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Branching morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323616/yap-is-essential-for-mechanical-force-production-and-epithelial-cell-proliferation-during-lung-branching-morphogenesis
#1
Chuwen Lin, Erica Yao, Kuan Zhang, Xuan Jiang, Stacey Croll, Katherine Thompson-Peer, Pao-Tien Chuang
Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental program for tissue patterning. We show that active YAP, a key mediator of Hippo signaling, is distributed throughout the murine lung epithelium and loss of epithelial YAP severely disrupts branching. Failure to branch is restricted to regions where YAP activity is removed. This suggests that YAP controls local epithelial cell properties. In support of this model, mechanical force production is compromised and cell proliferation is reduced in Yap mutant lungs. We propose that defective force generation and insufficient epithelial cell number underlie the branching defects...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322823/generating-tissue-topology-through-remodeling-of-cell-cell-adhesions
#2
REVIEW
Katharine Goodwin, Celeste M Nelson
During tissue morphogenesis, cellular rearrangements give rise to a large variety of three-dimensional structures. Final tissue architecture varies greatly across organs, and many develop to include combinations of folds, tubes, and branched networks. To achieve these different tissue geometries, constituent cells must follow different programs that dictate changes in shape and/or migratory behavior. One essential component of these changes is the remodeling of cell-cell adhesions. Invasive migratory behavior and separation between tissues require localized breakdown of cadherin-mediated adhesions...
March 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289061/tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-in-ductal-differentiation-and-branching-morphogenesis
#3
Kaoru Kahata, Varun Maturi, Aristidis Moustakas
Epithelial cells contribute to the development of various vital organs by generating tubular and/or glandular architectures. The fully developed forms of ductal organs depend on processes of branching morphogenesis, whereby frequency, total number, and complexity of the branching tissue define the final architecture in the organ. Some ductal tissues, like the mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation, disintegrate and regenerate through periodic cycles. Differentiation of branched epithelia is driven by antagonistic actions of parallel growth factor systems that mediate epithelial-mesenchymal communication...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285879/lineage-specification-from-prostate-progenitor-cells-requires-gata3-dependent-mitotic-spindle-orientation
#4
Maxwell E R Shafer, Alana H T Nguyen, Mathieu Tremblay, Sophie Viala, Mélanie Béland, Nicholas R Bertos, Morag Park, Maxime Bouchard
During prostate development, basal and luminal cell lineages are generated through symmetric and asymmetric divisions of bipotent basal cells. However, the extent to which spindle orientation controls division symmetry or cell fate, and the upstream factors regulating this process, are still elusive. We report that GATA3 is expressed in both prostate basal progenitor and luminal cells and that loss of GATA3 leads to a mislocalization of PRKCZ, resulting in mitotic spindle randomization during progenitor cell division...
March 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284825/meibomian-gland-morphogenesis-requires-developmental-eyelid-closure-and-lid-fusion
#5
Jingjing Wang, Mindy Call, Maureen Mongan, Winston Whei-Yang Kao, Ying Xia
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Meibomian glands (MGs) play an important role in the maintenance of ocular surface health, but the mechanisms of their development are still poorly understood. The MGs arise from the epithelium at the junction of eyelid fusion, raising the possibility that defective eyelid fusion disturbs the formation of MGs. METHODS: We examined, histologically and functionally, the development of MGs in mice with either normal or defective eyelid fusion, displaying eye-closed at birth (ECB) or eye-open at birth (EOB) phenotypes, respectively...
March 8, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279165/root-morphogenic-pathways-in-eucalyptus-grandis-are-modified-by-the-activity-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferases
#6
Krista L Plett, Anita E Raposo, Stephen Bullivant, Ian C Anderson, Sabine C Piller, Jonathan M Plett
BACKGROUND: Methylation of proteins at arginine residues, catalysed by members of the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family, is crucial for the regulation of gene transcription and for protein function in eukaryotic organisms. Inhibition of the activity of PRMTs in annual model plants has demonstrated wide-ranging involvement of PRMTs in key plant developmental processes, however, PRMTs have not been characterised or studied in long-lived tree species. RESULTS: Taking advantage of the recently available genome for Eucalyptus grandis, we demonstrate that most of the major plant PRMTs are conserved in E...
March 9, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278176/cuzd1-is-a-critical-mediator-of-the-jak-stat5-signaling-pathway-that-controls-mammary-gland-development-during-pregnancy
#7
Janelle Mapes, Quanxi Li, Athilakshmi Kannan, Lavanya Anandan, Mary Laws, John P Lydon, Indrani C Bagchi, Milan K Bagchi
In the mammary gland, genetic circuits controlled by estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin, act in concert with pathways regulated by members of the epidermal growth factor family to orchestrate growth and morphogenesis during puberty, pregnancy and lactation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between the hormonal and growth factor pathways remain poorly understood. We have identified the CUB and zona pellucida-like domain-containing protein 1 (CUZD1), expressed in mammary ductal and alveolar epithelium, as a novel mediator of mammary gland proliferation and differentiation during pregnancy and lactation...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275010/epithelial-and-non-epithelial-patched-1-ptch1-play-opposing-roles-to-regulate-proliferation-and-morphogenesis-of-the-mouse-mammary-gland
#8
Teresa Monkkonen, John D Landua, Adriana P Visbal, Michael T Lewis
Patched-1 (Ptch1) has epithelial, stromal, and systemic roles in murine mammary gland organogenesis, yet specific functions remain undefined. Cre-recombinase-mediated Ptch1 ablation in mammary epithelium increased proliferation and branching, but did not phenocopy transgenic expression of activated Smoothened (SmoM2). Epithelium showed no evidence of canonical hedgehog signaling, and hyperproliferation was not blocked by SMO inhibition, suggesting a non-canonical function of PTCH1. Consistent with this possibility, nuclear localization of Cyclin B1 was increased...
March 8, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270600/diverse-regulation-of-mammary-epithelial-growth-and-branching-morphogenesis-through-noncanonical-wnt-signaling
#9
Kai Kessenbrock, Prestina Smith, Sander Christiaan Steenbeek, Nicholas Pervolarakis, Raj Kumar, Yasuhiro Minami, Andrei Goga, Lindsay Hinck, Zena Werb
The mammary gland consists of an adipose tissue that, in a process called branching morphogenesis, is invaded by a ductal epithelial network comprising basal and luminal epithelial cells. Stem and progenitor cells drive mammary growth, and their proliferation is regulated by multiple extracellular cues. One of the key regulatory pathways for these cells is the β-catenin-dependent, canonical wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway; however, the role of noncanonical WNT signaling within the mammary stem/progenitor system remains elusive...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253274/planar-cell-polarity-genes-frizzled4-and-frizzled6-exert-patterning-influence-on-arterial-vessel-morphogenesis
#10
Rene Markovič, Julien Peltan, Marko Gosak, Denis Horvat, Borut Žalik, Benjamin Seguy, Remi Chauvel, Gregoire Malandain, Thierry Couffinhal, Cécile Duplàa, Marko Marhl, Etienne Roux
Quantitative analysis of the vascular network anatomy is critical for the understanding of the vasculature structure and function. In this study, we have combined microcomputed tomography (microCT) and computational analysis to provide quantitative three-dimensional geometrical and topological characterization of the normal kidney vasculature, and to investigate how 2 core genes of the Wnt/planar cell polarity, Frizzled4 and Frizzled6, affect vascular network morphogenesis. Experiments were performed on frizzled4 (Fzd4-/-) and frizzled6 (Fzd6-/-) deleted mice and littermate controls (WT) perfused with a contrast medium after euthanasia and exsanguination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245919/un-masc-ing-stem-cell-dynamics-in-mammary-branching-morphogenesis
#11
Erin Greenwood, Emma D Wrenn, Kevin J Cheung
The properties of stem cells that participate in mammary gland branching morphogenesis remain contested. Reporting in Nature, Scheele et al. (2017) establish a model for post-pubertal mammary branching morphogenesis in which position-dependent, lineage-restricted stem cells undergo cell mixing in order to contribute to long-term growth.
February 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214893/the-role-of-netrins-and-their-receptors-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-during-development
#12
Michael J Murray
Transitions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are underpinned by changes in motility, adhesion, and polarity. Netrins and their receptors can control each of these cellular properties, and are emerging as important regulators of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Netrins were first identified in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as secreted chemoattractants/repellents that could guide migrating mesodermal cells and axonal growth cones. Orthologues were subsequently found to play conserved roles in vertebrates and in the vinegar fly Drosophila...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192800/molecular-profiling-of-the-developing-lacrimal-gland-reveals-putative-role-of-notch-signaling-in-branching-morphogenesis
#13
Galina Dvoriantchikova, Wensi Tao, Steve Pappas, Gabriel Gaidosh, David T Tse, Dmitry Ivanov, Daniel Pelaez
Purpose: Although normal function of the lacrimal gland is essential for vision (and thus for human well-being), the lacrimal gland remains rather poorly understood at a molecular level. The purpose of this study was to identify new genes and signaling cascades involved in lacrimal gland development. Methods: To identify these genes, we used microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles of developing (embryonic) and adult lacrimal glands. Differential data were validated by quantitative RT-PCR, and several corresponding proteins were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174204/patterned-cell-and-matrix-dynamics-in-branching-morphogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Shaohe Wang, Rei Sekiguchi, William P Daley, Kenneth M Yamada
Many embryonic organs undergo branching morphogenesis to maximize their functional epithelial surface area. Branching morphogenesis requires the coordinated interplay of multiple types of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM). During branching morphogenesis, new branches form by "budding" or "clefting." Cell migration, proliferation, rearrangement, deformation, and ECM dynamics have varied roles in driving budding versus clefting in different organs. Elongation of the newly formed branch and final maturation of the tip involve cellular mechanisms that include cell elongation, intercalation, convergent extension, proliferation, and differentiation...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158215/in-silico-analyses-and-global-transcriptional-profiling-reveal-novel-putative-targets-for-pea3-transcription-factor-related-to-its-function-in-neurons
#15
Başak Kandemir, Ugur Dag, Burcu Bakir Gungor, İlknur Melis Durasi, Burcu Erdogan, Eray Sahin, Ugur Sezerman, Isil Aksan Kurnaz
Pea3 transcription factor belongs to the PEA3 subfamily within the ETS domain transcription factor superfamily, and has been largely studied in relation to its role in breast cancer metastasis. Nonetheless, Pea3 plays a role not only in breast tumor, but also in other tissues with branching morphogenesis, including kidneys, blood vasculature, bronchi and the developing nervous system. Identification of Pea3 target promoters in these systems are important for a thorough understanding of how Pea3 functions. Present study particularly focuses on the identification of novel neuronal targets of Pea3 in a combinatorial approach, through curation, computational analysis and microarray studies in a neuronal model system, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144938/immunocytochemical-identification-and-ontogeny-of-adenohypophyseal-cells-in-a-cave-fish-phreatichthys-andruzzii-cypriniformes-cyprinidae
#16
G Grandi, M Pezzi, M G Marchetti, M Chicca
The morphogenesis of the pituitary gland and the chronological appearance of adenohypophyseal cells were investigated for the first time in the Somalian cave fish Phreatichthys andruzzii by immunocytochemistry. The adult adenohypophysis contained: a rostral pars distalis, with prolactin (PRL) cells arranged in follicles and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) cells, a proximal pars distalis with somatotropic (GH), β-thyrotropic (TSH), β-gonadotropic type I (FSH) and type II (LH) cells and a pars intermedia with α-somatolactin (SL), α-melanotropic (MSH) and β-endorphin (END) cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144783/development-of-the-lung
#17
REVIEW
Johannes C Schittny
To fulfill the task of gas exchange, the lung possesses a huge inner surface and a tree-like system of conducting airways ventilating the gas exchange area. During lung development, the conducting airways are formed first, followed by the formation and enlargement of the gas exchange area. The latter (alveolarization) continues until young adulthood. During organogenesis, the left and right lungs have their own anlage, an outpouching of the foregut. Each lung bud starts a repetitive process of outgrowth and branching (branching morphogenesis) that forms all of the future airways mainly during the pseudoglandular stage...
March 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135720/identity-and-dynamics-of-mammary-stem-cells-during-branching-morphogenesis
#18
Colinda L G J Scheele, Edouard Hannezo, Mauro J Muraro, Anoek Zomer, Nathalia S M Langedijk, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Benjamin D Simons, Jacco van Rheenen
During puberty, the mouse mammary gland develops into a highly branched epithelial network. Owing to the absence of exclusive stem cell markers, the location, multiplicity, dynamics and fate of mammary stem cells (MaSCs), which drive branching morphogenesis, are unknown. Here we show that morphogenesis is driven by proliferative terminal end buds that terminate or bifurcate with near equal probability, in a stochastic and time-invariant manner, leading to a heterogeneous epithelial network. We show that the majority of terminal end bud cells function as highly proliferative, lineage-committed MaSCs that are heterogeneous in their expression profile and short-term contribution to ductal extension...
January 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125268/multipotent-myoepithelial-progenitor-cells-are-born-early-during-airway-submucosal-gland-development
#19
Preston J Anderson, Thomas J Lynch, John F Engelhardt
Airway submucosal glands (SMGs) are facultative stem cell niches for the surface epithelium, but the phenotype of the SMG-derived progenitor cells remains unclear. In other organs, glandular myoepithelial cells (MECs) have been proposed to be multipotent progenitors for luminal cells. We sought to determine the developmental phase during which mouse tracheal glandular MECs are born and whether these MECs are progenitors for other cell phenotypes during SMG morphogenesis. To approach this question, we localized two MEC protein markers (α-smooth muscle actin [αSMA/ACTA2] and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 11 [SMMHC/MYH11]) during various stages of SMG development (placode, elongation, branching, and differentiation) and used ACTA2-CreERT2 and MYH11-CreERT2 transgenic mice to fate map MEC-derived lineages during SMG morphogenesis...
January 26, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117145/notch-signalling-in-placental-development-and-gestational-diseases
#20
S Haider, J Pollheimer, M Knöfler
Activation of Notch signalling upon cell-cell contact of neighbouring cells controls a plethora of cellular processes such as stem cell maintenance, cell lineage determination, cell proliferation, and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that the pathway also critically regulates these events during placental development and differentiation. Herein, we summarize our present knowledge about Notch signalling in murine and human placentation and discuss its potential role in the pathophysiology of gestational disorders...
January 16, 2017: Placenta
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