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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329740/human-chorionic-gonadotropin-regression-curves-after-partial-or-complete-molar-pregnancy-in-flanders-are-they-different-from-regression-curves-from-the-eighties
#1
Sien Delattre, Sileny Han, Philippe Moerman, Jaak Billen, Frédéric Goffin, Kathleen Scharpé, Ignace Vergote
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We updated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression curves created in the eighties after evacuation of complete and partial molar (CM and PM, respectively) pregnancies using modern hCG assays. We created similar curves for patients in need of chemotherapy (gestational trophoblastic neoplasia [GTN]). METHODS: A total of 126 patients who were diagnosed with gestational trophoblastic disease from 1990 to 2014 were included. We compared curves from 2 groups, CM and PM, with historical ones...
March 23, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328096/activation-of-nod-1-jnk-il-8-signal-axis-in-decidual-stromal-cells-facilitates-trophoblast-invasion
#2
Byung Jun Ryu, Jae Won Han, Ryang Hee Kim, Sohyun Yun, Tae Hyun Kim, Sung Eun Hur, Chul Jung Kim, Sung Ki Lee
Decidual stromal cells (DSCs) are known to regulate trophoblast invasion via unveiled mechanism yet. And nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) may influence on this DSC-trophoblast interaction. We investigated the mechanism underlying the DSC-mediated regulation of trophoblast invasion and the effect of NOD1 on their cross talk. Using human primary DSCs, BeWo cell invasion was measured. Cytokine secretion and MAP kinase signaling were examined in DSCs following treatment with NOD1 agonist, Tri-DAP...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327604/chymase-producing-cells-of-the-innate-immune-system-are-required-for-decidual-vascular-remodeling-and-fetal-growth
#3
Nicole Meyer, Katja Woidacki, Martin Knöfler, Gudrun Meinhardt, Désirée Nowak, Philipp Velicky, Jürgen Pollheimer, Ana C Zenclussen
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is caused by insufficient remodeling of spiral arteries (SAs). The mechanism underlying the relevance of natural killer cells (NKs) and mast cells (MCs) for SA remodeling and its effects on pregnancy outcome are not well understood. We show that NK depletion arrested SA remodeling without affecting pregnancy. MC depletion resulted in abnormally remodeled SAs and IUGR. Combined absence of NKs and MCs substantially affected SA remodeling and impaired fetal growth. We found that α-chymase mast cell protease (Mcpt) 5 mediates apoptosis of uterine smooth muscle cells, a key feature of SA remodeling...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326953/placenta-increta-presenting-as-exaggerated-placental-site-reaction
#4
Stewart F Cramer, Debra S Heller
Exaggerated placental site (EPS) is usually an incidental finding seen in curettings after an abortion. Placenta increta is, by definition, a disease that damages and destroys myometrium; however, prior literature has not paid sufficient attention to the role of myometrium in its pathogenesis and diagnosis. We present an unusual case of placenta increta in a hysterectomy performed for uterine perforation after curettage for the termination of pregnancy at 18 weeks. The initial histologic section of the implantation site suggested EPS...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326648/changes-in-expression-of-the-cd200-tolerance-signaling-molecule-and-its-receptor-cd200r-by-villus-trophoblasts-during-first-trimester-missed-abortion-and-in-chronic-histiocytic-intervillositis
#5
David A Clark, Jennifer M Dmetrichuk, Elizabeth McCready, Sukhbinder Dhesy-Thind, Jorge L Arredondo
PROBLEM: Expression of CD200 at the feto-maternal interface is associated with successful murine and human pregnancy. CD200 binding to CD200 receptors on lymphomyeloid cells suppresses inflammation and induces Tregs. CD200 receptors are also expressed on mouse and human placental trophoblast cells. What is the expression of CD200 and CD200R in human missed abortions which have preserved Treg levels and in chronic histiocytic intervillositis (CHI) where maternal inflammatory cells cause IUGR? METHODS: Immunohistiochemistry for CD200, CD200R, and Ki67 using human placental sections from missed abortions, term placenta, and CHI...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324064/bmp7-induces-uterine-receptivity-and-blastocyst-attachment
#6
Diana Monsivais, Caterina Clementi, Jia Peng, Paul T Fullerton, Renata Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Seppo Vainio, Martin M Matzuk
In women, the window of implantation is limited to a brief two- to three- day period characterized by optimal levels of circulating ovarian hormones and a receptive endometrium. Although the window of implantation is assumed to occur 8-10 days after ovulation in women, molecular markers of endometrial receptivity are necessary to determine optimal timing prior to embryo transfer. Previous studies showed that members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family are expressed in the uterus necessary for female fertility; however, the role of BMP7 during implantation and in late gestation is not known...
January 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320871/essential-roles-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-in-syncytiotrophoblast-development-by-presenting-fusogenic-4f2hc
#7
Ryuichi Ohgaki, Takahiro Ohmori, Saori Hara, Saya Nakagomi, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Kazuko Kaneda-Nakashima, Suguru Okuda, Shushi Nagamori, Yoshikatsu Kanai
Layer(s) of epithelial syncytium, syncytiotrophoblast, differentiates from chorionic trophoblasts via cell fusion and separates maternal and fetal circulations in hemochorial placentas. L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and its covalently-linked ancillary subunit 4F2hc are colocalized on both maternal and fetal surface of syncytiotrophoblasts, implying their roles in amino acid transfer through the placental barrier. In this study, LAT1 knockout, in addition, revealed a novel role of LAT1 in syncytiotrophoblast development...
March 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#8
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317260/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-trophoblast-cell-models-reveals-their-differential-phenotypes-potential-uses-and-limitations
#9
Paulina B Szklanna, Kieran Wynne, Marie Nolan, Karl Egan, Fionnuala Ní Áinle, Patricia B Maguire
Trophoblastic cell lines are widely used in in vitro studies of placental function as a surrogate for primary trophoblasts. To date, no reference proteomics dataset exists to directly compare the shared and unique characteristics of these cells. Here, we performed comparative proteomic profiling of the BeWo and HTR8/SVneo cell lines using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. 1557 proteins were identified, which included 338 uniquely attributed to BeWo cells, and a further 304 specifically identified in HTR8/SVneo cells...
March 20, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302141/dna-hypomethylation-and-aberrant-expression-of-the-human-endogenous-retrovirus-ervwe1-syncytin-1-in-seminomas
#10
Martina Benešová, Kateřina Trejbalová, Denisa Kovářová, Zdenka Vernerová, Tomáš Hron, Dana Kučerová, Jiří Hejnar
BACKGROUND: Syncytin-1 and 2, human fusogenic glycoproteins encoded by the env genes of the endogenous retroviral loci ERVWE1 and ERVFRDE1, respectively, contribute to the differentiation of multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast in chorionic villi. In non-trophoblastic cells, however, the expression of syncytins has to be suppressed to avoid potential pathogenic effects. Previously, we have shown that the transcriptional suppression of ERVWE1 promoter is controlled epigenetically by DNA methylation and chromatin modifications...
March 17, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296679/primary-cystic-trophoblastic-tumor-of-the-testis-a-study-of-14-cases
#11
Dibson D Gondim, Thomas M Ulbright, Liang Cheng, Muhammad T Idrees
Cystic trophoblastic tumor (CTT) has been described in postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections of patients with testicular germ cell tumors. Prognostically, this lesion is similar to teratoma and no further treatment is required after surgery in the absence of other components. CTT has not, however, been reported in the testis. We identified 14 CTTs in the treated (4) and untreated (9; no information for 1 patient) testes of patients 15 to 43 years old (median, 25) with mixed germ cell tumors...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295835/type-i-interferons-modulate-methotrexate-resistance-in-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia
#12
Kevin M Elias, Richard A Harvey, Kathleen T Hasselblatt, Michael J Seckl, Ross S Berkowitz
PROBLEM: Resistance to methotrexate is a leading clinical problem in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), but there are limited laboratory models for this condition. METHOD OF STUDY: We created isogenic trophoblastic cell lines resistant to methotrexate and compared these to the parent cell lines using gene expression microarrays and qRT-PCR followed by mechanistic studies using recombinant cytokines, pathway inhibitors, and patient sera. RESULTS: Gene expression microarrays and focused analysis by qRT-PCR revealed methotrexate led to type I interferon upregulation, in particular interferon alpha 2 (IFNA2), and methotrexate resistance was associated with chronic low level increases in type I interferon expression...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295343/epithelial-membrane-protein-2-emp2-deficiency-alters-placental-angiogenesis-mimicking-features-of-human-placental-insufficiency
#13
Carmen J Williams, Alison Chu, Wendy N Jefferson, David Casero, Deepthi Sudhakar, Nevil Khurana, Claire P Hogue, Chinmayi Aryasomayajula, Priya Patel, Peggy Sullivan, Elizabeth Padilla-Banks, Shabnam Mohandessi, Carla Janzen, Madhuri Wadehra
Epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2) is a tetraspan protein predicted to regulate placental development. Highly expressed in secretory endometrium and trophectoderm cells, previous studies suggest that it may regulate implantation by orchestrating the surface expression of integrins and other membrane proteins. In order to test the role of EMP2 in pregnancy, mice lacking EMP2 (Emp2(-/-) ) were generated. Emp2(-/-) females are fertile but have reduced litter sizes when carrying Emp2(-/-) but not Emp2(+/-) fetuses...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295158/first-trimester-ultrasound-tests-alone-or-in-combination-with-first-trimester-serum-tests-for-down-s-syndrome-screening
#14
REVIEW
S Kate Alldred, Yemisi Takwoingi, Boliang Guo, Mary Pennant, Jonathan J Deeks, James P Neilson, Zarko Alfirevic
BACKGROUND: Down's syndrome occurs when a person has three, rather than two copies of chromosome 21; or the specific area of chromosome 21 implicated in causing Down's syndrome. It is the commonest congenital cause of mental disability and also leads to numerous metabolic and structural problems. It can be life-threatening, or lead to considerable ill health, although some individuals have only mild problems and can lead relatively normal lives. Having a baby with Down's syndrome is likely to have a significant impact on family life...
March 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295048/cardiac-repair-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-with-trophoblast-stem-cells
#15
Guannan Li, Jianzhou Chen, Xinlin Zhang, Guixin He, Wei Tan, Han Wu, Ran Li, Yuhan Chen, Rong Gu, Jun Xie, Biao Xu
Various stem cells have been explored for the purpose of cardiac repair. However, any individual stem cell population has not been considered as the ideal source. Recently, trophoblast stem cells (TSCs), a newly described stem cell type, have demonstrated extensive plasticity. The present study evaluated the therapeutic effect of TSCs transplantation for heart regeneration in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI) and made a direct comparison with the most commonly used mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Transplantation of TSCs and MSCs led to a remarkably improved cardiac function in contrast with the PBS control, but only the TSCs exhibited the potential of differentiation into cardiomyocytes in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294475/sodium-tanshinone-iia-sulfonate-prevents-hypoxic-trophoblast-induced-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-via-targeting-hmgb1-release
#16
Min Zhao, Yaling Feng, Jianping Xiao, Jie Liang, Yongxiang Yin, Daozhen Chen
Preeclampsia (PE) is a serious blood pressure disorder of pregnancy. Systemic endothelial cell dysfunction, a hallmark of PE, is previously estimated to be induced by hypoxic trophoblast high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS), the soluble form of tanshinone IIA isolated from danshen, against hypoxic trophoblast HMGB1-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) dysfunction. Our results showed that HMGB1 expression and release were significantly decreased in STS-treated hypoxic JEG-3 cells...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293067/syndecan-1-acts-as-an-important-regulator-of-cxcl1-expression-and-cellular-interaction-of-human-endometrial-stromal-and-trophoblast-cells
#17
Dunja Maria Baston-Buest, Olga Altergot-Ahmad, Sarah Jean Pour, Jan-Steffen Krüssel, Udo Rudolf Markert, Tanja Natascha Fehm, Alexandra Petra Bielfeld
Successful implantation of the embryo into the human receptive endometrium is substantial for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. This study focusses on the role of Syndecan-1 at the embryo-maternal interface, the multitasking coreceptor influencing ligand concentration, release and receptor presentation, and cellular morphology. CXC motif ligand 1, being involved in chemotaxis and angiogenesis during implantation, is of special interest as a ligand of Syndecan-1. Human endometrial stromal cells with and without Syndecan-1 knock-down were decidualized and treated with specific inhibitors to evaluate signaling pathways regulating CXC ligand 1 expression...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292472/increased-ndrg1-expression-attenuate-trophoblast-invasion-through-erk-mmp-9-pathway-in-preeclampsia
#18
Yufen Fu, Jufeng Wei, Xueli Dai, Yuanhua Ye
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene1(NDRG1)in the placentas of pregnancies complicated with early-onset and late-onset preeclampsia (PE) and its underlying mechanism on the pathophysiology of PE. METHODS: The expressions of NDRG-1 in placentas of pregnancies complicated with early-onset PE and late-onset PE were detected using immunohistochemistry, western blot assays and fluorescence quantitative PCR...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292471/elevated-microrna-520g-in-pre-eclampsia-inhibits-migration-and-invasion-of-trophoblasts
#19
Liansheng Jiang, Anxiong Long, Longyi Tan, Mao Hong, Jingjing Wu, Leiming Cai, Qian Li
INTRODUCTION: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a common and severe obstetric complication. MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as molecules that are associated with the disease. METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) was used for serum miR-520g characterization from 19 severe pre-eclamptic and 19 normal pregnancies. In situ hybridation was adopted to localize microRNA-520g (miR-520g). Migration and invasion of HTR-8/SVneo cells were evaluated after miR-520g mimic treatment with transwell system...
March 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292469/down-regulation-of-the-placental-bcrp-abcg2-transporter-in-response-to-hypoxia-signaling
#20
Lissa N Francois, Ludwik Gorczyca, Jianyao Du, Kristin M Bircsak, Elizabeth Yen, Xia Wen, Mei-Juan Tu, Ai-Ming Yu, Nicholas P Illsley, Stacy Zamudio, Lauren M Aleksunes
INTRODUCTION: The BCRP/ABCG2 efflux transporter protects the developing fetus by limiting the transplacental transfer of drugs and chemicals and prevents the apoptosis of trophoblasts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypoxia-related signaling alters placental BCRP expression and function in vitro and in human pregnancies. METHODS: Human BeWo choriocarcinoma cells were treated with the hypoxia mimetic, cobalt chloride (CoCl2), or 3% oxygen for 24-48 h...
March 2017: Placenta
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