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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161719/palmitic-acid-curcumin-ester-facilitates-protection-of-neuroblastoma-against-oligomeric-a%C3%AE-40-insult
#1
Zhangyang Qi, Meihao Wu, Yun Fu, Tengfei Huang, Tingting Wang, Yanjie Sun, Zhibo Feng, Changzheng Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) is considered to be one of mechanisms underlying the development of Alzheimer's disease. Curcumin can attenuate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity through ROS scavenging, but the protective effect of intracellular curcumin on neurocyte membranes against extracellular Aβ may be compromised. To address this issue, we synthesized a palmitic acid curcumin ester (P-curcumin) which can be cultivated on the cell membrane and investigated the neuroprotective effect of P-curcumin and its interaction with Aβ...
November 20, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161676/hydrophilic-and-positively-charged-polyethylenimine-functionalized-mesoporous-magnetic-clusters-for-highly-efficient-removal-of-pb-ii-and-cr-vi-from-wastewater
#2
Min Young Lee, Ji Hwan Lee, Jae Woo Chung, Seung-Yeop Kwak
We develop mesoporous magnetic clusters (MMCs) functionalized with hydrophilic branched polyethylenimine (b-PEI), later called b-MG, and MMCs functionalized with positively charged b-PEI (p-MG). These materials efficiently remove Pb(II) and Cr(VI) from wastewater. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis results clearly indicate that hydrophilic b-PEI and positively charged b-PEI are successfully attached to the MMC surfaces...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161620/in-situ-elastic-strain-mapping-during-micromechanical-testing-using-ebsd
#3
Mark J McLean, William A Osborn
Compared to more commonly used strain measurement techniques, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) offers improved spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity. Additionally, EBSD can provide the full deformation tensor, whereas other techniques, such as digital image correlation (DIC), are limited to only in-plane strains and rotations. In this work, EBSD was used to measure strains and rotations in-situ during testing of a single-crystal silicon micromechanical test specimen. The theta-like specimen geometry was chosen due to the complex and spatially-varying strain states that exist in the circular frame of the sample during testing, as well as the nominally uniform strains in the central web...
November 14, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161611/the-application-of-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-to-metabolomics
#4
REVIEW
Xing Zhang, Kevin Quinn, Charmion Cruickshank-Quinn, Richard Reisdorph, Nichole Reisdorph
Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics is being increasingly utilized in various research fields including investigating human diseases, nutrition, industrial applications, and plant/natural products studies. Although new analytical approaches have enhanced the performance of metabolomic analyses, significant challenges associated with throughput, metabolome coverage, and compound identification still exist. Ion mobility mass spectrometry offers great potential for improving throughput and depth of coverage in metabolomics experiments...
November 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161588/intestinal-flossing-keeps-pathogens-at-bay
#5
Mirela Kuka, Matteo Iannacone
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are tissue-resident immune cells that surveil the intestine and provide the first line of defense against pathogens. Reporting in Cell, van Konijnenburg et al. (2017) combine high-resolution microscopy and intersectional genetic tools to provide a detailed characterization of IEL dynamics in response to both commensal and pathogenic microorganisms.
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161432/modeling-mutant-wild-type-interactions-to-ascertain-pathogenicity-of-prokr2-missense-variants-in-patients-with-isolated-gnrh-deficiency
#6
Kimberly H Cox, Luciana M B Oliveira, Lacey Plummer, Braden Corbin, Thomas Gardella, Ravikumar Balasubramanian, William F Crowley
A major challenge in human genetics is the validation of pathogenicity of heterozygous missense variants. This problem is well-illustrated by PROKR2 variants associated with Isolated GnRH Deficiency (IGD). Homozygous, loss of function variants in PROKR2 were initially implicated in autosomal recessive IGD; however, most IGD-associated PROKR2 variants are heterozygous. Moreover, while IGD patient cohorts are enriched for PROKR2 missense variants similar rare variants are also found in normal individuals. To elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms distinguishing IGD-associated PROKR2 variants from rare variants in controls, we assessed 59 variants using three approaches: (i) in silico prediction, (ii) traditional in vitro functional assays across 3 signaling pathways with mutant-alone transfections, and (iii) modified in vitro assays with mutant and wild-type expression constructs co-transfected to model in vivo heterozygosity...
November 17, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161430/methbank-3-0-a-database-of-dna-methylomes-across-a-variety-of-species
#7
Rujiao Li, Fang Liang, Mengwei Li, Dong Zou, Shixiang Sun, Yongbing Zhao, Wenming Zhao, Yiming Bao, Jingfa Xiao, Zhang Zhang
MethBank (http://bigd.big.ac.cn/methbank) is a database that integrates high-quality DNA methylomes across a variety of species and provides an interactive browser for visualization of methylation data. Here, we present an updated implementation of MethBank (version 3.0) by incorporating more DNA methylomes from multiple species and equipping with more enhanced functionalities for data annotation and more friendly web interfaces for data presentation, search and visualization. MethBank 3.0 features large-scale integration of high-quality methylomes, involving 34 consensus reference methylomes derived from a large number of human samples, 336 single-base resolution methylomes from different developmental stages and/or tissues of five plants, and 18 single-base resolution methylomes from gametes and early embryos at multiple stages of two animals...
November 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161414/structural-diversity-of-the-nucleosome
#8
Masako Koyama, Hitoshi Kurumizaka
In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is compacted in chromatin, which generally suppresses transcription, replication, repair, and recombination. The fundamental unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, whose structure was first determined at atomic resolution in 1997. However, recent findings have revealed that the nucleosome is not a structurally homogenous entity. Nucleosomes containing histone variants often have subtle but clear differences in their structural and functional characteristics, as compared to the canonical nucleosome...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161317/evaluating-architecture-impact-on-system-energy-efficiency
#9
Shijie Yu, Hailong Yang, Rui Wang, Zhongzhi Luan, Depei Qian
As the energy consumption has been surging in an unsustainable way, it is important to understand the impact of existing architecture designs from energy efficiency perspective, which is especially valuable for High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter environment hosting tens of thousands of servers. One obstacle hindering the advance of comprehensive evaluation on energy efficiency is the deficient power measuring approach. Most of the energy study relies on either external power meters or power models, both of these two methods contain intrinsic drawbacks in their practical adoption and measuring accuracy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161316/acute-exercise-alters-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-respiration-and-h2o2-emission-in-response-to-hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp-in-middle-aged-obese-men
#10
Adam J Trewin, Itamar Levinger, Lewan Parker, Christopher S Shaw, Fabio R Serpiello, Mitchell J Anderson, Glenn K McConell, David L Hare, Nigel K Stepto
Obesity, sedentary lifestyle and aging are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. Acute exercise increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle; however, whether mitochondria are involved in these processes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of insulin stimulation at rest and after acute exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function (JO2) and hydrogen peroxide emission (JH2O2), and the associations with insulin sensitivity in obese, sedentary men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161210/index-use-of-smoflipid-in-a-tertiary-intestinal-rehabilitation-and-transplantation-program
#11
Kwai Lam, Thomas Schiano, Maria Isabel Fiel, Kishore Iyer
Long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) may be complicated by PN-associated liver disease (PNALD), and some studies suggest an association between the use of soy-based fat emulsions and PNALD development. Patients' liver function typically improves and PNALD resolves after reducing or stopping a soy-based fat emulsion, and thus lipid minimization has been the primary strategy for managing PNALD in many intestinal rehabilitation programs. However, fat emulsions often cannot be stopped entirely, leading some patients to develop PNALD even after lipid reduction strategies have been implemented...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161207/composite-intravenous-fat-emulsion-in-a-postsurgical-critically-ill-patient-a-case-study
#12
Gregory J Roberti, Cameron G Cangelose, Robert G Martindale
Parenteral nutrition (PN), including lipids, in high-risk or poorly nourished critically ill patients is indicated when enteral nutrition is contraindicated; however, soybean oil-based PN can stimulate proinflammatory processes. Fish oil (FO) is generally less inflammatory and has recently been shown to be active in the resolution of inflammatory processes. In this study, we look at whether the use of a blended intravenous fat emulsion that includes soybean, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and FO confers clinical benefits in critically ill patients...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161014/toward-an-axial-nanoscale-ruler-for-fluorescence-microscopy
#13
Sabrina Simoncelli, Maria Makarova, William Wardley, Dylan M Owen
In the discussion of resolution in optical microscopy, axial precision has often come second to its lateral counterpart. However, biological systems make no special arrangements for our preferred direction of imaging. The ability to measure axial distances, that is, the heights of fluorophores relative to a plane of reference, is thus of paramount importance and has been the subject of several recent advances. A novel method is to modify the fluorescence emission based on the height of the individual fluorophore, such that its z-position is encoded somehow in the detected signal...
November 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161011/the-design-of-plasmodium-vivax-hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase-inhibitors-as-potential-antimalarial-therapeutics
#14
Dianne T Keough, Dominik Rejman, Radek Pohl, Eva Zborníková, Dana Hockova, Tristan Croll, Michael D Edstein, Geoff W Birrell, Marina Chavchich, Lieve M J Naesens, Gregory K Pierens, Ian M Brereton, Luke W Guddat
Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) are the foremost causative agents of malaria. Due to the development of resistance to current antimalarial medications, new drugs for this parasitic disease need to be discovered. The activity of hypoxanthine-guanine-[xanthine]-phosphoribosyltransferase, HG[X]PRT, is reported to be essential for the growth of both of these parasites, making it an excellent target for antimalarial drug discovery. Here, we have used rational structure-based methods to design an inhibitor, [3R,4R]-4-guanin-9-yl-3-((S)-2-hydroxy-2-phosphonoethyl)oxy-1-N-(phosphonopropionyl)pyrrolidine, of PvHGPRT and PfHGXPRT which has Ki values of 8 nM and 7 nM, respectively for these two enzymes...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161008/mapping-the-functional-tortuosity-and-spatio-temporal-heterogeneity-of-porous-polymer-membranes-with-super-resolution-nanoparticle-tracking
#15
Yu Cai, Daniel K Schwartz
As particles flow through porous media, they follow complex pathways and experience heterogeneous environments that are challenging to characterize. Tortuosity is often used as a parameter to characterize the complexity of pathways in porous materials and is useful in understanding hindered mass transport in industrial filtration and mass separation processes. However, conventional calculations of tortuosity provide only average values under static conditions; they are insensitive to the intrinsic heterogeneity of porous media and do not account for potential effects of operating conditions...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160950/superconductivity-in-a-cu-ii-based-coordination-polymer-with-perfect-kagom%C3%A3-structure
#16
Xing Huang, Shuai Zhang, Liyao Liu, Lei Yu, Genfu Chen, Wei Xu, Daoben Zhu
Highly crystalline material of Copper (II) benzenehexathiolate coordination polymer (Cu-BHT) has been prepared. Its two dimensional kagomè structure has been confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The as-prepared sample exhibits bulk superconductivity at ~ 0.25 K which is confirmed by the zero resistivity, AC magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements. Another diamagnetic transition at ~ 3K suggests that there is a second superconducting phase which may be associated to the single layer or few-layer of Cu-BHT...
November 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160933/xyloglucan-in-the-primary-cell-wall-assessment-by-fesem-selective-enzyme-digestions-and-nanogold-affinity-tags
#17
Yunzhen Zheng, Xuan Wang, Yuning Chen, Edward Wagner, Daniel J Cosgrove
Xyloglucan has been hypothesized to bind extensively to cellulose microfibril surfaces and to tether microfibrils into a load-bearing network, thereby playing a central role in wall mechanics and growth, but this view is challenged by newer results. Here we combined high-resolution imaging by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) with nanogold affinity tags and selective endoglucanase treatments to assess the spatial location and conformation of xyloglucan in onion cell walls. FESEM imaging of xyloglucanase-digested cell walls revealed an altered microfibril organization but did not yield clear evidence of xyloglucan conformations...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160929/anatomical-variations-of-the-human-cochlea-determined-from-micro-ct-and-high-resolution-ct-imaging-and-reconstruction
#18
Jie Tang, Xianglong Tang, Zhenhua Li, YiKang Liu, SongHua Tan, Heng Li, RongDan Ke, Zhi Wang, Li Gong, AnZhou Tang
Understanding the anatomical variations in the human cochlea are important for cochlear implants. This study examined these variations using a reconstructed fusion model of the skull and temporal bone. The 3D digital model of the temporal bone was reconstructed from multiple axial micro-CT scans of temporal bone and high resolution CT (HRCT) of the skull from 15 cadavers. A skull model was reconstructed and merged with the reconstructed temporal bone. The 3D relationship between the cochlea and the skull's mid-sagittal plane was analyzed...
November 21, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160928/genotyping-by-sequencing-for-estimating-relatedness-in-non-model-organisms-avoiding-the-trap-of-precise-bias
#19
Catherine R M Attard, Luciano B Beheregaray, Luciana M Möller
There has been remarkably little attention to using the high resolution provided by genotyping-by-sequencing (i.e. RADseq and similar methods) datasets for assessing relatedness in wildlife populations. A major hurdle is the genotyping error, especially allelic dropout, often found in this type of dataset that could lead to downward-biased, yet precise, estimates of relatedness. Here we assess the applicability of genotyping-by-sequencing datasets for relatedness inferences given their relatively high genotyping error rates...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160924/accelerated-untargeted-metabolomics-analysis-of-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma-reveal-metabolic-shifts-in-plasma-and-tumor-adjacent-skins-of-xenograft-mice
#20
Yunchen Le, Xiaoyan Shen, Hongyan Kang, Qizheng Wang, Kejia Li, Jie Zheng, Yunqiu Yu
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a heterogeneous group of skin-homing T-cell neoplasms. Clinical management is stage based but diagnosis and prognosis could be extremely challenging. The presented study aims to explore the metabolic profiling of CTCL by an accelerated untargeted metabolomics data analysis tool "mummichog" to facilitate the discoveries of potential biomarkers for clinical early-stage diagnosis, prognosis and treatments in CTCL. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) based untargeted metabolomics were conducted on the skin and plasma of CTCL mice...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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