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Branching morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087625/faithful-mrna-splicing-depends-on-the-prp19-complex-subunit-faint-sausage-and-is-required-for-tracheal-branching-morphogenesis-in-drosophila
#1
Julia Sauerwald, Charlotte Soneson, Mark D Robinson, Stefan Luschnig
Morphogenesis requires the dynamic regulation of gene expression, including transcription, mRNA maturation and translation. Dysfunction of the general mRNA splicing machinery can cause surprisingly specific cellular phenotypes, but the basis for these effects is not clear. Here we show that the Drosophila faint sausage (fas) locus, implicated in epithelial morphogenesis and previously reported to encode a secreted immunoglobulin domain protein, in fact encodes a subunit of the spliceosome-activating Prp19 complex, which is essential for efficient pre-mRNA splicing...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074314/a-novel-effect-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-on-mammary-branching-morphogenesis-and-its-possible-implications-in-breast-cancer
#2
Lucía Gargiulo, María May, Ezequiel M Rivero, Sabrina Copsel, Caroline Lamb, John Lydon, Carlos Davio, Claudia Lanari, Isabel A Lüthy, Ariana Bruzzone
Understanding the mechanisms that govern normal mammary gland development is crucial to the comprehension of breast cancer etiology. β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) are targets of endogenous catecholamines such as epinephrine that have gained importance in the context of cancer biology. Differences in β2-AR expression levels may be responsible for the effects of epinephrine on tumor vs non-tumorigenic breast cell lines, the latter expressing higher levels of β2-AR. To study regulation of the breast cell phenotype by β2-AR, we over-expressed β2-AR in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and knocked-down the receptor in non-tumorigenic MCF-10A breast cells...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069923/map7-regulates-axon-collateral-branch-development-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#3
Stephen R Tymanskyj, Benjamin Yang, Aditi Falnikar, Angelo C Lepore, Le Ma
: Collateral branches from axons are key components of functional neural circuits that allow neurons to connect with multiple synaptic targets. Like axon growth and guidance, formation of collateral branches depends on the regulation of microtubules, but how such regulation is coordinated to ensure proper circuit development is not known. Based on microarray analysis, we have identified a role for microtubule-associated protein 7 (MAP7) during collateral branch development of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049148/proximity-interactions-among-basal-body-components-in-trypanosoma-brucei-identify-novel-regulators-of-basal-body-biogenesis-and-inheritance
#4
Hung Quang Dang, Qing Zhou, Veronica W Rowlett, Huiqing Hu, Kyu Joon Lee, William Margolin, Ziyin Li
: The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031172/prorenin-receptor-controls-renal-branching-morphogenesis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#5
Renfang Song, Adam Janssen, Yuwen Li, Samir S El-Dahr, Ihor V Yosypiv
The prorenin receptor (PRR) is a receptor for renin and prorenin, and an accessory subunit of the vacuolar proton pump H+-ATPase. Renal branching morphogenesis, defined as growth and branching of the ureteric bud (UB), is essential for mammalian kidney development. Previously, we demonstrated that conditional ablation of the PRR in the UB in PRRUB-/- mice causes severe defects in UB branching, resulting in marked kidney hypoplasia at birth. Here, we investigated UB transcriptome using whole-genome-based analysis of gene expression in UB cells FACS-isolated from PRRUB-/- and control kidneys at birth (P0) to determine the primary role of the PRR in terminal differentiation and growth of UB-derived collecting ducts...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992732/the-link-between-angiogenesis-and-endothelial-metabolism
#6
Michael Potente, Peter Carmeliet
Angiogenesis has traditionally been viewed from the perspective of how endothelial cells (ECs) coordinate migration and proliferation in response to growth factor activation to form new vessel branches. However, ECs must also coordinate their metabolism and adapt metabolic fluxes to the rising energy and biomass demands of branching vessels. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of such metabolic regulation in the endothelium and uncovered core metabolic pathways and mechanisms of regulation that drive the angiogenic process...
December 15, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981201/data-supporting-regulating-temporospatial-dynamics-of-morphogen-for-structure-formation-of-the-lacrimal-gland-by-chitosan-biomaterials
#7
Ya-Chuan Hsiao, Tsung-Lin Yang
The lacrimal gland is responsible for tear synthesis and secretion, and is derived from the epithelia of ocular surface and generated by branching morphogenesis. The dataset presented in this article is to support the research results of the effect of chitosan biomaterials on facilitating the structure formation of the lacrimal gland by regulating temporospatial dynamics of morphogen. The embryonic lacrimal gland explants were used as the standard experimental model for investigating lacrimal gland branching morphogenesis...
February 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974362/sharpin-regulates-collagen-architecture-and-ductal-outgrowth-in-the-developing-mouse-mammary-gland
#8
Emilia Peuhu, Riina Kaukonen, Martina Lerche, Markku Saari, Camilo Guzmán, Pia Rantakari, Nicola De Franceschi, Anni Wärri, Maria Georgiadou, Guillaume Jacquemet, Elina Mattila, Reetta Virtakoivu, Yuming Liu, Youmna Attieh, Kathleen A Silva, Timo Betz, John P Sundberg, Marko Salmi, Marie-Ange Deugnier, Kevin W Eliceiri, Johanna Ivaska
SHARPIN is a widely expressed multifunctional protein implicated in cancer, inflammation, linear ubiquitination and integrin activity inhibition; however, its contribution to epithelial homeostasis remains poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of SHARPIN in mammary gland development, a process strongly regulated by epithelial-stromal interactions. Mice lacking SHARPIN expression in all cells (Sharpin(cpdm)), and mice with a stromal (S100a4-Cre) deletion of Sharpin, have reduced mammary ductal outgrowth during puberty...
December 14, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957528/arp2-3-and-vasp-are-essential-for-fear-memory-formation-in-lateral-amygdala
#9
Sreetama Basu, Irina Kustanovich, Raphael Lamprecht
The actin cytoskeleton is involved in key neuronal functions such as synaptic transmission and morphogenesis. However, the roles and regulation of actin cytoskeleton in memory formation remain to be clarified. In this study, we unveil the mechanism whereby actin cytoskeleton is regulated to form memory by exploring the roles of the major actin-regulatory proteins Arp2/3, VASP, and formins in long-term memory formation. Inhibition of Arp2/3, involved in actin filament branching and neuronal morphogenesis, in lateral amygdala (LA) with the specific inhibitor CK-666 during fear conditioning impaired long-term, but not short-term, fear memory...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932423/integrated-genomic-analysis-of-survival-outliers-in-glioblastoma
#10
Sen Peng, Harshil Dhurv, Brock Armstrong, Bodour Salhia, Christophe Legendre, Jeffrey Kiefer, Julianna Parks, Selene Virk, Andrew E Sloan, Quinn T Ostrom, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Nhan L Tran, Michael E Berens
BACKGROUND: To elucidate molecular features associated with disproportionate survival of glioblastoma (GB) patients, we conducted deep genomic comparative analysis of a cohort of patients receiving standard therapy (surgery plus concurrent radiation and temozolomide); "GB outliers" were identified: long-term survivor of 33 months (LTS; n = 8) versus short-term survivor of 7 months (STS; n = 10). METHODS: We implemented exome, RNA, whole genome sequencing, and DNA methylation for collection of deep genomic data from STS and LTS GB patients...
December 8, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908785/disco-interacting-protein-2-regulates-axonal-bifurcation-and-guidance-of-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons
#11
Yohei Nitta, Daisuke Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugie, Makoto Hiroi, Tetsuya Tabata
Axonal branching is one of the key processes within the enormous complexity of the nervous system to enable a single neuron to send information to multiple targets. However, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. In particular, previous studies have rarely addressed the mechanisms underlying axonal bifurcation, in which axons form new branches via splitting of the growth cone. We demonstrate that DISCO Interacting Protein 2 (DIP2) is required for precise axonal bifurcation in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons by suppressing ectopic bifurcation and regulating the guidance of sister axons...
January 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898393/a-noncanonical-auxin-sensing-mechanism-is-required-for-organ-morphogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#12
Sara Simonini, Joyita Deb, Laila Moubayidin, Pauline Stephenson, Manoj Valluru, Alejandra Freire-Rios, Karim Sorefan, Dolf Weijers, Jiří Friml, Lars Østergaard
Tissue patterning in multicellular organisms is the output of precise spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression coupled with changes in hormone dynamics. In plants, the hormone auxin regulates growth and development at every stage of a plant's life cycle. Auxin signaling occurs through binding of the auxin molecule to a TIR1/AFB F-box ubiquitin ligase, allowing interaction with Aux/IAA transcriptional repressor proteins. These are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded via the 26S proteasome, leading to derepression of auxin response factors (ARFs)...
October 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888192/atypical-chemokine-receptor-ackr2-controls-branching-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-mammary-gland
#13
Gillian J Wilson, Kay D Hewit, Kenneth J Pallas, Claire J Cairney, Kit M Lee, Christopher A Hansell, Torsten Stein, Gerard J Graham
Macrophages are important regulators of branching morphogenesis during development, and postnatally in the mammary gland. Regulation of macrophage dynamics during these processes can therefore have a profound impact on development. We demonstrate here that the developing mammary gland expresses high levels of inflammatory CC-chemokines which are essential in vivo regulators of macrophage migration. We further demonstrate that the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2, which scavenges inflammatory CC-chemokines, is differentially expressed during mammary gland development...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884045/retinoic-acid-signaling-regulates-krt5-and-krt14-independently-of-stem-cell-markers-in-submandibular-salivary-gland-epithelium
#14
Timur M Abashev, Melissa A Metzler, Diana M Wright, Lisa L Sandell
BACKGROUND: Retinoic Acid (RA), the active metabolite of Vitamin A, has been demonstrated to be important for growth and branching morphogenesis of mammalian embryonic salivary gland epithelium. However, it is not known whether RA functions directly within epithelial cells or in associated tissues that influence morphogenesis of salivary epithelium. Moreover, downstream targets of RA regulation have not been identified. RESULTS: Here we show that canonical RA signaling occurs in multiple tissues of embryonic mouse salivary glands, including epithelium, associated parasympathetic ganglion neurons, and non-neuronal mesenchyme...
November 24, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877916/study-of-local-intracellular-signals-regulating-axonal-morphogenesis-using-a-microfluidic-device
#15
Daiki Uryu, Tomohiro Tamaru, Azusa Suzuki, Rie Sakai, Yoshiyuki Konishi
The establishment and maintenance of axonal patterning is crucial for neuronal function. To identify the molecular systems that operate locally to control axonal structure, it is important to manipulate molecular functions in restricted subcellular areas for a long period of time. Microfluidic devices can be powerful tools for such purposes. In this study, we demonstrate the application of a microfluidic device to clarify the function of local Ca(2+) signals in axons. Membrane depolarization significantly induced axonal branch-extension in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs)...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869174/developmental-reprogramming-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-of-human-subjects-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
Diptiman Chanda, Ashish Kurundkar, Sunad Rangarajan, Morgan Locy, Karen Bernard, Nirmal S Sharma, Naomi J Logsdon, Hui Liu, David K Crossman, Jeffrey C Horowitz, Stijn De Langhe, Victor J Thannickal
Cellular plasticity and de-differentiation are hallmarks of tissue/organ regenerative capacity in diverse species. Despite a more restricted capacity for regeneration, humans with age-related chronic diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis, show evidence of a recapitulation of developmental gene programs. We have previously identified a resident population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the terminal airways-alveoli by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of human adult lungs. In this study, we characterized MSCs from BAL of patients with stable and progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), defined as <5% and ≥10% decline, respectively, in forced vital capacity over the preceding 6-month period...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844289/transcriptional-elongation-regulator-1-affects-transcription-and-splicing-of-genes-associated-with-cellular-morphology-and-cytoskeleton-dynamics-and-is-required-for-neurite-outgrowth-in-neuroblastoma-cells-and-primary-neuronal-cultures
#17
Juan Pablo Muñoz-Cobo, Noemí Sánchez-Hernández, Sara Gutiérrez, Younes El Yousfi, Marta Montes, Carme Gallego, Cristina Hernández-Munain, Carlos Suñé
TCERG1 is a highly conserved human protein implicated in interactions with the transcriptional and splicing machinery that is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Biochemical, neuropathological, and genetic evidence suggests an important role for TCERG1 in Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. At present, the molecular mechanism underlying TCERG1-mediated neuronal effects is unknown. Here, we show that TCERG1 depletion led to widespread alterations in mRNA processing that affected different types of alternative transcriptional or splicing events, indicating that TCERG1 plays a broad role in the regulation of alternative splicing...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833996/expression-of-t-box-transcription-factors-2-4-and-5-is-decreased-in-the-branching-airway-mesenchyme-of-nitrofen-induced-hypoplastic-lungs
#18
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH), characterized by smaller lung size and reduced airway branching, remains a major therapeutic challenge in newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). T-box transcription factors (Tbx) have been identified as key components of the gene network that regulates fetal lung development. Tbx2, Tbx4 and Tbx5 are expressed throughout the mesenchyme of the developing lung, regulating the process of lung branching morphogenesis. Furthermore, lungs of Tbx2-, Tbx4- and Tbx5-deficient mice are hypoplastic and exhibit decreased lung branching, similar to PH in human CDH...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822498/the-x-linked-autism-protein-kiaa2022-kidlia-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-via-n-cadherin-and-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#19
James Gilbert, Heng-Ye Man
Our previous work showed that loss of the KIAA2022 gene protein results in intellectual disability with language impairment and autistic behavior (KIDLIA, also referred to as XPN). However, the cellular and molecular alterations resulting from a loss of function of KIDLIA and its role in autism with severe intellectual disability remain unknown. Here, we show that KIDLIA plays a key role in neuron migration and morphogenesis. We found that KIDLIA is distributed exclusively in the nucleus. In the developing rat brain, it is expressed only in the cortical plate and subplate region but not in the intermediate or ventricular zone...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819674/mmtv-cre-ccn6-knockout-mice-develop-tumors-recapitulating-human-metaplastic-breast-carcinomas
#20
E E Martin, W Huang, T Anwar, C Arellano-Garcia, B Burman, J-L Guan, M E Gonzalez, C G Kleer
Metaplastic breast carcinoma is an aggressive form of invasive breast cancer with histological evidence of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the defining molecular events are unknown. Here we show that CCN6 (WISP3), a secreted matricellular protein of the CCN (CYR61/CTGF/NOV) family, is significantly downregulated in clinical samples of human spindle cell metaplastic breast carcinoma. We generated a mouse model of mammary epithelial-specific Ccn6 deletion by developing a floxed Ccn6 mouse which was bred with an MMTV-Cre mouse...
November 7, 2016: Oncogene
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