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Branching morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214893/the-role-of-netrins-and-their-receptors-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-during-development
#1
Michael J Murray
Transitions between mesenchymal and epithelial cells are underpinned by changes in motility, adhesion, and polarity. Netrins and their receptors can control each of these cellular properties, and are emerging as important regulators of epithelial mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). Netrins were first identified in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as secreted chemoattractants/repellents that could guide migrating mesodermal cells and axonal growth cones. Orthologues were subsequently found to play conserved roles in vertebrates and in the vinegar fly Drosophila...
2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192800/molecular-profiling-of-the-developing-lacrimal-gland-reveals-putative-role-of-notch-signaling-in-branching-morphogenesis
#2
Galina Dvoriantchikova, Wensi Tao, Steve Pappas, Gabriel Gaidosh, David T Tse, Dmitry Ivanov, Daniel Pelaez
Purpose: Although normal function of the lacrimal gland is essential for vision (and thus for human well-being), the lacrimal gland remains rather poorly understood at a molecular level. The purpose of this study was to identify new genes and signaling cascades involved in lacrimal gland development. Methods: To identify these genes, we used microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles of developing (embryonic) and adult lacrimal glands. Differential data were validated by quantitative RT-PCR, and several corresponding proteins were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174204/patterned-cell-and-matrix-dynamics-in-branching-morphogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Shaohe Wang, Rei Sekiguchi, William P Daley, Kenneth M Yamada
Many embryonic organs undergo branching morphogenesis to maximize their functional epithelial surface area. Branching morphogenesis requires the coordinated interplay of multiple types of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM). During branching morphogenesis, new branches form by "budding" or "clefting." Cell migration, proliferation, rearrangement, deformation, and ECM dynamics have varied roles in driving budding versus clefting in different organs. Elongation of the newly formed branch and final maturation of the tip involve cellular mechanisms that include cell elongation, intercalation, convergent extension, proliferation, and differentiation...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158215/in-silico-analyses-and-global-transcriptional-profiling-reveal-novel-putative-targets-for-pea3-transcription-factor-related-to-its-function-in-neurons
#4
Başak Kandemir, Ugur Dag, Burcu Bakir Gungor, İlknur Melis Durasi, Burcu Erdogan, Eray Sahin, Ugur Sezerman, Isil Aksan Kurnaz
Pea3 transcription factor belongs to the PEA3 subfamily within the ETS domain transcription factor superfamily, and has been largely studied in relation to its role in breast cancer metastasis. Nonetheless, Pea3 plays a role not only in breast tumor, but also in other tissues with branching morphogenesis, including kidneys, blood vasculature, bronchi and the developing nervous system. Identification of Pea3 target promoters in these systems are important for a thorough understanding of how Pea3 functions. Present study particularly focuses on the identification of novel neuronal targets of Pea3 in a combinatorial approach, through curation, computational analysis and microarray studies in a neuronal model system, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144938/immunocytochemical-identification-and-ontogeny-of-adenohypophyseal-cells-in-a-cave-fish-phreatichthys-andruzzii-cypriniformes-cyprinidae
#5
G Grandi, M Pezzi, M G Marchetti, M Chicca
The morphogenesis of the pituitary gland and the chronological appearance of adenohypophyseal cells were investigated for the first time in the Somalian cave fish Phreatichthys andruzzii by immunocytochemistry. The adult adenohypophysis contained: a rostral pars distalis, with prolactin (PRL) cells arranged in follicles and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) cells, a proximal pars distalis with somatotropic (GH), β-thyrotropic (TSH), β-gonadotropic type I (FSH) and type II (LH) cells and a pars intermedia with α-somatolactin (SL), α-melanotropic (MSH) and β-endorphin (END) cells...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144783/development-of-the-lung
#6
REVIEW
Johannes C Schittny
To fulfill the task of gas exchange, the lung possesses a huge inner surface and a tree-like system of conducting airways ventilating the gas exchange area. During lung development, the conducting airways are formed first, followed by the formation and enlargement of the gas exchange area. The latter (alveolarization) continues until young adulthood. During organogenesis, the left and right lungs have their own anlage, an outpouching of the foregut. Each lung bud starts a repetitive process of outgrowth and branching (branching morphogenesis) that forms all of the future airways mainly during the pseudoglandular stage...
March 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135720/identity-and-dynamics-of-mammary-stem-cells-during-branching-morphogenesis
#7
Colinda L G J Scheele, Edouard Hannezo, Mauro J Muraro, Anoek Zomer, Nathalia S M Langedijk, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Benjamin D Simons, Jacco van Rheenen
During puberty, the mouse mammary gland develops into a highly branched epithelial network. Owing to the absence of exclusive stem cell markers, the location, multiplicity, dynamics and fate of mammary stem cells (MaSCs), which drive branching morphogenesis, are unknown. Here we show that morphogenesis is driven by proliferative terminal end buds that terminate or bifurcate with near equal probability, in a stochastic and time-invariant manner, leading to a heterogeneous epithelial network. We show that the majority of terminal end bud cells function as highly proliferative, lineage-committed MaSCs that are heterogeneous in their expression profile and short-term contribution to ductal extension...
January 30, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125268/multipotent-myoepithelial-progenitor-cells-are-born-early-during-airway-submucosal-gland-development
#8
Preston J Anderson, Thomas J Lynch, John F Engelhardt
Airway submucosal glands (SMGs) are facultative stem cell niches for the surface epithelium, but the phenotype of the SMG-derived progenitor cells remains unclear. In other organs, glandular myoepithelial cells (MECs) have been proposed to be multipotent progenitors for luminal cells. We sought to determine the developmental phase during which mouse tracheal glandular MECs are born and whether these MECs are progenitors for other cell phenotypes during SMG morphogenesis. To approach this question, we localized two MEC protein markers (α-smooth muscle actin [αSMA/ACTA2] and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 11 [SMMHC/MYH11]) during various stages of SMG development (placode, elongation, branching, and differentiation) and used ACTA2-CreERT2 and MYH11-CreERT2 transgenic mice to fate map MEC-derived lineages during SMG morphogenesis...
January 26, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117145/notch-signalling-in-placental-development-and-gestational-diseases
#9
S Haider, J Pollheimer, M Knöfler
Activation of Notch signalling upon cell-cell contact of neighbouring cells controls a plethora of cellular processes such as stem cell maintenance, cell lineage determination, cell proliferation, and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that the pathway also critically regulates these events during placental development and differentiation. Herein, we summarize our present knowledge about Notch signalling in murine and human placentation and discuss its potential role in the pathophysiology of gestational disorders...
January 16, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114319/reduced-insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-mitigates-defective-dendrite-morphogenesis-in-mutants-of-the-er-stress-sensor-ire-1
#10
Yehuda Salzberg, Andrew J Coleman, Kevin Celestrin, Moran Cohen-Berkman, Thomas Biederer, Sivan Henis-Korenblit, Hannes E Bülow
Neurons receive excitatory or sensory inputs through their dendrites, which often branch extensively to form unique neuron-specific structures. How neurons regulate the formation of their particular arbor is only partially understood. In genetic screens using the multidendritic arbor of PVD somatosensory neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a mutation in the ER stress sensor IRE-1/Ire1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1) as crucial for proper PVD dendrite arborization in vivo. We further found that regulation of dendrite growth in cultured rat hippocampal neurons depends on Ire1 function, showing an evolutionarily conserved role for IRE-1/Ire1 in dendrite patterning...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102330/new-insights-into-fetal-mammary-gland-morphogenesis-differential-effects-of-natural-and-environmental-estrogens
#11
Lucia Speroni, Maria Voutilainen, Marja L Mikkola, Skylar A Klager, Cheryl M Schaeberle, Carlos Sonnenschein, Ana M Soto
An increased breast cancer risk during adulthood has been linked to estrogen exposure during fetal life. However, the impossibility of removing estrogens from the feto-maternal unit has hindered the testing of estrogen's direct effect on mammary gland organogenesis. To overcome this limitation, we developed an ex vivo culture method of the mammary gland where the direct action of estrogens can be tested during embryonic days (E)14 to 19. Mouse mammary buds dissected at E14 and cultured for 5 days showed that estrogens directly altered fetal mammary gland development...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096261/tuning-collective-cell-migration-by-cell-cell-junction-regulation
#12
Peter Friedl, Roberto Mayor
Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph receptors, Slit/Robo, connexins and integrins, and an adaptive array of intracellular adapter and signaling proteins. Depending on molecular composition and signaling context, cell-cell junctions adapt their shape and stability, and this gradual junction plasticity enables different types of collective cell movements such as epithelial sheet and cluster migration, branching morphogenesis and sprouting, collective network migration, as well as coordinated individual-cell migration and streaming...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096213/endothelial-cell-regulation-of-salivary-gland-epithelial-patterning
#13
Hae Ryong Kwon, Deirdre A Nelson, Kara A DeSantis, Jennifer M Morrissey, Melinda Larsen
Perfusion-independent regulation of epithelial pattern formation by the vasculature during organ development and regeneration is of considerable interest for application in restoring organ function. During murine submandibular salivary gland development, the vasculature co-develops with the epithelium during branching morphogenesis; however, it is not known whether the vasculature has instructive effects on the epithelium. Using pharmacological inhibitors and siRNA knockdown in embryonic organ explants, we determined that VEGFR2-dependent signaling is required for salivary gland epithelial patterning...
January 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089670/in%C3%A2-vitro-propagation-and-branching-morphogenesis-from-single-ureteric-bud%C3%A2-cells
#14
Shunsuke Yuri, Masaki Nishikawa, Naomi Yanagawa, Oak D Jo, Norimoto Yanagawa
A method to maintain and rebuild ureteric bud (UB)-like structures from UB cells in vitro could provide a useful tool for kidney regeneration. We aimed in our present study to establish a serum-free culture system that enables the expansion of UB progenitor cells, i.e., UB tip cells, and reconstruction of UB-like structures. We found that fibroblast growth factors or retinoic acid (RA) was sufficient for the survival of UB cells in serum-free condition, while the proliferation and maintenance of UB tip cells required glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor together with signaling from either WNT-β-catenin pathway or RA...
February 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087625/faithful-mrna-splicing-depends-on-the-prp19-complex-subunit-faint-sausage-and-is-required-for-tracheal-branching-morphogenesis-in-drosophila
#15
Julia Sauerwald, Charlotte Soneson, Mark D Robinson, Stefan Luschnig
Morphogenesis requires the dynamic regulation of gene expression, including transcription, mRNA maturation and translation. Dysfunction of the general mRNA splicing machinery can cause surprisingly specific cellular phenotypes, but the basis for these effects is not clear. Here we show that the Drosophila faint sausage (fas) locus, implicated in epithelial morphogenesis and previously reported to encode a secreted immunoglobulin domain protein, in fact encodes a subunit of the spliceosome-activating Prp19 complex, which is essential for efficient pre-mRNA splicing...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074314/a-novel-effect-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-on-mammary-branching-morphogenesis-and-its-possible-implications-in-breast-cancer
#16
Lucía Gargiulo, María May, Ezequiel M Rivero, Sabrina Copsel, Caroline Lamb, John Lydon, Carlos Davio, Claudia Lanari, Isabel A Lüthy, Ariana Bruzzone
Understanding the mechanisms that govern normal mammary gland development is crucial to the comprehension of breast cancer etiology. β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) are targets of endogenous catecholamines such as epinephrine that have gained importance in the context of cancer biology. Differences in β2-AR expression levels may be responsible for the effects of epinephrine on tumor vs non-tumorigenic breast cell lines, the latter expressing higher levels of β2-AR. To study regulation of the breast cell phenotype by β2-AR, we over-expressed β2-AR in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and knocked-down the receptor in non-tumorigenic MCF-10A breast cells...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069923/map7-regulates-axon-collateral-branch-development-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#17
Stephen R Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Aditi Falnikar, Angelo C Lepore, Le Ma
Collateral branches from axons are key components of functional neural circuits that allow neurons to connect with multiple synaptic targets. Like axon growth and guidance, formation of collateral branches depends on the regulation of microtubules, but how such regulation is coordinated to ensure proper circuit development is not known. Based on microarray analysis, we have identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) during collateral branch development of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049148/proximity-interactions-among-basal-body-components-in-trypanosoma-brucei-identify-novel-regulators-of-basal-body-biogenesis-and-inheritance
#18
Hung Quang Dang, Qing Zhou, Veronica W Rowlett, Huiqing Hu, Kyu Joon Lee, William Margolin, Ziyin Li
: The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031172/prorenin-receptor-controls-renal-branching-morphogenesis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#19
Renfang Song, Adam Janssen, Yuwen Li, Samir S El-Dahr, Ihor V Yosypiv
The prorenin receptor (PRR) is a receptor for renin and prorenin, and an accessory subunit of the vacuolar proton pump H+-ATPase. Renal branching morphogenesis, defined as growth and branching of the ureteric bud (UB), is essential for mammalian kidney development. Previously, we demonstrated that conditional ablation of the PRR in the UB in PRRUB-/- mice causes severe defects in UB branching, resulting in marked kidney hypoplasia at birth. Here, we investigated UB transcriptome using whole-genome-based analysis of gene expression in UB cells FACS-isolated from PRRUB-/- and control kidneys at birth (P0) to determine the primary role of the PRR in terminal differentiation and growth of UB-derived collecting ducts...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992732/the-link-between-angiogenesis-and-endothelial-metabolism
#20
Michael Potente, Peter Carmeliet
Angiogenesis has traditionally been viewed from the perspective of how endothelial cells (ECs) coordinate migration and proliferation in response to growth factor activation to form new vessel branches. However, ECs must also coordinate their metabolism and adapt metabolic fluxes to the rising energy and biomass demands of branching vessels. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of such metabolic regulation in the endothelium and uncovered core metabolic pathways and mechanisms of regulation that drive the angiogenic process...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
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