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K Manoharan, B Dutta
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February 2016: Pathology
Qiang Tan, Qianwei Chen, Zhou Feng, Xia Shi, Jun Tang, Yihao Tao, Bing Jiang, Liang Tan, Hua Feng, Gang Zhu, Yunfeng Yang, Zhi Chen
Fibrosis in ventricular system has a role in hydrocephalus following intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has been reported to participate in alleviating the fibrosis process of many diseases. However, its role in fibrosis after IVH was unclear so far, and we hypothesized that CB2 activation has potential to attenuate hydrocephalus after IVH via restricting fibrosis. So the present study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a modified rat IVH model. Autologous non-anticoagulative blood injection model was induced to mimic ventricular extension of hemorrhage in adult Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 18, 2016: Brain Research
Volkan Etus, Gokmen Kahilogullari, Hakan Karabagli, Agahan Unlu
AIM: Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) usually results in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH). This multicenter study describes the approach of early neuroendoscopic ventricular irrigation for the treatment of IVH/PHH and compares the results with the cases that have been initially treated only with conventional temporary CSF diversion techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of total 74 neonatal PHH cases that have been treated at three pediatric neurosurgery centers were retrospectively analyzed...
August 30, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
Matthias Eckert, Philipp Gölitz, Hannes Lücking, Tobias Struffert, Frauke Knossalla, Arnd Doerfler
BACKGROUND: Using flat-detector CT (FD-CT) for stroke imaging has the advantage that both diagnostic imaging and endovascular therapy can be performed directly within the Angio Suite without any patient transfer and time delay. Thus, stroke management could be speeded up significantly, and patient outcome might be improved. But as precondition for using FD-CT as primary imaging modality, a reliable exclusion of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has to be possible. This study aimed to investigate whether optimized native FD-CT, using a newly implemented reconstruction algorithm, may reliably detect ICH in stroke patients...
October 18, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Sandra Kruchov Thygesen, Morten Olsen, John R Østergaard, Henrik Toft Sørensen
OBJECTIVES: Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) is a known risk factor for intracerebral haemorrhage/intraventricular haemorrhage (ICH/IVH) and periventricular leucomalacia. These lesions are known to increase the risk of cerebral palsy (CP). Thus, we wanted to examine the long-term risk of CP following IRDS in moderately late and late preterm infants. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: All hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: We used nationwide medical registries to identify a cohort of all moderately and late preterm infants (defined as birth during 32-36 full gestational weeks) born in Denmark in 1997-2007 with and without hospital diagnosed IRDS...
October 11, 2016: BMJ Open
Vianney Gilard, Ben Ousmanou Djoubairou, Arnaud Lepetit, Thomas Metayer, Clement Gakuba, Charlotte Gourio, Stephane Derey, François Proust, Evelyne Emery, Thomas Gaberel
OBJECTIVE: intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) often requires the insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD), but blood clots could occlude the catheters. Large EVD catheters may help to reduce the risk of catheter occlusion. Here, we compared small catheters with large catheters for ventriculostomy in patients suffering from IVH. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study. Patients were included if they had IVH requiring EVD insertion. We then compared baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients treated with large catheters to patients treated with small catheters...
October 8, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Sannepaneni Kranthi, Barada P Sahu, Purohit Aniruddh
CONTEXT: Poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes and optimal management is deemed complicated. Most centres follow an expectant management strategy or a less aggressive approach till patients improve to good clinical grades. This approach has been associated with higher mortality and morbidity. However, not all patients with poor clinical condition fare badly. Identification and early aggressive management of this select group of patients may lead to favorable outcomes...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Kylie Hae-Jin Chang, Hyun-Joo Kim, Hee Joon Yu, Jeehun Lee, Jung-Sun Kim, Suk-Joo Choi, Soo-Young Oh, Cheong-Rae Roh, Jong-Hwa Kim
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare neonatal morbidity and neurologic outcome at 2 years between groups treated with antibiotics regimens consisting clarithromycin and erythromycin in preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) patients delivered before 32 weeks of gestation. METHODS: This was a retrospective study comparing neonatal morbidity as primary outcome measures and the neurological outcome at 2 years as secondary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 166 women were included: 80 treated with erythromycin and 86 treated with clarithromycin...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Shadi Asadollahi, Ali Vafaei, Kamran Heidari
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To define the prognostic value of head computed tomography (CT) in patients suffering from SICH after 3 years of follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between January 2011 and May 2012, consecutive patients with SICH who underwent brain CT scans within the first 12 hours of presentation were prospectively included. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality and unfavourable functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale = 4-6 and Barthel Index ≤ 60) at 36 months were identified by univariable and multivariable regression analysis...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Michael F Coscia, Gerald A Denys, Matthew F Wack
STUDY DESIGN: Patients scheduled for spinal surgery were screened prospectively for a microbial presence associated with intervertebral disc specimens. Inclusion was limited to patients requiring surgery for any of 5 conditions: study patients with cervical spine intervertebral herniation (IVH), lumbar spine IVH, lumbar spine discogenic pain, and control patients with idiopathic scoliosis/Scheurermann's kyphosis or trauma/neuromuscular deformity. Exclusion criteria included ongoing systemic infection, abnormal pre-operative white cell counts, documented or suspected spinal infection, or previous surgery to the involved disc...
September 23, 2016: Spine
Raffael Liegl, Chatarina Löfqvist, Ann Hellström, Lois E H Smith
The retina is part of the central nervous system and both the retina as well as the brain can suffer from severe damage after very preterm birth. Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the major causes of blindness in these children and brain neuronal impairments including cognitive defects, cerebral palsy and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are also complications of very preterm birth. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) acts to promote proliferation, maturation, growth and survival of neural cells. Low levels of circulating IGF-1 are associated with ROP and defects in the IGF-1 gene are associated with CNS disorders including learning deficits and brain growth restriction...
September 17, 2016: Early Human Development
Lan-Wan Wang, Yung-Chieh Lin, Yi-Fang Tu, Shan-Tair Wang, Chao-Ching Huang
BACKGROUND: Cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL) is the most severe white matter injury and is often associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcomes of isolated cPVL and cPVL with low-grade and high-grade IVH in premature infants. METHODS: From 2001 to 2012, 9,964 infants with <31 weeks' gestational age (GA) admitted to Taiwan hospitals were enrolled...
September 16, 2016: Neonatology
Eija K Junttila, Juha Koskenkari, Pasi P Ohtonen, Ari Karttunen, Tero I Ala-Kokko
BACKGROUND: The serum concentration of S100β protein reportedly predicts outcome after brain injury. We examined the prognostic accuracy of S100Beta in patients with non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study of patients with non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage treated in the intensive care unit at our university hospital. Computed tomography imaging findings and the level of consciousness on admission were recorded...
September 15, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Praveen Chandrasekharan, Rafal Kozielski, Vasantha H S Kumar, Munmun Rawat, Veena Manja, Changxing Ma, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is being increasingly used in preterm infants < 34 weeks with hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) and/or pulmonary hypertension (PH). Objective To evaluate the risk factors, survival characteristics, and lung histopathology in preterm infants with PH/HRF. Methods Retrospective chart review was conducted to determine characteristics of 93 preterm infants treated with iNO in the first 28 days and compared with 930 matched controls. Factors associated with survival with preterm HRF and smooth muscle actin from nine autopsies were evaluated...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Senem Alkan Ozdemir, Esra Arun Ozer, Ozkan Ilhan, Sumer Sutcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is an essential therapy in the treatment of respiratory failure in preterm infants. However, optimal ventilation strategy continues to be difficult to define. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of volume guarantee (VG) combined with intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and VG combined with pressure support ventilation (PSV) on the pulmonary mechanics and short term prognosis in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome...
September 13, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
M Waitz, S Nusser, M B Schmid, J Dreyhaupt, F Reister, H Hummler
OBJECTIVE: To identify obstetric and neonatal risk factors associated with the development of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) in high-risk preterm neonates. METHODS AND PATIENTS: Data from 279 preterm infants (246 mothers) with a gestational age≤28+0 weeks admitted to our NICU between January 2004 and December 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Occurrence of (GM-IVH) was diagnosed by using ultrasound and important clinical variables were extracted from the patient charts...
September 2016: Klinische Pädiatrie
Edward Chan, Craig S Anderson, Xia Wang, Hisatomi Arima, Anubhav Saxena, Tom J Moullaali, Candice Delcourt, Guojun Wu, Jinchao Wang, Guofang Chen, Pablo M Lavados, Christian Stapf, Thompson Robinson, John Chalmers
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) extension is common following acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with poor prognosis. AIM: To determine whether intensive blood pressure (BP)-lowering therapy reduces IVH growth. METHODS: Pooled analyses of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trials (INTERACT1 and INTERACT2) computed tomography (CT) substudies; multicenter, open, controlled, randomized trials of patients with acute spontaneous ICH and elevated systolic BP, randomly assigned to intensive (<140 mm Hg) or guideline-based (<180 mm Hg) BP management...
September 8, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
Karl D Price, Vivian W Sin, Charles Mougenot, Samuel Pichardo, Thomas Looi, Adam C Waspe, James M Drake
PURPOSE: Current treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) involves cerebral shunt placement or an invasive brain surgery. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) applied to the brains of pediatric patients presents an opportunity to treat IVH in a noninvasive manner, termed "incision-less surgery." Current clinical and research focused ultrasound systems lack the capability to perform neonatal transcranial surgeries due to either range of motion or dexterity requirements...
September 2016: Medical Physics
Diego M Morales, Shawgi A Silver, Clinton D Morgan, Deanna Mercer, Terri E Inder, David M Holtzman, Michael J Wallendorf, Rakesh Rao, James P McAllister, David D Limbrick
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is the most frequent, severe neurological complication of prematurity and is associated with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) in up to half of cases. PHH requires lifelong neurosurgical care and is associated with significant cognitive and psychomotor disability. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may provide both diagnostic information for PHH and novel insights into its pathophysiology. OBJECTIVE: To explore the diagnostic ability of candidate CSF biomarkers for PHH...
August 26, 2016: Neurosurgery
Javier M Romero, Rania Hito, Andre Dejam, Laia Sero Ballesteros, Camilo Jaimes Cobos, J Ortiz Liévano, Viesha A Ciura, Isabelle Barnaure, Marielle Ernst, Afonso P Liberato, Gilberto R Gonzalez
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating and costly diagnoses in the USA. ICH is a common diagnosis, accounting for 10-15 % of all strokes and affecting 20 out of 100,000 people. The CT angiography (CTA) spot sign, or contrast extravasation into the hematoma, is a reliable predictor of hematoma expansion, clinical deterioration, and increased mortality. Multiple studies have demonstrated a high negative predictive value (NPV) for ICH expansion in patients without spot sign. Our aim is to determine the absolute NPV of the spot sign and clinical characteristics of patients who had ICH expansion despite the absence of a spot sign...
August 24, 2016: Emergency Radiology
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