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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928454/the-role-of-oral-sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-in-maintaining-acid-base-balance-and-its-influence-on-the-cardiovascular-system-in-chronic-hemodialysis-patients-results-of-a-prospective-study
#1
Voiculeț C, Zară O, Bogeanu C, Văcăroiu I, Aron G
Background: Major acid-base variations during dialysis and the imbalances in serum calcium levels intensified by them play a role in cardiovascular damage of hemodialysis patients. Early vascular walls modifications can be objectified by determining the pulse wave velocity (PWV) - a marker of vascular stiffness that is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Material and methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 63 chronic hemodialysis patients with diuresis above 500 mL/ 24 hours and predialysis blood pressure below 160 mmHg (treatment controlled) randomized in two groups for 12 months - the study group receiving interdialitic oral sodium bicarbonate doses and control group, without oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation, but receiving higher bicarbonate prescriptions in dialysis...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927710/adrenocortical-carcinoma-an-unusual-cause-of-secondary-hypertension
#2
Daniel Veron Esquivel, Fernando Batiz, Alfonso Farias Vega, Perla A Carrillo Gonzalez
We present the case of a female patient aged 39 years who was admitted to our hospital due to hypertension, severe hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis; physical examination was remarkable for plethoric moon face, centripetal obesity and bilateral lower extremity oedema. She was admitted for intravenous potassium replacement and further assessment of hypertension and associated clinical findings. Laboratory testing showed increased levels of aldosterone, renin, cortisol, testosterone and androstenedione. An abdominal CT revealed a large mass in the right adrenal gland with hepatic involvement...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925241/vertebral-subluxation-repair-in-a-pet-goat
#3
Sara Nannarone, Enrico Bellezza, Yves P Moens, Paula Larenza Menzies
OBJECTIVES: To describe the perioperative management, including surgery, anesthesia, metabolic derangements, and physiotherapy, in a goat referred for paraparesis secondary to a road traffic accident. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. ANIMALS: 2-year-old mixed breed dwarf 44 kg female pet goat. METHODS: Clinical examination showed symptoms of early compensatory stages of shock, paraparesis with hyperextension of the thoracic limbs, pain on palpation of the thoracolumbar spine, increased patellar reflexes of both pelvic limbs without superficial sensitivity, but preserved deep pain sensation...
December 7, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918394/does-acetazolamide-really-promote-ventilator-weaning-in-critically-ill-children-with-metabolic-alkalosis
#4
Paul M Shore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914757/a-quick-reference-on-metabolic-alkalosis
#5
REVIEW
Daniel S Foy, Helio Autran de Morais
Metabolic alkalemia is characterized by an increase in bicarbonate concentration and base excess, an increase in pH, and a compensatory increase in carbon dioxide pressure. This article outlines indications for analysis, reference ranges, causes, and clinical signs of metabolic alkalosis. Algorithms for evaluation of patients with acid-base disorders and metabolic alkalosis are included.
December 1, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890436/respiratory-acid-base-disorders-in-the-critical-care-unit
#6
REVIEW
Kate Hopper
The incidence of respiratory acid-base abnormalities in the critical care unit (CCU) is unknown, although respiratory alkalosis is suspected to be common in this population. Abnormal carbon dioxide tension can have many physiologic effects, and changes in Pco2 may have a significant impact on outcome. Monitoring Pco2 in CCU patients is an important aspect of critical patient assessment, and identification of respiratory acid-base abnormalities can be valuable as a diagnostic tool. Treatment of respiratory acid-base disorders is largely focused on resolution of the primary disease, although mechanical ventilation may be indicated in cases with severe respiratory acidosis...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889222/long-term-follow-up-of-composite-bladder-augmentation-incorporating-stomach-in-a-multi-institutional-cohort-of-patients-with-cloacal-exstrophy
#7
J T Casey, K H Chan, Y Hasegawa, T Large, B Judge, M Kaefer, R Misseri, R C Rink, K Ueoka, M P Cain
INTRODUCTION: Composite bladder augmentation, incorporating gastric and bowel segments, has the theoretical advantage of metabolic neutrality while potentially avoiding the morbidities of gastrocystoplasty, such as hematuria-dysuria syndrome. The most common indication for this operation is a paucity of bowel, such as in cloacal exstrophy. Despite several early descriptive studies of this technique, there are no reports, to date, of long-term follow-up in this population. OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes of composite bladder augmentation utilizing stomach in a cohort of cloacal exstrophy patients...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866200/implementation-of-a-simplified-regional-citrate-anticoagulation-protocol-for-post-dilution-continuous-hemofiltration-using-a-bicarbonate-buffered-calcium-containing-replacement-solution
#8
Christopher J Kirwan, Ross Hutchison, Sherif Ghabina, Stephanie Schwarze, Abigail Beane, Susan Ramsay, Edward Thompson, John R Prowle
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent updates to the Nikkiso Aquarius continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) platform allowed us to develop a post-dilution protocol for regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) using standard bicarbonate buffered, calcium containing replacement solution with acid citrate dextrose formula-A as a citrate source. Our objective was to demonstrate that the protocol was safe and effective. METHODS: Prospective audit of consecutive patients receiving RCA for CRRT within intensive care unit, who were either contraindicated to heparin or had poor filter lifespan (<12 h for 2 consecutive filters) on heparin...
2016: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863254/acute-exposure-to-high-environmental-ammonia-hea-triggers-the-emersion-response-in-the-green-shore-crab
#9
Alex M Zimmer, Chris M Wood
The physiological effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure have been well documented in many aquatic species. In particular, it has recently been demonstrated that exposure to ammonia in fish leads to a similar hyperventilatory response as observed during exposure to hypoxia. In littoral crabs, such as the green crab (Carcinus maenas), exposure to severe hypoxia triggers an emersion response whereby crabs escape hypoxia to breathe air. We hypothesized that exposure to HEA in green crabs would lead to a similar behavioural response which is specific to ammonia...
November 15, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857520/secondary-elements-of-blood-ph-variation-can-influence-the-effort-effectiveness-based-on-adaptive-changes-within-a-group-of-elite-athletes
#10
Ştefan Adrian Martin, Valeriu Tomescu, Septimiu Voidăzan
AIM: pH is the direct indicator of the body reaction following the activities performed. Establishing precise correlations between pH and blood biochemical parameters might support the balancing of values during periods of marked physical activity. METHOD: We conducted a case study in a group of elite rowers. Twelve athletes were included in the study. Monitoring was carried out by collecting biological samples several times a day: in the morning, 80 minutes pre-workout, 12 hours after the last physical effort performed, at two different times, 10 days apart...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851638/2004-severe-metabolic-alkalosis-secondary-to-enterocutaneous-duodenal-fistula
#11
Stephanie Cull, Thomas Heitker, Zafar Akram Jamkhana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815594/wnk-signalling-pathways-in-blood-pressure-regulation
#12
REVIEW
Meena Murthy, Thimo Kurz, Kevin M O'Shaughnessy
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a major public health problem affecting more than a billion people worldwide with complications, including stroke, heart failure and kidney failure. The regulation of blood pressure is multifactorial reflecting genetic susceptibility, in utero environment and external factors such as obesity and salt intake. In keeping with Arthur Guyton's hypothesis, the kidney plays a key role in blood pressure control and data from clinical studies; physiology and genetics have shown that hypertension is driven a failure of the kidney to excrete excess salt at normal levels of blood pressure...
November 4, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810513/trpv1-deletion-exacerbates-hyperthermic-seizures-in-an-age-dependent-manner-in-mice
#13
Karlene T Barrett, Richard J A Wilson, Morris H Scantlebury
Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizure disorder to affect children. Although there is mounting evidence to support that FS occur when children have fever-induced hyperventilation leading to respiratory alkalosis, the underlying mechanisms of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation and links to FS remain poorly understood. As transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors are heat-sensitive, play an important role in adult thermoregulation and modulate respiratory chemoreceptors, we hypothesize that TRPV1 activation is important for hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation leading to respiratory alkalosis and decreased FS thresholds, and consequently, TRPV1 KO mice will be relatively protected from hyperthermic seizures...
December 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804847/the-warburg-effect-and-the-hallmarks-of-cancer
#14
Laurent Schwartz, Claudiu T Supuran, Khalid O Alfarouk
It is a longstanding debate whether cancer is one disease or a set of very diverse diseases. The goal of this paper is to suggest strongly that most (if not all) the hallmarks of cancer could be the consequence of the Warburg's effect. As a result of the metabolic impairment of the oxidative phosphorylation, there is a decrease in ATP concentration. To compensate the reduced energy yield, there is massive glucose uptake, anaerobic glycolysis, with an up-regulation of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway resulting in increased biosynthesis leading to increased cell division and local pressure...
October 31, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803420/acquired-gitelman-syndrome-in-an-anti-ssa-antibody-positive-patient-with-a-slc12a3-heterozygous-mutation
#15
Takeshi Kusuda, Tadashi Hosoya, Takayasu Mori, Katsuhito Ihara, Hidenori Nishida, Motoko Chiga, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Ryuji Koike, Shinichi Uchida, Hitoshi Kohsaka
A 36-year-old woman developed hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis after anti SS-A antibody was found to be positive. Diuretic loading test results were compatible with Gitelman syndrome (GS). The patient had a heterozygous mutation in SLC12A3, which encodes for thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCCT). While the mutation may be responsible for a latent hypofunction of NCCTs, the underlying anti-SSA antibody-associated autoimmunity induced the manifestation of its hypofunction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that anti SS-A antibody-associated autoimmunity may induce GS in a patient with a SLC12A3 heterozygous mutation...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799072/fluid-and-ion-transfer-across-the-blood-brain-and-blood-cerebrospinal-fluid-barriers-a-comparative-account-of-mechanisms-and-roles
#16
REVIEW
Stephen B Hladky, Margery A Barrand
The two major interfaces separating brain and blood have different primary roles. The choroid plexuses secrete cerebrospinal fluid into the ventricles, accounting for most net fluid entry to the brain. Aquaporin, AQP1, allows water transfer across the apical surface of the choroid epithelium; another protein, perhaps GLUT1, is important on the basolateral surface. Fluid secretion is driven by apical Na(+)-pumps. K(+) secretion occurs via net paracellular influx through relatively leaky tight junctions partially offset by transcellular efflux...
October 31, 2016: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784896/cryptic-exon-activation-in-slc12a3-in-gitelman-syndrome
#17
Kandai Nozu, Yoshimi Nozu, Keita Nakanishi, Takao Konomoto, Tomoko Horinouchi, Akemi Shono, Naoya Morisada, Shogo Minamikawa, Tomohiko Yamamura, Junya Fujimura, Koichi Nakanishi, Takeshi Ninchoji, Hiroshi Kaito, Ichiro Morioka, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Igor Vorechovsky, Kazumoto Iijima
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubulopathy characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with hypocalciuria and hypomagnesemia. GS clinical symptoms range from mild weakness to muscular cramps, paralysis or even sudden death as a result of cardiac arrhythmia. GS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the solute carrier family 12 member 3 (SLC12A3) gene, but molecular mechanisms underlying such a wide range of symptoms are poorly understood. Here we report cryptic exon activation in SLC12A3 intron 12 in a clinically asymptomatic GS, resulting from an intronic mutation c...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783275/a-new-peritoneal-dialysis-fluid-for-japanese-patients-a-randomized-non-inferiority-clinical-trial-of-safety-and-efficacy
#18
Masaaki Nakayama, Yoshindo Kawaguchi, Takashi Akiba, Masao Kim, Hidemune Naito, Shigeko Hara, Teruhiko Maeba, Noriaki Yorioka, James A Sloand, Mark R Marshall
BACKGROUND: We report here two new peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) for Japan [BLR 250, BLR 350 (Baxter Limited, Japan)]. The PDFs use two-chamber systems, and have bicarbonate and lactate buffer to a total of 35 mmol/L. In separate trials, the new PDFs were compared to two "standard" systems [PD-4, PD-2 (Baxter Limited, Japan)]. The trials aimed to demonstrate non-inferiority of peritoneal creatinine clearance (pCcr), peritoneal urea clearance (pCurea) and ultrafiltration volume (UF), and compare acid-base and electrolyte balance...
October 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767426/proximal-duodenoileal-anastomosis-for-treatment-of-small-intestinal-obstruction-and-volvulus-in-a-green-iguana-iguana-iguana
#19
Sarah Wills, Hugues Beaufrère, Gwyneth Watrous, Michelle L Oblak, Dale A Smith
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752015/gitelman-s-syndrome-presenting-with-hypocalcemic-tetany-and-hypokalemic-periodic-paralysis
#20
Kunal Gandhi, Dharmendra Prasad, Vinay Malhotra, Dhananjai Agrawal
Gitelman's syndrome is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypocalciuria, and metabolic alkalosis. Hypocalcemic tetany as a presentation of Gitelman's syndrome has rarely been reported in literature. We report a rare case of Gitelman's syndrome presenting with hypocalcemic tetany along with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A 17-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with a history of perioral numbness and carpal spasms of five days duration with progressive quadriparesis developing over a period of few hours...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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