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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510538/measuring-and-assessing-individual-external-doses-during-the-rehabilitation-phase-in-iitate-village-after-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#1
Wataru Naito, Motoki Uesaka, Tadahiro Kurosawa, Yujiro Kuroda
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, Iitate village was placed under an evacuation order because the level of radioactive materials drifting from the nuclear plant to the village were above a government-set level for allowing residents to live in the area. The evacuation advisory for most of the village was lifted on March 31, 2017. For displaced residents deciding whether or not to return to their homes, it is important to correctly understand and estimate the realistic individual external doses they will receive after returning to the village...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506111/comment-on-comprehensive-survey-results-of-childhood-thyroid-ultrasound-examinations-in-fukushima-in-the-first-four-years-after-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505591/factors-associated-with-serum-thyroglobulin-in-a-ukrainian-cohort-exposed-to-iodine-131-from-the-accident-at-the-chernobyl-nuclear-plant
#3
Kamau O Peters, Mykola Tronko, Maureen Hatch, Valeriy Oliynyk, Galyna Terekhova, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Victor M Shpak, Robert J McConnell, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Mark P Little, Lydia B Zablotska, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Alina V Brenner, Elizabeth K Cahoon
BACKGROUND: Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is associated with the presence of thyroid disease and has been proposed as a biomarker of iodine status. Few studies have examined factors related to serum Tg in populations environmentally exposed to ionizing radiation and living in regions with endemic mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. METHODS: We screened 10,430 individuals who were living in Ukraine and under 18 years of age at the time of the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident for thyroid disease from 2001 to 2003...
May 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494287/-137-cs-contamination-over-transylvania-region-romania-after-chernobyl-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#4
R Cs Begy, H Simon, D Vasilache, Sz Kelemen, C Cosma
Following the radionuclide releases due to Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, various studies were completed by researchers all over the world in order to measure the surface contaminations by artificial radionuclides. The aim of this study was to evaluate (137)Cs surface contamination and to create an inventory distribution for Transylvania region (Romania) after the Chernobyl event using γ spectrometric measurements on soil samples collected from 153 locations. The results were compared to measured data from the Danube Delta and Moldova Republic, as well as to (137)Cs concentrations from the rest of Europe reported by literature...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474600/estimation-of-counting-efficiencies-of-portable-nai-detector-using-monte-carlo-simulation-for-thyroid-measurement-following-nuclear-accidents
#5
Wi-Ho Ha, Jong Kyung Kim, Young-Woo Jin
Radioiodine can be released from nuclear accidents and cause internal contamination of the thyroid gland of members of the public. In thyroid measurements of the general public, the counting efficiency is very important to accurately determine thyroid activity. Here, we estimated the counting efficiencies of a portable NaI detector using Monte Carlo simulations. Two different types of neck phantoms and a 7.62×7.62 cm2 NaI detector were modeled and the counting efficiencies were calculated depending on the thyroid size and distance from the neck phantom to the detector...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462013/stromal-progenitor-cells-in-mitigation-of-non-hematopoietic-radiation-injuries
#6
Shilpa Kulkarni, Timothy C Wang, Chandan Guha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic exposure to high doses of radiation can severely impair organ function due to ablation of stem cells. Normal tissue injury is a dose-limiting toxicity for radiation therapy (RT). Although advances in the delivery of high precision conformal RT has increased normal tissue sparing, mitigating and therapeutic strategies that could alleviate early and chronic radiation effects are urgently needed in order to deliver curative doses of RT, especially in abdominal, pelvic and thoracic malignancies...
December 2016: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451577/expression-levels-of-two-dna-repair-related-genes-under-8-gy-ionizing-radiation-and-100-mg-kg-melatonin-delivery-in-rat-peripheral-blood
#7
M Valizadeh, A Shirazi, P Izadi, J Tavakkoly Bazzaz, H Rezaeejam
BACKGROUND: After radiation therapy (RT), some health hazards including DNA damages may occur where melatonin can play a protective role due to free radical generation. On the other hand, serious accidental overexposures may occur during RT due to nuclear accidents which necessitate the need for study on exposure to high-dose radiations during treatments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to study the expression level of two genes in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathways named Xrcc4 and Xrcc6 (Ku70) in order to examine the effect of melatonin on repair of DNA double-strand breaks (BSBs) caused by 8Gy ionizing radiation...
March 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441437/quantitative-modeling-of-responses-to-chronic-ionizing-radiation-exposure-using-targeted-and-non-targeted-effects
#8
Igor Shuryak
The biological effects of chronic ionizing radiation exposure can be difficult to study, but important to understand in order to protect the health of occupationally-exposed persons and victims of radiological accidents or malicious events. They include targeted effects (TE) caused by ionizations within/close to nuclear DNA, and non-targeted effects (NTE) caused by damage to other cell structures and/or activation of stress-signaling pathways in distant cells. Data on radiation damage in animal populations exposed over multiple generations to wide ranges of dose rates after the Chernobyl nuclear-power-plant accident are very useful for enhancing our understanding of these processes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441287/lessons-learned-in-protection-of-the-public-for-the-accident-at-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant
#9
Jessica Callen, Toshimitsu Homma
What insights can the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant provide in the reality of decision making on actions to protect the public during a severe reactor and spent fuel pool emergency? In order to answer this question, and with the goal of limiting the consequences of any future emergencies at a nuclear power plant due to severe conditions, this paper presents the main actions taken in response to the emergency in the form of a timeline. The focus of this paper is those insights concerning the progression of an accident due to severe conditions at a light water reactor nuclear power plant that must be understood in order to protect the public...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441284/comparison-of-homogeneous-and-particulate-lung-dose-rates-for-small-mammals
#10
Emily Caffrey, Mathew Johansen, Jarvis Caffrey, Kathryn Higley
Small, highly radioactive fragments of material incorporated into metallic matrices are commonly found at nuclear weapons test and accident sites and can be inhaled by wildlife. Inhaled particles often partition heterogeneously in the lungs, with aggregation occurring in the periphery of the lung, and are tenaciously retained. However, dose rates are typically calculated as if the material were homogeneously distributed throughout the entire organ. Here the authors quantify the variation in dose rates for alpha-, beta-, and gamma-emitting radionuclides with particle sizes from 0...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441283/early-intake-of-radiocesium-by-residents-living-near-the-tepco-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-after-the-accident-part-2-relationship-between-internal-dose-and-evacuation-behavior-in-individuals
#11
Naoaki Kunishima, Osamu Kurihara, Eunjoo Kim, Tetsuo Ishikawa, Takashi Nakano, Kumiko Fukutsu, Kotaro Tani, Kazuo Furuyama, Shozo Hashimoto, Misao Hachiya, Yutaka Naoi, Makoto Akashi
The Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident exposed members of the public to radiation. This study analyses the relation between personal behavior data obtained from 112 out of 174 subjects who underwent whole-body measurements by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period from 27 June to 28 July 2011 and their committed effective doses (CEDs) from Cs and Cs. The whereabouts of the 112 persons living in municipalities near the FDNPP (mainly, Namie town) on several days in March 2011 are graphed on maps...
June 2017: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438425/mobile-laboratories-an-innovative-and-efficient-solution-for-radiological-characterization-of-sites-under-or-after-decommissioning
#12
V Goudeau, B Daniel, D Dubot
During the operation and the decommissioning of a nuclear site the operator must assure the protection of the workers and the environment. It must furthermore identify and classify the various wastes, while optimizing the associated costs. At all stages of the decommissioning radiological measurements are performed to determine the initial situation, to monitor the demolition and clean-up, and to verify the final situation. Radiochemical analysis is crucial for the radiological evaluation process to optimize the clean-up operations and to the respect limits defined with the authorities...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431090/current-status-of-the-blue-butterfly-in-fukushima-research
#13
Joji M Otaki, Wataru Taira
Adverse biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been revealed using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, since 2012, which were often considered incompatible with the conventional understanding of radiation biology. This discrepancy likely originates from different system conditions and methodologies. In this article, we first respond to comments from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) regarding our study; "technical errors" in unit usage and mathematical models noted by UNSCEAR are not errors but reflect our research philosophy not to introduce theoretical assumptions associated with unit conversion and mathematical fit...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429301/ethical-issues-related-to-the-promotion-of-a-100-msv-threshold-assumption-in-japan-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident-in-2011-background-and-consequences
#14
REVIEW
Toshihide Tsuda, Lena Lindahl, Akiko Tokinobu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the debates in Japan regarding the 100 mSv threshold assumption and ethical issues related to it, and explores the background to distorted risk information and absence of risk communication in Japan. Then we seek proper risk communication based on scientific evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: On March 11, 2011 an accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Since then a number of misunderstandings have become common in Japan as a result of public statements by the Japanese and local governments that have no basis in medical science or are contradictory to medical science...
April 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418815/educational-activity-for-the-radiation-emergency-system-in-the-northern-part-of-japan-meeting-report-on-the-3rd-educational-symposium-on-radiation-and-health-esrah-by-young-scientists-in-2016
#15
Yusuke Matsuya, Takakiyo Tsujiguchi, Masaru Yamaguchi, Takaaki Kimura, Ryosuke Mori, Ryota Yamada, Ryo Saga, Yohei Fujishima, Hiroyuki Date
In the northern part of Japan, close cooperation is essential in preparing for any possible emergency response to radiation accidents because several facilities, such as the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant and the Vitrified Waste Storage Center, exist in Rokkasho Village (Aomori Prefecture). After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, special attention should be given to the relationship between radiation and human health, as well as establishing a system for managing with a radiation emergency...
April 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402502/evaluation-of-human-body-irradiation-caused-by-radionuclides-deposited-in-the-filtration-unit-of-gas-mask
#16
R Cerny, K Johnova, P Otahal, L Thinova, J Kluson
Radioactive aerosol particles represent a serious risk for people facing the consequences of nuclear accident of any kind. The first responders to emergency situation need to be protected by personal protective equipment which includes radiation protection suit supplemented with gas mask. The purpose of this work is to estimate the dose to the organs of responder's body as a result of radionuclide deposition in the filtration unit of the gas mask. The problem was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. The dose absorbed by different organs for five representative radionuclides and the dose distribution over the responder's body are presented in this paper...
April 11, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390309/thirty-years-after-chernobyl-long-term-determination-of-137-cs-effective-half-life-in-the-lichen-stereocaulon-vesuvianum
#17
F Savino, M Pugliese, M Quarto, P Adamo, F Loffredo, F De Cicco, V Roca
It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386098/changes-in-hepatobiliary-enzyme-abnormality-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#18
Atsushi Takahashi, Tetsuya Ohira, Mayu Uemura, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Seiji Yasumura, Shigeatsu Hashimoto, Hiromasa Ohira, Akira Sakai, Akira Ohtsuru, Hiroaki Satoh, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Yoshihiro Sugiura, Hiroaki Shishido, Yoshimitsu Hayashi, Hideto Takahashi, Hironori Nakano, Gen Kobashi, Kotaro Ozasa, Hitoshi Ohto, Masafumi Abe
Although the incidence of hepatobiliary enzyme abnormality increased immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, longer-term trends remain unclear. The aims of this study were to determine longer-term trends in hepatobiliary enzyme abnormality and to elucidate lifestyle factors associated with such changes among residents of a nuclear-disaster-affected area. This longitudinal survey enrolled 20,395 adults living in the vicinity of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384254/correction-a-dual-pathways-transfer-model-to-account-for-changes-in-the-radioactive-caesium-level-in-demersal-and-pelagic-fish-after-the-fukushima-da%C3%A3-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#19
Bruno Fiévet, Pascal Bailly du Bois, Philippe Laguionie, Mehdi Morillon, Mireille Arnaud, Pascal Cunin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172442.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380392/temporal-changes-in-radiocesium-contamination-derived-from-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident-in-oceanic-zooplankton-in-the-western-north-pacific
#20
Minoru Kitamura, Makio C Honda, Yasunori Hamajima, Yuichiro Kumamoto, Michio Aoyama, Hajime Kawakami, Tatsuo Aono, Miho Fukuda, Yoshihisa Mino
We investigated temporal changes of the contamination of oceanic zooplankton with radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident one month to three years after the accident at subarctic and subtropical stations (1900 and 900-1000 km from the plant, respectively) in the western North Pacific. The maximum activity concentrations of (137)Cs in zooplankton were two orders of magnitude higher than the pre-accident level. In the first four months after the accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium in subtropical zooplankton decreased rapidly, but no similar change was observed at the subarctic station...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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