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Fetal programing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910119/secretagogin-protects-pdx1-from-proteasomal-degradation-to-control-a-transcriptional-program-required-for-%C3%AE-cell-specification
#1
Katarzyna Malenczyk, Edit Szodorai, Robert Schnell, Gert Lubec, Gábor Szabó, Tomas Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany
OBJECTIVE: Specification of endocrine cell lineages in the developing pancreas relies on extrinsic signals from non-pancreatic tissues, which initiate a cell-autonomous sequence of transcription factor activation and repression switches. The steps in this pathway share reliance on activity-dependent Ca2+ signals. However, the mechanisms by which phasic Ca2+ surges become converted into a dynamic, cell-state-specific and physiologically meaningful code made up by transcription factors constellations remain essentially unknown...
June 5, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903739/tbx20-is-required-in-mid-gestation-cardiomyocytes-and-plays-a-central-role-in-atrial-development
#2
Cornelis J Boogerd, Xiaoming Zhu, Ivy Aneas, Noboru J Sakabe, Lunfeng Zhang, Debora R Sobreira, Lindsey E Montefiori, Julius Bogomolovas, Amelia C Joslin, Bin Zhou, Ju Chen, Marcelo Nobrega, Sylvia M Evans
<u>Rationale:</u> Mutations in the transcription factor TBX20 are associated with congenital heart disease. Germline ablation of Tbx20 results in abnormal heart development and embryonic lethality by E9.5. As Tbx20 is expressed in multiple cell lineages required for myocardial development, including pharyngeal endoderm, cardiogenic mesoderm, endocardium, and myocardium, the cell type specific requirement for Tbx20 in early myocardial development remains to be explored. <u>Objective:</u> Here, we investigated roles of Tbx20 in mid-gestation cardiomyocytes for heart development...
June 14, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903446/embryology
#3
Parthiv Haldipur, Derek Dang, Kathleen J Millen
With the growing recognition of the extent and prevalence of human cerebellar disorders, an understanding of developmental programs that build the mature cerebellum is necessary. In this chapter we present an overview of the basic epochs and key molecular regulators of the developmental programs of cerebellar development. These include early patterning of the cerebellar territory, the genesis of cerebellar cells from multiple spatially distinct germinal zones, and the extensive migration and coordinated cellular rearrangements that result in the formation of the exquisitely foliated and laminated mature cerebellum...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902490/decreased-h3k9ac-level-of-star-mediated-testicular-dysplasia-induced-by-prenatal-dexamethasone-exposure-in-male-offspring-rats
#4
Min Liu, Biao Chen, Linguo Pei, Qi Zhang, Yunfei Zou, Hao Xiao, Jin Zhou, Liaobin Chen, Hui Wang
Prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) could induce testicular developmental toxicity in adults. The present study aims to confirm its intrauterine origination, and to explore its potential intrauterine programming mechanism. The pregnant rats were respectively injected subcutaneously with 0.2 and 0.8 mg/kg⋅d dexamethasone during gestational days (GD) 9 to 20. The testes and serum of offspring rats were collected on GD20 and postnatal week (PW) 12. In vivo, PDE significantly induced the abnormal testicular morphology in offspring from GD20 to PW12...
June 11, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900528/adiposity-and-weight-gain-during-pregnancy-associate-independently-with-behavior-of-infant-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#5
Cheryl K Walker, Catherine A VandeVoort, Chin-Shang Li, Charles L Chaffin, John P Capitanio
Growing evidence identifies maternal adiposity as a potentially modifiable risk factor for adverse neurodevelopment. This retrospective cohort analysis examined whether maternal prepregnancy adiposity and gestational weight gain were associated with behavioral outcomes in 173 rhesus macaque infants at the California National Primate Research Center. Dams conceived indoors, had uncomplicated pregnancies, delivered vaginally, and reared infants indoors. Infants underwent standardized biobehavioral analysis at 90-120 days of age from 3/2001-5/2015...
June 13, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892264/regulation-of-t3-availability-in-the-developing-brain-the-mouse-genetics-contribution
#6
REVIEW
Sabine Richard, Frédéric Flamant
Alterations in maternal thyroid physiology may have deleterious consequences on the development of the fetal brain, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, hampering the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies. The present review sums up the contribution of genetically modified mouse models to this field. In particular, knocking out genes involved in thyroid hormone (TH) deiodination, transport, and storage has significantly improved the picture that we have of the economy of TH in the fetal brain and the underlying genetic program...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889745/simulation-in-obstetrics
#7
Andrew J Satin
Simulation in obstetrics is a widely accepted and valuable tool that benefits all levels of learners from medical students to maternal-fetal medicine subspecialists. What began as an adjunct to medical education now has a rapidly expanding role in acquisition of new and innovative procedures, team and unit training, and safety and quality initiatives. The number of obstetric simulation peer-reviewed reports has increased exponentially in recent years, yet only a small percentage of reports primarily addresses clinical outcomes...
June 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886495/early-life-stress-from-neuroendocrine-mechanisms-to-stress-related-disorders
#8
Panagiota Pervanidou, George P Chrousos
Stress exposure is highly prevalent in the general population; however, the experience of stress during vulnerable periods of development has substantial and permanent effects on brain structure and function and physical health in adulthood. Stress, the state of threatened homeostasis, is generally associated with a time-limited activation of the stress system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the arousal/sympathetic nervous system, tailored to the stressful stimulus also known as the stressor...
June 8, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882091/mthfr-isoform-carriers-5-mthf-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate-vs-folic-acid-a-key-to-pregnancy-outcome-a-case-series
#9
Edouard J Servy, Laetitia Jacquesson-Fournols, Marc Cohen, Yves J R Menezo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the possibility of correcting metabolic defects in gametes and embryos due to methylene tetra hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) isoforms C677T and A1298C, by supplementation with 5-methyl THF instead of synthetic folic acid. In these couples, high doses of folic acid lead to UMFA (un-metabolized folic acid) syndrome. METHODS: Thirty couples with fertility problems lasting for at least 4 years, such as recurrent fetal loss, premature ovarian insufficiency, or abnormal sperm parameters, with two thirds of them having failed assisted reproductive technology (ART) attempts were included in this program...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879830/genetic-management-and-nutritional-factors-affecting-intramuscular-fat-deposition-in-beef-cattle
#10
Seung Ju Park, Seok-Hyeon Beak, Da Jin Sol Jung, Sang Yeob Kim, In Hyuk Jeong, Min Yu Piao, Hyeok Joong Kang, Dilla Mareistia Fassah, Sang Weon Na, Seon Pil Yoo, Myunggi Baik
Intramuscular fat (IMF) content in skeletal muscle including the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM), also known as marbling fat, is one of the most important factors determining beef quality in several countries including Korea, Japan, Australia and the United States. Genetics and breed, management, and nutrition affect IMF deposition. Japanese Black cattle breed has the highest IMF content in the world, and Korean cattle (also called Hanwoo) the second highest. Here, we review results of research on genetic factors (breed and sex differences and heritability) that affect IMF deposition...
May 31, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878148/biomarkers-of-nutrition-for-development-bond-iron-review
#11
Sean Lynch, Christine M Pfeiffer, Michael K Georgieff, Gary Brittenham, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Richard F Hurrell, Harry J McArdle, Daniel J Raiten
This is the fifth in the series of reviews developed as part of the Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) program. The BOND Iron Expert Panel (I-EP) reviewed the extant knowledge regarding iron biology, public health implications, and the relative usefulness of currently available biomarkers of iron status from deficiency to overload. Approaches to assessing intake, including bioavailability, are also covered. The report also covers technical and laboratory considerations for the use of available biomarkers of iron status, and concludes with a description of research priorities along with a brief discussion of new biomarkers with potential for use across the spectrum of activities related to the study of iron in human health...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875698/implication-of-oxidative-stress-in-fetal-programming-of-cardiovascular-disease
#12
REVIEW
Pilar Rodríguez-Rodríguez, David Ramiro-Cortijo, Cynthia G Reyes-Hernández, Angel L López de Pablo, M Carmen González, Silvia M Arribas
Lifestyle and genetic background are well known risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A third contributing factor is suboptimal fetal development, due to nutrient or oxygen deprivation, placental insufficiency, or exposure to toxic substances. The fetus adapts to adverse intrauterine conditions to ensure survival; the immediate consequence is low birth weight (LBW) and the long-term effect is an increased susceptibility to develop CVD in adult life. This process is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) or fetal programming of CVD...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871855/ehealth-as-the-next-generation-perinatal-care-an-overview-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Josephus Fm van den Heuvel, T Katrien Groenhof, Jan Hw Veerbeek, Wouter W van Solinge, A Titia Lely, Arie Franx, Mireille N Bekker
BACKGROUND: Unrestricted by time and place, electronic health (eHealth) provides solutions for patient empowerment and value-based health care. Women in the reproductive age are particularly frequent users of internet, social media, and smartphone apps. Therefore, the pregnant patient seems to be a prime candidate for eHealth-supported health care with telemedicine for fetal and maternal conditions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to review the current literature on eHealth developments in pregnancy to assess this new generation of perinatal care...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871548/antenatal-synthetic-glucocorticoid-exposure-at-human-therapeutic-equivalent-doses-predisposes-middle-age-male-offspring-baboons-to-an-obese-phenotype-that-emerges-with-aging
#14
Hillary F Huber, Anderson H Kuo, Cun Li, Susan L Jenkins, Kenneth G Gerow, Geoffrey D Clarke, Peter W Nathanielsz
INTRODUCTION: Women threatening premature delivery receive synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) to accelerate fetal lung maturation, reducing neonatal mortality and morbidity. Few investigations have explored potential long-term offspring side effects. We previously reported increased pericardial fat and liver lipids in 10-year-old (human equivalent 40 years) male baboons exposed to 3 antenatal sGC courses. We hypothesized middle-aged sGC male offspring show obesity-related morphometric changes...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870072/alcohol-related-alterations-in-placental-imprinted-gene-expression-in-humans-mediate-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-on-postnatal-growth
#15
R Colin Carter, Jia Chen, Qian Li, Maya Deyssenroth, Neil C Dodge, Helen C Wainwright, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Joseph L Jacobson, Sandra W Jacobson
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence in animal models has implicated alcohol-induced alterations in epigenetic programming as an important mechanism in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Imprinted genes, a subset of epigenetically-regulated genes that are sensitive to the prenatal environment, are chiefly involved in growth and neurobehavior. We tested the hypothesis that alterations in placental imprinted gene expression mediate fetal alcohol growth restriction. METHODS: Placental expression of 109 genes previously shown to be imprinted and expressed in the placenta was assessed using the NanoStringTM nCounter Analysis System in flash-frozen samples from 34 heavy drinkers and 31 control women in Cape Town, South Africa, from whom prospective pregnancy alcohol consumption data had been obtained...
June 5, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868037/estradiol-attenuates-the-severity-of-primary-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-induced-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-through-the-regulation-of-tregs-in-a-dose-dependent-manner
#16
Jingfan Qiu, Rong Zhang, Yanci Xie, Lijuan Wang, Ke Ge, Hao Chen, Xinjian Liu, Jiangping Wu, Yong Wang
Estradiol (E2) plays a crucial and intricate role during pregnancy to mediate several aspects of the pregnancy process. A perplexing phenomenon in congenital toxoplasmosis is that the severity of Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii )-mediated adverse pregnancy outcome is closely related with time of primary maternal infection during pregnancy. In this study, the results showed that T. gondii infection in early pregnancy was more likely to induce miscarriage in mice than in late pregnancy, which may be related to inflammation of the maternal-fetal interface...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859996/transgenerational-programming-of-nephron-deficits-and-hypertension
#17
REVIEW
Jessica F Briffa, Mary E Wlodek, Karen M Moritz
Exposure to a sub-optimal environment in the womb can result in poor fetal growth and impair the normal development of organs. The kidney, specifically the process of nephrogenesis, has been shown to be impacted by many common pregnancy exposures including an inadequate diet, poor placental function, maternal stress as well as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. This can result in offspring being born with a reduced nephron endowment, which places these individuals at increased risk of hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
May 31, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859342/maternal-distress-and-hair-cortisol-in-pregnancy-among-women-with-elevated-adverse-childhood-experiences
#18
Katherine Bowers, Lili Ding, Samantha Gregory, Kimberly Yolton, Hong Ji, Jerrold Meyer, Robert T Ammerman, Judith Van Ginkel, Alonzo Folger
Life-course exposure to stress is associated with a wide-range of health outcomes. Early childhood adversity may affect an individual's future response to stress. This is of particular concern during pregnancy as early maternal stress may impact the stress response in pregnancy, altering fetal exposure. We therefore hypothesized maternal childhood adversity may interact with distress experienced in pregnancy affecting maternal cortisol accumulation in pregnancy. Analyses were conducted within the PRegnancy and Infant Development (PRIDE) Study, a cohort of mother-infant pairs participating in Every Child Succeeds, a home visiting program in Cincinnati, Ohio...
May 18, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859198/non-invasive-biomarkers-of-fetal-brain-development-reflecting-prenatal-stress-an-integrative-multi-scale-multi-species-perspective-on-data-collection-and-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Martin G Frasch, Silvia Lobmaier, Tamara Stampalija, Paula Desplats, María Eugenia Pallarés, Verónica Pastor, Marcela Brocco, Hau-Tieng Wu, Jay Schulkin, Christophe Herry, Andrew Seely, Gerlinde A S Metz, Yoram Louzoun, Marta Antonelli
Prenatal stress (PS) impacts early postnatal behavioural and cognitive development. This process of 'fetal programming' is mediated by the effects of the prenatal experience on the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). We derive a multi-scale multi-species approach to devising preclinical and clinical studies to identify early non-invasively available pre- and postnatal biomarkers of PS. The multiple scales include brain epigenome, metabolome, microbiome and the ANS activity gauged via an array of advanced non-invasively obtainable properties of fetal heart rate fluctuations...
May 30, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852488/perinatal-origins-of-adult-disease
#20
Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Baptiste Armengaud, Benazir Siddeek, Jean-François Tolsa
Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that the peri-conception period, pregnancy, and infancy are windows of particular sensibility to environmental clues which influence lifelong trajectories across health and disease. Nutrition, stress, and toxins induce epigenetic marks that control long-term gene expression patterns and can be transmitted transgenerationally. Chronic diseases of adulthood such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity thus have early, developmental origins in the perinatal period...
2018: Neonatology
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