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Trophoblast

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822072/cellular-and-molecular-oxidative-stress-related-effects-in-uterine-myometrial-and-trophoblast-decidual-tissues-after-perigestational-alcohol-intake-up-to-early-mouse-organogenesis
#1
Tamara Anahí Coll, Gabriela Chaufan, Leticia Gabriela Pérez-Tito, Martín Ricardo Ventureira, María Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Elisa Cebral
The placenta plays a major role in embryo-fetal defects and intrauterine growth retardation after maternal alcohol consumption. Our aims were to determine the oxidative status and cellular and molecular oxidative stress effects on uterine myometrium and trophoblast-decidual tissue following perigestational alcohol intake at early organogenesis. CF-1 female mice were administered with 10% alcohol in drinking water for 17 days prior to and up to day 10 of gestation. Control females received ethanol-free water...
August 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821715/invasive-trophoblast-promote-stromal-fibroblast-decidualization-via-profilin-1-and-alox5
#2
E M Menkhorst, M L Van Sinderen, K Rainczuk, C Cuman, A Winship, E Dimitriadis
During the establishment of pregnancy, extravillous trophoblast (EVT) must invade into the uterine decidua to facilitate decidual artery remodelling to create the placental blood supply. The local decidual environment is thought to regulate trophoblast invasion, however these interactions are poorly defined in humans. Recent evidence in women suggests impaired decidualization is associated with miscarriage and preeclampsia. Primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) and first trimester extravillous trophoblast (EVTs) were used to assess the effect of EVT-secreted factors on HESC decidualization, adhesion, proliferation and migration...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820906/exposure-to-fine-particulate-matter-in-the-air-alters-placental-structure-and-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#3
Sônia de Fátima Soto, Juliana Oliveira de Melo, Guilherme D'Aprile Marchesi, Karen Lucasechi Lopes, Mariana Matera Veras, Ivone Braga de Oliveira, Regiane Machado de Souza, Isac de Castro, Luzia Naôko Shinohara Furukawa, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Joel C Heimann
METHODS: Female Wistar rats were exposed to filtered air (F) or to concentrated fine particulate matter (P) for 15 days. After mating, the rats were divided into four groups and again exposed to F or P (FF, FP, PF, PP) beginning on day 6 of pregnancy. At embryonic day 19, the placenta was collected. The placental structure, the protein and gene expression of TGFβ1, VEGF-A, and its receptor Flk-1 and RAS were evaluated by indirect ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Exposure to P decreased the placental mass, size, and surface area as well as the TGFβ1, VEGF-A and Flk-1 content...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819942/study-of-the-relationship-between-ages-and-oxidative-stress-damage-to-trophoblast-cell-mitochondria
#4
Lingling Jiang, Jianying Yan, Lixiang Wu
OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of AGEs on placental trophoblast mitochondria oxidative stress, and to explore the possible pathogenesis which may participate in pre-eclampsia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human trophoblast cells from early pregnancy were cultured by an enzyme-digestion method. When trophoblast cells reached approximately 70-80% after passages, they were incubated with pre-eclampsia serum for 24 hours. A fluorescent dye assay was applied to measure the mitochondrial membrane potential; ELISA was used to measure the activity of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814762/down-regulation-of-pdk4-is-critical-for-the-switch-of-carbohydrate-catabolism-during-syncytialization-of-human-placental-trophoblasts
#5
Xiaohui Liu, Rujuan Zuo, Yirong Bao, Xiaoxian Qu, Kang Sun, Hao Ying
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is known as a gatekeeper directing the carbon flux into glycolysis via inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. During syncytialization of placental trophoblasts, both ATP production and oxygen consumption are increased to meet enhanced energetic demands by syntiotrophoblasts. We hypothesized that down-regulation of PDK expression may play a central role in the switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) during syncytialization. By using primary human trophoblasts, we demonstrated that PDK4 was the dominating PDK isoform in human cytotrophoblasts, and its abundance was substantially decreased upon syncytialization, which was accompanied by decreases in lactate production and increases in ATP production...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811741/consistency-and-variability-of-dna-methylation-in-women-during-puberty-young-adulthood-and-pregnancy
#6
Su Chen, Nandini Mukherjee, Vimala Devi Janjanam, S Hasan Arshad, Ramesh J Kurukulaaratchy, John W Holloway, Hongmei Zhang, Wilfried Karmaus
Prior DNA methylation (DNA-m) analyses have identified cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, which show either a significant change or consistency during lifetime. However, the proportion of CpGs that are neither significantly different nor consistent over time (indifferent CpGs) is unknown. We investigated the methylation dynamics, both longitudinal changes and consistency, in women from preadolescence to late pregnancy using DNA-m of peripheral blood cells. Consistency of cell type-adjusted DNA-m between paired individuals was assessed by regressing CpGs of subsequent age on the prior, stability by intraclass correlation coefficients (>0...
2017: Genetics & Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809844/the-4-vessel-sampling-approach-to-integrative-studies-of-human-placental-physiology-in-vivo
#7
Ane M Holme, Maia B Holm, Marie C P Roland, Hildegunn Horne, Trond M Michelsen, Guttorm Haugen, Tore Henriksen
The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809760/the-milestone-of-non-invasive-prenatal-identification-of-chromosomal-abnormalities-in-fetal-trophoblasts-recovered-from-maternal-blood
#8
Jaime Garcia-Heras
Two recent studies demonstrated that array CGH and NGS allow identification of chromosomal abnormalities in fetal trophoblasts circulating in maternal blood. This remarkable breakthrough paves the way for an improved assay that supersedes the performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in cell-free fetal DNA. Furthermore, it is foreseeable to expand the use of this new genomic analysis in trophoblasts to uncover single gene mutations of clinical significance prenatally.
2017: Journal of the Association of Genetic Technologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808448/relevance-of-the-nr4a-sub-family-of-nuclear-orphan-receptors-in-trophoblastic-bewo-cell-differentiation
#9
Sudha Saryu Malhotra, Satish Kumar Gupta
Nur-77, a member of the NR4A sub-family of nuclear orphan receptors, is downregulated in the placentae of pre-eclamptic women. Here, we investigate the relevance of Nor-1, Nurr-1 and Nur-77 in trophoblastic cell differentiation. Their transcript levels were found to be significantly upregulated in BeWo cells treated with forskolin. The maximum increase was observed after 2 h, with a second peak in the expression levels after 48 h. The expression of NR4A sub-family members was also found to be upregulated in BeWo cells after treatment with hCG and GnRH...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808304/hypoxia-induced-tet1-facilitates-trophoblast-cell-migration-and-invasion-through-hif1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#10
Jingping Zhu, Kai Wang, Ting Li, Jiayu Chen, Dandan Xie, Xinwen Chang, Julei Yao, Jinting Wu, Qian Zhou, Yuanhui Jia, Tao Duan
Low oxygen is a typical extrinsic factor for the regulation of trophoblast biological function, including cell migration, invasion and proliferation. Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1), an enzyme converting 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), is transcriptionally activated by hypoxia in cancer cells. Therefore, we focus on the role of TET1 on trophoblast function in a physiologically hypoxic environment (3% oxygen), which is related to early placentation. Here, we found that TET1 was highly expressed in first trimester villi compared with normal term placentas...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806906/age-associated-mrna-expression-changes-in-bovine-endometrial-cells-in-vitro
#11
Nao Tanikawa, Ayaka Ohtsu, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Koji Kimura, Shuichi Matsuyama, Hisataka Iwata, Takehito Kuwayama, Koumei Shirasuna
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cells secrete various cytokines and the dysfunction of endometrial cells may directly lead to infertility. Interferon tau (IFNT) secreted by trophoblast cells, a well-known pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants, acts on the uterus to prepare for pregnancy. Aging causes cellular and organ dysfunction, and advanced maternal age is associated with reduced fertility. However, few studies have investigated age-dependent changes in the uterus. METHODS: Using next generation sequencing and real-time PCR, we examined mRNA expression in bovine endometrial cells in vitro obtained from young (mean 45...
August 14, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806624/bcl-2-bax-protein-and-mrna-expression-in-yak-bos-grunniens-placentomes
#12
JiangFeng Fan, SiJiu Yu, Yan Cui, Gengquan Xu, Libin Wang, Yangyang Pan, Honghong He
Placental function is complex and influenced by various factors; furthermore, it depends on a delicate balance between cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell death. Bcl-2 and Bax proteins are key apoptosis regulators and are considered to play an important role in the maintenance of both dynamic balance and integrity of many tissues. Changes in Bcl-2 and Bax expressions have been described during different developmental stages in normal human placentas. Studies furthermore indicated several pathological placental changes to be related to abnormal Bcl-2 and Bax expressions...
July 29, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804622/human-placental-growth-hormone-in-normal-and-abnormal-fetal-growth
#13
Alexandros Velegrakis, Maria Sfakiotaki, Stavros Sifakis
Human placental growth hormone (PGH), encoded by the growth hormone (GH) variant gene on chromosome 17, is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous cytotrophoblast layers of the human placenta. Its maternal serum levels increase throughout pregnancy, and gradually replaces the pulsatile secreted pituitary GH. PGH is also detectable in cord blood and in the amniotic fluid. This placental-origin hormone stimulates glyconeogenesis, lipolysis and anabolism in maternal organs, and influences fetal growth, placental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy...
August 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803905/azithromycin-treatment-is-able-to-control-the-infection-by-two-genotypes-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-human-trophoblast-bewo-cells
#14
Mayara Ribeiro, Priscila Silva Franco, Janice Buiate Lopes-Maria, Mariana Bodini Angeloni, Bellisa de Freitas Barbosa, Angelica de Oliveira Gomes, Andressa Silva Castro, Rafaela José da Silva, Fernanda Chaves de Oliveira, Iliana Claudia Balga Milian, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Francesca Ietta, José Roberto Mineo, Eloisa Amália Vieira Ferro
Trophoblast infection by Toxoplasma gondii plays a pivotal role in the vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis. Here, we investigate whether the antibiotic therapy with azithromycin, spiramycin and sulfadiazine/pyrimethamine are effective to control trophoblast infection by two Brazilian T. gondii genotypes, TgChBrUD1 or TgChBrUD2. Two antibiotic protocols were evaluated, as follow: i) pre-treatment of T. gondii-tachyzoites with selected antibiotics prior trophoblast infection and ii) post-treatment of infected trophoblasts...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800576/heterotopic-pregnancy-including-intrauterine-normal-gestation-and-tubal-complete-hydatidiform-mole-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Dan Lu, Jian Jenny Tang, Konstantin Zakashansky, Ross S Berkowitz, Tamara Kalir, Yuxin Liu
We report a rare case of heterotopic pregnancy with intrauterine normal gestation alongside tubal complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) that resulted in a viable pregnancy after removal of molar tissue. Because of their rarity and inherent complexity, such cases represent a significant challenge in diagnosis and management. A 34-year-old female in her 10th week of gestation presented with nausea, vomiting, and intermittent abdominal pain that progressively worsened. Imaging studies revealed a normal intrauterine fetus and an 11-cm heterogenous mass in the left adnexal region...
September 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798905/enrofloxacin-and-toltrazuril-are-able-to-reduce-toxoplasma-gondii-growth-in-human-bewo-trophoblastic-cells-and-villous-explants-from-human-third-trimester-pregnancy
#16
Rafaela J da Silva, Angelica O Gomes, Priscila S Franco, Ariane S Pereira, Iliana C B Milian, Mayara Ribeiro, Paolo Fiorenzani, Maria C Dos Santos, José R Mineo, Neide M da Silva, Eloisa A V Ferro, Bellisa de Freitas Barbosa
Classical treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis is based on combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine plus folinic acid. Due to teratogenic effects and bone marrow suppression caused by pyrimethamine, the establishment of new therapeutic strategies is indispensable to minimize the side effects and improve the control of infection. Previous studies demonstrated that enrofloxacin and toltrazuril reduced the incidence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of enrofloxacin and toltrazuril in the control of T...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797713/image-processing-methods-for-the-structural-detection-and-gradation-of-placental-villi
#17
Zaneta Swiderska-Chadaj, Tomasz Markiewicz, Robert Koktysz, Szczepan Cierniak
The context-based examination of stained tissue specimens is one of the most important procedures in histopathological practice. The development of image processing methods allows for the automation of this process. We propose a method of automatic segmentation of placental structures and assessment of edema present in placental structures from a spontaneous miscarriage. The presented method is based on texture analysis, mathematical morphology, and region growing operations that are applicable to the heterogeneous microscopic images representing histological slides of the placenta...
August 3, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795132/spontaneous-regression-of-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia
#18
Kaoru Niimi, Eiko Yamamoto, Kimihiro Nishino, Sawako Fujiwara, Kazuhiko Ino, Fumitaka Kikkawa
•We present two cases of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN).•Both cases presented with lung metastases after hydatidiform mole.•Both cases showed spontaneous regression without treatment.•The mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unclear.•Patients with postmolar GTN and declining hCG values may not need chemotherapy.
August 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795129/placental-site-trophoblastic-tumor-with-sole-metastasis-to-breast-a-case-report
#19
Kimberly Nagamine, Sophia Iwasaki, David Shimizu, Pamela Tauchi-Nishi, Keith Terada
Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). It most commonly occurs after a delivery but may arise after any type of pregnancy. PSTT arises after neoplastic transformation of intermediate trophoblastic cells. The most commonly reported symptoms are abnormal bleeding or amenorrhea. Due to the rarity of this disease, evidence on prognostic factors as well as optimal treatment is limited. While treatment for early-stage disease is usually limited to surgery, multimodal treatment with chemotherapy and surgery may be important for metastatic disease...
August 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794456/activated-nk-cells-cause-placental-dysfunction-and-miscarriages-in-fetal-alloimmune-thrombocytopenia
#20
Issaka Yougbaré, Wei-She Tai, Darko Zdravic, Brigitta Elaine Oswald, Sean Lang, Guangheng Zhu, Howard Leong-Poi, Dawei Qu, Lisa Yu, Caroline Dunk, Jianhong Zhang, John G Sled, Stephen J Lye, Jelena Brkić, Chun Peng, Petter Höglund, B Anne Croy, S Lee Adamson, Xiao-Yan Wen, Duncan J Stewart, John Freedman, Heyu Ni
Miscarriage and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are devastating complications in fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). We previously reported the mechanisms for bleeding diatheses, but it is unknown whether placental, decidual immune cells or other abnormalities at the maternal-fetal interface contribute to FNAIT. Here we show that maternal immune responses to fetal platelet antigens cause miscarriage and IUGR that are associated with vascular and immune pathologies in murine FNAIT models...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
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