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Branching morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908785/disco-interacting-protein-2-regulates-axonal-bifurcation-and-guidance-of-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons
#1
Yohei Nitta, Daisuke Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugie, Makoto Hiroi, Tetsuya Tabata
Axonal branching is one of the key processes within the enormous complexity of the nervous system to enable a single neuron to send information to multiple targets. However, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. In particular, previous studies have rarely addressed the mechanisms underlying axonal bifurcation, in which axons form new branches via splitting of the growth cone. We demonstrate that DISCO Interacting Protein 2 (DIP2) is required for precise axonal bifurcation in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons by suppressing ectopic bifurcation and regulating the guidance of sister axons...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898393/a-noncanonical-auxin-sensing-mechanism-is-required-for-organ-morphogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#2
Sara Simonini, Joyita Deb, Laila Moubayidin, Pauline Stephenson, Manoj Valluru, Alejandra Freire-Rios, Karim Sorefan, Dolf Weijers, Jiří Friml, Lars Østergaard
Tissue patterning in multicellular organisms is the output of precise spatio-temporal regulation of gene expression coupled with changes in hormone dynamics. In plants, the hormone auxin regulates growth and development at every stage of a plant's life cycle. Auxin signaling occurs through binding of the auxin molecule to a TIR1/AFB F-box ubiquitin ligase, allowing interaction with Aux/IAA transcriptional repressor proteins. These are subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded via the 26S proteasome, leading to derepression of auxin response factors (ARFs)...
October 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888192/atypical-chemokine-receptor-ackr2-controls-branching-morphogenesis-in-the-developing-mammary-gland
#3
Gillian J Wilson, Kay D Hewit, Kenneth J Pallas, Claire J Cairney, Kit M Lee, Christopher A Hansell, Torsten Stein, Gerard J Graham
Macrophages are important regulators of branching morphogenesis during development, and postnatally in the mammary gland. Regulation of macrophage dynamics during these processes can therefore have a profound impact on development. We demonstrate here that the developing mammary gland expresses high levels of inflammatory CC-chemokines which are essential in vivo regulators of macrophage migration. We further demonstrate that the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR2, which scavenges inflammatory CC-chemokines, is differentially expressed during mammary gland development...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884045/retinoic-acid-signaling-regulates-krt5-and-krt14-independently-of-stem-cell-markers-in-submandibular-salivary-gland-epithelium
#4
Timur M Abashev, Melissa A Metzler, Diana M Wright, Lisa L Sandell
BACKGROUND: Retinoic Acid (RA), the active metabolite of Vitamin A, has been demonstrated to be important for growth and branching morphogenesis of mammalian embryonic salivary gland epithelium. However, it is not known whether RA functions directly within epithelial cells or in associated tissues that influence morphogenesis of salivary epithelium. Moreover, downstream targets of RA regulation have not been identified. RESULTS: Here we show that canonical RA signaling occurs in multiple tissues of embryonic mouse salivary glands, including epithelium, associated parasympathetic ganglion neurons, and non-neuronal mesenchyme...
November 24, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877916/study-of-local-intracellular-signals-regulating-axonal-morphogenesis-using-a-microfluidic-device
#5
Daiki Uryu, Tomohiro Tamaru, Azusa Suzuki, Rie Sakai, Yoshiyuki Konishi
The establishment and maintenance of axonal patterning is crucial for neuronal function. To identify the molecular systems that operate locally to control axonal structure, it is important to manipulate molecular functions in restricted subcellular areas for a long period of time. Microfluidic devices can be powerful tools for such purposes. In this study, we demonstrate the application of a microfluidic device to clarify the function of local Ca(2+) signals in axons. Membrane depolarization significantly induced axonal branch-extension in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs)...
2016: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869174/developmental-reprogramming-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-of-human-subjects-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
Diptiman Chanda, Ashish Kurundkar, Sunad Rangarajan, Morgan Locy, Karen Bernard, Nirmal S Sharma, Naomi J Logsdon, Hui Liu, David K Crossman, Jeffrey C Horowitz, Stijn De Langhe, Victor J Thannickal
Cellular plasticity and de-differentiation are hallmarks of tissue/organ regenerative capacity in diverse species. Despite a more restricted capacity for regeneration, humans with age-related chronic diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis, show evidence of a recapitulation of developmental gene programs. We have previously identified a resident population of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the terminal airways-alveoli by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of human adult lungs. In this study, we characterized MSCs from BAL of patients with stable and progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), defined as <5% and ≥10% decline, respectively, in forced vital capacity over the preceding 6-month period...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844289/transcriptional-elongation-regulator-1-affects-transcription-and-splicing-of-genes-associated-with-cellular-morphology-and-cytoskeleton-dynamics-and-is-required-for-neurite-outgrowth-in-neuroblastoma-cells-and-primary-neuronal-cultures
#7
Juan Pablo Muñoz-Cobo, Noemí Sánchez-Hernández, Sara Gutiérrez, Younes El Yousfi, Marta Montes, Carme Gallego, Cristina Hernández-Munain, Carlos Suñé
TCERG1 is a highly conserved human protein implicated in interactions with the transcriptional and splicing machinery that is associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Biochemical, neuropathological, and genetic evidence suggests an important role for TCERG1 in Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. At present, the molecular mechanism underlying TCERG1-mediated neuronal effects is unknown. Here, we show that TCERG1 depletion led to widespread alterations in mRNA processing that affected different types of alternative transcriptional or splicing events, indicating that TCERG1 plays a broad role in the regulation of alternative splicing...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833996/expression-of-t-box-transcription-factors-2-4-and-5-is-decreased-in-the-branching-airway-mesenchyme-of-nitrofen-induced-hypoplastic-lungs
#8
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH), characterized by smaller lung size and reduced airway branching, remains a major therapeutic challenge in newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). T-box transcription factors (Tbx) have been identified as key components of the gene network that regulates fetal lung development. Tbx2, Tbx4 and Tbx5 are expressed throughout the mesenchyme of the developing lung, regulating the process of lung branching morphogenesis. Furthermore, lungs of Tbx2-, Tbx4- and Tbx5-deficient mice are hypoplastic and exhibit decreased lung branching, similar to PH in human CDH...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822498/the-x-linked-autism-protein-kiaa2022-kidlia-regulates-neurite-outgrowth-via-n-cadherin-and-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#9
James Gilbert, Heng-Ye Man
Our previous work showed that loss of the KIAA2022 gene protein results in intellectual disability with language impairment and autistic behavior (KIDLIA, also referred to as XPN). However, the cellular and molecular alterations resulting from a loss of function of KIDLIA and its role in autism with severe intellectual disability remain unknown. Here, we show that KIDLIA plays a key role in neuron migration and morphogenesis. We found that KIDLIA is distributed exclusively in the nucleus. In the developing rat brain, it is expressed only in the cortical plate and subplate region but not in the intermediate or ventricular zone...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819674/mmtv-cre-ccn6-knockout-mice-develop-tumors-recapitulating-human-metaplastic-breast-carcinomas
#10
E E Martin, W Huang, T Anwar, C Arellano-Garcia, B Burman, J-L Guan, M E Gonzalez, C G Kleer
Metaplastic breast carcinoma is an aggressive form of invasive breast cancer with histological evidence of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the defining molecular events are unknown. Here we show that CCN6 (WISP3), a secreted matricellular protein of the CCN (CYR61/CTGF/NOV) family, is significantly downregulated in clinical samples of human spindle cell metaplastic breast carcinoma. We generated a mouse model of mammary epithelial-specific Ccn6 deletion by developing a floxed Ccn6 mouse which was bred with an MMTV-Cre mouse...
November 7, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818506/the-contribution-of-branching-morphogenesis-to-kidney-development-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Kieran M Short, Ian M Smyth
The mammalian kidney develops from a simple epithelial bud to an arborized network of tubules, which are fated to form the ureter, renal pelvis and collecting ducts. This process of ductal elaboration is achieved through an ancient developmental mechanism known as branching morphogenesis that is widely employed in glandular organs, the vasculature and lungs. It breaks up large solid tissues facilitating secretion, excretion and gas exchange, depending on the tissue. In the kidney, growth of the ureteric bud is driven by interactions between progenitor cells in the tips of the epithelial tree and their mesenchymal 'caps'...
December 2016: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815996/human-airway-organoid-engineering-as-a-step-toward-lung-regeneration-and-disease-modeling
#12
Qi Tan, Kyoung Moo Choi, Delphine Sicard, Daniel J Tschumperlin
Organoids represent both a potentially powerful tool for the study cell-cell interactions within tissue-like environments, and a platform for tissue regenerative approaches. The development of lung tissue-like organoids from human adult-derived cells has not previously been reported. Here we combined human adult primary bronchial epithelial cells, lung fibroblasts, and lung microvascular endothelial cells in supportive 3D culture conditions to generate airway organoids. We demonstrate that randomly-seeded mixed cell populations undergo rapid condensation and self-organization into discrete epithelial and endothelial structures that are mechanically robust and stable during long term culture...
October 28, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815674/epithelial-plasticity-during-human-breast-morphogenesis-and-cancer-progression
#13
REVIEW
Saevar Ingthorsson, Eirikur Briem, Jon Thor Bergthorsson, Thorarinn Gudjonsson
Understanding the complex events leading to formation of an epithelial-based organ such as the breast requires a detailed insight into the crosstalk between epithelial and stromal compartments. These interactions occur both through heterotypic cellular interactions and between cells and matrix components. While in vivo models may partially capture these complex interactions, there is a need for in- vitro models to study these events. In this review we discuss cell-cell interactions in breast development focusing on the stem cell niche and branching morphogenesis...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810641/regulating-temporospatial-dynamics-of-morphogen-for-structure-formation-of-the-lacrimal-gland-by-chitosan-biomaterials
#14
Ya-Chuan Hsiao, Tsung-Lin Yang
The lacrimal gland is an important organ responsible for regulating tear synthesis and secretion. The major work of lacrimal gland (LG) is to lubricate the ocular surface and maintain the health of eyes. Functional deterioration of the lacrimal gland happens because of aging, diseases, or therapeutic complications, but without effective treatments till now. The LG originates from the epithelium of ocular surface and develops by branching morphogenesis. To regenerate functional LGs, it is required to explore the way of recapitulating and facilitating the organ to establish the intricate and ramified structure...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809866/evidence-of-two-distinct-functionally-specialized-fibroblast-lineages-in-breast-stroma
#15
Mikkel Morsing, Marie Christine Klitgaard, Abbas Jafari, René Villadsen, Moustapha Kassem, Ole William Petersen, Lone Rønnov-Jessen
BACKGROUND: The terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) is the most dynamic structure in the human breast and the putative site of origin of human breast cancer. Although stromal cells contribute to a specialized microenvironment in many organs, this component remains largely understudied in the human breast. We here demonstrate the impact on epithelium of two lineages of breast stromal fibroblasts, one of which accumulates in the TDLU while the other resides outside the TDLU in the interlobular stroma...
November 3, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796955/a-3d-fibroblast-epithelium-co-culture-model-for-understanding-microenvironmental-role-in-branching-morphogenesis-of-the-mammary-gland
#16
Zuzana Koledova, Pengfei Lu
The mammary gland consists of numerous tissue compartments, including mammary epithelium, an array of stromal cells, and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Bidirectional interactions between the epithelium and its surrounding stroma are essential for proper mammary gland development and homeostasis, whereas their deregulation leads to developmental abnormalities and cancer. To study the relationships between the epithelium and the stroma, development of models that could recapitulate essential aspects of these interacting systems in vitro has become necessary...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796948/pubertal-mammary-gland-development-elucidation-of-in-vivo-morphogenesis-using-murine-models
#17
Jean McBryan, Jillian Howlin
During the past 25 years, the combination of increasingly sophisticated gene targeting technology with transplantation techniques has allowed researchers to address a wide array of questions about postnatal mammary gland development. These in turn have significantly contributed to our knowledge of other branched epithelial structures. This review chapter highlights a selection of the mouse models exhibiting a pubertal mammary gland phenotype with a focus on how they have contributed to our overall understanding of in vivo mammary morphogenesis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793362/netrin-1-a-regulator-of-cancer-cell-motility
#18
Irene Ylivinkka, Jorma Keski-Oja, Marko Hyytiäinen
Netrins form a family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins, netrin-1 being the prototype and most investigated member of the family. The major physiological functions of netrin-1 lie in the regulation of axonal development as well as morphogenesis of different branched organs, by promoting the polarity of migratory/invasive front of the cell. On the other hand, netrin-1 acts as a factor preventing cell apoptosis. These events are mediated via a range of different receptors, including UNC5 and DCC-families...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789626/syndecan-4-controls-lymphatic-vasculature-remodeling-during-mouse-embryonic-development
#19
Yingdi Wang, Nicolas Baeyens, Federico Corti, Keiichiro Tanaka, Jennifer S Fang, Jiasheng Zhang, Yu Jin, Brian Coon, Karen K Hirschi, Martin A Schwartz, Michael Simons
The role of fluid shear stress in vasculature development and remodeling is well appreciated. However, the mechanisms regulating these effects remain elusive. We show that abnormal flow sensing in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) caused by Sdc4 or Pecam1 deletion in mice results in impaired lymphatic vessel remodeling, including abnormal valve morphogenesis. Ablation of either gene leads to the formation of irregular, enlarged and excessively branched lymphatic vessels. In both cases, lymphatic valve-forming endothelial cells are randomly oriented, resulting in the formation of abnormal valves...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789577/ultrasound-patterning-technologies-for-studying-vascular-morphogenesis-in-3d
#20
Eric S Comeau, Denise C Hocking, Diane Dalecki
Investigations in this report demonstrate the versatility of ultrasound-based patterning and imaging technologies for studying determinants of vascular morphogenesis in 3D environments. Forces associated with ultrasound standing wave fields (USWFs) were employed to non-invasively pattern endothelial cells volumetrically within 3D collagen hydrogels. Patterned hydrogels were comprised of parallel bands of endothelial cells located at nodal regions of the USWF and spaced at intervals equal to one half wavelength of the incident sound field...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
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