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Branching morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991231/slug-pcad-pathway-controls-epithelial-cell-dynamics-in-mammary-gland-and-breast-carcinoma
#1
Y Idoux-Gillet, M Nassour, E Lakis, F Bonini, C Theillet, S Du Manoir, P Savagner
Mammary gland morphogenesis results from the coordination of proliferation, cohort migration, apoptosis and stem/progenitor cell dynamics. We showed earlier that the transcription repressor Slug is involved in these functions during mammary tubulogenesis. Slug is expressed by a subpopulation of basal epithelial cells, co-expressed with P-cadherin (Pcad). Slug-knockout mammary glands showed excessive branching, similarly to Pcad-knockout. Here, we found that Slug unexpectedly binds and activates Pcad promoter through E-boxes, inducing Pcad expression...
October 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978669/ktn80-confers-precision-to-microtubule-severing-by-specific-targeting-of-katanin-complexes-in-plant-cells
#2
Chaofeng Wang, Weiwei Liu, Guangda Wang, Jun Li, Li Dong, Libo Han, Qi Wang, Juan Tian, Yanjun Yu, Caixia Gao, Zhaosheng Kong
The microtubule (MT)-severing enzyme katanin triggers dynamic reorientation of cortical MT arrays that play crucial functions during plant cell morphogenesis, such as cell elongation, cell wall biosynthesis, and hormonal signaling. MT severing specifically occurs at crossover or branching nucleation sites in living Arabidopsis cells. This differs from the random severing observed along the entire length of single MTs in vitro and strongly suggests that a precise control mechanism must exist in vivo However, how katanin senses and cleaves at MT crossover and branching nucleation sites in vivo has remained unknown...
October 4, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971977/human-lung-branching-morphogenesis-is-orchestrated-by-the-spatio-temporal-distribution-of-acta2-sox2-and-sox9
#3
Soula Danopoulos, Irving Alonso, Matthew Thornton, Brendan Grubbs, Saverio Bellusci, David Warburton, Denise Al Alam
Lung morphogenesis relies on a number of important processes including proximal-distal patterning, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. In mouse lung development, SOX2+ cells are localized in the proximal epithelium whereas SOX9+ cells are present in the distal epithelium. We show that in human lung, expression of these transcription factors differs, in that during the pseudoglandular stage distal epithelial progenitors at the tips co-express SOX2 and SOX9...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948968/stem-cell-derived-neurons-from-autistic-individuals-with-shank3-mutation-show-morphogenetic-abnormalities-during-early-development
#4
A Kathuria, P Nowosiad, R Jagasia, S Aigner, R D Taylor, L C Andreae, N J F Gatford, W Lucchesi, D P Srivastava, J Price
Shank3 is a structural protein found predominantly at the postsynaptic density. Mutations in the SHANK3 gene have been associated with risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from control individuals and from human donors with ASD carrying microdeletions of SHANK3. In addition, we used Zinc finger nucleases to generate isogenic SHANK3 knockout human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines. We differentiated pluripotent cells into either cortical or olfactory placodal neurons...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941704/mir-194-is-involved-in-morphogenesis-of-spiral-ganglion-neurons-in-inner-ear-by-rearranging-actin-cytoskeleton-via-targeting-rhob
#5
Jintao Du, Xuemei Zhang, Hui Cao, Di Jiang, Xianren Wang, Wei Zhou, Kaitian Chen, Jiao Zhou, Hongyan Jiang, Luo Ba
Many microRNAs participate in the development, differentiation and function preservation of the embryonic and adult inner ear, but many details still need to be elucidated regarding the numerous microRNAs in the inner ear. Based on previous investigations on the microRNA profile in the inner ear, we confirmed that several microRNAs are expressed in the inner ear, and we detected the spatial expression of these microRNAs in the neonatal mouse inner ear. Then we focused on miR-194 for its specific expression with a dynamic spatiotemporal pattern during inner ear development...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938116/a-unifying-theory-of-branching-morphogenesis
#6
Edouard Hannezo, Colinda L G J Scheele, Mohammad Moad, Nicholas Drogo, Rakesh Heer, Rosemary V Sampogna, Jacco van Rheenen, Benjamin D Simons
The morphogenesis of branched organs remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the underlying signaling pathways, it remains unclear how macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology, and spatial patterning, are encoded. Here, we show that, in mouse mammary gland, kidney, and human prostate, these features can be explained quantitatively within a single unifying framework of branching and annihilating random walks. Based on quantitative analyses of large-scale organ reconstructions and proliferation kinetics measurements, we propose that morphogenesis follows from the proliferative activity of equipotent tips that stochastically branch and randomly explore their environment but compete neutrally for space, becoming proliferatively inactive when in proximity with neighboring ducts...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926242/structure-function-studies-of-artemisia-tridentata-farnesyl-diphosphate-synthase-and-chrysanthemyl-diphosphate-synthase-by-site-directed-mutagenesis-and-morphogenesis
#7
J Scott Lee, Jian-Jung Pan, Gurusankar Ramamoorthy, C Dale Poulter
The amino acid sequences of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPase) and chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) from Artemisia tridentata ssp. Spiciformis, minus their chloroplast targeting regions, are 71% identical and 90% similar. FPPase efficiently and selectively synthesizes the "regular" sesquiterpenoid farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) by coupling isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and then to geranyl diphosphate (GPP). In contrast, CPPase is an inefficient promiscuous enzyme, which synthesizes the "irregular" monoterpenes chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), lavandulyl diphosphate (LPP), and trace quantities of maconelliyl diphosphate (MPP) from two molecules of DMAPP, and couples IPP to DMAPP to give GPP...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923684/ikk%C3%AE-activation-in-the-fetal-lung-mesenchyme-alters-lung-vascular-development-but-not-airway-morphogenesis
#8
Alyssa M McCoy, Jennifer L Herington, Ashley N Stouch, Anamika B Mukherjee, Omar Lakhdari, Timothy S Blackwell, Lawrence S Prince
In the immature lung, inflammation and injury disrupt epithelial-mesenchymal interactions required for normal development. Innate immune signaling and NF-κB activation disrupt the normal expression of multiple mesenchymal genes playing key roles in airway branching and alveolar formation. To test the role of the NF-κB pathway specifically in lung mesenchyme, we utilized the mesenchymal Twist2-Cre to drive expression of a constitutively active IKKβ mutant (IKKβca) in developing mice. Embryonic Twist2-IKKβca mice were generated in expected numbers and appeared grossly normal...
September 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923513/a-dioxin-like-compound-induces-hyperplasia-and-branching-morphogenesis-in-mouse-mammary-gland-through-alterations-in-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling
#9
Noelia Miret, Eva Rico-Leo, Carolina Pontillo, Elsa Zotta, Pedro Fernández-Salguero, Andrea Randi
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread environmental pollutant and a dioxin-like compound that binds weakly to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Because AhR and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) converge to regulate common signaling pathways, alterations in this crosstalk might contribute to developing preneoplastic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate HCB action on TGF-β1 and AhR signaling in mouse mammary gland, through AhR+/+ and AhR-/- models. Results showed a differential effect in mouse mammary epithelial cells (NMuMG), depending on the dose: 0...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916201/targeting-heparanase-to-the-mammary-epithelium-enhances-mammary-gland-development-and-promotes-tumor-growth-and-metastasis
#10
Ilanit Boyango, Uri Barash, Liat Fux, Inna Naroditsky, Neta Ilan, Israel Vlodavsky
Heparanase is an endoglucuronidase that uniquely cleaves the heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. This activity ultimately alters the structural integrity of the ECM and basement membrane that becomes more prone to cellular invasion by metastatic cancer cells and cells of the immune system. In addition, enzymatically inactive heparanase was found to facilitate the proliferation and survival of cancer cells by activation of signaling molecules such as Akt, Src, signal transducer and activation of transcription (Stat), and epidermal growth factor receptor...
September 13, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898113/interferon-regulatory-factor-6-is-necessary-for-salivary-glands-and-pancreas-development
#11
K A Metwalli, M A Do, K Nguyen, S Mallick, K Kin, N Farokhnia, G Jun, W D Fakhouri
Interferon regulatory factor 6 ( IRF6) acts as a tumor suppressor and controls cell differentiation in ectodermal and craniofacial tissues by regulating expression of target genes. Haploinsufficiency of IRF6 causes Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndrome, 2 syndromic forms of cleft lip and palate. Around 85% of patients with Van der Woude express pits on the lower lip that continuously or intermittently drain saliva, and patients with the common cleft lip and palate have a higher prevalence of dental caries and gingivitis...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884513/tgf-%C3%AE-1-attenuated-branching-morphogenesis-of-embryonic-murine-submandibular-gland-through-smad3-activation
#12
P Gao, X-H Qiao, L-M Gou, Y Huang, Q-H Li, L-J Li, X-Y Wang, C-J Li
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays several crucial regulatory roles in multiple physiological and pathological processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of TGF-β1 in branching morphogenesis of salivary gland. We harvested and cultured submandibular salivary glands (SMGs) from murine embryos, which were then treated with exogenous TGF-β1, or its neutralized antibody, Smad3 inhibitor, or Smad3 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Our results suggested that TGF-β1 attenuated branching morphogenesis of embryonic murine SMG via Smad3 activation, thus playing a negative regulatory role in salivary gland development...
September 7, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870991/receptor-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-ptprb-negatively-regulates-fgf2-dependent-branching-morphogenesis
#13
Kelly J Soady, Giusy Tornillo, Howard Kendrick, Valerie Meniel, Daria Olijnyk-Dallis, Joanna S Morris, Torsten Stein, Barry A Gusterson, Clare M Isacke, Matthew J Smalley
PTPRB is a transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase known to regulate blood vessel remodelling and angiogenesis. Here we demonstrate that PTPRB negatively regulates branching morphogenesis in the mammary epithelium. We show that Ptprb is highly expressed in adult mammary stem cells and also, although at lower levels, in estrogen receptor positive luminal cells. During mammary development Ptprb expression is down-regulated during puberty, a period of extensive of ductal outgrowth and branching. In vivo shRNA knockdown of Ptprb in the cleared mammary fat pad transplant assay resulted in smaller epithelial outgrowths with an increased branching density and also increased branching in an in vitro organoid assay...
September 4, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867673/bmp7-dose-dependently-stimulates-proliferation-and-cadherin-11-expression-via-erk-and-p38-in-a-murine-metanephric-mesenchymal-cell-line
#14
Midori Awazu, Michio Nagata, Mariko Hida
BMP7 is expressed in ureteric buds and cap mesenchyme of the fetal kidney, mediating branching morphogenesis and survival and priming of metanephric mesenchyme. Although dose-dependent effects of BMP7 in collecting duct cells have been reported, studies in metanephric mesenchymal cells are lacking. We examined the effects of BMP7 on MAP kinase activation, proliferation, and expression of cadherins in a metanephric mesenchymal cell line MS7 by thymidine incorporation, immunoblot analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR The levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) and phosphorylated p38 (P-p38) were not altered at 10 min, 1 h, and 6 h with low-dose BMP7 (0...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865166/asymmetries-in-leaf-branch-are-associated-with-differential-speeds-along-growth-axes-a-theoretical-prediction
#15
Akiko Nakamasu, Nobuhiko J Suematsu, Seisuke Kimura
Morphogenesis, when accompanied by continuous growth, requires stable positional information to create a balanced shape in an organism. Evenly spaced branches are examples of such morphogenesis. Previously, we created a model that showed when a one-dimensional ring (a boundary of a two-dimensional field) was periodically deformed based on a stable, doubled iterative pattern during expansion; a nested, regularly spaced, symmetrically branched structure was generated. The characteristic divaricating pattern is common in the leaves of many plant species; however, the divarication symmetry was often broken...
September 2, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860131/clasp1-regulates-endothelial-cell-branching-morphology-and-directed-migration
#16
Nicole M Myer, Kenneth A Myers
Endothelial cell (EC) branching is critically dependent upon the dynamic nature of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. Extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanosensing is a prominent mechanism by which cytoskeletal reorganization is achieved; yet how ECM-induced signaling is able to target cytoskeletal reorganization intracellularly to facilitate productive EC branching morphogenesis is not known. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that the composition and density of the ECM drive the regulation of MT growth dynamics in ECs by targeting the MT stabilizing protein, CLASP1...
August 31, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859094/epithelial-heparan-sulfate-regulates-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-lung-development
#17
Hua He, Meina Huang, Shenfei Sun, Yihui Wu, Xinhua Lin
The tree-like structure of the mammalian lung is generated from branching morphogenesis, a reiterative process that is precisely regulated by numerous factors. How the cell surface and extra cellular matrix (ECM) molecules regulate this process is still poorly understood. Herein, we show that epithelial deletion of Heparan Sulfate (HS) synthetase Ext1 resulted in expanded branching tips and reduced branching number, associated with several mesenchymal developmental defects. We further demonstrate an expanded Fgf10 expression and increased FGF signaling activity in Ext1 mutant lungs, suggesting a cell non-autonomous mechanism...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843032/regulatory-network-and-genetic-interactions-established-by-osmads34-in-rice-inflorescence-and-spikelet-morphogenesis
#18
Qingcai Meng, Xiaofeng Li, Wanwan Zhu, Li Yang, Wanqi Liang, Ludovico Dreni, Dabing Zhang
Grasses display highly diversified inflorescence architectures that differ in the arrangement of spikelets and flowers and determine cereal yields. However, the molecular basis underlying grass inflorescence morphogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we investigate the role of a functionally diversified SEPALLATA MADS-box transcription factor, OsMADS34, in regulating rice (Oryza sativa L.) inflorescence and spikelet development. Microarray analysis showed that, at the very early stages of inflorescence formation, dysfunction of OsMADS34 caused altered expression of 379 genes that are associated with protein modification and degradation, transcriptional regulation, signaling and metabolism activity...
September 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827667/lapsyn-controls-branch-extension-and-positioning-of-astrocyte-like-glia-in-the-drosophila-optic-lobe
#19
Benjamin Richier, Cristina de Miguel Vijandi, Stefanie Mackensen, Iris Salecker
Astrocytes have diverse, remarkably complex shapes in different brain regions. Their branches closely associate with neurons. Despite the importance of this heterogeneous glial cell type for brain development and function, the molecular cues controlling astrocyte branch morphogenesis and positioning during neural circuit assembly remain largely unknown. We found that in the Drosophila visual system, astrocyte-like medulla neuropil glia (mng) variants acquire stereotypic morphologies with columnar and layered branching patterns in a stepwise fashion from mid-metamorphosis onwards...
August 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821490/serca-directs-cell-migration-and-branching-across-species-and-germ-layers
#20
Danielle V Bower, Nick Lansdale, Sonia Navarro, Thai V Truong, Dan J Bower, Neil C Featherstone, Marilyn G Connell, Denise Al-Alam, Mark R Frey, Le A Trinh, G Esteban Fernandez, David Warburton, Scott E Fraser, Daimark Bennett, Edwin C Jesudason
Branching morphogenesis underlies organogenesis in vertebrates and invertebrates, yet is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) reuptake pump (SERCA) directs budding across germ layers and species. Clonal knockdown demonstrated a cell-autonomous role for SERCA in Drosophila air sac budding. Live imaging of Drosophila tracheogenesis revealed elevated Ca(2+) levels in migratory tip cells as they form branches. SERCA blockade abolished this Ca(2+) differential, aborting both cell migration and new branching...
August 17, 2017: Biology Open
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