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František Novomeský, Martin Janík, Michal Hájek, Jozef Krajčovič, Lubomír Straka
Vomiting and aspiration of gastric contents into the airways and lungs is a common and well-known clinicopathological entity. This phenomenon might also occur in underwater diving, where it can lead to life-threatening or fatal situations. This article presents two incidents involving diving-related vomiting with associated aspiration of gastric contents. One case, a 39-year-old commercial diver using a full-face diving mask, was fatal and the other was a 33-year-old, female recreational scuba diver in whom underwater vomiting was complicated by pulmonary aspiration of a solid foreign body (a peanut) into the right lower lobe bronchus...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
John Lippmann, David McD Taylor, Christopher Stevenson, Joanne W Williams
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the results from three Australian scuba diver surveys. As the surveys differed in recruitment methods, the expectation was that respondents would differ in some important characteristics. METHODOLOGY: Anonymous, online, cross-sectional surveys of the demographics, health, diving practices and outcomes were distributed to: (1) Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members; (2) Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) Asia-Pacific members; and (3) divers who had received any PADI non-leadership certification within the previous four years...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Yeonsik Noh, Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Yan Bai, Joseph White, John P Florian, Peter R Brink, Ki H Chon
Prolonged and high pressure diving may lead to various physiological changes including significant alterations of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity that may be associated with altered physical performance, decompression sickness, or central nervous system oxygen toxicity. Ideally, researchers could elucidate ANS function before, during, and after dives that are most associated with altered function and adverse outcomes. However, we have a limited understanding of the activities of the ANS especially during deeper prolonged SCUBA diving because there has never been a convenient way to collect physiological data during deep dives...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Robert M Dores, Michelle Scuba-Gray, Bridgette McNally, Perry Davis, Akiyoshi Takahashi
Previous studies on bony vertebrate MC2R orthologs (i.e., ray finned fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) have shown that these MC2R orthologs have an obligatory requirement for interaction with bony vertebrate MRAP1 orthologs to a) allow for the trafficking of the MC2R ortholog to the plasma membrane; and b) to allow activation by ACTH, but not by any MSH-sized ligand. In addition, previous studies have found that co-expression of teleost and mammalian MC4R orthologs with corresponding MRAP2 has positive effects on sensitivity to stimulation by αMSH or ACTH...
March 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
John Henry McDermott, Charles Reynard, Jonathan Perry, James W Dear, Fran Child, Rachel Jenner
BACKGROUND: Recent public health strategies have contributed towards a significant reduction in the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings. When events do occur, symptoms can vary dramatically depending on the carboxyhaemoglobin level and individual factors. Most reports to date focus on individual cases or larger retrospective reviews of diverse cohorts. There are very few reports of CO exposure related to scuba diving activities. METHODS: We describe the clinical sequelae experienced by 10 children who were exposed to CO during a scuba diving lesson...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Roshan Patel, Bill Scuba, Roy Soetikno, Tonya Kaltenbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Robert L Reid, Melissa Lorenzo
OBJECTIVE: Obstetrical care providers may occasionally encounter women with questions about the safety of Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) diving in pregnancy. This article provides an overview of safety issues associated with basic SCUBA diving and offers guidance to practitioners about how to evaluate and counsel pregnant women about the associated maternal and fetal risks. Basic diving physiology is reviewed and the implications of SCUBA diving during pregnancy are discussed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Josep M Casadesús, Fernando Aguirre, Ana Carrera, Pere Boadas-Vaello, Maria T Serrando, Francisco Reina
The purpose of this study was to suggest modifications of autopsy techniques in order to improve post-mortem diagnosis of arterial gas embolism (AGE) based on multidisciplinary investigation of SCUBA diving fatalities. Five adult human cadavers from the voluntary donation program of the Human Anatomy Laboratory, and eight judicial autopsied bodies of SCUBA divers from the Forensic Pathology Service were assessed. Before performing any autopsies, we accessed the diving plan and the divers' profiles for each case...
February 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Matt Lechner, Liam Sutton, Jonathan M Fishman, David M Kaylie, Richard E Moon, Liam Masterson, Christoph Klingmann, Martin A Birchall, Valerie J Lund, John S Rubin
Importance: Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) diving has become increasingly popular with millions of people diving each year. Otorhinolaryngologists are often consulted either by patients or diving physicians regarding fitness to dive, and at present, the guidelines do not provide comprehensive information regarding the evaluation of this patient cohort. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing otorhinolaryngological guidelines for fitness to dive recreationally...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Matt Lechner, Liam Sutton, Jonathan M Fishman, David M Kaylie, Richard E Moon, Liam Masterson, Christoph Klingmann, Martin A Birchall, Valerie J Lund, John S Rubin
Importance: Scuba diving is becoming increasingly popular. However, scuba diving is associated with specific risks; 80% of adults and 85% of juvenile divers (aged 6-17 years) have been reputed to have an ear, nose, or throat complaint related to diving at some point during their diving career. Divers frequently seek advice from primary care physicians, diving physicians, and otorhinolaryngologists, not only in the acute setting, but also related to the long-term effects of diving. Observations: The principles underpinning diving-related injuries that may present to the otorhinolaryngologist rely on gas volume and gas saturation laws, and the prevention of these injuries requires both that the diver is skilled and that their anatomy allows for pressure equalization between the various anatomical compartments...
February 15, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Agathe Ribéreau-Gayon, David O Carter, Stephanie Regan
The feeding patterns of species of large sharks on human corpses are well documented in the literature however, that of smaller sharks are less known. This may introduce uncertainty in the medicolegal conclusions. For that reason, accurate identification of patterns of shark predation is very relevant, specifically in areas bordered by the sea. In the case described here, an unidentified lesion was noted on the body of a victim of a scuba diving accident off the island of Kauai, in Hawaii. The aim of this study was to identify the origin of the lesion and investigate its potential to inform on the context of death and/or decomposition...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Guido Zampieri, Dinh Van Tran, Michele Donini, Nicolò Navarin, Fabio Aiolli, Alessandro Sperduti, Giorgio Valle
BACKGROUND: The uncovering of genes linked to human diseases is a pressing challenge in molecular biology and precision medicine. This task is often hindered by the large number of candidate genes and by the heterogeneity of the available information. Computational methods for the prioritization of candidate genes can help to cope with these problems. In particular, kernel-based methods are a powerful resource for the integration of heterogeneous biological knowledge, however, their practical implementation is often precluded by their limited scalability...
January 25, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Antonija Perović, Sandra Sobočanec, Sanja Dabelić, Tihomir Balog, Jerka Dumić
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of scuba diving on oxidative damage markers in erythrocytes and plasma, antioxidant system in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) gene expressions in recreational divers after a winter nondive period (at least 5 months). For that purpose, 17 male recreational divers performed an immersion at a depth of 30 m for 30 min. Blood samples were collected immediately before and after diving, 3 and 6 h after diving...
January 15, 2018: Free Radical Research
P Buzzacott, D Schiller, J Crain, P J Denoble
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates morbidity and mortality suffered by divers in the USA and Canada. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively recruited probability-weighted sample for estimating the national burden of injury and a weighted retrospective survey for estimating exposure. METHODS: The National Electronic Surveillance System and Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) were searched for scuba diving injuries. The Divers Alert Network diving fatality database was searched for deaths, and Sports and Fitness Industry Association estimates for diving were obtained from annual surveys...
January 4, 2018: Public Health
Olivier Castagna, Jacques Regnard, Emmanuel Gempp, Pierre Louge, François Xavier Brocq, Bruno Schmid, Anne-Virginie Desruelle, Valentin Crunel, Adrien Maurin, Romain Chopard, David Hunter MacIver
BACKGROUND: Immersion pulmonary edema is potentially a catastrophic condition; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms are ill-defined. This study assessed the individual and combined effects of exertion and negative pressure breathing on the cardiovascular system during the development of pulmonary edema in SCUBA divers. METHODS: Sixteen male professional SCUBA divers performed four SCUBA dives in a freshwater pool at 1 m depth while breathing air at either a positive or negative pressure both at rest or with exercise...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Elena Romano, Luisa Bergamin, Giancarlo Pierfranceschi, Claudio Provenzani, Andrea Marassich
The use of benthic foraminifera as ecological indicators in submarine caves of temperate seas have never been studied before and it represents a new approach, verified by this research. The Bel Torrente submarine cave (Gulf of Orosei, Sardinia, Italy) was surveyed by GUE (Global Underwater Explorers) scuba divers in order to georeferencing the cave before positioning the sampling stations, from the entrance to 430 m inside the cave. A total of 15 water samples were collected to investigate abiotic parameters (temperature, salinity, pH) while 15 sediment samples were collected to analyze grain size and benthic foraminifera...
December 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Adam Bender-Heine, Zachary W Dillard, Matthew J Zdilla
Equalization of middle ear pressure is an important consideration for scuba divers. When middle ear pressure is asymmetric, a diver may experience alternobaric vertigo. Moreover, individuals with an underlying temporal bone dehiscence are predisposed to facial baroparesis. An understanding on behalf of fellow divers and emergency responders to recognize and differentiate facial baroparesis from decompression illness is critical. Misdiagnosis may lead to inappropriate treatment or unwarranted stoppage of diving...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Volker Steger, Ulrike Sostheim, Marcus Leistner, Thorsten Walles
PURPOSE: Spontaneous pneumothorax (PNTX) is a common disease frequently operated at specialized thoracic surgery units. Videothoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become the standard for treatment and recurrence prevention. While there is broad consensus regarding indications and techniques of PNTX surgery, postoperative risks and consecutive patient behavioral advice have not been sufficiently elucidated. METHODS: Single-center cohort analysis of 641 patients operated for primary PNTX by VATS over 10 years...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Hsuan-Ching Ho, Miranda VAN Heden
A new species sandperch, Parapercis altipinnis, is described based on the holotype collected from Cebu, the Philippines at 55-65 m by SCUBA. The new species belongs to the P. cylindrica complex and can be distinguished by an extremely high first dorsal fin, the first spine slightly longer than the head; 3 predorsal scales; 42 or 43 lateral-line scales; teeth present on vomer and palatines. The body is reddish dorsally and blackish ventrally, with 5 large brownish saddles alternating with white bands on dorsal surface; scattered dots on top of head, first dorsal fin and dorsal surface; first dorsal fin milky white with 5 black marks on anterior margin; a black broad band below eye; cheek and throat blackish red surrounding by white color; row of 10 short white bars along the lateral side of body axis; row of 9 deep red to blackish bars on lower half of lateral side of body; base of pelvic fin and lower margin of caudal fin blackish; rows of black spots on soft dorsal fin...
November 1, 2017: Zootaxa
Daniel Wagner, Andrew Shuler
The black coral fauna of Bermudan waters is poorly known, in large part due to the logistical challenges of surveying deep-water (>50 m) environments where most species occur. In 2016, the Nekton Expedition sought to survey the deep-water biodiversity around Bermuda using manned submersibles and mixed-gas technical SCUBA. A total of 28 black coral specimens were collected, and these were examined based on skeletal spine morphology, polyp morphology, colony branching pattern and in situ photographs. The specimens were assigned to seven species in three families and four genera, including (1) Antipathes atlantica Gray, 1857, (2) Antipathes furcata Gray, 1857, (3) Stichopathes pourtalesi Brook, 1889, (4) Stichopathes sp...
November 7, 2017: Zootaxa
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