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Branching morphogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455446/big2-arf1-rhoa-mdia1-signaling-regulates-dendritic-golgi-polarization-in-hippocampal-neurons
#1
Eun-Hye Hong, Ji-Ye Kim, Jeong-Hoon Kim, Dae-Sik Lim, Minkyu Kim, Jeong-Yoon Kim
Proper dendrite development is essential for establishing neural circuitry, and Rho GTPases play key regulatory roles in this process. From mouse brain lysates, we identified Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine exchange factor 2 (BIG2) as a novel Rho GTPase regulatory protein involved in dendrite growth and maintenance. BIG2 was highly expressed during early development, and knockdown of the ARFGEF2 gene encoding BIG2 significantly reduced total dendrite length and the number of branches. Expression of the constitutively active ADP-ribosylation factor 1 ARF1 Q71L rescued the defective dendrite morphogenesis of ARFGEF2-null neurons, indicating that BIG2 controls dendrite growth and maintenance by activating ARF1...
February 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437785/dia1-dependent-adhesions-are-required-by-epithelial-tissues-to-initiate-invasion
#2
Tim B Fessenden, Yvonne Beckham, Mathew Perez-Neut, Guillermina Ramirez-San Juan, Aparajita H Chourasia, Kay F Macleod, Patrick W Oakes, Margaret L Gardel
Developing tissues change shape and tumors initiate spreading through collective cell motility. Conserved mechanisms by which tissues initiate motility into their surroundings are not known. We investigated cytoskeletal regulators during collective invasion by mouse tumor organoids and epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) acini undergoing branching morphogenesis in collagen. Use of the broad-spectrum formin inhibitor SMIFH2 prevented the formation of migrating cell fronts in both cell types. Focusing on the role of the formin Dia1 in branching morphogenesis, we found that its depletion in MDCK cells does not alter planar cell motility either within the acinus or in two-dimensional scattering assays...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402913/combining-turing-and-3d-vertex-models-reproduces-autonomous-multicellular-morphogenesis-with-undulation-tubulation-and-branching
#3
Satoru Okuda, Takashi Miura, Yasuhiro Inoue, Taiji Adachi, Mototsugu Eiraku
This study demonstrates computational simulations of multicellular deformation coupled with chemical patterning in the three-dimensional (3D) space. To address these aspects, we proposes a novel mathematical model, where a reaction-diffusion system is discretely expressed at a single cell level and combined with a 3D vertex model. To investigate complex phenomena emerging from the coupling of patterning and deformation, as an example, we employed an activator-inhibitor system and converted the activator concentration of individual cells into their growth rate...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392399/bayesian-inference-of-agent-based-models-a-tool-for-studying-kidney-branching-morphogenesis
#4
Ben Lambert, Adam L MacLean, Alexander G Fletcher, Alexander N Combes, Melissa H Little, Helen M Byrne
The adult mammalian kidney has a complex, highly-branched collecting duct epithelium that arises as a ureteric bud sidebranch from an epithelial tube known as the nephric duct. Subsequent branching of the ureteric bud to form the collecting duct tree is regulated by subcellular interactions between the epithelium and a population of mesenchymal cells that surround the tips of outgrowing branches. The mesenchymal cells produce glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), that binds with RET receptors on the surface of the epithelial cells to stimulate several subcellular pathways in the epithelium...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383478/generation-of-a-biotinylatable-sox2-mouse-model-to-identify-sox2-complexes-in-vivo
#5
Kim Schilders, Evelien Eenjes, Gabriëla Edel, Anne Boerema de Munck, Marjon Buscop van Kempen, Jeroen Demmers, René Wijnen, Dick Tibboel, Robbert J Rottier
Sox2 is a Sry-box containing family member of related transcription factors sharing homology in their DNA binding domain. Sox2 is important during different stages of development, and previously we showed that Sox2 plays an important role in branching morphogenesis and epithelial cell differentiation in lung development. The transcriptional activity of Sox2 depends on its interaction with other proteins, leading to 'complex-specific' DNA binding and transcriptional regulation. In this study, we generated a mouse model containing a biotinylatable-tag targeted at the translational start site of the endogenous Sox2 gene (bioSox2)...
January 30, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380818/renin-cells-in-homeostasis-regeneration-and-immune-defence-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
R Ariel Gomez, Maria Luisa S Sequeira-Lopez
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that renin-expressing cells have developed throughout evolution as a mechanism to preserve blood pressure and fluid volume homeostasis as well as to counteract a number of homeostatic and immunological threats. In the developing embryo, renin precursor cells emerge in multiple tissues, where they differentiate into a variety of cell types. The function of those precursors and their progeny is beginning to be unravelled. In the developing kidney, renin-expressing cells control the morphogenesis and branching of the renal arterial tree...
January 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368411/dual-regulation-of-decorin-by-androgen-and-hedgehog-signaling-during-prostate-morphogenesis
#7
Monica Montano, Kenneth H Dinnon, Logan Jacobs, William Xiang, Renato V Iozzo, Wade Bushman
BACKGROUND: Prostate ductal branching morphogenesis involves a complex spatiotemporal regulation of cellular proliferation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) around the developing ducts. Decorin (Dcn) is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan known to sequester several growth factors and to act as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. RESULTS: Dcn expression in the developing prostate paralleled branching morphogenesis and was dynamically regulated by androgen and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling...
January 25, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361553/a-branching-morphogenesis-program-governs-embryonic-growth-of-the-thyroid-gland
#8
Shawn Liang, Ellen Johansson, Guillermo Barila, Daniel L Altschuler, Henrik Fagman, Mikael Nilsson
The developmental program that regulates thyroid progenitor cell proliferation is largely unknown. Here we show that branching-like morphogenesis is a driving force to attain final size of the embryonic thyroid gland in mice. Sox9, a key factor in branching organ development, distinguishes Nkx2-1+ cells in the thyroid bud from progenitors originally forming the thyroid placode in anterior endoderm. As lobes develop the thyroid primordial tissue branches several generations. Sox9 and Fgfr2b are co-expressed distally in the branching epithelium prior to folliculogenesis...
December 22, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357412/%C3%AE-catenin-in-stromal-progenitors-controls-medullary-stromal-development
#9
Felix J Boivin, Darren Bridgewater
The renal stroma is a population of matrix-producing fibroblast cells that serves as a structural framework for the kidney parenchyma. The stroma also regulates branching morphogenesis and nephrogenesis. In the mature kidney, the stroma forms at least three distinct cell populations; the capsular, cortical, and medullary stroma. These distinct stromal populations have important functions in kidney development, maintenance of kidney function, and disease progression. However, the development, differentiation, and maintenance of the distinct stroma populations are not well defined...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351997/spatiotemporal-organization-of-exocytosis-emerges-during-neuronal-shape-change
#10
Fabio L Urbina, Shawn M Gomez, Stephanie L Gupton
Neurite elongation and branching in developing neurons requires plasmalemma expansion, hypothesized to occur primarily via exocytosis. We posited that exocytosis in developing neurons and nonneuronal cells would exhibit distinct spatiotemporal organization. We exploited total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to image vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-pHluorin-mediated exocytosis in mouse embryonic cortical neurons and interphase melanoma cells, and developed computer-vision software and statistical tools to uncover spatiotemporal aspects of exocytosis...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330353/afadin-and-rhoa-control-pancreatic-endocrine-mass-via-lumen-morphogenesis
#11
D Berfin Azizoglu, Caitlin Braitsch, Denise K Marciano, Ondine Cleaver
Proper lumen morphogenesis during pancreas development is critical to endocrine and exocrine cell fate. Recent studies showed that a central network of lumens (termed core), but not the surrounding terminal branches (termed periphery), produces most islet endocrine cells. To date, it remains unclear how pancreatic lumens form and remodel and which aspects of lumen morphogenesis influence cell fate. Importantly, models testing the function of the central lumen network as an endocrine niche are lacking. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying lumen formation and remodeling and show that central lumen network morphogenesis impacts pancreatic endocrine mass...
December 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330055/tissue-geometry-may-govern-lung-branching-mode-selection
#12
Uduak Z George, Sharon R Lubkin
Lung branching morphogenesis proceeds in three stereotyped modes (domain, planar, and orthogonal branching). Much is known about the molecular players, including growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 10 but it is unknown how these signals could actuate the different branching patterns. With the aim of identifying mechanisms that may determine the different branching modes, we developed a computational model of the epithelial lung bud and its surrounding mesenchyme. We studied transport of morphogens and localization of morphogen flux at lobe surfaces and lobe edges...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323138/whole-mount-adult-ear-skin-imaging-reveals-defective-neuro-vascular-branching-morphogenesis-in-obese-and-type-2-diabetic-mouse-models
#13
Tomoko Yamazaki, Wenling Li, Ling Yang, Ping Li, Haiming Cao, Sei-Ichiro Motegi, Mark C Udey, Elise Bernhard, Takahisa Nakamura, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are frequently associated with peripheral neuropathy. Though there are multiple methods for diagnosis and analysis of morphological changes of peripheral nerves and blood vessels, three-dimensional high-resolution imaging is necessary to appreciate the pathogenesis with an anatomically recognizable branching morphogenesis and patterning. Here we established a novel technique for whole-mount imaging of adult mouse ear skin to visualize branching morphogenesis and patterning of peripheral nerves and blood vessels...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288383/transcription-factors-regulating-embryonic-development-of-pulmonary-vasculature
#14
Craig Bolte, Jeffrey A Whitsett, Tanya V Kalin, Vladimir V Kalinichenko
Lung morphogenesis is a highly orchestrated process beginning with the appearance of lung buds on approximately embryonic day 9.5 in the mouse. Endodermally derived epithelial cells of the primitive lung buds undergo branching morphogenesis to generate the tree-like network of epithelial-lined tubules. The pulmonary vasculature develops in close proximity to epithelial progenitor cells in a process that is regulated by interactions between the developing epithelium and underlying mesenchyme. Studies in transgenic and knockout mouse models demonstrate that normal lung morphogenesis requires coordinated interactions between cells lining the tubules, which end in peripheral saccules, juxtaposed to an extensive network of capillaries...
2018: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249664/in%C3%A2-vitro-induction-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-engraftment-of-lung-bud-tip-progenitor-cells-derived-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Alyssa J Miller, David R Hill, Melinda S Nagy, Yoshiro Aoki, Briana R Dye, Alana M Chin, Sha Huang, Felix Zhu, Eric S White, Vibha Lama, Jason R Spence
The current study aimed to understand the developmental mechanisms regulating bud tip progenitor cells in the human fetal lung, which are present during branching morphogenesis, and to use this information to induce a bud tip progenitor-like population from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in vitro. We identified cues that maintained isolated human fetal lung epithelial bud tip progenitor cells in vitro and induced three-dimensional hPSC-derived organoids with bud tip-like domains. Bud tip-like domains could be isolated, expanded, and maintained as a nearly homogeneous population...
December 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240767/mitf-a-controls-branching-morphogenesis-and-nephron-endowment
#16
Aurélie Phelep, Denise Laouari, Kapil Bharti, Martine Burtin, Salvina Tammaccaro, Serge Garbay, Clément Nguyen, Florence Vasseur, Thomas Blanc, Sophie Berissi, Francina Langa-Vives, Evelyne Fischer, Anne Druilhe, Heinz Arnheiter, Gerard Friedlander, Marco Pontoglio, Fabiola Terzi
Congenital nephron number varies widely in the human population and individuals with low nephron number are at risk of developing hypertension and chronic kidney disease. The development of the kidney occurs via an orchestrated morphogenetic process where metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud reciprocally interact to induce nephron formation. The genetic networks that modulate the extent of this process and set the final nephron number are mostly unknown. Here, we identified a specific isoform of MITF (MITF-A), a bHLH-Zip transcription factor, as a novel regulator of the final nephron number...
December 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229667/prostate-organogenesis
#17
Jeffrey C Francis, Amanda Swain
The prostate is a male exocrine gland that secretes components of the seminal fluid. In men, prostate tumors are one of the most prevalent cancers. Studies on the development of the prostate have given a better understanding of the processes and genes that are important in the formation of this organ and have provided insights into the mechanisms of prostate tumorigenesis. These developmental studies have provided evidence that some of the genes and signaling pathways involved in development are reactivated or deregulated during prostate cancer...
December 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219039/morphogenesis-and-mucus-production-of-epithelial-tissues-of-three-major-salivary-glands-of-embryonic-mouse-in-3d-culture
#18
Azusa Nakao, Takumi Inaba, Akiko Murakami-Sekimata, Hiroyuki Nogawa
Embryonic mouse submandibular epithelia initiate branching morphogenesis within two days when embedded in Matrigel and stimulated by members of the epidermal growth factor family. However, it is unknown whether the end buds further branch over longer culture periods, and whether saliva-producing cells differentiate there. In the present study, we cultivated three major (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) salivary epithelia from 13-day embryos for 14 days in mesenchyme-free cultures. All epithelia continued to grow and branch to form numerous acinus-like structures in medium supplemented with neuregulin 1, fibroblast growth factor 1, and insulintransferrin-sodium selenite...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212472/autism-risk-classification-using-placental-chorionic-surface-vascular-network-features
#19
Jen-Mei Chang, Hui Zeng, Ruxu Han, Ya-Mei Chang, Ruchit Shah, Carolyn M Salafia, Craig Newschaffer, Richard K Miller, Philip Katzman, Jack Moye, Margaret Fallin, Cheryl K Walker, Lisa Croen
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the fastest-growing developmental disorders in the United States. It was hypothesized that variations in the placental chorionic surface vascular network (PCSVN) structure may reflect both the overall effects of genetic and environmentally regulated variations in branching morphogenesis within the conceptus and the fetus' vital organs. This paper provides sound evidences to support the study of ASD risks with PCSVN through a combination of feature-selection and classification algorithms...
December 6, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196881/gata-6-expression-is-decreased-in-diaphragmatic-and-pulmonary-mesenchyme-of-fetal-rats-with-nitrofen-induced-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#20
Toshiaki Takahashi, Florian Friedmacher, Julia Zimmer, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and associated pulmonary hypoplasia are thought to be caused by a malformation of the underlying diaphragmatic and airway mesenchyme. GATA binding protein 6 (Gata-6) is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor that plays a crucial role during diaphragm and lung development. In the primordial diaphragm, Gata-6 expression is restricted to mesenchymal compartments of the pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs). In addition, Gata-6 is essential for airway branching morphogenesis through upregulation of mesenchymal signaling...
December 2, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
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