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Andriy Bilichak, Igor Kovalchuk
DNA strand breaks arise from normal cellular processes such as replication, transcription, and DNA repair as well as spontaneous DNA damage caused by cell metabolic activities. In addition, strand breaks occur due to direct or indirect DNA damage produced by various abiotic and biotic stresses. Strand breaks are among the most problematic DNA lesions because unrepaired strand breaks may lead to cell cycle arrest, gross chromosome rearrangements, or even cell death. Thus, the measurement of the relative number of strand breaks can provide an informative picture of genome stability of a given cell, tissue, or organism...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tianwei E Zhou, José C Rivera, Vikrant K Bhosle, Isabelle Lahaie, Zhuo Shao, Houda Tahiri, Tang Zhu, Anna Polosa, Allison Dorfman, Alexandra Beaudry-Richard, Santiago Costantino, Gregory A Lodygensky, Pierre Lachapelle, Sylvain Chemtob
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), the most common cause of blindness in premature infants, has long been associated with inner retinal alterations. However, recent studies reveal outer retinal dysfunctions in patients formerly afflicted with ROP. We have recently demonstrated that choroidal involution occurs early in retinopathy. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the choroidal involution and its long-term impact on retinal function. An oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model was used. In vitro and ex vivo assays were applied to evaluate cytotoxic effects of IL-1β on choroidal endothelium...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Elaheh Khozeimeh Sarbisheh, Jose Esteban Flores, Jianfeng Zhu, Jens Müller
A mixture of cis/trans isomers of phospha[1]ferrocenophanes equipped with one iPr group at the α position to the bridging PhP moiety was prepared. Both isomers (cis-4 and trans-4) were obtained as racemates and could be separated so that their thermal properties were investigated individually. The molecular structure of cis-4 was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis showing a tilt angle α=26.35(8)°. Interconversion between both isomers occurred in the melt at elevated temperatures and revealed that the trans isomer is thermodynamically more stable...
October 18, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ann Hellström, David Ley, Ingrid Hansen-Pupp, Boubou Hallberg, Luca A Ramenghi, Chatarina Löfqvist, Lois E H Smith, Anna-Lena Hård
Retinopathy of prematurity is a potentially blinding disease, which is associated with low neonatal IGF-I serum concentrations and poor growth. In severe cases impaired retinal vessel growth is followed by pathologic neovascularization, which may lead to retinal detachment. IGF-I may promote growth even in catabolic states. Treating preterm infants with recombinant human (rh) IGF-I to concentrations normally found during gestation has been suggested to have a preventative effect on ROP. A recent phase 2 study treating infants (gestational age between 23weeks+0days and 27weeks +6days) with rhIGF-I/IGF binding protein-3 until 30 postmenstrual weeks showed no effect on ROP but a 53% reduction in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and 44% reduction in severe intraventricular hemorrhage...
September 28, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
N Levy, E S Shinwell, H Leiba
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of plurality on refractive status in former preterm infants at age 8-12 years. METHODS: Refraction was compared in singletons and multiples, in Very Low Birth Weight infants (VLBW, <1500 grams) at age 6 months and 8-12 years. Preterm infants were compared with a group of term infants. RESULTS: 37 of 104 (36%) VLBW infants were multiples. Comparison of refraction between singletons and multiples revealed no difference at age 6 months, while at age 8-12 years, multiples had significantly more refractive errors (singletons 28% vs multiples 54% p = 0...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Lauren Arnesen, Pablo Durán, Juan Silva, Luisa Brumana
Objective To consolidate available information from the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region on 1) national incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and 2) national-level government inputs on ROP (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening) in 2014. Methods In March and April 2015, a multi-country online survey was distributed to 56 medical and public health experts working on ROP in LAC countries. Respondents were instructed to provide quantitative and qualitative information representative of the national situation in 2014 for ROP incidence and national-level government inputs (existing national policies, guidelines, programs, and financing for ROP prevention, detection, and treatment, including ROP screening) in their country...
June 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Lars Donath, Ralf Roth, Lukas Zahner, Oliver Faude
BACKGROUND: Adequate static and dynamic balance performance is an important prerequisite during daily and sporting life. Various traditional and innovative balance training concepts have been suggested to improve postural control or neuromuscular fall risk profiles over recent years. Whether slackline training (balancing over narrow nylon ribbons) serves as an appropriate training strategy to improve static and dynamic balance performance is as yet unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the occurrence and magnitude of effects of slackline training compared with an inactive control condition on static and dynamic balance performance parameters in children, adults and seniors...
October 4, 2016: Sports Medicine
David Morrison, Erick D Bothun, Gui-Shuang Ying, Ebenezer Daniel, Agnieshka Baumritter, Graham Quinn
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine for the detection of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is becoming increasingly common; however, obtaining the required multiple retinal images from an infant can be challenging. This secondary analysis from the Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) study evaluated the detection of referral-warranted ROP (RW-ROP) by trained readers when a full set of 5 retinal images could not be obtained. METHODS: A total of 7,905 image sets from 1,257 infants in the study were evaluated...
October 1, 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Xiaoyan Tang, Miao Hong, Laura Falivene, Lucia Caporaso, Luigi Cavallo, Eugene Y-X Chen
α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL), a naturally occurring and biomass-sourced bifunctional monomer, contains both a highly reactive exocyclic C=C bond and a highly stable five-membered γ-butyrolactone ring. Thus, all previous work led to exclusive vinyl-addition polymerization (VAP) product P(MBL)VAP. Now, this work reverses this conventional chemoselectivity to enable the first ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of MBL, thereby producing exclusively unsaturated polyester P(MBL)ROP with Mn up to 21.0 kg/mol...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
A Ronca, S Ronca, G Forte, S Zeppetelli, A Gloria, R De Santis, L Ambrosio
A vinyl-terminated Polycaprolactone has been developed for tissue engineering applications using a one-step synthesis and functionalization method based on Ring Opening Polymerization (ROP) of ԑ-caprolactone, with Hydroxyl Ethyl Vinyl Ether (HEVE) acting both as the initiator of ROP and as photo-curable functional group. The proposed method employs a catalyst based on Al, instead of the most popular Tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, to reduce the cytotoxicity. Following the synthesis of the vinyl-terminated polycaprolactone, its reaction with Fumaryl Chloride (FuCl) results in a divinyl-fumarate polycaprolactone (VPCLF)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
N O'Keeffe, J Murphy, M O'Keefe, B Lanigan
We conducted a prospective randomized study to compare outcomes of intravitreal Bevacizumab versus diode laser in thirty eyes of fifteen premature babies with zone 1 or posterior zone 2 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We recorded complications, regression/reactivation of ROP, visual outcome, refractive error and systemic complications. The Bevacizumab treated eyes showed rapid regression of the ROP with resolution of plus disease and flattening of the ridge at 48 hours post injection. In 3 Bevacizumab treated eyes, reactivation occurred and were treated with laser (3 eyes) or a further Bevacizumab injection (1 eye)...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
Samir N Patel, Michael A Klufas, Christina E Douglas, Karyn E Jonas, Susan Ostmo, Audina Berrocal, Antonio Capone, Maria A Martinez-Castellanos, Felix Chau, Kimberly Drenser, Philip Ferrone, Anton Orlin, Irena Tsui, Wei-Chi Wu, Mrinali P Gupta, Michael F Chiang, R V Paul Chan
Importance: Telemedicine is becoming an increasingly important component of clinical care for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but little information exists regarding the role of mosaic photography for ROP telemedicine diagnosis. Objective: To examine the potential effect of computer-generated mosaic photographs on the diagnosis and management of ROP. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective cohort study performed from July 12, 2011, through September 21, 2015, images were acquired from ROP screening at 8 academic institutions, and ROP experts interpreted 40 sets (20 sets with individual fundus photographs with ≥3 fields and 20 computer-generated mosaic photographs) of wide-angle retinal images from infants with ROP...
September 29, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Anne M Lynch, Brandie D Wagner, Naresh Mandava, Alan G Palestine, Peter M Mourani, Emily A McCourt, Scott C N Oliver, Steven H Abman
Purpose: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease associated with abnormal retinal vascular development. Proteins from the insulin-like growth factor pathway are related to ROP. However, there is a paucity of research on the role of other proteins in ROP. The aim of this study was to identify plasma proteins related to clinically significant ROP. Methods: We measured 1121 plasma proteins in the early neonatal period in infants at risk for ROP using an aptamer-based proteomic technology...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Wen-Qin Xu, Yu-Sheng Wang
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are commonly referred to a series of evolutionary conserved receptors which recognize and respond to various microbes and endogenous ligands. Growing evidence has demonstrated that the expression of TLRs in the retina is regulated during retinal ischemic diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion injury, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). TLRs can be expressed in multiple cells in the retina, such as glial cells, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), as well as photoreceptor cells and endothelium cells...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Taner Ozgurtas, Sercan Tekin, Fatih Yesildal, Umut Karaca, Fevzi Nuri Aydin, Muhammed Talha Ugurlu, Mehmet Ozler, Hakan Durukan
AIM: To examine changes in retinal vasculature after treatment with different oxygen concentrations from common retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) models and to determine a novel and practical ROP model. METHODS: A sample of 14 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats was used. The study group (n=7) was exposed to 95% oxygen for 4h per day followed by normoxic laboratory conditions for 20h. This cycle was repeated for 14d. The control group (n=7) was subjected to normobaric normoxic conditions...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Ronald M Hansen, Anne Moskowitz, James D Akula, Anne B Fulton
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina...
September 23, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Christiane Al-Haddad, Maamoun Abdul Fattah, Larissa Smeets, Hani Tamim, Leila Dirani, Layal Safadieh, Durriyah Sinno, Lama Charafeddine
PURPOSE: To study ophthalmological outcomes of premature children with no retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and correlate with neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: A total of 69 former preterm infants were evaluated at 2 to 7 years of age. Detailed ophthalmologic examinations were performed. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Another 69 healthy children served as controls...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Olachi J Mezu-Ndubuisi
PURPOSE: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding vasoproliferative disease. There is no standardized way to quantify plus disease (tortuous and dilated retinal vessels) or characterize abnormal recovery during ROP monitoring. This study objectively studies vascular features in live mice during development using noninvasive retinal imaging. METHODS: Using fluorescein angiography (FA), retinal vascular features were quantified in live mice with oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR)...
October 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Damla Erginturk Acar, Ugur Acar, Zuhal Ozen Tunay, Ozdemir Ozdemir
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of diode laser treatment on intraocular pressure (IOP) of premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The premature infants who underwent retinal laser photocoagulation therapy for ROP, and gestational age-matched, birth weight-matched, and sex-matched premature infants with ROP which recovered spontaneously without any treatment were enrolled into the study. Anterior segment examination and longitudinal IOP and central corneal thickness measurements were performed 5 times as follows: 1 day before the laser treatment (T0), and 24 hours (T1), 1 week (T2), 1 month (T3), and 3 months (T4) after the laser treatment...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
Ashley Ramirez, Bo Liu, Baiywo Rop, Michelle Edison, Michael Valente, Jeremy Burt
Paget's disease of the bone, historically known as osteitis deformans, is an uncommon disease typically affecting individuals of European descent. Patients with Paget's disease of the bone are at increased risk for primary bone neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma. Many cases of metastatic disease to pagetic bone have been reported. However, renal cell carcinoma metastasized to pagetic bone is extremely rare. A 94-year-old male presented to the emergency department complaining of abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen demonstrated a large mass in the right kidney compatible with renal cell carcinoma...
2016: Curēus
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