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Branching morphogenesis

Tomoko Yamazaki, Wenling Li, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
Here, we present a protocol of a whole-mount adult ear skin imaging technique to study comprehensive three-dimensional neuro-vascular branching morphogenesis and patterning, as well as immune cell distribution at a cellular level. The analysis of peripheral nerve and blood vessel anatomical structures in adult tissues provides some insights into the understanding of functional neuro-vascular wiring and neuro-vascular degeneration in pathological conditions such as wound healing. As a highly informative model system, we have focused our studies on adult ear skin, which is readily accessible for dissection...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Meritxell Riquelme, Jesús Aguirre, Salomon Bartnicki-García, Gerhard H Braus, Michael Feldbrügge, Ursula Fleig, Wilhelm Hansberg, Alfredo Herrera-Estrella, Jörg Kämper, Ulrich Kück, Rosa R Mouriño-Pérez, Norio Takeshita, Reinhard Fischer
Filamentous fungi constitute a large group of eukaryotic microorganisms that grow by forming simple tube-like hyphae that are capable of differentiating into more-complex morphological structures and distinct cell types. Hyphae form filamentous networks by extending at their tips while branching in subapical regions. Rapid tip elongation requires massive membrane insertion and extension of the rigid chitin-containing cell wall. This process is sustained by a continuous flow of secretory vesicles that depends on the coordinated action of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons and the corresponding motors and associated proteins...
June 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Masanori Kashimata, Toru Hayashi
Branching morphogenesis is an important developmental process for many organs, including the salivary glands. Whereas epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are cell-to-cell communications, are known to drive branching morphogenesis, the molecular mechanisms responsible for those inductive interactions are still largely unknown. Cell growth factors and integrins are known to be regulators of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands. In addition, functional microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been reported to be present in the developing submandibular gland...
February 2018: Japanese Dental Science Review
Briana To, Eran R Andrechek
The E2F transcription factors control key elements of development, including mammary gland branching morphogenesis, with several E2Fs playing essential roles. Additional prior data has demonstrated that loss of individual E2Fs can be compensated by other E2F family members, but this has not been tested in a mammary gland developmental context. Here we have explored the role of the E2Fs and their ability to functionally compensate for each other during mammary gland development. Using gene expression from terminal end buds and chromatin immunoprecipitation data for E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3, we noted both overlapping and unique mammary development genes regulated by each of the E2Fs...
2018: PloS One
Peixin He, Ke Wang, Yingli Cai, Xiaolong Hu, Yan Zheng, Junjie Zhang, Wei Liu
Sclerotial formation is a key phase of the morel life cycle and lipids have been recorded as the main cytoplasmic reserves in sclerotia of Morchella fungi without any experimental verification. In this study, the ultrastructural features of the undifferentiated mycelia stage (MS) and three main sclerotial differentiation states (sclerotial initial [SI], sclerotial development [SD] and sclerotial maturation [SM]) were compared by transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the energy-rich substance in hypha and sclerotium of Morchella importuna was qualitatively investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantitatively studied by extraction of lipids...
March 21, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
Xinlu Wang, Fei Fei, Jie Qu, Chunyuan Li, Yuwei Li, Shiwu Zhang
Septins are a conserved family of cytoskeletal GTPases present in different organisms, including yeast, drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans and humans. In humans, septins are involved in various cellular processes, including exocytosis, apoptosis, leukemogenesis, carcinogenesis and neurodegeneration. Septin 7 is unique out of 13 human septins. Mammalian septin 6, septin 7, septin 2 and septin 9 coisolate together in complexes to form the core unit for the generation of the septin filaments. Physiological septin filaments are hetero-oligomeric complexes consisting of core septin hexamers and octamers...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Ali Xi, Xuying Yang, Meng Deng, Yu Chen, Jingxia Shao, Jun Zhao, Lijun An
Plant trichome has long been selected as a model system to study the regulatory mechanism during cell development due to its unique growth characteristics. In an effort to explore new components that contribute to trichome development, we performed large-scale forward genetic screening in Arabidopsis, and found two recessive mutants with significant trichome branching defects, both of which display one branched trichomes. After map-based cloning, genetic complementation experiments, we confirmed that they are new alleles of STICHEL (STI) that has been reported to act as a key regulator of trichome branching...
March 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Bliss Magella, Robert Mahoney, Mike Adam, S Steven Potter
Hox genes can function as key drivers of segment identity, with Hox mutations in Drosophila often resulting in dramatic homeotic transformations. In addition, however, they can serve other essential functions. In mammals, the study of Hox gene roles in development is complicated by the presence of four Hox clusters with a total of 39 genes showing extensive functional overlap. In this study, in order to better understand shared core Hox functions, we examined kidney development in mice with frameshift mutations of multiple Abd-B type Hox genes...
March 26, 2018: Developmental Biology
Qin Chen, Bin Fang, Ying Wang, Chu Li, Xiaoxue Li, Ronggen Wang, Qiang Xiong, Lining Zhang, Yong Jin, Manling Zhang, Xiaorui Liu, Lin Li, Lisha Mou, Rongfeng Li, Haiyuan Yang, Yifan Dai
Genetic studies with mouse models have shown that fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-IIIb (FGFR2-IIIb) plays crucial roles in lung development and differentiation. To evaluate the effect of FGFR2-IIIb in pig lung development, we employed somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology to generate transgenic pig fetuses overexpressing the transmembrane (dnFGFR2-IIIb-Tm) and soluble (dnFGFR2-IIIb-HFc) forms of the dominant-negative human FGFR2-IIIb driven by the human surfactant protein C (SP-C) promoter, which was specifically expressed in lung epithelia...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Michael F Sweeney, Carlos Sonnenschein, Ana M Soto
Background: Three-dimensional cultures of mammary epithelial cells allow for biologically-relevant studies of the development of the mammary gland in rodents and humans under normal and pathological conditions, like carcinogenesis. Under these conditions, mammotropic hormones play significant roles in tissue morphogenesis. Therefore, a system that recreates the normal, hormonally responsive epithelium would be a valuable tool to study the normal state and its transition to carcinogenesis...
2018: Cancer Cell International
Lakshmi Sundararajan, David M Miller
Two recent studies by Meltzer et al. and Ziegler et al. use Drosophila larvae to demonstrate that cell-autonomous regulation of lipid biosynthesis defines the complexity and function of highly branched nociceptive neurons. Their findings show that lipid biosynthesis in the neuron is fine-tuned for optimal dendrite morphology and sensitivity.
March 13, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Julia J Mack, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The formation of a hierarchical vascular network is a complex process that requires precise temporal and spatial integration of several signaling pathways. Amongst those, Notch has emerged as a key regulator of multiple steps that expand from endothelial sprouting to arterial specification and remains relevant in the adult. This review aims to summarize major concepts and rising hypotheses on the role of Notch signaling in the endothelium. RECENT FINDINGS: A wealth of new information has helped to clarify how Notch signaling cooperates with other pathways to orchestrate vascular morphogenesis, branching, and function...
May 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
Zer Vue, Gabriel Gonzalez, C Allison Stewart, Shyamin Mehra, Richard R Behringer
Endometrial or uterine glands secrete substances essential for uterine receptivity to the embryo, implantation, conceptus survival, and growth. Adenogenesis is the process of gland formation within the stroma of the uterus. In the mouse, uterine gland formation initiates at postnatal day (P) 5. Uterine gland morphology is poorly understood because it is primarily based on two-dimensional (2D) histology. To more fully describe uterine gland morphogenesis, we generated three-dimensional (3D) models of postnatal uterine glands from P0 to P21, based on volumetric imaging using light sheet microscopy...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Seyed Mohammad Hossein Kashfi, Sheema Almozyan, Nicholas Jinks, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Abdolrahman S Nateri
Organoids have extensive applications in many fields ranging from modelling human development and disease, personalised medicine, drug screening, etc. Moreover, in the last few years, several studies have evaluated the capacity of organoids as transplantation sources for therapeutic approaches and regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, depending on the origin of the cells and anatomical complications, an organoid transplant may make tissue regeneration difficult. However, some essential aspects of organoids including the morphological alterations and the growth pattern of the matched tumour and their healthy derived organoids have received less attention...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Mana Ogawa, Toshitada Nagai, Yoshikazu Saito, Hitonari Miyaguchi, Kei Kumakura, Keiko Abe, Tomiko Asakura
Mastication enhances brain function and mental health, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of mastication on neural development in early childhood. Therefore, we analysed the gene expression in juvenile neural circuits in rats fed with a soft or chow diet immediately after weaning. We observed that the gene expression patterns in the thalamus varied depending on the diet. Furthermore, gene ontology analysis revealed that two terms were significantly enhanced: chemical synaptic transmission and positive regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yuejie Zhao, Jeong Yeh Yang, David F Thieker, Yongmei Xu, Chengli Zong, Geert-Jan Boons, Jian Liu, Robert J Woods, Kelley W Moremen, I Jonathan Amster
Roundabout 1 (Robo1) interacts with its receptor Slit to regulate axon guidance, axon branching, and dendritic development in the nervous system and to regulate morphogenesis and many cell functions in the nonneuronal tissues. This interaction is known to be critically regulated by heparan sulfate (HS). Previous studies suggest that HS is required to promote the binding of Robo1 to Slit to form the minimal signaling complex, but the molecular details and the structural requirements of HS for this interaction are still unclear...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Katherine D Walton, Darcy Mishkind, Misty R Riddle, Clifford J Tabin, Deborah L Gumucio
Efficient absorption of nutrients by the intestine is essential for life. In mammals and birds, convolution of the intestinal surface into finger-like projections called villi is an important adaptation that ensures the massive surface area for nutrient contact that is required to meet metabolic demands. Each villus projection serves as a functional absorptive unit: it is covered by a simple columnar epithelium that is derived from endoderm and contains a mesodermally derived core with supporting vasculature, lacteals, enteric nerves, smooth muscle, fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, and immune cells...
March 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Nadia Efimova, Tatyana M Svitkina
Adherens junctions (AJs) are mechanosensitive cadherin-based intercellular adhesions that interact with the actin cytoskeleton and carry most of the mechanical load at cell-cell junctions. Both Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin polymerization generating pushing force and nonmuscle myosin II (NMII)-dependent contraction producing pulling force are necessary for AJ morphogenesis. Which actin system directly interacts with AJs is unknown. Using platinum replica electron microscopy of endothelial cells, we show that vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin colocalizes with Arp2/3 complex-positive actin networks at different AJ types and is positioned at the interface between two oppositely oriented branched networks from adjacent cells...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Anne Müsch
The vertebrate liver presents a fascinating case study for how cell form is optimized for function. To execute its duties the liver assembles two distinct lumen-forming epithelial phenotypes: Firstly, cords with a branched, capillary-like luminal network formed between hepatocytes (bile canaliculi); and secondly, tubular ducts formed by biliary epithelial cells arranged around a central cavity and connected to the bile canaliculi. How these remarkably different epithelial polarity phenotypes are generated and joined into a contiguous luminal network are major unresolved questions...
March 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Xiaoxiang Cheng, Jun Zheng, Gang Li, Verena Göbel, Hongjie Zhang
As a prevalent post-translational modification, ubiquitination is essential for many developmental processes. Once covalently attached to the small and conserved polypeptide ubiquitin (Ub), a substrate protein can be directed to perform specific biological functions via its Ub-modified form. Three sequential catalytic reactions contribute to this process, among which E3 ligases serve to identify target substrates and promote the activated Ub to conjugate to substrate proteins. Ubiquitination has great plasticity, with diverse numbers, topologies and modifications of Ub chains conjugated at different substrate residues adding a layer of complexity that facilitates a huge range of cellular functions...
March 1, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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