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Branching morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649419/identification-of-transcription-factors-that-promote-the-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-lacrimal-gland-epithelium-like-cells
#1
Masatoshi Hirayama, Shigeru B H Ko, Tetsuya Kawakita, Tomohiko Akiyama, Sravan K Goparaju, Atsumi Soma, Yuhki Nakatake, Miki Sakota, Nana Chikazawa-Nohtomi, Shigeto Shimmura, Kazuo Tsubota, Minoru S H Ko
Dry eye disease is the most prevalent pathological condition in aging eyes. One potential therapeutic strategy is the transplantation of lacrimal glands, generated in vitro from pluripotent stem cells such as human embryonic stem cells, into patients. One of the preceding requirements is a method to differentiate human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium cells. As the first step for this approach, this study aims to identify a set of transcription factors whose overexpression can promote the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into lacrimal gland epithelium-like cells...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634239/the-dual-activity-responsible-for-the-elongation-and-branching-of-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-in-the-fungal-cell-wall
#2
Vishukumar Aimanianda, Catherine Simenel, Cecile Garnaud, Cecile Clavaud, Rui Tada, Lise Barbin, Isabelle Mouyna, Christoph Heddergott, Laura Popolo, Yoshikazu Ohya, Muriel Delepierre, Jean-Paul Latge
β-(1,3)-Glucan, the major fungal cell wall component, ramifies through β-(1,6)-glycosidic linkages, which facilitates its binding with other cell wall components contributing to proper cell wall assembly. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we developed a protocol to quantify β-(1,6)-branching on β-(1,3)-glucan. Permeabilized S. cerevisiae and radiolabeled substrate UDP-((14)C)glucose allowed us to determine branching kinetics. A screening aimed at identifying deletion mutants with reduced branching among them revealed only two, the bgl2Δ and gas1Δ mutants, showing 15% and 70% reductions in the branching, respectively, compared to the wild-type strain...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619823/sin3a-regulates-epithelial-progenitor-cell-fate-during-lung-development
#3
Changfu Yao, Gianni Carraro, Bindu Konda, Xiangrong Guan, Takako Mizuno, Norika Chiba, Matthew Kostelny, Adrianne Kurkciyan, Gregory David, Jonathan L McQualter, Barry R Stripp
Mechanisms that regulate tissue-specific progenitors for maintenance and differentiation during development are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the co-repressor protein Sin3a is critical for lung endoderm development. Loss of Sin3a in early foregut endoderm leads to a specific and profound defect in lung development with lung buds failing to undergo branching morphogenesis and progressive atrophy of the proximal lung endoderm with complete epithelial loss at later stages of development. Consequently, neonatal pups died at birth due to respiratory insufficiency...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606561/stat5-deletion-in-macrophages-alters-ductal-elongation-and-branching-during-mammary-gland-development
#4
Nicholas J Brady, Michael A Farrar, Kathryn L Schwertfeger
Macrophages are required for proper mammary gland development and maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, the mechanisms by which macrophages regulate this process remain unclear. Here, we identify STAT5 as an important regulator of macrophage function in the developing mammary gland. Analysis of mammary glands from mice with STAT5-deficient macrophages demonstrates delayed ductal elongation, enhanced ductal branching and increased epithelial proliferation. Further analysis reveals that STAT5 deletion in macrophages leads to enhanced expression of proliferative factors such as Cyp19a1/aromatase and IL-6...
June 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596780/katanin-effects-on-dynamics-of-cortical-microtubules-and-mitotic-arrays-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-revealed-by-advanced-live-cell-imaging
#5
George Komis, Ivan Luptovčiak, Miroslav Ovečka, Despina Samakovli, Olga Šamajová, Jozef Šamaj
Katanin is the only microtubule severing protein identified in plants so far. Previous studies have documented its role in regulating cortical microtubule organization during cell growth and morphogenesis. Although, some cell division defects are reported in KATANIN mutants, it is not clear whether or how katanin activity may affect microtubule dynamics in interphase cells, as well as the progression of mitosis and cytokinesis and the orientation of cell division plane (CDP). For this reason, we characterized microtubule organization and dynamics in growing and dividing cotyledon cells of Arabidopsis ktn1-2 mutant devoid of KATANIN 1 activity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595933/morphologic-and-phylogenetic-studies-of-two-hypotrichous-ciliates-with-notes-on-morphogenesis-in-gastrostyla-steinii-engelmann-1862-ciliophora-hypotrichia
#6
Xiaotian Luo, Lifang Li, Chundi Wang, William Bourland, Xiaofeng Lin, Xiaozhong Hu
Two oxytrichid ciliates, Stylonychia (Metastylonychia) nodulinucleata Shi and Li, 1993 and Gastrostyla steinii Engelmann, 1862; collected from Huguangyan Maar Lake and Shenzhen Mangrove Nature Protection Area, southern China, respectively, were investigated using standard methods. The uncommon species Stylonychia (Metastylonychia) nodulinucleata can be recognized by its large body size, the conspicuous caudal cirri in vivo, and a moniliform macronucleus. We provide the first record of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence for the species...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593345/exocrine-gland-morphogenesis-insights-into-the-role-of-amphiregulin-from-development-to-disease
#7
REVIEW
Margherita Sisto, Loredana Lorusso, Giuseppe Ingravallo, Sabrina Lisi
Amphiregulin (AREG) is a well-characterized member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family and is one of the ligands of the EGF receptor (EGFR). AREG plays a key role in mammalian development and in the control of branching morphogenesis in various organs. Furthermore, AREG participates in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes activating the major intracellular signalling cascades governing cell survival, proliferation and motility. In this article, we review current advances in exocrine glands morphogenesis, focusing on the salivary gland, and discuss the essential aspects of AREG structure, function and regulation, and its differential role within the EGFR family of ligands...
June 7, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576773/distinct-roles-for-the-mtor-pathway-in-postnatal-morphogenesis-maturation-and-function-of-pancreatic-islets
#8
Katie L Sinagoga, William J Stone, Jacqueline V Schiesser, Jamie I Schweitzer, Leesa Sampson, Yi Zheng, James M Wells
While much is known about the molecular pathways that regulate embryonic development and adult homeostasis of the endocrine pancreas, little is known about what regulates early postnatal development and maturation of islets. Given that birth marks the first exposure to enteral nutrition, we investigated how nutrient-regulated signaling pathways influence postnatal islet development. To do this we performed loss-of-function studies of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a highly conserved kinase within a nutrient-sensing pathway known to regulate cellular growth, morphogenesis and metabolism...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539271/gene-expression-profiling-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-after-exposure-to-single-dose-irradiation
#9
Wei-Hsiang Kung, Ching-Fang Yu, Andy Chi-Lung Lee, Chi-Dung Yang, Yu-Chen Liu, Fang-Hsin Chen, Hsien-Da Huang
Radiotherapy (RT) is a common cancer treatment approach that accounts for nearly 50% of patient treatment; however, tumor relapse after radiotherapy is still a major issue. To study the crucial role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the regulation of tumor progression post-RT, microarray experiments comparing TAM gene expression profiles between unirradiated and irradiated tumors were conducted to discover possible roles of TAMs in initiation or contribution to tumor recurrence following RT, taking into account the relationships among gene expression, tumor microenvironment, and immunology...
April 30, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531807/high-post-natal-mortality-associated-with-defects-in-lung-maturation-and-reduced-adiposity-in-mice-with-gestational-exposure-to-high-fat-and-n-acetylcysteine
#10
Lyda Williams, Maureen J Charron, Rani S Sellers
Studies have demonstrated that maternal consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) increases offspring susceptibility to metabolic disease. This study was initiated to identify the mechanistic contribution of oxidative stress on this phenomenon. Two weeks prior to mating, dams were fed either HFD or Control diet with or without supplementation with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Pups born to HFD dams had reduced crown rump length (CRL) at birth and higher neonatal mortality compared to pups from Control dams...
May 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526753/altered-feto-placental-vascularization-feto-placental-malperfusion-and-fetal-growth-restriction-in-mice-with-egfl7-loss-of-function
#11
Lauretta A Lacko, Romulo Hurtado, Samantha Hinds, Michael G Poulos, Jason M Butler, Heidi Stuhlmann
EGFL7 is a secreted, angiogenic factor produced by embryonic endothelial cells. To understand its role in placental development, we established a novel Egfl7 knockout mouse. The mutant mice have gross defects in chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis and placental vascular patterning. Microangiography and 3D imaging revealed patchy perfusion of Egfl7(-/-) placentas marked by impeded blood conductance through sites of narrowed vessels. Consistent with poor feto-placental perfusion, Egfl7 knockout resulted in reduced placental weight and fetal growth restriction...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516904/lhx1-5-control-dendritogenesis-and-spine-morphogenesis-of-purkinje-cells-via-regulation-of-espin
#12
Nga Chu Lui, Wing Yip Tam, Caiji Gao, Jian-Dong Huang, Chi Chiu Wang, Liwen Jiang, Wing Ho Yung, Kin Ming Kwan
In the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje cells (PCs) receive signals from different inputs through their extensively branched dendrites and serve as an integration centre. Defects in the dendritic development of PCs thus disrupt cerebellar circuitry and cause ataxia. Here we report that specific inactivation of both Lhx1 and Lhx5 in postnatal PCs results in ataxic mutant mice with abnormal dendritic development. The PCs in the mutants have reduced expression of Espin, an F-actin cytoskeleton regulator. We show that Espin expression is transcriptionally activated by Lhx1/5...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516065/mir-142-5p-disrupts-neuronal-morphogenesis-underlying-porcine-hemagglutinating-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-by-targeting-ulk1
#13
Zi Li, Yungang Lan, Kui Zhao, Xiaoling Lv, Ning Ding, Huijun Lu, Jing Zhang, Huiqing Yue, Junchao Shi, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) invades the central nervous system (CNS) and causes neurodegenerative disease in suckling piglets, but the understanding of its neuropathogenicity for neurological dysfunction remains limited. Here, we report that miR-142-5p is localized to neurons and negatively regulates neuronal morphogenesis in porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (PHE). This phenotype was mediated by miR-142-5p inhibition of an mRNA encoding unc-51-like-kinase1 (Ulk1), which controls axon outgrowth and dendrite formation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506999/btbd7-is-essential-for-region-specific-epithelial-cell-dynamics-and-branching-morphogenesis-in-vivo
#14
William P Daley, Kazue Matsumoto, Andrew D Doyle, Shaohe Wang, Brian J DuChez, Kenn Holmbeck, Kenneth M Yamada
Branching morphogenesis of developing organs requires coordinated but poorly understood changes in epithelial cell-cell adhesion and cell motility. We report that Btbd7 is a crucial regulator of branching morphogenesis in vivo. Btbd7 levels are elevated in peripheral cells of branching epithelial end buds, where it enhances cell motility and cell-cell adhesion dynamics. Genetic ablation of Btbd7 in mice disrupts branching morphogenesis of salivary gland, lung and kidney. Btbd7 knockout results in more tightly packed outer bud cells, which display stronger E-cadherin localization, reduced cell motility and decreased dynamics of transient cell separations associated with cleft formation; inner bud cells remain unaffected...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506998/fgf10-and-sox9-are-essential-for-the-establishment-of-distal-progenitor-cells-during-mouse-salivary-gland-development
#15
Lemonia Chatzeli, Marcia Gaete, Abigail S Tucker
Salivary glands are formed by branching morphogenesis with epithelial progenitors forming a network of ducts and acini (secretory cells). During this process, epithelial progenitors specialise into distal (tips of the gland) and proximal (the stalk region) identities that produce the acini and higher order ducts, respectively. Little is known about the factors that regulate progenitor expansion and specialisation in the different parts of the gland. Here, we show that Sox9 is involved in establishing the identity of the distal compartment before the initiation of branching morphogenesis...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502613/unique-patterns-of-organization-and-migration-of-fgf-expressing-cells-during-drosophila-morphogenesis
#16
Lijuan Du, Amy Zhou, Akshay Patel, Mishal Rao, Kelsey Anderson, Sougata Roy
Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are essential signaling proteins that regulate diverse cellular functions in developmental and metabolic processes. In Drosophila, the FGF homolog, branchless (bnl) is expressed in a dynamic and spatiotemporally restricted pattern to induce branching morphogenesis of the trachea, which expresses the Bnl-receptor, breathless (btl). Here we have developed a new strategy to determine bnl- expressing cells and study their interactions with the btl-expressing cells in the range of tissue patterning during Drosophila development...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501478/osr1-functions-downstream-of-hedgehog-pathway-to-regulate-foregut-development
#17
Lu Han, Jingyue Xu, Emily Grigg, Megan Slack, Praneet Chaturvedi, Rulang Jiang, Aaron M Zorn
During early fetal development, paracrine Hedgehog (HH) ligands secreted from the foregut epithelium activate Gli transcription factors in the surrounding mesenchyme to coordinate formation of the respiratory system, digestive track and the cardiovascular network. Although disruptions to this process can lead to devastating congenital defects, the underlying mechanisms and downstream targets, are poorly understood. We show that the zinc finger transcription factor Osr1 is a novel HH target as Osr1 expression in the foregut mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and the effector of HH pathway Gli3 binds to a conserved genomic loci near Osr1 promoter region...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498492/multiple-roles-of-afadin-in-the-ultrastructural-morphogenesis-of-mouse-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses
#18
Kousyoku Sai, Shujie Wang, Aika Kaito, Takeshi Fujiwara, Tomohiko Maruo, Yu Itoh, Muneaki Miyata, Shotaro Sakakibara, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Murata, Yuuki Yamaguchi, Tomohiro Haruta, Hideo Nishioka, Yuki Motojima, Miyuki Komura, Kazushi Kimura, Kenji Mandai, Yoshimi Takai, Akira Mizoguchi
A hippocampal mossy fiber synapse, which is implicated in learning and memory, has a complex structure in which mossy fiber boutons attach to the dendritic shaft by puncta adherentia junctions (PAJs) and wrap around a multiply-branched spine, forming synaptic junctions. Here, we electron microscopically analyzed the ultrastructure of this synapse in afadin-deficient mice. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that typical PAJs with prominent symmetrical plasma membrane darkening undercoated with the thick filamentous cytoskeleton were observed in the control synapse, whereas in the afadin-deficient synapse, atypical PAJs with the symmetrical plasma membrane darkening, which was much less in thickness and darkness than those of the control typical PAJs, were observed...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492365/the-hippo-pathway-effector-yap-is-an-essential-regulator-of-ductal-progenitor-patterning-in-the-mouse-submandibular-gland
#19
Aleksander D Szymaniak, Rongjuan Mi, Shannon E McCarthy, Adam C Gower, Taylor L Reynolds, Michael Mingueneau, Maria Kukuruzinska, Xaralabos Varelas
Salivary glands, such as submandibular glands (SMGs), are composed of branched epithelial ductal networks that terminate in acini that together produce, transport and secrete saliva. Here, we show that the transcriptional regulator Yap, a key effector of the Hippo pathway, is required for the proper patterning and morphogenesis of SMG epithelium. Epithelial deletion of Yap in developing SMGs results in the loss of ductal structures, arising from reduced expression of the EGF family member Epiregulin, which we show is required for the expansion of Krt5/Krt14-positive ductal progenitors...
May 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471293/in-vitro-experimental-model-for-the-long-term-analysis-of-cellular-dynamics-during-bronchial-tree-development-from-lung-epithelial-cells
#20
Masaya Hagiwara, Naomichi Maruta, Moegi Marumoto
Lung branching morphogenesis has been studied for decades, but the underlying developmental mechanisms are still not fully understood. Cellular movements dynamically change during the branching process, but it is difficult to observe long-term cellular dynamics by in vivo or tissue culture experiments. Therefore, developing an in vitro experimental model of bronchial tree would provide an essential tool for developmental biology, pathology, and systems biology. In this study, we succeeded in reconstructing a bronchial tree in vitro by using primary human bronchial epithelial cells...
June 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
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