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Fetal programing

Margaret Loyet, Amy McLean, Karen Graham, Cheryl Antoine, Kathy Fossick
BACKGROUND: Women carrying a fetus with a suspected or known fetal anomaly have complex needs such as emotional and informational support and help with the logistical aspects of arranging care and treatment from numerous specialists. IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF CARE FOR WOMEN CARRYING A FETUS WITH A SUSPECTED OR KNOWN FETAL ANOMALY:: Our fetal care team was initiated in 2012 to meet the needs of this high-risk pregnant population. The fetal care team nurse coordinator supports the woman and her family through all aspects of care during the pregnancy and neonatal period including scheduling appointments with multiple specialists, being there with her as a support person, keeping her updated, making sure she has accurate information about the fetal diagnosis, and helping her to navigate the complex healthcare system...
November 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Damien Seth Hunter, Susan J Hazel, Karen L Kind, Hong Liu, Danila Marini, Lynne C Giles, Miles J De Blasio, Julie A Owens, Julia B Pitcher, Kathryn L Gatford
Poor perinatal growth in humans results in asymmetrical grey matter loss in fetuses and infants and increased functional and behavioural asymmetry, but specific contributions of pre- and postnatal growth are unclear. We therefore compared strength and direction of lateralization in obstacle avoidance and maze exit preference tasks in offspring of placentally restricted (PR: 10M, 13F) and control (CON: 23M, 17F) sheep pregnancies at 18 and 40 weeks of age, and examined gross brain structure of the prefrontal cortex at 52 weeks of age (PR: 14M, 18F; CON: 23M, 25F)...
October 19, 2016: Laterality
Dick Oepkes, Lieve C Page-Christiaens, Caroline J Bax, Mireille N Bekker, Catia M Bilardo, Elles M J Boon, G Heleen Schuring-Blom, Audrey B C Coumans, Brigitte H Faas, Robert-Jan H Galjaard, Attie T Go, Lidewij Henneman, Merryn V E Macville, Eva Pajkrt, Ron F Suijkerbuijk, Karin Huijsdens-vanAmsterdam, Diane Van Opstal, E J Joanne Verweij, Marjan M Weiss, Erik A Sistermans
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical impact of nationwide implementation of genome-wide Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) in pregnancies at increased risk for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13. METHOD: Women with elevated risk based on first trimester combined testing (FCT ≥ 1:200) or medical history, not advanced maternal age alone, were offered NIPT as contingent screening test, performed by Dutch University Medical laboratories. We analyzed uptake, test performance, redraw/failure rate, turn-around time and pregnancy outcome...
October 17, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
Dazhi Fan, Song Wu, Wen Wang, Lihong Xin, Guo Tian, Li Liu, Jinping Feng, Xiaoling Guo, Zhengping Liu
BACKGROUND: Placenta previa is characterized by the abnormal placenta overlying the endocervical os, and it is known as one of the most feared adverse maternal and fetal-neonatal complications in obstetrics. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to obtain overall and regional estimates of placenta previa prevalence among deliveries in Mainland China. METHODS: The research was performed a systematic review, following the Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lori A Stolz, Uwe Stolz, J Matthew Fields, Turandot Saul, Michael Secko, Matthew J Flannigan, Johnathan M Sheele, Robert P Rifenburg, Anthony J Weekes, Elaine B Josephson, John Bedolla, Dana M Resop, Jonathan Dela Cruz, Megan Boysen-Osborn, Terrell Caffery, Charlotte Derr, Rimon Bengiamin, Gerardo Chiricolo, Brandon Backlund, Jagdipak Heer, Robert J Hyde, Srikar Adhikari
OBJECTIVES: Emergency ultrasound (EUS) has been recognized as integral to the training and practice of emergency medicine (EM). The Council of Emergency Medicine Residency-Academy of Emergency Ultrasound (CORD-AEUS) consensus document provides guidelines for resident assessment and progression. The Accredited Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has adopted the EM Milestones for assessment of residents' progress during their residency training which includes demonstration of procedural competency in bedside ultrasound...
October 14, 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Emilio A Herrera, Francisca Cifuentes-Zúñiga, Esteban Figueroa, Cristian Villanueva, Cherie Hernández, René Alegría, Viviana Arroyo, Estefania Peñaloza, Marcelo Farías, Ricardo Uauy, Paola Casanello, Bernardo J Krause
In humans, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with vascular dysfunction, oxidative stress and signs of endothelial programming in umbilical vessels. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal antioxidant treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on fetal endothelial function and eNOS programming in IUGR guinea pigs. IUGR was induced by implanting ameroid constrictors on uterine arteries of pregnant guinea pigs at mid gestation, receiving half of the sows NAC in the drinking water (from day 34 until term)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Alyson Blanchard, Luna C Munoz Centifanti
Children who exhibit callous-unemotional (CU) traits are identified as developing particularly severe forms of externalising behaviours (EB). A number of risk factors have been identified in the development of CU traits, including biological, physiological, and genetic factors. However, prenatal testosterone (PT) remains un-investigated, yet could signal fetal programming of a combination of CU/EB. Using the 2D:4D digit ratio, the current study examined whether CU traits moderated the relationship between PT and EB...
October 12, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Carrie E McCurdy, Simon Schenk, Byron Hetrick, Julie Houck, Brian G Drew, Spencer Kaye, Melanie Lashbrook, Bryan C Bergman, Diana L Takahashi, Tyler A Dean, Travis Nemkov, Ilya Gertsman, Kirk C Hansen, Andrew Philp, Andrea L Hevener, Adam J Chicco, Kjersti M Aagaard, Kevin L Grove, Jacob E Friedman
Maternal obesity is proposed to alter the programming of metabolic systems in the offspring, increasing the risk for developing metabolic diseases; however, the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used a nonhuman primate model to examine the impact of a maternal Western-style diet (WSD) alone, or in combination with obesity (Ob/WSD), on fetal skeletal muscle metabolism studied in the early third trimester. We find that fetal muscle responds to Ob/WSD by upregulating fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial complex activity, and metabolic switches (CPT-1, PDK4) that promote lipid utilization over glucose oxidation...
October 6, 2016: JCI Insight
John J Mccarthy, Martin H Leamon, Loretta P Finnegan, Catherine Fassbender
Increase in the number of opioid dependent pregnant women delivering babies at risk for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) prompted a General Accountability Office (GAO) report documenting deficits in research and provider knowledge about care of the maternal/fetal unit and the neonate. There are three general sources of dependence: untreated opioid use disorder (OUD), pain management, and medication assisted treatment with methadone or buprenorphine. A survey of methadone patients' experiences when telling a physician of their pregnancy and opioid dependence demonstrated physician confusion about proper care, frequent negative interactions with the mother, and failures to provide appropriate referral...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sherman Silber
After fresh or frozen ovary transplantation, FSH levels return to normal, and menstrual cycles resume by 150 days, coincident with anti-Müllerian hormone rising to higher than normal levels. AMH then returns to well below normal levels by 240 days, remaining as such for many years with nonetheless normal ovulation and fertility. To date, 20 babies have been born in our program from 11 fresh and 13 cryopreserved ovary transplant recipients with a live baby rate of over 70 % (11 babies from fresh and 9 from frozen)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Gioele La Manno, Daniel Gyllborg, Simone Codeluppi, Kaneyasu Nishimura, Carmen Salto, Amit Zeisel, Lars E Borm, Simon R W Stott, Enrique M Toledo, J Carlos Villaescusa, Peter Lönnerberg, Jesper Ryge, Roger A Barker, Ernest Arenas, Sten Linnarsson
Understanding human embryonic ventral midbrain is of major interest for Parkinson's disease. However, the cell types, their gene expression dynamics, and their relationship to commonly used rodent models remain to be defined. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing to examine ventral midbrain development in human and mouse. We found 25 molecularly defined human cell types, including five subtypes of radial glia-like cells and four progenitors. In the mouse, two mature fetal dopaminergic neuron subtypes diversified into five adult classes during postnatal development...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Elizabeth H Marchlewicz, Dana C Dolinoy, Lu Tang, Samantha Milewski, Tamara R Jones, Jaclyn M Goodrich, Tanu Soni, Steven E Domino, Peter X K Song, Charles F Burant, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Maternal diet and metabolism impact fetal development. Epigenetic reprogramming facilitates fetal adaptation to these in utero cues. To determine if maternal metabolite levels impact infant DNA methylation globally and at growth and development genes, we followed a clinical birth cohort of 40 mother-infant dyads. Targeted metabolomics and quantitative DNA methylation were analyzed in 1st trimester maternal plasma (M1) and delivery maternal plasma (M2) as well as infant umbilical cord blood plasma (CB). We found very long chain fatty acids, medium chain acylcarnitines, and histidine were: (1) stable in maternal plasma from pregnancy to delivery, (2) significantly correlated between M1, M2, and CB, and (3) in the top 10% of maternal metabolites correlating with infant DNA methylation, suggesting maternal metabolites associated with infant DNA methylation are tightly controlled...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amal Al-Garawi, Vincent J Carey, Divya Chhabra, Hooman Mirzakhani, Jarrett Morrow, Jessica Lasky-Su, Weiliang Qiu, Nancy Laranjo, Augusto A Litonjua, Scott T Weiss
BACKGROUND: Patterns of gene expression of human pregnancy are poorly understood. In a trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women, peripheral blood transcriptomes were measured longitudinally on 30 women and used to characterize gene co-expression networks. OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that increased maternal Vitamin D levels may reduce the risk of asthma in early life, yet the underlying mechanisms have not been examined. In this study, we used a network-based approach to examine changes in gene expression profiles during the course of normal pregnancy and evaluated their association with maternal Vitamin D levels...
2016: PloS One
Carmela Nardelli, Ilaria Granata, Laura Iaffaldano, Valeria D'Argenio, Valentina Del Monaco, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pasquale Martinelli, Francesco Salvatore, Mario Rosario Guarracino, Lucia Sacchetti, Lucio Pastore
Experimental evidence indicates differences between women and men in several medical areas, including susceptibility to metabolic diseases. Sexual dimorphism could be influenced by microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of gene expression, and miRNAs have also been implicated in fetal programming of obesity. Our previous finding of altered proteome in human amniotic stem cells (hA-MSCs) during obesity (Ob-) prompted us to look for gender-related differences in the miRNA regulation of gene expression in Ob-hA-MSCs that might be involved in metabolic changes...
October 5, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Stine Linding Andersen, Peter Laurberg
Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves' disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Yang Tan, Yunpeng Wu, Qubo Ni, Yu Deng, Jing Li, Linlong Wang, Lang Shen, Yansong Liu, Jacques Magdalou, Hui Wang, Liaobin Chen
Epidemiological data show that osteoarthritis (OA) is significantly associated with lower birth weight, and that OA may be a type of fetal-originated adult disease. The present study aimed to investigate the prenatal food-restriction (PFR) effect on the quality of articular cartilage in female offspring to explore the underlying mechanisms of fetal-originated OA. Maternal rats were fed a restricted diet from gestational day (GD) 11 to 20 to induce intra-uterine growth retardation. Female fetuses and female adult offspring fed a post-weaning high-fat diet were killed at GD20 and postnatal week 24, respectively...
September 29, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Vinita V Khot, Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Savita Mehendale, Sadhana R Joshi
Children born preterm are reported to be at increased risk of developing noncommunicable diseases in later life. Altered placental DNA methylation patterns are implicated in fetal programming of adult diseases. Our earlier animal studies focus on micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) that interact in the 1 carbon cycle, thereby influencing methylation reactions. Our previous studies in women delivering preterm show altered plasma levels of micronutrients and lower plasma LCPUFA levels...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Hong-Ren Yu, You-Lin Tain, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, Mao-Meng Tiao, Chih-Cheng Chen, Ho-Chang Kuo, Pi-Lien Hung, Kai-Sheng Hsieh, Li-Tung Huang
Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14-21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF)...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mona M A Almalik, Sultan M Mosleh
BACKGROUND: Antenatal education programs provide women with essential knowledge and skills in various aspects of maternal and fetal health. Antenatal education is based on improving women's health, reducing the risks of complications and enhancing couples' positive experience during childbirth. There is a lack of formal antenatal educational programs based on women's needs in Jordan. AIM: This study sought to identify and prioritize the learning needs for women during pregnancy...
September 22, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
M B Azad, B L Moyce, L Guillemette, C D Pascoe, B Wicklow, J M McGavock, A J Halayko, V W Dolinsky
Diabetes is an increasingly common complication of pregnancy. In parallel with this trend, a rise in chronic lung disease in children has been observed in recent decades. While several adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to diabetes in utero have been documented in epidemiological and experimental studies, few have examined the impact of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring lung health and respiratory disease. We provide a comprehensive overview of current literature on this topic, finding suggestive evidence that exposure to diabetes in utero may have adverse effects on lung development...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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