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Branching morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539271/gene-expression-profiling-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-after-exposure-to-single-dose-irradiation
#1
Wei-Hsiang Kung, Ching-Fang Yu, Andy Chi-Lung Lee, Chi-Dung Yang, Yu-Chen Liu, Fang-Hsin Chen, Hsien-Da Huang
Radiotherapy (RT) is a common cancer treatment approach that accounts for nearly 50% of patient treatment; however, tumor relapse after radiotherapy is still a major issue. To study the crucial role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in the regulation of tumor progression post-RT, microarray experiments comparing TAM gene expression profiles between unirradiated and irradiated tumors were conducted to discover possible roles of TAMs in initiation or contribution to tumor recurrence following RT, taking into account the relationships among gene expression, tumor microenvironment, and immunology...
April 30, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531807/high-post-natal-mortality-associated-with-defects-in-lung-maturation-and-reduced-adiposity-in-mice-with-gestational-exposure-to-high-fat-and-n-acetylcysteine
#2
Lyda Williams, Maureen J Charron, Rani S Sellers
Studies have demonstrated that maternal consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) increases offspring susceptibility to metabolic disease. This study was initiated to identify the mechanistic contribution of oxidative stress on this phenomenon. Two weeks prior to mating, dams were fed either HFD or Control diet with or without supplementation with the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Pups born to HFD dams had reduced crown rump length (CRL) at birth and higher neonatal mortality compared to pups from Control dams...
May 14, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526753/altered-feto-placental-vascularization-feto-placental-malperfusion-and-fetal-growth-restriction-in-mice-with-egfl7-loss-of-function
#3
Lauretta A Lacko, Romulo Hurtado, Samantha Hinds, Michael G Poulos, Jason M Butler, Heidi Stuhlmann
EGFL7 is a secreted, angiogenic factor produced by embryonic endothelial cells. To understand its role in placental development, we established a novel Egfl7 knockout mouse. The mutant mice have gross defects in chorioallantoic branching morphogenesis and placental vascular patterning. Microangiography and 3D imaging revealed patchy perfusion of Egfl7(-/-) placentas marked by impeded blood conductance through sites of narrowed vessels. Consistent with poor feto-placental perfusion, Egfl7 knockout resulted in reduced placental weight and fetal growth restriction...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516904/lhx1-5-control-dendritogenesis-and-spine-morphogenesis-of-purkinje-cells-via-regulation-of-espin
#4
Nga Chu Lui, Wing Yip Tam, Caiji Gao, Jian-Dong Huang, Chi Chiu Wang, Liwen Jiang, Wing Ho Yung, Kin Ming Kwan
In the cerebellar cortex, Purkinje cells (PCs) receive signals from different inputs through their extensively branched dendrites and serve as an integration centre. Defects in the dendritic development of PCs thus disrupt cerebellar circuitry and cause ataxia. Here we report that specific inactivation of both Lhx1 and Lhx5 in postnatal PCs results in ataxic mutant mice with abnormal dendritic development. The PCs in the mutants have reduced expression of Espin, an F-actin cytoskeleton regulator. We show that Espin expression is transcriptionally activated by Lhx1/5...
May 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516065/mir-142-5p-disrupts-neuronal-morphogenesis-underlying-porcine-hemagglutinating-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-by-targeting-ulk1
#5
Zi Li, Yungang Lan, Kui Zhao, Xiaoling Lv, Ning Ding, Huijun Lu, Jing Zhang, Huiqing Yue, Junchao Shi, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) invades the central nervous system (CNS) and causes neurodegenerative disease in suckling piglets, but the understanding of its neuropathogenicity for neurological dysfunction remains limited. Here, we report that miR-142-5p is localized to neurons and negatively regulates neuronal morphogenesis in porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (PHE). This phenotype was mediated by miR-142-5p inhibition of an mRNA encoding unc-51-like-kinase1 (Ulk1), which controls axon outgrowth and dendrite formation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506999/btbd7-is-essential-for-region-specific-epithelial-cell-dynamics-and-branching-morphogenesis-in-vivo
#6
William P Daley, Kazue Matsumoto, Andrew D Doyle, Shaohe Wang, Brian J DuChez, Kenn Holmbeck, Kenneth M Yamada
Branching morphogenesis of developing organs requires coordinated but poorly understood changes in epithelial cell-cell adhesion and cell motility. We report that Btbd7 is a crucial regulator of branching morphogenesis in vivo. Btbd7 levels are elevated in peripheral cells of branching epithelial end buds, where it enhances cell motility and cell-cell adhesion dynamics. Genetic ablation of Btbd7 in mice disrupts branching morphogenesis of salivary gland, lung, and kidney. Btbd7 knockout results in more tightly packed outer bud cells, which display stronger E-cadherin localization, reduced cell motility, and decreased dynamics of transient cell separations associated with cleft formation; inner bud cells remain unaffected...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506998/fgf10-sox9-are-essential-for-establishment-of-distal-progenitor-cells-during-salivary-gland-development
#7
Lemonia Chatzeli, Marcia Gaete, Abigail S Tucker
Salivary glands are formed by branching morphogenesis with epithelial progenitors forming a network of ducts and acini (secretory cells). During this process, epithelial progenitors specialise into distal (tips of the gland) and proximal (the stalk region) identities that produce the acini and higher order ducts respectively. Little is known about the factors that regulate progenitor expansion and specialisation in the different parts of the gland. Here we show that Sox9 is involved in establishing the identity of the distal compartment before the initiation of branching morphogenesis...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502613/generation-of-a-targeted-expression-system-for-branchless-and-characterization-of-novel-cellular-expression-patterns-of-the-gene-in-drosophila
#8
Lijuan Du, Amy Zhou, Akshay Patel, Mishal Rao, Kelsey Anderson, Sougata Roy
Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are essential signaling proteins that regulate diverse cellular functions in developmental and metabolic processes. In Drosophila, the FGF homolog, branchless (bnl) is expressed in a dynamic and spatiotemporally restricted pattern to induce branching morphogenesis of the trachea, which expresses the Bnl-receptor, breathless (btl). Here we have developed a new strategy to determine bnl- expressing cells and study their interactions with the btl-expressing cells in the range of tissue patterning during Drosophila development...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501478/osr1-functions-downstream-of-hedgehog-pathway-to-regulate-foregut-development
#9
Lu Han, Jingyue Xu, Emily Grigg, Megan Slack, Praneet Chaturvedi, Rulang Jiang, Aaron M Zorn
During early fetal development, paracrine Hedgehog (HH) ligands secreted from the foregut epithelium activate Gli transcription factors in the surrounding mesenchyme to coordinate formation of the respiratory system, digestive track and the cardiovascular network. Although disruptions to this process can lead to devastating congenital defects, the underlying mechanisms and downstream targets, are poorly understood. We show that the zinc finger transcription factor Osr1 is a novel HH target as Osr1 expression in the foregut mesenchyme depends on HH signaling and the effector of HH pathway Gli3 binds to a conserved genomic loci near Osr1 promoter region...
May 10, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498492/multiple-roles-of-afadin-in-the-ultrastructural-morphogenesis-of-mouse-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses
#10
Kousyoku Sai, Shujie Wang, Aika Kaito, Takeshi Fujiwara, Tomohiko Maruo, Yu Itoh, Muneaki Miyata, Shotaro Sakakibara, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Murata, Yuuki Yamaguchi, Tomohiro Haruta, Hideo Nishioka, Yuki Motojima, Miyuki Komura, Kazushi Kimura, Kenji Mandai, Yoshimi Takai, Akira Mizoguchi
A hippocampal mossy fiber synapse, which is implicated in learning and memory, has a complex structure in which mossy fiber boutons attach to the dendritic shaft by puncta adherentia junctions (PAJs) and wrap around a multiply-branched spine, forming synaptic junctions. Here, we electron microscopically analyzed the ultrastructure of this synapse in afadin-deficient mice. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that typical PAJs with prominent symmetrical plasma membrane darkening undercoated with the thick filamentous cytoskeleton were observed in the control synapse, whereas in the afadin-deficient synapse, atypical PAJs with the symmetrical plasma membrane darkening, which was much less in thickness and darkness than those of the control typical PAJs, were observed...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492365/the-hippo-pathway-effector-yap-is-an-essential-regulator-of-ductal-progenitor-patterning-in-the-mouse-submandibular-gland
#11
Aleksander D Szymaniak, Rongjuan Mi, Shannon E McCarthy, Adam C Gower, Taylor L Reynolds, Michael Mingueneau, Maria Kukuruzinska, Xaralabos Varelas
Salivary glands, such as submandibular glands (SMGs), are composed of branched epithelial ductal networks that terminate in acini that together produce, transport and secrete saliva. Here, we show that the transcriptional regulator Yap, a key effector of the Hippo pathway, is required for the proper patterning and morphogenesis of SMG epithelium. Epithelial deletion of Yap in developing SMGs results in the loss of ductal structures, arising from reduced expression of the EGF family member Epiregulin, which we show is required for the expansion of Krt5/Krt14-positive ductal progenitors...
May 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471293/in-vitro-experimental-model-for-the-long-term-analysis-of-cellular-dynamics-during-bronchial-tree-development-from-lung-epithelial-cells
#12
Masaya Hagiwara, Naomichi Maruta, Moegi Marumoto
Lung branching morphogenesis has been studied for decades, but the underlying developmental mechanisms are still not fully understood. Cellular movements dynamically change during the branching process, but it is difficult to observe long-term cellular dynamics by in vivo or tissue culture experiments. Therefore, developing an in vitro experimental model of bronchial tree would provide an essential tool for developmental biology, pathology, and systems biology. In this study, we succeeded in reconstructing a bronchial tree in vitro by using primary human bronchial epithelial cells...
May 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469077/p63-ureteric-bud-tip-cells-are-progenitors-of-intercalated-cells
#13
Samir S El-Dahr, Yuwen Li, Jiao Liu, Elleny Gutierrez, Kathleen S Hering-Smith, Sabina Signoretti, Jean-Christophe Pignon, Satrajit Sinha, Zubaida Saifudeen
During renal branching morphogenesis, ureteric bud tip cells (UBTC) serve as the progenitor epithelium for all cell types of the collecting duct. While the transcriptional circuitry of ureteric bud (UB) branching has been intensively studied, the transcriptional control of UBTC differentiation has been difficult to ascertain. This is partly due to limited knowledge of UBTC-specific transcription factors that mark the progenitor state. Here, we identify the transcription factor p63 (also known as TP63), a master regulator of basal stem cells in stratified epithelia, as a specific marker of mouse and human UBTC...
May 4, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463240/incorrect-dosage-of-iqsec2-a-known-intellectual-disability-and-epilepsy-gene-disrupts-dendritic-spine-morphogenesis
#14
S J Hinze, M R Jackson, S Lie, L Jolly, M Field, S C Barry, R J Harvey, C Shoubridge
There is considerable genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity associated with intellectual disability (ID), specific learning disabilities, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and epilepsy. The intelligence quotient (IQ) motif and SEC7 domain containing protein 2 gene (IQSEC2) is located on the X-chromosome and harbors mutations that contribute to non-syndromic ID with and without early-onset seizure phenotypes in both sexes. Although IQ and Sec7 domain mutations lead to partial loss of IQSEC2 enzymatic activity, the in vivo pathogenesis resulting from these mutations is not known...
May 2, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448600/mscs-feeder-layers-induce-smg-self-organization-and-branching-morphogenesis
#15
Mahmoud Farahat, Gulsan Ara Sathi, Emilio Satoshi Hara, Hiroaki Taketa, Takuo Kuboki, Takuya Matsumoto
Dysfunction of salivary glands leads to several oral health problems, including dental caries, mastication and swallowing dysfunctions and multiple oral infections. Conventional treatments for such condition fell short of providing satisfying therapeutic results. Recent advances in organ regeneration therapy which utilize tissue stem cells to fabricate bioengineered 3D organ buds, have introduced a promising therapeutic tool for full functional organ regeneration. However, finding a sustainable and easily accessible cell source for such approaches is still challenging, especially in case of severely atrophied tissues such as irradiated salivary glands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433789/macromolecular-crowding-for-tailoring-tissue-derived-fibrillated-matrices
#16
Valentina Magno, Jens Friedrichs, Heather M Weber, Marina C Prewitz, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Carsten Werner
Tissue-derived fibrillated matrices can be instrumental for the in vitro reconstitution of multiphasic extracellular microenvironments. However, despite of several advantages, the obtained scaffolds so far offer a rather narrow range of materials characteristics only. In this work, we demonstrate how macromolecular crowding (MMC) - the supplementation of matrix reconstitution media with synthetic or natural macromolecules in ways to create excluded volume effects (EVE) - can be employed for tailoring important structural and biophysical characteristics of kidney-derived fibrillated matrices...
April 20, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411024/epcam-controls-morphogenetic-programs-during-zebrafish-pronephros-development
#17
Sebastian Kuechlin, Maximilian Schoels, Krasimir Slanchev, Silke Lassmann, Gerd Walz, Toma A Yakulov
Epithelial cell adhesion molecule EpCAM is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is dynamically expressed in human and murine renal epithelia during development. The levels of EpCAM in the renal epithelium are upregulated both during regeneration after ischemia/reperfusion injury and in renal-derived carcinomas. The role of EpCAM in early kidney development, however, has remained unclear. The zebrafish pronephros shows a similar segmentation pattern to the mammalian metanephric nephron, and has recently emerged as a tractable model to study the regulatory programs governing early nephrogenesis...
April 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409348/imaging-analysing-and-interpreting-branching-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-kidney
#18
Kieran M Short, Ian M Smyth
The kidney develops as an outgrowth of the epithelial nephric duct known as the ureteric bud, in a position specified by a range of rostral and caudal factors which serve to ensure two kidneys form in the appropriate positions in the body. At its simplest level, kidney development can be viewed as the process by which this single bud then undergoes a process of arborisation to form a complex connected network of ducts which will serve to drain urine from the nephrons in the adult organ. The process of bud elaboration is dictated by factors expressed by both the bud itself and by surrounding cells of the metanephric mesenchyme which control cell division and bifurcation...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408596/yap-is-crucial-for-lung-branching-morphogenesis
#19
Megan Eldred
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405774/bacillus-methylotrophicus-m4-96-isolated-from-maize-zea-mays-rhizoplane-increases-growth-and-auxin-content-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-via-emission-of-volatiles
#20
Paola Pérez-Flores, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero, Josué Altamirano-Hernández, Ramón Pelagio-Flores, José López-Bucio, Perla García-Juárez, Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez
Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria stimulate plant growth and development via different mechanisms. In this study, we characterized the effect of volatiles from Bacillus methylotrophicus M4-96 isolated from the maize rhizosphere on root and shoot development, and auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytostimulation occurred after 4 days of interaction between M4-96 and Arabidopsis grown on opposite sides of divided Petri plates, as revealed by enhanced primary root growth, root branching, leaf formation, and shoot biomass accumulation...
April 12, 2017: Protoplasma
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