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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225815/different-characteristics-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-isolated-from-different-layers-of-full-term-placenta
#1
Yoo Shin Choi, Yong-Beom Park, Chul-Won Ha, Jin A Kim, Jin-Chul Heo, Woo-Jung Han, Soo-Young Oh, Suk-Joo Choi
BACKGROUND: The placenta is a very attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for regenerative medicine due to readily availability, non-invasive acquisition, and avoidance of ethical issues. Isolating MSCs from parts of placenta tissue has obtained growing interest because they are assumed to exhibit different proliferation and differentiation potentials due to complex structures and functions of the placenta. The objective of this study was to isolate MSCs from different parts of the placenta and compare their characteristics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223336/variable-daxx-gene-methylation-is-a-common-feature-of-placental-trophoblast-differentiation-preeclampsia-and-response-to-hypoxia
#2
Boris Novakovic, Danièle Evain-Brion, Padma Murthi, Thiery Fournier, Richard Saffery
Placental functioning relies on the appropriate differentiation of progenitor villous cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) into extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVCTs), including invasive EVCTs, and the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast (ST) layer. This is accompanied by a general move away from a proliferative, immature phenotype. Genome-scale expression studies have provided valuable insight into genes that are associated with the shift to both an invasive EVCT and ST phenotype, whereas genome-scale DNA methylation analysis has shown that differentiation to ST involves widespread methylation shifts, which are counteracted by low oxygen...
February 21, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223181/the-effect-of-salpingectomy-on-ovarian-function
#3
REVIEW
Alexander Kotlyar, Julian Gingold, Shirley Shue, Tommaso Falcone
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature concerning the effects of salpingectomy on ovarian function as assessed using measures of ovarian reserve and outcomes from in-vitro fertilization and spontaneous pregnancy cycles. BACKGROUND: Tubal surgery is performed for a variety of indications in gynecology. Salpingectomy is the most aggressive form of tubal surgery and may be performed for potential risk reduction for epithelial ovarian cancer, sterilization, ectopic pregnancy and as a method to enhance fertility in the setting of a hydrosalpinx...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220786/intrauterine-zika-virus-infection-of-pregnant-immunocompetent-mice-models-transplacental-transmission-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes
#4
Meghan S Vermillion, Jun Lei, Yahya Shabi, Victoria K Baxter, Nathan P Crilly, Michael McLane, Diane E Griffin, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L Klein, Irina Burd
Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217684/extrauterine-epithelioid-trophoblastic-tumor-in-hysterectomized-woman
#5
Ji-Hye Kim, Sun Kyung Lee, Soo Hyun Hwang, Jung-Sun Kim, Gun Yoon, Yoo-Young Lee, Tae-Joong Kim, Chel Hun Choi, Byoung-Gie Kim, Duk-Soo Bae, Jeong-Won Lee
Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a very rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) which arises in reproductive age women with prior gestational history. Although abnormal vaginal bleeding is the most common symptom of ETT, there are no reported pathognomonic symptoms of ETT because of its rarity. ETT is similar to placental site trophoblastic tumor in terms of its slow growing characteristic and microscopic findings. Therefore, it could be misdiagnosed as placental site trophoblastic tumor or other types of GTD...
January 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216513/cellular-localization-expression-and-functional-implications-of-the-utero-placental-endothelin-system-during-maintenance-and-termination-of-canine-gestation
#6
Aykut Gram, Alois Boos, Mariusz P Kowalewski
Utero-placental (Ut-Pl) angiogenesis and blood flow are fundamental for successful outcome of pregnancy. They are controlled by numerous vasodilator and vasoconstrictor systems such as endothelins (EDNs) and the renin angiotensin system. Dogs possess an invasive type of placentation, classified as endotheliochorial. Despite increasing knowledge regarding canine Ut-Pl function, little information exists on uterine and placental vascular activity during initiation, maintenance and termination of pregnancy in this species...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214855/fatty-acid-binding-protein-4-in-endometrial-epithelium-is-involved-in-embryonic-implantation
#7
Peng Wang, Qiuyuan Zhu, Huilian Peng, Mengkai Du, Minyue Dong, Hanzhi Wang
AIMS: To clarify the role of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) of endometrial epithelial cell in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and the involvement in the pathogenesis of pregnancy loss. METHODS: The expression of FABP4 and uterine receptive factor (LIF, Integrin-β3 and Claudin 4) was determined by Western blotting or quantitative PCR. FABP4 siRNA was used to silence FABP4 while FABP4 inhibitor was used to inhibit the function of FABP4 in endometrial epithelial cell...
January 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214435/evaluation-of-fertility-after-operative-hysteroscopy-to-remove-retained-products-of-conception
#8
Louise Sonnier, Antoine Torre, Pauline Broux, Arnaud Fauconnier, Cyrille Huchon
: Evaluation of fertility after operative hysteroscopy to remove retained products of conception. OBJECTIVE: To study fertility after operative hysteroscopy for the management of prolonged trophoblastic retention, and the complications of this procedure. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort in a university hospital. RESULTS: 115 patients underwent operative hysteroscopy for the treatment of prolonged post-partum and post-abortum retention between January 2008 and December 2011...
February 6, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213399/continuous-model-of-conceptus-implantation-to-the-maternal-endometrium
#9
Kazuhiko Imakawa, Rulan Bai, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Atsushi Ideta, Yoshito Aoyagi, Kazuya Kusama
As placental morphology as well as trophoblast characteristics exhibit wide diversity across mammalian species, underling molecules were also thought to vary greatly. In the majority of cases, however, regardless of the mode of implantation, physiological and biochemical processes in conceptus implantation to the maternal endometrium including the kinds of gene expression and their products are now considered to share many similarities. In fact, recent progress has identified that in addition to the hormones, cytokines, proteases and cell adhesion molecules classically characterized, molecules related to lymphocyte homing and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are all required for the progression of conceptus implantation to placentation...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209435/contribution-of-equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-ent-2-to-fluorouracil-transport-in-rat-placental-trophoblast-cells
#10
Akinori Takagi, Tomohiro Nishimura, Tomoya Akashi, Masatoshi Tomi, Emi Nakashima
Fluorouracil is used for treatment of breast cancer even in pregnant women, except during fetal organogenesis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the transport mechanism of fluorouracil at the rat placental barrier. Maternal-to-fetal transfer of [(3)H]fluorouracil in rats at gestational day 19.5 was saturable and much higher than that of [(14)C]sucrose. The uptake of [(3)H]fluorouracil was also saturable in rat placental trophoblast TR-TBT 18d-1 cells, which express both equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 and ENT2...
December 8, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202182/implantation-and-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-from-rare-archival-specimens-to-modern-biobanking
#11
Gerit Moser, Berthold Huppertz
Extravillous trophoblast invasion serves to attach the placenta to the uterus and to enable access to nutrients for the embryo throughout pregnancy - secretions of the uterine glands in the first trimester, maternal blood in the second and third trimester. For assessing extravillous trophoblast invasion, histology (in combination with immunohistochemistry) still plays a major role in placental research. This is especially true for the re-assessment of rare archival specimens from early human implantation sites or placenta in utero with the background of recent knowledge which may help to strengthen current hypotheses...
February 8, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193876/vulnerability-of-primitive-human-placental-trophoblast-to-zika-virus
#12
Megan A Sheridan, Dinar Yunusov, Velmurugan Balaraman, Andrei P Alexenko, Shinichiro Yabe, Sergio Verjovski-Almeida, Danny J Schust, Alexander W Franz, Yoel Sadovsky, Toshihiko Ezashi, R Michael Roberts
Infection of pregnant women by Asian lineage strains of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to brain abnormalities in their infants, yet it is uncertain when during pregnancy the human conceptus is most vulnerable to the virus. We have examined two models to study susceptibility of human placental trophoblast to ZIKV: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast derived from placental villi at term and colonies of trophoblast differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC). The latter appear to be analogous to the primitive placenta formed during implantation...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193709/testosterone-represses-estrogen-signaling-by-upregulating-mir-22-a-mechanism-for-imbalanced-steroid-hormone-production-in-preeclampsia
#13
Xuan Shao, Yanlei Liu, Ming Liu, Yongqing Wang, Liying Yan, Hao Wang, Liyang Ma, Yu-Xia Li, Yangyu Zhao, Yan-Ling Wang
Preeclampsia, a multisystem syndrome occurring during mid- to late gestation in humans, is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Patients usually present with high circulating testosterone and reduced estradiol production, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Revealing the mechanism that modulating the imbalance of testosterone and estradiol in preeclampsia is of great value in understanding the cause of the disease. The placenta is the predominant source of steroid hormone production during gestation, and we observed markedly increased 17β-HSD3 (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3) levels and downregulated aromatase expression, the key enzymes responsible for synthesis of testosterone and estradiol, respectively, in preeclamptic placentas compared with controls...
February 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187917/oxygen-and-placental-development-parallels-and-differences-with-tumour-biology
#14
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux, Andrew J Murray
Human placentation involves the invasion of the conceptus into the wall of the uterus, and establishment of a blood supply from the maternal spiral arteries. The placenta has therefore been likened to a malignant tumour, albeit a highly regulated one. Oxygen plays an important role in controlling both placental development and tumour behaviour. In the placenta, early development takes place in a physiological low oxygen environment, which undergoes a transition with onset of the full maternal arterial circulation towards the end of the first trimester...
February 1, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185362/definitive-class-i-human-leukocyte-antigen-expression-in-gestational-placentation-hla-f-hla-e-hla-c-and-hla-g-in-extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-on-placentation-pregnancy-and-parturition
#15
Rinat Hackmon, Lakmini Pinnaduwage, Jianhong Zhang, Stephen J Lye, Daniel E Geraghty, Caroline E Dunk
PROBLEM: The extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) express HLA-C and HLA-G, but HLA-E and HLA-F are the subject of conflicting reports. In this study, we define the HLA expression profile during active EVT placental implantation, pregnancy development, and parturition. METHOD OF STUDY: Immunohistochemistry, q-PCR, and Western blot were used to investigate HLA-C, HLA-E, and HLA-F placental expression across gestation from the early first trimester, late first trimester, second trimester (n=10 in each), preterm gestation (n=6) to elective term cesarean section and term vaginal deliveries (n=12, 38-41 weeks)...
February 10, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176826/annexin-a5-organized-in-2d-network-at-the-plasmalemma-eases-human-trophoblast-fusion
#16
Severine A Degrelle, Pascale Gerbaud, Ludovic Leconte, Fatima Ferreira, Guillaume Pidoux
Only a limited number of human cells can fuse to form a multinucleated syncytium. Cell fusion occurs as part of the differentiation of some cell types, including myotubes in muscle and osteoclasts in remodeling bone. In the differentiation of the human placenta, mononuclear cytotrophoblasts aggregate and fuse to form endocrinologically active, non-proliferative, multinucleated syncytia. These syncytia allow the exchange of nutrients and gases between the maternal and fetal circulation. Alteration of syncytial formation during pregnancy affects fetal growth and the outcome of the pregnancy...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176360/long-non-coding-rna-malat1-promotes-proliferation-angiogenesis-and-immunosuppressive-properties-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-inducing-vegf-and-ido
#17
Xiujun Li, Yuxian Song, Fei Liu, Dan Liu, Huishuang Miao, Jing Ren, Jingjing Xu, Liang Ding, Yali Hu, Zhiqun Wang, Yayi Hou, Guangfeng Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in regulating angiogenesis and immune balance. The abnormal MSCs in proliferation and function were reported at maternal fetal interface in patients with pre-eclampsia (PE). Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 was known to regulate the function of trophoblast cells. However, it is not clear whether MALAT1 regulates MSCs to be related to PE. In the present study, we found that the expression of MALAT1 was significantly reduced in both umbilical cord tissues and MSCs in patients with severe PE...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174237/single-cell-transcriptomics-of-the-human-placenta-inferring-the-cell-communication-network-of-the-maternal-fetal-interface
#18
Mihaela Pavličev, Günter P Wagner, Arun Rajendra Chavan, Kathryn Owens, Jamie Maziarz, Caitlin Dunn-Fletcher, Suhas G Kallapur, Louis Muglia, Helen Jones
Organismal function is, to a great extent, determined by interactions among their fundamental building blocks, the cells. In this work, we studied the cell-cell interactome of fetal placental trophoblast cells and maternal endometrial stromal cells, using single-cell transcriptomics. The placental interface mediates the interaction between two semiallogenic individuals, the mother and the fetus, and is thus the epitome of cell interactions. To study these, we inferred the cell-cell interactome by assessing the gene expression of receptor-ligand pairs across cell types...
February 7, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168960/sex-specific-neurodevelopmental-programming-by-placental-insulin-receptors-on-stress-reactivity-and-sensorimotor-gating
#19
Stefanie L Bronson, Jennifer C Chan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk...
December 30, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167044/hypoxia-directs-human-extravillous-trophoblast-differentiation-in-a-hypoxia-inducible-factor-dependent-manner
#20
Anna K Wakeland, Francesca Soncin, Matteo Moretto-Zita, Ching-Wen Chang, Mariko Horii, Don Pizzo, Katharine K Nelson, Louise C Laurent, Mana M Parast
Villous cytotrophoblasts are epithelial stem cells of the early human placenta, able to differentiate either into syncytiotrophoblasts in floating chorionic villi or extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) at the anchoring villi. The signaling pathways regulating differentiation into these two lineages are incompletely understood. The bulk of placental growth and development in the first trimester occurs under low oxygen tension. One major mechanism by which oxygen regulates cellular function is through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a transcription factor complex stabilized under low oxygen tension to mediate cellular responses, including cell fate decisions...
February 3, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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