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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778407/the-current-status-of-coral-reefs-and-their-vulnerability-to-climate-change-and-multiple-human-stresses-in-the-comoros-archipelago-western-indian-ocean
#1
B Cowburn, M A Samoilys, D Obura
Coral bleaching and various human stressors have degraded the coral reefs of the Comoros Archipelago in the past 40 years and rising atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to further impact marine habitats. The condition of reefs in the Comoros is poorly known; using SCUBA based methods we surveyed reef condition and resilience to bleaching at sites in Grande Comore and Mohéli in 2010 and 2016. The condition of reefs was highly variable, with a range in live coral cover between 6% and 60% and target fishery species biomass between 20 and 500 kg per ha...
May 16, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768543/preventing-diseases-in-round-the-world-travelers-a-contemporary-challenge-for-travel-medicine-advice
#2
Karis Maria de Pinho Rodrigues, Beatriz Meurer Moreira
Providing advice for travelers embarking on long-term trips poses a challenge in travel medicine. A long duration of risk exposure is associated with underuse of protective measures and poor adherence to chemoprophylaxis, increasing the chances of acquiring infections. Recently, in our clinic, we observed an increase in the number of travelers undertaking round-the-world trips. These individuals are typically aged around 32 years and quit their jobs to embark on one-to-two-year journeys. Their destinations include countries in two or more continents, invariably Southeast Asia and Indonesia, and mostly involve land travel and visiting rural areas...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734571/spirometry-and-oxidative-stress-after-rebreather-diving-in-warm-water
#3
Gerardo Bosco, Alex Rizzato, Silvia Quartesan, Enrico Camporesi, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Sarah Moretti, Costantino Balestra, Alessandro Rubini
Introduction: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy and use of enriched air can result in oxidative injury affecting the brain, lungs and eyes. HBO₂ exposure during diving can lead to a decrease in respiratory parameters. However, the possible effects of acute exposure to oxygen-enriched diving on subsequent spirometric performance and oxidative state in humans have not been recently described recently. We aim to investigate possible effects of acute (i) hyperbaric and (ii) hyperbaric hyperoxic exposure using scuba or closed-circuit rebreather (CCR) on subsequent spirometry and to assess the role of oxidative state after hyperoxic diving...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734569/heart-rate-variability-changes-as-an-indicator-of-decompression-related-physiological-stress
#4
Sérgio Rhein Schirato, Ingrid El-Dash, Vivian El-Dash, José Eduardo Natali, Paulo Nogueira Starzynski, José Guilherme Chaui-Berlinck
Many aspects of the physiological stress related to the exposure to the hyperbaric environment have been studied, but no research has been made to evaluate the impacts of scuba diving on heart rate variability (HRV). We investigated the effects of a simulated dive to 557 KPa (45 meters of salt water) for a 30-minute bottom time on the frequency and time domains estimators of HRV. Electrocardiogram records were obtained with superficial electrodes for 30 minutes before the simulated dive and, subsequently, for one hour after the dive...
March 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719007/gear-and-survey-efficiency-of-patent-tongs-for-oyster-populations-on-restoration-reefs
#5
David M Schulte, Romuald N Lipcius, Russell P Burke
Surveys of restored oyster reefs need to produce accurate population estimates to assess the efficacy of restoration. Due to the complex structure of subtidal oyster reefs, one effective and efficient means to sample is by patent tongs, rather than SCUBA, dredges, or bottom cores. Restored reefs vary in relief and oyster density, either of which could affect survey efficiency. This study is the first to evaluate gear (the first full grab) and survey (which includes selecting a specific half portion of the first grab for further processing) efficiencies of hand-operated patent tongs as a function of reef height and oyster density on subtidal restoration reefs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698826/emergence-of-a-multi-host-biofilm-forming-opportunistic-pathogen-staphylococcus-sciuri-d26-in-coral-favites-abdita
#6
S Divya, T Thinesh, G Seghal Kiran, Joseph Selvin
Corals are hotspots of ocean microbial diversity and imbalance in the composition of coral associated microbes was mostly correlated with the emergence of climate change is driven diseases and overall stability of the reef ecosystem. Coral sampling was performed by SCUBA diving at Palk Bay (latitude 9.271580, longitude 79.132203) located in India coast. Among the 54 bacterial isolates, an isolate MGL-D26 showed comparatively high biofilm formation and was identified as Staphylococcus sciuri based on phylogenetic affiliation...
April 23, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666774/coral-dermatitis-or-infectious-dermatitis-report-of-a-case-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-of-skin-after-scuba-diving
#7
Venkataramana Kandi
Skin lesion which develops after deep sea diving is termed as coral dermatitis. The corals are known to produce a toxic substance which when comes in to contact with human skin may elicit hypersensitive reactions. Most previous reports highlight the allergic reactions caused by deep sea diving. This is a rare case of staphylococcal skin infection in a second-year medical student caused by Staphylococcus aureus ; he reported a history of deep sea diving before being presented to the hospital with skin rashes...
February 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660542/time-to-stop-mucking-around-impacts-of-underwater-photography-on-cryptobenthic-fauna-found-in-soft-sediment-habitats
#8
Maarten De Brauwer, Benjamin J Saunders, Rohani Ambo-Rappe, Jamaluddin Jompa, Jennifer L McIlwain, Euan S Harvey
Scuba diving tourism is a sustainable source of income for many coastal communities, but can have negative environmental impacts if not managed effectively. Diving on soft sediment habitats, typically referred to as 'muck diving', is a growing multi-million dollar industry with a strong focus on photographing cryptobenthic fauna. We assessed how the environmental impacts of scuba divers are affected by the activity they are engaged in while diving and the habitat they dive in. To do this, we observed 66 divers on coral reefs and soft sediment habitats in Indonesia and the Philippines...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628904/safety-priorities-and-underestimations-in-recreational-scuba-diving-operations-a-european-study-supporting-the-implementation-of-new-risk-management-programmes
#9
Serena Lucrezi, Salih Murat Egi, Massimo Pieri, Francois Burman, Tamer Ozyigit, Danilo Cialoni, Guy Thomas, Alessandro Marroni, Melville Saayman
Introduction: Scuba diving is an important marine tourism sector, but requires proper safety standards to reduce the risks and increase accessibility to its market. To achieve safety goals, safety awareness and positive safety attitudes in recreational scuba diving operations are essential. However, there is no published research exclusively focusing on scuba divers' and dive centres' perceptions toward safety. This study assessed safety perceptions in recreational scuba diving operations, with the aim to inform and enhance safety and risk management programmes within the scuba diving tourism industry...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616324/variability-in-circulating-gas-emboli-after-a-same-scuba-diving-exposure
#10
V Papadopoulou, P Germonpré, D Cosgrove, R J Eckersley, P A Dayton, G Obeid, A Boutros, M-X Tang, S Theunissen, C Balestra
PURPOSE: A reduction in ambient pressure or decompression from scuba diving can result in ultrasound-detectable venous gas emboli (VGE). These environmental exposures carry a risk of decompression sickness (DCS) which is mitigated by adherence to decompression schedules; however, bubbles are routinely observed for dives well within these limits and significant inter-personal variability in DCS risk exists. Here, we assess the variability and evolution of VGE for 2 h post-dive using echocardiography, following a standardized pool dive in calm warm conditions...
April 3, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592979/spondylodiscitis-in-a-54-year-old-female-scuba-diver
#11
Neil Tuttle, Alexandra Brelis, Rachel Brereton, Kerrie Evans
A 54-year-old woman presented to a Sports Physician with a 4-year history of haemochromatosis, and she had a medical history that included a congenital spondylolisthesis resulting in a fusion of L4-S1 at age 16 years, episodic mechanical low back pain and an absence of other significant musculoskeletal symptoms. On presentation, she reported 18 months of severe low back pain that started after a scuba diving trip. After the onset of this low back pain, she developed gastrointestinal symptoms from Salmonella The gastrointestinal symptoms improved with a course of antibiotics, but the back pain persisted in spite of analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and several attempts at different conservative management...
March 28, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589215/cellular-glucose-uptake-during-breath-hold-diving-in-experienced-male-breath-hold-divers
#12
Nicola Sponsiello, Danilo Cialoni, Massimo Pieri, Alessandro Marroni
BACKGROUND: The physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms that govern diving, both self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) and breath-hold diving (BH-diving), are in large part well known, even if there are still many unknown aspects, in particular about cell metabolism during BH-diving. The scope of this study was to investigate changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and the catecholamine response to BH-diving, to better understand if the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake mechanism is involved in cellular metabolism in this sport...
March 27, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573811/the-discovery-of-deep-water-seagrass-meadows-in-a-pristine-indian-ocean-wilderness-revealed-by-tracking-green-turtles
#13
N Esteban, R K F Unsworth, J B Q Gourlay, G C Hays
Our understanding of global seagrass ecosystems comes largely from regions characterized by human impacts with limited data from habitats defined as notionally pristine. Seagrass assessments also largely focus on shallow-water coastal habitats with comparatively few studies on offshore deep-water seagrasses. We satellite tracked green turtles (Chelonia mydas), which are known to forage on seagrasses, to a remote, pristine deep-water environment in the Western Indian Ocean, the Great Chagos Bank, which lies in the heart of one of the world's largest marine protected areas (MPAs)...
March 21, 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572265/the-stereotactic-intracerebral-hemorrhage-underwater-blood-aspiration-scuba-technique-for-minimally-invasive-endoscopic-intracerebral-hemorrhage-evacuation
#14
Christopher Paul Kellner, Alexander G Chartrain, Dominic A Nistal, Jacopo Scaggiante, Danny Hom, Saadi Ghatan, Joshua B Bederson, J Mocco
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) evacuation techniques have gained interest as a potential therapeutic option. However, the instrumentation and techniques employed are still being refined to optimize hemostasis and evacuation efficiency. OBJECTIVE: We describe the application of a specific endoscopic technique in the treatment of ICH called the Stereotactic Intracerebral Hemorrhage Underwater Blood Aspiration (SCUBA) technique. It differs from previously described minimally invasive ICH interventions in that it combines two separate neuroendoscopic strategies in two phases, the first under dry-field conditions and the second using a wet-field strategy...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571234/cervicocranial-artery-dissection-and-scuba-diving-is-there-a-link-or-is-it-serendipity
#15
Gerald K Walters
Introduction: Numerous reports have documented cervicocranial artery dissection (CCAD) associated with scuba diving. The question remains as to whether there are risk factors unique to scuba diving related to the occurrence of CCAD. Objectives: This article aims to perform an examination of the reported cases to demonstrate any commonality among the injured divers and association with known risk factors for CCAD. Methods: A PubMed search was performed utilizing the key words: carotid artery dissection, dissection, arterial dissection, cranial artery dissection, scuba, diving, scuba diving...
January 2018: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566018/the-healthy-diver-a-cross-sectional-survey-to-evaluate-the-health-status-of-recreational-scuba-diver-members-of-divers-alert-network-dan
#16
Shabbar I Ranapurwala, Kristen L Kucera, Petar J Denoble
BACKGROUND: Scuba diver fitness is paramount to confront environmental stressors of diving. However, the diving population is aging and the increasing prevalence of diseases may be a concern for diver fitness. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the demographics, lifestyle factors, disease prevalence, and healthcare access and utilization of Divers Alert Network (DAN) members and compare them with those from the general population. METHODS: DAN membership health survey (DMHS) was administered online in 2011 to DAN members in the United States (US)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557100/vomiting-and-aspiration-of-gastric-contents-a-possible-life-threatening-combination-in-underwater-diving
#17
František Novomeský, Martin Janík, Michal Hájek, Jozef Krajčovič, Lubomír Straka
Vomiting and aspiration of gastric contents into the airways and lungs is a common and well-known clinicopathological entity. This phenomenon might also occur in underwater diving, where it can lead to life-threatening or fatal situations. This article presents two incidents involving diving-related vomiting with associated aspiration of gastric contents. One case, a 39-year-old commercial diver using a full-face diving mask, was fatal and the other was a 33-year-old, female recreational scuba diver in whom underwater vomiting was complicated by pulmonary aspiration of a solid foreign body (a peanut) into the right lower lobe bronchus...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557098/challenges-in-profiling-australian-scuba-divers-through-surveys
#18
John Lippmann, David McD Taylor, Christopher Stevenson, Joanne W Williams
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the results from three Australian scuba diver surveys. As the surveys differed in recruitment methods, the expectation was that respondents would differ in some important characteristics. METHODOLOGY: Anonymous, online, cross-sectional surveys of the demographics, health, diving practices and outcomes were distributed to: (1) Divers Alert Network Asia-Pacific (DAN AP) members; (2) Professional Association of Diving Instructors (PADI) Asia-Pacific members; and (3) divers who had received any PADI non-leadership certification within the previous four years...
March 31, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535634/effect-of-shallow-and-deep-scuba-dives-on-heart-rate-variability
#19
Yeonsik Noh, Hugo F Posada-Quintero, Yan Bai, Joseph White, John P Florian, Peter R Brink, Ki H Chon
Prolonged and high pressure diving may lead to various physiological changes including significant alterations of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity that may be associated with altered physical performance, decompression sickness, or central nervous system oxygen toxicity. Ideally, researchers could elucidate ANS function before, during, and after dives that are most associated with altered function and adverse outcomes. However, we have a limited understanding of the activities of the ANS especially during deeper prolonged SCUBA diving because there has never been a convenient way to collect physiological data during deep dives...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524525/evaluating-the-interactions-between-red-stingray-dasyatis-akajei-melanocortin-receptors-and-elephant-shark-callorhinchus-milii-mrap1-and-mrap2-following-stimulation-with-either-stingray-acth-1-24-or-stingray-des-acetyl-%C3%AE-msh-a-pharmacological-study-in-chinese
#20
Robert M Dores, Michelle Scuba-Gray, Bridgette McNally, Perry Davis, Akiyoshi Takahashi
Previous studies on bony vertebrate MC2R orthologs (i.e., ray finned fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) have shown that these MC2R orthologs have an obligatory requirement for interaction with bony vertebrate MRAP1 orthologs to a) allow for the trafficking of the MC2R ortholog to the plasma membrane; and b) to allow activation by ACTH, but not by any MSH-sized ligand. In addition, previous studies have found that co-expression of teleost and mammalian MC4R orthologs with corresponding MRAP2 has positive effects on sensitivity to stimulation by αMSH or ACTH...
March 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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