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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306625/epidemiology-of-morbidity-and-mortality-in-us-and-canadian-recreational-scuba-diving
#1
P Buzzacott, D Schiller, J Crain, P J Denoble
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates morbidity and mortality suffered by divers in the USA and Canada. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively recruited probability-weighted sample for estimating the national burden of injury and a weighted retrospective survey for estimating exposure. METHODS: The National Electronic Surveillance System and Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) were searched for scuba diving injuries. The Divers Alert Network diving fatality database was searched for deaths, and Sports and Fitness Industry Association estimates for diving were obtained from annual surveys...
January 4, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299780/the-key-roles-of-negative-pressure-breathing-and-exercise-in-the-development-of-interstitial-pulmonary-edema-in-professional-male-scuba-divers
#2
Olivier Castagna, Jacques Regnard, Emmanuel Gempp, Pierre Louge, François Xavier Brocq, Bruno Schmid, Anne-Virginie Desruelle, Valentin Crunel, Adrien Maurin, Romain Chopard, David Hunter MacIver
BACKGROUND: Immersion pulmonary edema is potentially a catastrophic condition; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms are ill-defined. This study assessed the individual and combined effects of exertion and negative pressure breathing on the cardiovascular system during the development of pulmonary edema in SCUBA divers. METHODS: Sixteen male professional SCUBA divers performed four SCUBA dives in a freshwater pool at 1 m depth while breathing air at either a positive or negative pressure both at rest or with exercise...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287616/the-distribution-of-benthic-foraminifera-in-bel-torrente-submarine-cave-sardinia-italy-and-their-environmental-significance
#3
Elena Romano, Luisa Bergamin, Giancarlo Pierfranceschi, Claudio Provenzani, Andrea Marassich
The use of benthic foraminifera as ecological indicators in submarine caves of temperate seas have never been studied before and it represents a new approach, verified by this research. The Bel Torrente submarine cave (Gulf of Orosei, Sardinia, Italy) was surveyed by GUE (Global Underwater Explorers) scuba divers in order to georeferencing the cave before positioning the sampling stations, from the entrance to 430 m inside the cave. A total of 15 water samples were collected to investigate abiotic parameters (temperature, salinity, pH) while 15 sediment samples were collected to analyze grain size and benthic foraminifera...
December 20, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281198/alternobaric-vertigo-and-facial-baroparesis-caused-by-scuba-diving-and-relieved-by-chewing-pineapple-a-case-report
#4
Adam Bender-Heine, Zachary W Dillard, Matthew J Zdilla
Equalization of middle ear pressure is an important consideration for scuba divers. When middle ear pressure is asymmetric, a diver may experience alternobaric vertigo. Moreover, individuals with an underlying temporal bone dehiscence are predisposed to facial baroparesis. An understanding on behalf of fellow divers and emergency responders to recognize and differentiate facial baroparesis from decompression illness is critical. Misdiagnosis may lead to inappropriate treatment or unwarranted stoppage of diving...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279462/recurrence-of-spontaneous-pneumothorax-is-not-associated-with-allegedly-risk-prone-lifestyle-conduct
#5
Volker Steger, Ulrike Sostheim, Marcus Leistner, Thorsten Walles
PURPOSE: Spontaneous pneumothorax (PNTX) is a common disease frequently operated at specialized thoracic surgery units. Videothoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become the standard for treatment and recurrence prevention. While there is broad consensus regarding indications and techniques of PNTX surgery, postoperative risks and consecutive patient behavioral advice have not been sufficiently elucidated. METHODS: Single-center cohort analysis of 641 patients operated for primary PNTX by VATS over 10 years...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245679/a-new-species-of-the-sandperch-genus-i-parapercis-i-from-the-philippines-perciformes-pinguipedidae
#6
Hsuan-Ching Ho, Miranda VAN Heden
A new species sandperch, Parapercis altipinnis, is described based on the holotype collected from Cebu, the Philippines at 55-65 m by SCUBA. The new species belongs to the P. cylindrica complex and can be distinguished by an extremely high first dorsal fin, the first spine slightly longer than the head; 3 predorsal scales; 42 or 43 lateral-line scales; teeth present on vomer and palatines. The body is reddish dorsally and blackish ventrally, with 5 large brownish saddles alternating with white bands on dorsal surface; scattered dots on top of head, first dorsal fin and dorsal surface; first dorsal fin milky white with 5 black marks on anterior margin; a black broad band below eye; cheek and throat blackish red surrounding by white color; row of 10 short white bars along the lateral side of body axis; row of 9 deep red to blackish bars on lower half of lateral side of body; base of pelvic fin and lower margin of caudal fin blackish; rows of black spots on soft dorsal fin...
November 1, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245639/the-black-coral-fauna-cnidaria-antipatharia-of-bermuda-with-new-records
#7
Daniel Wagner, Andrew Shuler
The black coral fauna of Bermudan waters is poorly known, in large part due to the logistical challenges of surveying deep-water (>50 m) environments where most species occur. In 2016, the Nekton Expedition sought to survey the deep-water biodiversity around Bermuda using manned submersibles and mixed-gas technical SCUBA. A total of 28 black coral specimens were collected, and these were examined based on skeletal spine morphology, polyp morphology, colony branching pattern and in situ photographs. The specimens were assigned to seven species in three families and four genera, including (1) Antipathes atlantica Gray, 1857, (2) Antipathes furcata Gray, 1857, (3) Stichopathes pourtalesi Brook, 1889, (4) Stichopathes sp...
November 7, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241231/influence-of-repetitive-diving-in-freshwater-on-pressure-equalization-and-eustachian-tube-function-in-recreational-scuba-divers
#8
Stefanie Jansen, Manuela Boor, Moritz F Meyer, Eberhard D Pracht, Ruth Volland, Heinz D Klünter, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Dirk Beutner, Maria Grosheva
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effect of repetitive pressure exposure during freshwater dives on Eustachian tube function and the middle ear, assessed by the Eustachian tube function test (ETFT). METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study included 23 divers over three consecutive days of diving in freshwater lakes in Nordhausen, Germany. Participants underwent otoscopy and ETFT before the first dive, between each dive and after the last dive. ETFT included regular tympanometry (R-tymp), tympanometry after Valsalva (V-tymp) and after swallowing (S-tymp)...
December 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241230/influence-of-repetitive-diving-in-saltwater-on-pressure-equalization-and-eustachian-tube-function-in-recreational-scuba-divers
#9
Moritz F Meyer, Manuela Boor, Stefanie Jansen, Eberhard D Pracht, Moritz Felsch, Heinz D Klünter, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Dirk Beutner, Maria Grosheva
INTRODUCTION: We investigated in a prospective, observational trial the feasibility of using the Eustachian tube function test (ETFT) to measure the effect of repetitive pressure exposure during open seawater dives on Eustachian tube function. METHODS: The study included 28 adult divers during six consecutive days of diving in the Red Sea. Participants underwent otoscopy and ETFT before the first dive, between each dive and after the last dive. ETFT included regular tympanometry (R-tymp), tympanometry after Valsalva (V-tymp) and after swallowing (S-tymp)...
December 2017: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220368/increased-sediment-load-during-a-large-scale-dam-removal-changes-nearshore-subtidal-communities
#10
Stephen P Rubin, Ian M Miller, Melissa M Foley, Helen D Berry, Jeffrey J Duda, Benjamin Hudson, Nancy E Elder, Matthew M Beirne, Jonathan A Warrick, Michael L McHenry, Andrew W Stevens, Emily F Eidam, Andrea S Ogston, Guy Gelfenbaum, Rob Pedersen
The coastal marine ecosystem near the Elwha River was altered by a massive sediment influx-over 10 million tonnes-during the staged three-year removal of two hydropower dams. We used time series of bathymetry, substrate grain size, remotely sensed turbidity, scuba dive surveys, and towed video observations collected before and during dam removal to assess responses of the nearshore subtidal community (3 m to 17 m depth). Biological changes were primarily driven by sediment deposition and elevated suspended sediment concentrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214659/2d-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-of-the-right-ventricle-free-wall-in-scuba-divers-after-single-open-sea-dive
#11
Zora Susilovic-Grabovac, Ante Obad, Darko Duplančić, Ivana Banić, Denise Brusoni, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Ivica Vuković, Zeljko Dujic, Darija Bakovic
The presence of circulating gas bubbles and their influence on pulmonary and right heart hemodynamics was reported after uncomplicated self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) dive(s). Improvements in cardiac imaging have recently focused great attention on the right ventricle (RV). The aim of our study was to evaluate possible effects of a single air SCUBA dive on RV function using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in healthy divers after single open sea dive to 18 meters of seawater, followed by bottom stay of 47 minutes with a direct ascent to the surface...
December 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161314/conventional-and-technical-diving-surveys-reveal-elevated-biomass-and-differing-fish-community-composition-from-shallow-and-upper-mesophotic-zones-of-a-remote-united-states-coral-reef
#12
Roldan C Muñoz, Christine A Buckel, Paula E Whitfield, Shay Viehman, Randy Clark, J Christopher Taylor, Brian P Degan, Emma L Hickerson
The world's coral reefs appear to be in a global decline, yet most previous research on coral reefs has taken place at depths shallower than 30 m. Mesophotic coral ecosystem (depths deeper than ~30 m) studies have revealed extensive, productive habitats and rich communities. Despite recent advances, mesophotic coral ecosystems remain understudied due to challenges with sampling at deeper depths. The few previous studies of mesophotic coral ecosystems have shown variation across locations in depth-specific species composition and assemblage shifts, potentially a response to differences in habitat or light availability/water clarity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119574/effects-of-emf-emissions-from-undersea-electric-cables-on-coral-reef-fish
#13
Audie K Kilfoyle, Robert F Jermain, Manhar R Dhanak, Joseph P Huston, Richard E Spieler
The objective of this study was to determine if electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions from undersea power cables impacted local marine life, with an emphasis on coral reef fish. The work was done at the South Florida Ocean Measurement Facility of Naval Surface Warfare Center in Broward County, Florida, which has a range of active undersea detection and data transmission cables. EMF emissions from a selected cable were created during non-destructive visual fish surveys on SCUBA. During surveys, the transmission of either alternating current (AC), direct current (DC), or none (OFF) was randomly initiated by the facility at a specified time...
November 9, 2017: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117262/benthic-colonization-in-newly-ice-free-soft-bottom-areas-in-an-antarctic-fjord
#14
Cristian Lagger, Natalia Servetto, Luciana Torre, Ricardo Sahade
Extended glacier retreat is among the main consequences of the rapid warming of the West Antarctic Peninsula. Particularly, in the inner part of Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) large areas are now exposed to open sea conditions owing to the retreat of Fourcade glacier. During the 2010 austral summer, underwater photographic surveys were undertaken by SCUBA diving up to 30 m in these new ice-free areas 80 m from the glacier front. Our main aim was to investigate colonization and early succession of the benthic assemblages on soft-bottom areas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116696/spinal-decompression-sickness-in-an-artisanal-diving-fisherman-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-mexico-a-case-report
#15
Daniel Popa, Walter Chin, Oswaldo Huchim-Lara, Ian Grover
Artisanal fishermen around the world employ scuba and surface-supplied diving for their livelihoods and often undergo provocative dive profiles due to economic pressures. Consequently, rates of decompression sickness (DCS) are much greater than in recreational scuba divers. Here we present the case of a surface-supplied diving fisherman from the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, who suffered a significant episode of spinal DCS and underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatments, with a favorable outcome. Additionally, we review the proposed mechanisms underlying spinal DCS...
2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116695/repetitive-freshwater-diving-risk-factors-and-prevalence-of-barotrauma
#16
Stefanie Jansen, Moritz Friedo Meyer, Manuela Boor, Ruth Volland, Eberhard Daniel Pracht, Heinz Dieter Klünter, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Dirk Beutner, Maria Grosheva
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the influence of repetitive scuba diving in fresh water on the middle ear mucosa. The prevalence of middle ear barotrauma (MEB) and risk factors for MEB were evaluated. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, Level of evidence 1b. METHODS: During three days, 23 divers made 144 repetitive dives in a freshwater lake. Participants underwent otoscopic examinations and were questioned about ENT-related complaints in the morning before the first dive, in between the dives and after the last dive...
2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116694/efficacy-of-the-u-s-navy-treatment-tables-in-treating-dcs-in-103-recreational-scuba-divers
#17
Walter Chin, Ellie Joo, Scott Ninokawa, Daniel A Popa, Derek B Covington
Despite the fact that current decompression schedules reduce the risk of decompression sickness (DCS), recreational scuba divers continue to experience DCS. Therapy outcomes in these divers are difficult to track. Our study aims to understand the efficacy of the United States Navy (USN) Treatment Tables (5, 6, 6A, 9) in providing symptomatic relief among recreational scuba divers. We conducted a single-center retrospective review of recreational divers treated from 2003 to 2013. A total of 187 divers were identified: 84 divers were excluded, and the charts of the remaining 103 divers were independently reviewed by three clinicians...
2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109872/severe-decompression-illness-case-report-prehospital-recognition-and-regional-transport-considerations
#18
Julie Estrada, David Meurer, Kevin De Boer, Karl Huesgen
A 46-year-old male presented to our tertiary care emergency department (ED) with shortness of breath and chest pain following an uneventful four-hour SCUBA dive at 100 feet. His prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) assessment revealed transient hypotension and hypoxia. He later developed progressive skin mottling. Serology was significant for acute kidney injury, transaminitis, hemoconcentration, and hypoxia on an arterial blood gas. Computed tomography (CT) angiography demonstrated intravascular gas throughout the mesenteric and pulmonary arteries as well as the portal venous system...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056141/the-economy-of-shark-conservation-in-the-northeast-pacific-the-role-of-ecotourism-and-citizen-science
#19
Peter A Mieras, Chris Harvey-Clark, Michael Bear, Gina Hodgin, Boone Hodgin
Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991099/nonsurgical-management-of-retained-needlefish-jaw
#20
Clarissa Kum, Jessica R Chang, Anna M Gruener, Timothy J McCulley
While scuba diving, the left medial canthus of a 53-year-old man was pierced by a needlefish. He immediately lost vision in his left eye. An orbital computed tomographic scan showed the needlefish jaw in the left optic canal. The left medial orbit was explored surgically but no foreign object was removed. One month later, MRI confirmed the presence of the retained needlefish jaw. A conservative approach was taken and the patient remained stable over 3 months of follow-up.
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
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