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Fetal programing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546318/an-environment-dependent-transcriptional-network-specifies-human-microglia-identity
#1
David Gosselin, Dylan Skola, Nicole G Coufal, Inge R Holtman, Johannes C M Schlachetzki, Eniko Sajti, Baptiste N Jaeger, Carolyn O'Connor, Conor Fitzpatrick, Martina P Pasillas, Monique Pena, Amy Adair, David G Gonda, Michael L Levy, Richard M Ransohoff, Fred H Gage, Christopher K Glass
Microglia play essential roles in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and influence diverse aspects of neuronal function. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that specify human microglia phenotypes are largely unknown. We examined the transcriptomes and epigenetic landscapes of human microglia isolated from surgically resected brain tissue ex vivo and following transition to an in vitro environment. Transfer to a tissue culture environment results in rapid and extensive downregulation of microglia-specific genes that are induced in primitive mouse macrophages following migration into the fetal brain...
May 25, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540847/risk-factors-for-transmission-of-hiv-from-mother-to-child-in-bangui
#2
S C H Diemer, R N Ngbale, J D D Longo, O Bami Dienhot, C E Gaunefet
the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in pregnant women in Central Africa is 4.5%. Although a program to prevent mother-child transmission of HIV has been implemented throughout the country, the number of infected infants continues to increase. In this context, our study sought to determine the rate of mother-child transmission of HIV and to identify the main risk factors. this prospective cross-sectional study took place from November 1, 2014, to November 1, 2015, in all 16 maternal and child health centers in Bangui...
May 24, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540644/the-epigenetic-machinery-in-vascular-dysfunction-and-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Emile Levy, Schohraya Spahis, Jean-Luc Bigras, Edgard Delvin, Jean-Michel Borys
Hypertension (HT) is among the major components of the metabolic syndrome, i.e., obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance. It represents a significant health problem with foremost risks for chronic cardiovascular disease and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, it is not surprising that this disorder constitutes a serious public health concern. Although multiple studies have stressed the multifactorial nature of HT, the pathogenesis remains largely unknown...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537917/microrna-210-suppresses-glucocorticoid-receptor-expression-in-response-to-hypoxia-in-fetal-rat-cardiomyocytes
#4
Shannalee R Martinez, Qingyi Ma, Chiranjib Dasgupta, Xianmei Meng, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxia is a common intrauterine stressor, often resulting in intrauterine growth restriction and increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that microRNA-210 (miR-210) mediates the detrimental suppression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in response to hypoxia in fetal rat cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocytes isolated from gestational day 21 Sprague Dawley fetal rats showed increased miR-210 levels and reduced GR abundance after exposure to ex vivo hypoxia (1% O2)...
May 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537579/developmental-origins-of-diabetes-an-indian-perspective
#5
REVIEW
G V Krishnaveni, C S Yajnik
The developmental origins of health disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that altered environmental influences (nutrition, metabolism, pollutants, stress and so on) during critical stages of fetal growth predisposes individuals to diabetes and other non-communicable disease in later life. This phenomenon is thought to reflect permanent effects ('programming') of unbalanced fetal development on physiological systems. Intrauterine programming may underlie the characteristic Indian 'thin-fat' phenotype and the current unprecedented epidemic of diabetes on the backdrop of multigenerational maternal undernutrition in the country...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529453/the-role-of-germ-cell-loss-during-primordial-follicle-assembly-a-review-of-current-advances
#6
REVIEW
Yuan-Chao Sun, Xiao-Feng Sun, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen, Hong Chen
In most female mammals, early germline development begins with the appearance of primordial germ cells (PGCs), and develops to form mature oocytes following several vital processes. It remains well accepted that significant germ cell apoptosis and oocyte loss takes place around the time of birth. The transition of the ovarian environment from fetal to neonatal, coincides with the loss of germ cells and the timing of follicle formation. All told it is common to lose approximately two thirds of germ cells during this transition period...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527570/mechanisms-of-glucocorticoid-action-during-development
#7
Jonathan T Busada, John A Cidlowski
Glucocorticoids are primary stress hormones produced by the adrenal cortex. The concentration of serum glucocorticoids in the fetus is low throughout most of gestation but surge in the weeks prior to birth. While their most well-known function is to stimulate differentiation and functional development of the lungs, glucocorticoids also play crucial roles in the development of several other organ systems. Mothers at risk of preterm delivery are administered glucocorticoids to accelerate fetal lung development and prevent respiratory distress...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526012/the-pregnancy-and-fertility-prefer-study-an-italian-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study-on-fertility-preservation-and-pregnancy-issues-in-young-breast-cancer-patients
#8
Matteo Lambertini, Paola Anserini, Valeria Fontana, Francesca Poggio, Giuseppina Iacono, Annalisa Abate, Alessia Levaggi, Loredana Miglietta, Claudia Bighin, Sara Giraudi, Alessia D'Alonzo, Eva Blondeaux, Davide Buffi, Francesco Campone, Domenico F Merlo, Lucia Del Mastro
BACKGROUND: Fertility and pregnancy issues are of key importance for young breast cancer patients. Despite several advances in the field, there are still multiple unmet needs and barriers in discussing and dealing with these concerns. To address the significant challenges related to fertility and pregnancy issues, the PREgnancy and FERtility (PREFER) study was developed as a national comprehensive program aiming to optimize care and improve knowledge around these topics. METHODS: The PREFER study is a prospective cohort study conducted across several Italian institution affiliated with the Gruppo Italiano Mammella (GIM) group evaluating patterns of care and clinical outcomes of young breast cancer patients dealing with fertility and pregnancy issues...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520518/arrested-development-infantile-hemangioma-and-the-stem-cell-teratogenic-hypothesis
#9
Shaghayegh Harbi, Hannah Park, Michael Gregory, Peter Lopez, Luis Chiriboga, Paolo Mignatti
BACKGROUND: Early-life programming is defined by the adaptive changes made by the fetus in response to an adverse in utero environment. Infantile hemangioma (IH), a vascular anomaly, is the most common tumor of infancy. Here we take IH as the tumor model to propose the stem cell teratogenic hypothesis of tumorigenesis and the potential involvement of the immune system. OBJECTIVES: Teratogenic agents include chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, and ionizing radiation...
May 18, 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512712/post-translational-tubulin-modifications-in-human-astrocyte-cultures
#10
V Bleu Knight, Elba E Serrano
The cytoskeletal protein tubulin plays an integral role in the functional specialization of many cell types. In the central nervous system, post-translational modifications and the expression of specific tubulin isotypes in neurons have been analyzed in greater detail than in their astrocytic counterparts. In this study, we characterized post-translational specifications of tubulin in human astrocytes using the normal human astrocyte (NHA; Lonza) commercial cell line of fetal origin. Immunocytochemical techniques were implemented in conjunction with confocal microscopy to image class III β-tubulin (βIII-tubulin), acetylated tubulin, and polyglutamylated tubulin using fluorescent antibody probes...
May 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508519/fetal-cardiac-remodeling-in-twin-pregnancies-conceived-by-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#11
Brenda Valenzuela-Alcaraz, Mónica Cruz-Lemini, Mérida Rodríguez-López, Ana Goncé, Laura García-Otero, Helena Ayuso, Marta Sitges, Bart Bijnens, Juan Balasch, Eduard Gratacós, Fátima Crispi
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that singleton fetuses conceived by assisted reproductive technologies (ART) present cardiovascular remodeling that may persist postnatally. Twin pregnancies are more frequent in the ART population, and are associated with increased adverse perinatal outcomes like hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. However, it is unknown whether cardiac remodeling is also present in twin pregnancies conceived by ART. Our aim was to assess the presence of fetal cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in twin pregnancies conceived by ART, as compared to spontaneously conceived (SC) ones...
May 15, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502862/11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-2-promoter-methylation-is-associated-with-placental-protein-expression-in-small-for-gestational-age-newborns
#12
Maria-Luisa Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Martha-Olivia Solís-Martínez, Gustavo Romero-Gutiérrez, Victor E Aguirre-Arzola, Katarzyna Wrobel, Kazimierz Wrobel, Silvio Zaina, Gloria Barbosa-Sabanero
Small for gestational age infants have greater risk of developing metabolic diseases in adult life. It has been suggested that low birth weight may result from glucocorticoid excess in utero, a key mechanism in fetal programming. The placental enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2, HSD11B2 gene) acts as a barrier protecting the fetus from maternal corticosteroid deleterious effects. Low placental 11β-HSD2 transcription and activity have been associated with low birth weight, yet the mechanism regulating its protein expression is not fully understood...
May 11, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500672/telomere-length-and-fetal-programming-a-review-of-recent-scientific-advances
#13
Valerie E Whiteman, Anjali Goswami, Hamisu M Salihu
We sought to synthesize a comprehensive literature review comprising recent research linking fetal programming to fetal telomere length. We also explored the potential effects fetal telomere length shortening has on fetal phenotypes. Utilizing the PubMed database as our primary search engine, we retrieved and reviewed 165 articles of published research. The inclusion criteria limited the articles to those that appeared within the last ten years, were pertinent to humans, and without restriction to language of publication...
May 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496945/gestational-exposure-to-silymarin-increases-susceptibility-of-balb-c-mice-fetuses-to-apoptosis
#14
Mahbobe Gholami, Seyed Adel Moallem, Mohammad Afshar, Leila Etemad, Gholamreza Karimi
BACKGROUND: Silymarin is a flavonolignan that has been the subject of research to evaluate the beneficial properties for decades. Silymarin has been known for its potent cytoprotective, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. The goal of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of possible molecular mechanisms of apoptosis of the injuries induced by silymarin on BALB/c mice fetuses. METHODS: The present experimental study was carried out in virgin female BALB/c mice...
April 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490442/dexamethasone-and-sex-regulate-placental-glucocorticoid-receptor-isoforms-in-mice
#15
James Sm Cuffe, Zarqa Saif, Anthony V Perkins, Karen M Moritz, Vicki L Clifton
Maternal dexamethasone exposure in the mouse impairs placental development and programs adult disease in a sexually dimorphic manner. Glucocorticoids bind to different glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms to regulate gene transcription and cellular signaling. We hypothesized that sexually dimorphic placental responses to glucocorticoids are due to differences in GR isoforms present in the placenta. Pregnant C57Bl6 mice were exposed to saline or dexamethasone from E12.5 until E14.5 (1µg/kg/h) before the collection of placentae...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486361/universal-cervical-length-screening-and-antenatal-corticosteroid-timing
#16
Nicole Sahasrabudhe, Catherine Igel, Ghislaine C Echevarria, Peʼer Dar, Diana Wolfe, Peter S Bernstein, Robert Angert, Ashlesha Dayal, Patience Gallagher, Mara Rosner
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between universal transvaginal screening for short cervical length in the second trimester and the timing of antenatal corticosteroids. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with nonanomalous singleton gestations and spontaneous preterm birth between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation after the initiation of a universal transvaginal cervical length screening program between October 2012 and August 2015. Our primary outcome was antenatal corticosteroid administration to a delivery interval of fewer than 7 days...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486003/placental-lipoprotein-lipase-dna-methylation-alterations-are-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-and-body-composition-at-5%C3%A2-years-of-age
#17
Valérie Gagné-Ouellet, Andrée-Anne Houde, Simon-Pierre Guay, Patrice Perron, Daniel Gaudet, Renée Guérin, Jean-Patrice Baillargeon, Marie-France Hivert, Diane Brisson, Luigi Bouchard
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with obesity in childhood. This suggests that consequences of in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia extend beyond the fetal development, possibly through epigenetic programming. The aims of this study were to assess whether placental DNA methylation (DNAm) marks were associated with maternal GDM status and to offspring body composition at 5 years old in a prospective birth cohort. DNAm levels were measured in the fetal side of the placenta in 66 samples (24 from GDM mothers) using bisDNA-pyrosequencing...
May 9, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484595/fetal-and-neonatal-programming-of-postnatal-growth-and-feed-efficiency-in-swine
#18
REVIEW
Yun Ji, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Xiaolong Wang, Ju Li, Binggen Wang, Guoyao Wu
Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483360/regulation-of-growth-epigenetic-mechanisms
#19
Laurent Kappeler, Maud Clemessy, Sarah Saget, Lyvianne Decourtye, Yves Le Bouc
Organism development is controlled by both genetic programs and the environment to insure a reproductive success as adults. Linear growth is an important part of the development and is mostly controlled by genetic factors. However, the variability of height in a given species does not seem to be specifically associated with SNP. This suggests that environment may play a crucial role. In agreement, an important part of height-related genes present CpG island in their proximal promoter, indicating potential involvement of epigenetic mechanisms...
May 5, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483066/the-highs-and-lows-of-fetal-programming-for-fatty-liver-disease
#20
EDITORIAL
Marialena Mouzaki, Simon C Ling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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