during diaphragm and lung development. In the primordial diaphragm, Gata-6 expression is restricted to mesenchymal compartments of the pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs). In addition, Gata-6 is essential for airway branching morphogenesis through upregulation of mesenchymal signaling...
December 2, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183737/cross-platform-single-cell-analysis-of-kidney-development-shows-stromal-cells-express-gdnf
#6
Bliss Magella, Mike Adam, Andrew S Potter, Meenakshi Venkatasubramanian, Kashish Chetal, Stuart B Hay, Nathan Salomonis, S Steven Potter
The developing kidney provides a useful model for study of the principles of organogenesis. In this report we use three independent platforms, Drop-Seq, Chromium 10x Genomics and Fluidigm C1, to carry out single cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq) analysis of the E14.5 mouse kidney. Using the software AltAnalyze, in conjunction with the unsupervised approach ICGS, we were unable to identify and confirm the presence of 16 distinct cell populations during this stage of active nephrogenesis. Using a novel integrative supervised computational strategy, we were able to successfully harmonize and compare the cell profiles across all three technological platforms...
November 25, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181608/immunolocalization-patterns-of-cytokeratins-during-salivary-acinar-cell-development-in-mice
#7
Nirpesh Adhikari, Sanjiv Neupane, Jiyeon Roh, Jong Hwa Jun, Jae-Kwang Jung, Wern-Joo Sohn, Jae-Young Kim, Ji-Youn Kim
Embryonic development of the mouse salivary glands begins with epithelial thickening and continues with sequential changes from the pre-bud to terminal bud stages. After birth, morphogenesis proceeds, and the glands develop into a highly branched epithelial structure that terminates with saliva-producing acinar cells at the adult stage. Acinar cells derived from the epithelium are differentiated into serous, mucous, and seromucous types. During differentiation, cytokeratins, intermediate filaments found in most epithelial cells, play vital roles...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171153/gene-expression-and-delayed-nephrogenesis-in-the-growth-restricted-rat-fetus-and-neonate
#8
EDITORIAL
A M Carter
In this issue of Acta Physiologica, Cuffe et al. [1] explore the molecular mechanisms behind impaired nephrogenesis in a rat model of uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction. Nephron development was delayed after growth restriction, continuing late into the postnatal period, and this was reflected in increased abundance of branching morphogenesis genes a week after birth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
November 24, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167198/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-conserved-branching-morphogenesis-related-genes-involved-in-chamber-formation-of-catfish-swimbladder
#9
Yujia Yang, Qiang Fu, Yang Liu, Xiaozhu Wang, Rex Dunham, Shikai Liu, Lisui Bao, Qifan Zeng, Tao Zhou, Ning Li, Zhenkui Qin, Chen Jiang, Dongya Gao, Zhanjiang Liu
The swimbladder is an internal gas-filled organ in teleosts. Its major function is to regulate buoyancy. Swimbladder exhibits great variations in size, shape, number of compartments or chambers among teleosts. However, the genomic control of swimbladder variations is unknown. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and their F1 hybrids of female channel catfish x male blue catfish (C×B hybrid catfish) provide a good model to investigate the swimbladder morphology, because channel catfish possess a single-chambered swimbladder whereas blue catfish possess a bi-chambered swimbladder; and C×B hybrid catfish possess a bi-chambered swimbladder but with significantly reduced posterior chamber...
November 22, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165850/the-tcp4-transcription-factor-regulates-trichome-cell-differentiation-by-directly-activating-glabrous-inflorescence-stems-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#10
B Vijaya Lakshmi Vadde, Krishna Reddy Challa, Utpal Nath
Trichomes are the first cell type to be differentiated during the morphogenesis of leaf epidermis and serve as an ideal model to study cellular differentiation. A large number of genes involved in the patterning and differentiation of trichome cells have been studied over past decades, and the majority of these genes encode transcription factors that specifically regulate epidermal cell development. However, the upstream regulators of these genes that link early leaf morphogenesis with cell type differentiation are less studied...
November 22, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162897/gwas-qtl-mapping-and-gene-expression-analyses-in-brassica-napus-reveal-genetic-control-of-branching-morphogenesis
#11
Yajun He, Daoming Wu, Dayong Wei, Ying Fu, Yixin Cui, Hongli Dong, Chuandong Tan, Wei Qian
Branch number is an important trait in plant architecture that can influence crop yield and quality in Brassica napus. Here, we detected the QTLs responsible for branch number in a DH population and its reconstructed F2 population over two years. Further, a GWAS research on branch number was performed using a panel of 327 accessions with 33186 genomic SNPs from the 60 K Brassica Illumina® Infinium SNP array. Through combining linkage analysis and association mapping, a new QTL was fine mapped onto C03. Subsequently, we tested the correlations between the SNP polymorphisms and mRNA expression levels of genes in the target interval to identify potential loci or genes that control branch number through expression...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158444/hnf1b-controls-epithelial-organization-and-cell-polarity-during-ureteric-bud-branching-and-collecting-duct-morphogenesis
#12
Audrey Desgrange, Claire Heliot, Ilya Skovorodkin, Saad U Akram, Janne Heikkilä, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Ilkka Miinalainen, Seppo J Vainio, Silvia Cereghini
Kidney development depends critically on proper ureteric bud branching giving rise to the entire collecting duct system. The transcription factor HNF1B is required for the early steps of ureteric bud branching. Yet, the molecular and cellular events regulated by HNF1B are poorly understood. We report that specific removal of Hnf1b from the ureteric bud leads to defective cell-cell contacts and apico-basal polarity during the early branching events. High resolution ex vivo imaging combined with a membranous fluorescent reporter strategy show decreased mutant cell-rearrangements during mitosis-associated cell dispersal and severe epithelial disorganisation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155277/neurotrophin-and-fgf-signaling-adapter-proteins-frs2-and-frs3-regulate-dentate-granule-cell-maturation-and-excitatory-synaptogenesis
#13
Sayan Nandi, Karina Alviña, Pablo J Lituma, Pablo E Castillo, Jean M Hébert
Dentate granule cells (DGCs) play important roles in cognitive processes. Knowledge about how growth factors such as FGFs and neurotrophins contribute to the maturation and synaptogenesis of DGCs is limited. Here, using brain-specific and germline mouse mutants we show that a module of neurotrophin and FGF signaling, the FGF Receptor Substrate (FRS) family of intracellular adapters, FRS2 and FRS3, are together required for postnatal brain development. In the hippocampus, FRS promotes dentate gyrus morphogenesis and DGC maturation during developmental neurogenesis, similar to previously published functions for both neurotrophins and FGFs...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153986/efficient-induction-of-syncytiotrophoblast-layer-ii-cells-from-trophoblast-stem-cells-by-canonical-wnt-signaling-activation
#14
Dongmei Zhu, Xia Gong, Liyun Miao, Junshun Fang, Jian Zhang
The syncytiotrophoblast layer is the most critical and prominent tissue in placenta. SynT cells are differentiated from trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) during early embryogenesis. Mouse TSCs can spontaneously differentiate into cells of mixed lineages in vitro upon withdrawal of stemness-maintaining factors. However, differentiation into defined placental cell lineages remains challenging. We report here that canonical Wnt signaling activation robustly induces expression of SynT-II lineage-specific genes Gcm1 and SynB and suppresses markers of other placental lineages...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145435/functional-characterisation-of-filamentous-actin-probe-expression-in-neuronal-cells
#15
Shrujna Patel, Sandra Y Y Fok, Holly Stefen, Tamara Tomanić, Esmeralda Parić, Rosanna Herold, Merryn Brettle, Aleksandra Djordjevic, Thomas Fath
Genetically encoded filamentous actin probes, Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin, are used as tools to label the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence in several different cell types indicates that these probes can cause changes in filamentous actin dynamics, altering cell morphology and function. Although these probes are commonly used to visualise actin dynamics in neurons, their effects on axonal and dendritic morphology has not been systematically characterised. In this study, we quantitatively analysed the effect of Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin on neuronal morphogenesis in primary hippocampal neurons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145128/microgravity-simulation-activates-cdc42-via-rap1gds1-to-promote-vascular-branch-morphogenesis-during-vasculogenesis
#16
Shouli Wang, Zhao Yin, Bei Zhao, Yanmei Qi, Jie Liu, Saum A Rahimi, Leonard Y Lee, Shaohua Li
Gravity plays an important role in normal tissue maintenance. The ability of stem cells to repair tissue loss in space through regeneration and differentiation remains largely unknown. To investigate the impact of microgravity on blood vessel formation from pluripotent stem cells, we employed the embryoid body (EB) model for vasculogenesis and simulated microgravity by clinorotation. We first differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells into cystic EBs containing two germ layers and then analyzed vessel formation under clinorotation...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129811/transcriptome-scale-characterization-of-salt-responsive-bean-tcp-transcription
#17
Emre İlhan, İlker Büyük, Behcet İnal
TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) proteins are important regulators of growth and developmental processes including branching, floral organ morphogenesis and leaf growth as well as stress response. This study identified 27 TCP genes of Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), which were divided into three clusters based on phylogenetic relationship. In addition, this study showed that some of TCP genes such as Pvul-TCP-4 and Pvul-TCP-15 located on chromosomes 3 and 7, Pvul-TCP-7 and Pvul-TCP-20 located on chromosome 7 and 9, were segmentally duplicated...
November 9, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129523/higher-order-kidney-organogenesis-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Atsuhiro Taguchi, Ryuichi Nishinakamura
Organogenesis generates higher-order structures containing functional subunits, connective components, and progenitor niches. Despite recent advances in organoid-based modeling of tissue development, recapitulating these complex configurations from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) has remained challenging. In this study, we report assembly of kidney organoids that recapitulate embryonic branching morphogenesis. By studying the distinct origins and developmental processes of the ureteric bud, which contains epithelial kidney progenitors that undergo branching morphogenesis and thereby plays a central role in orchestrating organ geometry, and neighboring mesenchymal nephron progenitors, we established a protocol for differential induction of each lineage from mouse and human PSCs...
November 4, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122984/effects-of-mutating-%C3%AE-tubulin-lysine-40-on-sensory-dendrite-development
#19
Brian V Jenkins, Harriet A J Saunders, Helena L Record, Dena M Johnson-Schlitz, Jill Wildonger
Microtubules are essential to neuronal structure and function. Axonal and dendritic microtubules are enriched in post-translational modifications that impact microtubule dynamics, transport, and microtubule-associated proteins. Acetylation of α-tubulin lysine 40 (K40) is a prominent, conserved modification of neuronal microtubules. However, the cellular role of microtubule acetylation remains controversial. To resolve how microtubule acetylation might affect neuronal morphogenesis we mutated endogenous α-tubulin in vivo using a new fly strain that facilitates the rapid knock-in of designer α-tubulin alleles...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118719/the-origins-and-functions-of-tissue-resident-macrophages-in-kidney-development
#20
REVIEW
David A D Munro, Jeremy Hughes
The adult kidney hosts tissue-resident macrophages that can cause, prevent, and/or repair renal damage. Most of these macrophages derive from embryonic progenitors that colonize the kidney during its development and proliferate in situ throughout adulthood. Although the precise origins of kidney macrophages remain controversial, recent studies have revealed that embryonic macrophage progenitors initially migrate from the yolk sac, and later from the fetal liver, into the developing kidney. Once in the kidney, tissue-specific transcriptional regulators specify macrophage progenitors into dedicated kidney macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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