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Branching morphogenesis

Soula Danopoulos, Michael Krainock, Omar Toubat, Matthew Thornton, Brendan Grubbs, Denise Al Alam
Lung branching morphogenesis relies on a number of factors, including proper epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, cell polarity and migration. Rac1, a small Rho GTPase, orchestrates a number of these cellular processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, cellular alignment and polarization. Furthermore, Rac1 modulates both non-canonical and canonical Wnt signaling, important pathways in lung branching morphogenesis. Culture of embryonic mouse lung explants in the presence of the Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in branching...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Olivier Boucherat, Kim Landry-Truchon, Rifdat Aoidi, Nicolas Houde, Valérie Nadeau, Jean Charron, Lucie Jeannotte
BACKGROUND: Reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal communications are critical throughout lung development, dictating branching morphogenesis and cell specification. Numerous signaling molecules are involved in these interactions but how epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk is coordinated remains unclear. The ERK/MAPK pathway transduces several important signals in lung formation. Epithelial inactivation of both Mek genes, encoding ERK/MAPK kinases, causes lung agenesis and death. Conversely, Mek mutation in mesenchyme results in lung hypoplasia, trachea cartilage malformations, kyphosis, omphalocele and death...
October 17, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
H L M Tucker, K L Beaudry, C L M Parsons, S E Ellis, R M Akers
Prepubertal mammary development involves elongation and branching of ducts and stromal tissue remodeling. This process is closely linked with ovarian and pituitary hormones, growth factors, and local regulators. Accumulating evidence suggests that the myoepithelial cells also play a role in ductal development in addition to their well-recognized importance in the milk ejection reflex. Following reports that myoepithelial cells changed in correspondence with decreased mammary growth after ovariectomy of prepubertal heifers, we evaluated myoepithelial cells in mammary tissue collected from prepubertal heifers treated with the antiestrogen tamoxifen...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Pia Rantakari, Norma Jäppinen, Emmi Lokka, Elias Mokkala, Heidi Gerke, Emilia Peuhu, Johanna Ivaska, Kati Elima, Kaisa Auvinen, Marko Salmi
Macrophages are required for normal embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis and immunity against microorganisms and tumours. Adult tissue-resident macrophages largely originate from long-lived, self-renewing embryonic precursors and not from haematopoietic stem-cell activity in the bone marrow. Although fate-mapping studies have uncovered a great amount of detail on the origin and kinetics of fetal macrophage development in the yolk sac and liver, the molecules that govern the tissue-specific migration of these cells remain completely unknown...
October 12, 2016: Nature
Timo H Lüdtke, Carsten Rudat, Irina Wojahn, Anna-Carina Weiss, Marc-Jens Kleppa, Jennifer Kurz, Henner F Farin, Anne Moon, Vincent M Christoffels, Andreas Kispert
Numerous signals drive the proliferative expansion of the distal endoderm and the underlying mesenchyme during lung branching morphogenesis, but little is known about how these signals are integrated. Here, we show by analysis of conditional double mutants that the two T-box transcription factor genes Tbx2 and Tbx3 act together in the lung mesenchyme to maintain branching morphogenesis. Expression of both genes depends on epithelially derived Shh signaling, with additional modulation by Bmp, Wnt, and Tgfβ signaling...
October 4, 2016: Developmental Cell
Sandy Liu, Radu M Cadaneanu, Baohui Zhang, Lihong Huo, Kevin Lai, Xinmin Li, Colette Galet, Tristan R Grogan, David Elashoff, Stephen J Freedland, Matthew Rettig, William J Aronson, Beatrice S Knudsen, Michael S Lewis, Isla P Garraway
BACKGROUND: Benign human prostate tubule-initiating cells (TIC) and aggressive prostate cancer display common traits, including tolerance of low androgen levels, resistance to apoptosis, and microenvironment interactions that drive epithelial budding and outgrowth. TIC can be distinguished from epithelial and stromal cells that comprise prostate tissue via cell sorting based upon Epcam, CD44, and CD49f antigenic profiles. Fetal prostate epithelial cells (FC) possess a similar antigenic profile to adult TIC and are capable of inducing tubule formation...
2016: PloS One
A-Ram Lee, Kwang Woo Ko, Hojae Lee, Yi-Seul Yoon, Mi-Ryoung Song, Chul-Seung Park
UNLABELLED: During brain development, dynamic changes in neuronal membranes perform critical roles in neuronal morphogenesis and migration to create functional neural circuits. Among the proteins that induce membrane dynamics, cell adhesion molecules are important in neuronal membrane plasticity. Here, we report that V-set and transmembrane domain-containing protein 5 (Vstm5), a cell-adhesion-like molecule belonging to the Ig superfamily, was found in mouse brain. Knock-down of Vstm5 in cultured hippocampal neurons markedly reduced the complexity of dendritic structures, as well as the number of dendritic filopodia...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Carolin Heck, Hannah Kuhn, Sven Heidt, Stefanie Walter, Nina Rieger, Natalia Requena
In an approaching scenario of soil nutrient depletion, root association with soil microorganisms can be key for plant health and sustainability [1-3]. Symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are major players in helping plants growing under nutrient starvation conditions. They provide plants with minerals like phosphate and, furthermore, act as modulators of plant growth altering the root developmental program [4, 5]. However, the precise mechanisms involved in this latter process are not well understood...
September 7, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Lyn A Hinds, Julie A Sharp, Christophe Lefevre, Kevin R Nicholas
Our research is exploiting the marsupial as a model to understand the signals required for lung development. Marsupials have a unique reproductive strategy, the mother gives birth to altricial neonate with an immature lung and the changes in milk composition during lactation in marsupials appears to provide bioactives that can regulate diverse aspects of lung development, including branching morphogenesis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. These effects are seen with milk collected between 25 and 100days postpartum...
September 14, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
Tamar Y Feinberg, R Grant Rowe, Thomas L Saunders, Stephen J Weiss
During late embryogenesis, mammary epithelial cells initiate migration programs that drive ductal invasion into the surrounding adipose-rich mesenchyme. Currently, branching morphogenesis is thought to depend on the mobilization of the membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinases, MT1-MMP/MMP14 and MT2-MMP/MMP15, that drive epithelial cell invasion by remodeling the extracellular matrix and triggering associated signaling cascades. However, the roles that these proteinases play during mammary gland development in vivo remain undefined...
September 15, 2016: Development
Filipp Schmidt, Roland W Fleming
Morphogenesis-or the origin of complex natural form-has long fascinated researchers from practically every branch of science. However, we know practically nothing about how we perceive and understand such processes. Here, we measured how observers visually infer shape-transforming processes. Participants viewed pairs of objects ('before' and 'after' a transformation) and identified points that corresponded across the transformation. This allowed us to map out in spatial detail how perceived shape and space were affected by the transformations...
November 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Zuzana Koledova, Xiaohong Zhang, Charles Streuli, Robert B Clarke, Ophir D Klein, Zena Werb, Pengfei Lu
The role of the local microenvironment in influencing cell behavior is central to both normal development and cancer formation. Here, we show that sprouty 1 (SPRY1) modulates the microenvironment to enable proper mammary branching morphogenesis. This process occurs through negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in mammary stroma. Loss of SPRY1 resulted in up-regulation of EGFR-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in response to amphiregulin and transforming growth factor alpha stimulation...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lorenzo Alibardi
Feathers are corneous microramifications of variable complexity derived from the morphogenesis of barb ridges. Histological and ultrastructural analyses on developing and regenerating feathers clarify the three-dimensional organization of cells in barb ridges. Feather cells derive from folds of the embryonic epithelium of feather germs from which barb/barbule cells and supportive cells organize in a branching structure. The following degeneration of supportive cells allows the separation of barbule cells which are made of corneous beta-proteins and of lower amounts of intermediate filament (IF)(alpha) keratins, histidine-rich proteins, and corneous proteins of the epidermal differentiation complex...
September 10, 2016: Protoplasma
Vaishali N Patel, Dallas L Pineda, Matthew P Hoffman
Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental process in the development of diverse epithelial organs such as the lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, prostate, salivary, lacrimal and mammary glands. A unifying theme during organogenesis is the importance of epithelial cell interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors (GFs). The diverse developmental mechanisms giving rise to these epithelial organs involve many organ-specific GFs, but a unifying paradigm during organogenesis is the regulation of GF activity by heparan sulfates (HS) on the cell surface and in the ECM...
September 5, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Thibault Bécavin, Sabine Kuchler-Bopp, Tunay Kökten, Olivier Huck, Nadia Messaddeq, Hervé Lesot, Etienne Deveaux, Nadia Benkirane-Jessel, Keller Laetitia
We present an experimental method allowing the production of three-dimensional organ-like structures, namely microtissues (MTs), in vitro without the need for exogenous extracellular matrix (ECM) or growth factors. Submandibular salivary glands (embryonic day ED14), kidneys (ED13) and lungs (ED13) were harvested from mouse embryos and dissociated into single cells by enzyme treatment. Single cells were seeded into special hanging drop culture plates (InSphero) and cultured for up to 14 days to obtain MTs. This strategy permitted full control of the quantity of seeded cells...
September 6, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Krishna Reddy Challa, Pooja Aggarwal, Utpal Nath
Cell expansion is an essential process in plant morphogenesis and is regulated by the coordinated action of environmental stimuli and endogenous factors, such as the phytohormones auxin and brassinosteroid. Although the biosynthetic pathways that generate these hormones and their downstream signaling mechanisms have been extensively studied, the upstream transcriptional network that modulates their levels and connects their action to cell morphogenesis is less clear. Here we show that the miR319-regulated TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLODEA, PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS) transcription factors, notably TCP4, directly activate YUCCA5 transcription and integrate the auxin response to a brassinosteroid-dependent molecular circuit that promotes cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls...
September 5, 2016: Plant Cell
Alison May, Denis Headon, David Rice, Alistair Noble, Abigail S Tucker
Hypertrophy, hyperplasia and altered mucus secretion from the respiratory submucosal glands (SMG) are characteristics of airway diseases such as cystic fibrosis, asthma and chronic bronchitis. More commonly, hyper-secretion of the nasal SMGs contributes to allergic rhinitis and upper airway infection. Considering the role of these glands in disease states, there is a significant dearth in understanding the molecular signals that regulate SMG development and patterning. Due to the imperative role of FGF signalling during the development of other branched structures, we investigated the role of Fgf10 during initiation and branching morphogenesis of murine nasal SMGs...
August 30, 2016: Developmental Biology
Cristina de Miguel, Friedemann Linsler, Jordi Casanova, Xavier Franch-Marro
It is not clear how simple genetic changes can account for the coordinated variations that give rise to modified functional organs. Here, we addressed this issue by analysing the expression and function of regulatory genes in the developing tracheal systems of two insect species. The larval tracheal system of Drosophila can be distinguished from the less derived tracheal system of the beetle Tribolium by two main features. First, Tribolium has lateral spiracles connecting the trachea to the exterior in each segment, while Drosophila has only one pair of posterior spiracles...
October 1, 2016: Development
M E Alston, R Barber
Leaf vascular patterns are the mechanisms and mechanical support for the transportation of fluidics for photosynthesis and leaf development properties. Vascular hierarchical networks in leaves have far-reaching functions in optimal transport efficiency of functional fluidics. Embedding leaf morphogenesis as a resistor network is significant in the optimization of a translucent thermally functional material. This will enable regulation through pressure equalization by diminishing flow pressure variation. This paper investigates nature's vasculature networks that exhibit hierarchical branching scaling applied to microfluidics...
2016: Scientific Reports
E E Joo, I M A Lombaert, K M Yamada
Cells engage in bidirectional communication with their surroundings. This reciprocal dialogue between cells and their cellular microenvironments often governs the maintenance and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells. Here, the authors present evidence that in developing salivary gland explants, a single posttranslational change in microtubules in mesenchymal cells alters the mesenchymal microenvironment and promotes the maintenance and differentiation of a subset of epithelial progenitor cells that impairs branching morphogenesis...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
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