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Yue Leng, Nick W J Wainwright, Francesco P Cappuccio, Paul G Surtees, Shabina Hayat, Robert Luben, Carol Brayne, Kay-Tee Khaw
BACKGROUND: We have identified a strong association between daytime napping and increased mortality risk from respiratory diseases, but little is known about the relationship between daytime napping and respiratory morbidity. METHODS: Data were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. Participants reported napping habits during 1998-2000 and were followed up for respiratory disease hospital admissions until March 2009...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
Danny Mitry, Kris Zutis, Baljean Dhillon, Tunde Peto, Shabina Hayat, Kay-Tee Khaw, James E Morgan, Wendy Moncur, Emanuele Trucco, Paul J Foster
PURPOSE: Crowdsourcing is based on outsourcing computationally intensive tasks to numerous individuals in the online community who have no formal training. Our aim was to develop a novel online tool designed to facilitate large-scale annotation of digital retinal images, and to assess the accuracy of crowdsource grading using this tool, comparing it to expert classification. METHODS: We used 100 retinal fundus photograph images with predetermined disease criteria selected by two experts from a large cohort study...
September 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Claude Pinnock, Jennifer L Y Yip, Anthony P Khawaja, Robert Luben, Shabina Hayat, David C Broadway, Paul J Foster, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nick Wareham
PURPOSE: To determine if topical beta-blocker use is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, particularly among people with self-reported glaucoma. METHODS: All participants who participated in the first health check (N = 25,639) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort (1993-2013) were included in this prospective cohort study, with a median follow-up of 17.0 years. We determined use of topical beta-blockers at baseline through a self-reported questionnaire and prescription check at the first clinical visit...
October 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Shabina Ariff, Anne Cc Lee, Joy Lawn, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Intrapartum-related neonatal deaths include live-born infants who die in the first 28 days of life from neonatal encephalopathy or die before onset of neonatal encephalopathy and have evidence of intrapartum injury. A smaller portion of the population in poorer countries has access to basic obstetric and postnatal care causing neonatal mortality rates to be higher. Presence of a skilled birth attendant and provision of basic emergency obstetric care can reduce intrapartum birth asphyxia by 40%. With the announcement of Sustainable Development Goals and global Every Newborn Action Plan, there is hope that interventions around continuum of care will save lives...
September 2016: Clinics in Perinatology
Sajid Soofi, Shabina Ariff, Kamran Sadiq, Atif Habib, Zaid Bhatti, Imran Ahmad, Masawar Hussain, Nabeela Ali, Simon Cousens, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence for the benefits of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) among children 6 to 59 months of age, the feasibility of introduction and potential benefit of VAS in the neonatal period in public health programmes is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of early neonatal VAS (single dose of 50 000 international units within 48-72 hours after birth) delivered through the public sector Lady Health Worker (LHW) programme in rural Pakistan and to document its association with a reduction in mortality at 6 months of age...
June 28, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Mohamed A Hendaus, Shabina Khan, Samar Osman, Yasser Alsamman, Tushar Khanna, Ahmed H Alhammadi
BACKGROUND: The average number of clerkship weeks required for the pediatric core rotation by the US medical schools is significantly lower than those required for internal medicine or general surgery. OBJECTIVE: The objective behind conducting this survey study was to explore the perceptions and expectations of medical students and pediatric physicians about the third-year pediatric clerkship. METHODS: An anonymous survey questionnaire was distributed to all general pediatric physicians at Hamad Medical Corporation and to students from Weill Cornell Medical College-Qatar...
2016: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Junaid Jibran Jawed, Saikat Majumder, Syamdas Bandyopadhyay, Satabdi Biswas, Shabina Parveen, Subrata Majumdar
Emergence of drug resistance during visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major obstacle imposed during successful therapy. An effective vaccine strategy against this disease is therefore necessary. Our present study exploited the SLA (soluble leishmanial antigen) and PGN (peptidoglycan) stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) as a suitable vaccine candidate during experimental VL. SLA-PGN-stimulated DCs showed a significant decrease in hepatic and splenic parasite burden, which were associated with increased production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-17...
July 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Anthony P Khawaja, Michelle P Y Chan, Jennifer L Y Yip, David C Broadway, David F Garway-Heath, Robert Luben, Shabina Hayat, Fiona E Matthews, Carol Brayne, Kay-Tee Khaw, Paul J Foster
PURPOSE: We examined the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and cognitive function in a population of older British adults. METHODS: Participants of the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk cohort study underwent ophthalmic and cognitive assessment. Measurements of RNFL thickness were made using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT). Cognitive testing included a short form of the Mini-Mental State Examination (SF-MMSE), an animal naming task, a letter cancellation task, the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the National Adult Reading Test (NART), and the Paired Associates Learning Test...
April 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sheraz Ahmed, Shabina Ariff, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Amjad Hussain, Aneeta Hotwani, Muhammad Yaqoob, Shahida M Qureshi, Imran Ahmed, Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Samir K Saha, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: The Aetiology of Neonatal Infection in South Asia (ANISA) study is a population-based study with sites in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. It aims to determine community-acquired incidence, etiology and associated risk factors for neonatal infections. Matiari, a rural site in Pakistan, was chosen for the study due to its high neonatal mortality rate and the presence of an established pregnancy and birth surveillance system. This article summarizes various challenges, remedial measures taken and lessons learned during the implementation of the ANISA study protocol in the unique rural setting of Matiari where the majority of births take place at home and accessibility to health care is limited...
May 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sadia Shakoor, Megan E Reller, Amnesty LeFevre, Aneeta Hotwani, Shahida M Qureshi, Farheen Yousuf, Mohammad Shahidul Islam, Nicholas Connor, Iftekhar Rafiqullah, Fatima Mir, Shabina Arif, Sajid Soofi, Linda A Bartlett, Samir Saha
BACKGROUND: The South Asian region has the second highest risk of maternal death in the world. To prevent maternal deaths due to sepsis and to decrease the maternal mortality ratio as per the World Health Organization Millenium Development Goals, a better understanding of the etiology of endometritis and related sepsis is required. We describe microbiological laboratory methods used in the maternal Postpartum Sepsis Study, which was conducted in Bangladesh and Pakistan, two populous countries in South Asia...
2016: Reproductive Health
Robert Luben, Shabina Hayat, Nicolas Wareham, K T Khaw
OBJECTIVE: To quantify hospital use in a general population over 10 years follow-up and to examine related factors in a general population-based cohort. DESIGN: A prospective population-based study of men and women. SETTING: Norfolk, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 11,228 men and 13,786 women aged 40-79 years in 1993-1997 followed between 1999 and 2009. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Number of hospital admissions and total bed days for individuals over a 10-year follow-up period identified using record linkage; five categories for admissions (from zero to highest ≥ 7) and hospital bed days (from zero to highest ≥ 20 nights)...
2016: BMJ Open
Sajid Bashir Soofi, Shabina Ariff, Ubaidullah Khan, Ali Turab, Gul Nawaz Khan, Atif Habib, Kamran Sadiq, Zamir Suhag, Zaid Bhatti, Imran Ahmed, Rajiv Bhal, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Globally, clinical certification of the cause of neonatal death is not commonly available in developing countries. Under such circumstances it is imperative to use available WHO verbal autopsy tool to ascertain causes of death for strategic health planning in countries where resources are limited and the burden of neonatal death is high. The study explores the diagnostic accuracy of WHO revised verbal autopsy tool for ascertaining the causes of neonatal deaths against reference standard diagnosis obtained from standardized clinical and supportive hospital data...
October 5, 2015: BMC Pediatrics
Michael Hultström, Cristiane Amorim de Paula, Marco Antônio Peliky Fontes, Simone Porcelli, Giuseppe Bellistri, Lorenzo Pugliese, Letizia Rasica, Mauro Marzorati, Gaspare Pavei, Scott K Ferguson, Clark T Holdsworth, Timothy I Musch, David C Poole, Nicolas Bourdillon, Matthew W Hoon, Louise M Burke, Donald W Michielli, Raphael Faiss, Grégoire P Millet, Benjamin T Corona, Michael S Green, Anderson Luiz B da Silveira, Amy L Sindler, Darren P Casey, Bruce D Johnson, Courtney M Wheatley, Amanda Carlson-Phillips, Laura J Kunces, Raul Bescos, L C Johnson, C R Martens, J N Justice, S B Ballak, D B Ballak, Samuel Penna Wanner, Cândido Celso Coimbra, Shabina Rehman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
Rajendra Badwe, Rohini Hawaldar, Nita Nair, Rucha Kaushik, Vani Parmar, Shabina Siddique, Ashwini Budrukkar, Indraneel Mittra, Sudeep Gupta
BACKGROUND: The role of locoregional treatment in women with metastatic breast cancer at first presentation is unclear. Preclinical evidence suggests that such treatment might help the growth of metastatic disease, whereas many retrospective analyses in clinical cohorts have suggested a favourable effect of locoregional treatment in these patients. We aimed to compare the effect of locoregional treatment with no treatment on outcome in women with metastatic breast cancer at initial presentation...
October 2015: Lancet Oncology
Douglas W Ball, Ning Jin, Ping Xue, Sheetal Bhan, Shabina R Ahmed, D Marc Rosen, Adam Schayowitz, Douglas P Clark, Barry D Nelkin
Multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) targeting VEGF receptors and other receptor tyrosine kinases have shown considerable activity in clinical trials of thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer frequently exhibits activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway. In other types of cancer, paradoxical ERK activation has emerged as a potential resistance mechanism to RAF-inhibiting drugs including MKIs such as sorafenib and pazopanib. We therefore queried whether the MEK inhibitor trametinib, could augment the activity of pazopanib in thyroid cancer cell lines...
November 2015: Oncology Reports
Zohra S Lassi, Wafa Aftab, Shabina Ariff, Rohail Kumar, Imtiaz Hussain, Nabiha B Musavi, Zahid Memon, Sajid B Soofi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Various models and strategies have been implemented over the years in different parts of the world to improve maternal and newborn health (MNH) in conflict affected areas. These strategies are based on specific needs and acceptability of local communities. This paper has undertaken a systematic review of global and local (Pakistan) information from conflict areas on platforms of health service provision in the last 10 years and information on acceptability from local stakeholders on effective models of service delivery; and drafted key recommendations for improving coverage of health services in conflict affected areas...
2015: Conflict and Health
Shaza Ali Mohammed Elhassan, Shabina Khan, Ahmed El-Makki
We are presenting a unique case of an 11-year-old girl admitted for investigation of progressive abdominal distention of more than one-year duration. Due to the complete cystic nature of the mass and its enormous size, it was not visualized by the ultrasound and was reported as massive ascites. MRI and postoperative histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of giant serous cystadenoma of the right ovary. She underwent a right ovarian cystectomy with complete preservation of both ovaries and fallopian tubes and is doing well on outpatient follow-up...
2015: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Jennifer L Y Yip, Anthony P Khawaja, Michelle P Y Chan, David C Broadway, Tunde Peto, Adnan Tufail, Robert Luben, Shabina Hayat, Amit Bhaniani, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Paul J Foster
PURPOSE: To examine the cross sectional and longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large British cohort study. METHODS: The EPIC Norfolk Eye study is nested in a larger prospective cohort study. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (1993-1997) and follow up (2006-2011) via clinical examination, validated lifestyle questionnaires and serum blood samples. AMD was ascertained using standardised grading of fundus photographs at the follow up...
2015: PloS One
Kazufumi Hirano, Woei Shin Chen, Adeline L W Chueng, Angela A Dunne, Tamara Seredenina, Aleksandra Filippova, Sumitra Ramachandran, Angela Bridges, Laiq Chaudry, Gary Pettman, Craig Allan, Sarah Duncan, Kiew Ching Lee, Jean Lim, May Thu Ma, Agnes B Ong, Nicole Y Ye, Shabina Nasir, Sri Mulyanidewi, Chiu Cheong Aw, Pamela P Oon, Shihua Liao, Dizheng Li, Douglas G Johns, Neil D Miller, Ceri H Davies, Edward R Browne, Yasuji Matsuoka, Deborah W Chen, Vincent Jaquet, A Richard Rutter
AIMS: The NADPH oxidase (NOX) family of enzymes catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX enzymes not only have a key role in a variety of physiological processes but also contribute to oxidative stress in certain disease states. To date, while numerous small molecule inhibitors have been reported (in particular for NOX2), none have demonstrated inhibitory activity in vivo. As such, there is a need for the identification of improved NOX inhibitors to enable further evaluation of the biological functions of NOX enzymes in vivo as well as the therapeutic potential of NOX inhibition...
August 10, 2015: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Shabina Yeasmin, Chul-Hwan Kim, Shah Md Asraful Islam, Ji-Young Lee
The efficacy of different concentrations of NaOH (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, and 1.00%) for the pretreatment of rice straw in solid and powder state in enzymatic saccharification and fermentation for the production of bioethanol was evaluated. A greater amount of biomass was recovered through solid-state pretreatment (3.74 g) from 5 g of rice straw. The highest increase in the volume of rice straw powder as a result of swelling was observed with 1.00% NaOH pretreatment (48.07%), which was statistically identical to 0...
2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
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