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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904389/high-wettability-of-liquid-caesium-iodine-with-solid-uranium-dioxide
#1
Ken Kurosaki, Masanori Suzuki, Masayoshi Uno, Hiroto Ishii, Masaya Kumagai, Keito Anada, Yukihiro Murakami, Yuji Ohishi, Hiroaki Muta, Toshihiro Tanaka, Shinsuke Yamanaka
In March 2011, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident caused nuclear fuel to melt and the release of high-volatility fission products into the environment. Caesium and iodine caused environmental contamination and public exposure. Certain fission-product behaviours remain unclear. We found experimentally that liquid CsI disperses extremely favourably toward solid UO2, exhibiting a contact angle approaching zero. We further observed the presence of CsI several tens of micrometres below the surface of the solid UO2 sample, which would be caused by the infiltration of pores network by liquid CsI...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895374/can-environmental-factors-contribute-in-triggering-vitiligo-and-associated-autoimmune-thyroid-diseases-clinical-series-possibly-related-to-the-chernobyl-nuclear-accident
#2
Massimiliano Galeone, Roberta Colucci, Federica Dragoni, Silvia Moretti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892848/source-dynamics-of-radiocesium-contaminated-particulate-matter-deposited-in-an-agricultural-water-reservoir-after-the-fukushima-nuclear-accident
#3
Sylvain Huon, Seiji Hayashi, J Patrick Laceby, Hideki Tsuji, Yuichi Onda, Olivier Evrard
The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan resulted in the deposition of radiocesium over forested and rural landscapes northwest of the power plant. Although there have been several investigations into the dynamics of contaminated river sediment, less attention has been paid to the sources of deposited particulate matter in dams and reservoirs. In the Fukushima Prefecture, there are 10 significant dams and over a 1000 reservoirs for both agricultural and surface water management. These reservoirs may have trapped a significant volume of radiocesium-contaminated sediment...
September 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890456/a-figure-of-merit-quantifying-the-probability-of-a-nuclear-reactor-accident
#4
Thomas R Wellock
In recent decades, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an essential tool in risk analysis and management in many industries and government agencies. The origins of PRA date to the 1975 publication of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Reactor Safety Study led by MIT professor Norman Rasmussen. The "Rasmussen Report" inspired considerable political and scholarly disputes over the motives behind it and the value of its methods and numerical estimates of risk. The Report's controversies have overshadowed the deeper technical origins of risk assessment...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881474/assessment-of-instructions-on-protection-against-food-contaminated-with-radiocesium-in-japan-in-2011
#5
Mayumi Seto, Koichiro Uriu, Isao Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki Yokomizo
The Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) has published instructions for radiological protection against food after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011. Following the instructions, the export and consumption of food items identified as being contaminated were restricted for a certain period. We assessed the validity of the imposed restriction periods for two representative vegetables (spinach and cabbage) grown in Fukushima Prefecture from two perspectives: effectiveness for reducing dietary dose and economic efficiency...
September 7, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877030/radiation-mitigating-properties-of-intranasally-administered-kl4-surfactant-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#6
Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Evguenia Arguiri, Constantinos Koumenis, Robert Segal
The threat of exposure to ionizing radiation from a nuclear reactor accident or deliberate terrorist actions is a significant public health concern. The lung is particularly susceptible to radiation-induced injury from external sources or inhalation of radioactive particles from radioactive fallout. Radiation-induced lung disease can manifest with an acute radiation pneumonitis and/or delayed effects leading to pulmonary fibrosis. As prior warning of radiation exposure is unlikely, medical countermeasures (MCMs) to mitigate radiation-induced lung disease that can be given in mass-casualty situations many hours or days postirradiation are needed to prevent both early and late lung damage...
September 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876047/recent-transport-history-of-fukushima-radioactivity-in-the-northeast-pacific-ocean
#7
John N Smith, Vincent Rossi, Ken O Buesseler, Jay T Cullen, Jack Cornett, Richard Nelson, Alison M Macdonald, Marie Robert, Jonathan Kellogg
The large inventory of radioactivity released during the March, 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident in Japan spread rapidly across the North Pacific Ocean and was first observed at the westernmost station on Line P, an oceanographic sampling line extending 1500 km westward of British Columbia (BC), Canada in June 2012. Here, time series measurements of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in seawater on Line P and on the CLIVAR-P16N 152°W line reveal the recent transport history of the Fukushima radioactivity tracer plume through the northeast Pacific Ocean...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856527/neonatal-outcomes-following-exposure-in-utero-to-fallout-from-chernobyl
#8
Maureen Hatch, Mark P Little, Alina V Brenner, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Valery Tereshchenko, Ludmyla Chaikovska, Igor Pasteur, Ilya Likhtarov, Andre Bouville, Victor Shpak, Olena Bolshova, Galyna Zamotayeva, Katherine Grantz, Liping Sun, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Paul Albert, Mykola Tronko
Iodine 131 (I-131), the principal component of nuclear fallout from the Chernobyl accident, concentrates in the thyroid gland and may pose risks to fetal development. To evaluate this, neonatal outcomes following the accident in April of 1986 were investigated in a cohort of 2582 in utero-exposed individuals from northern Ukraine for whom estimates of fetal thyroid I-131 dose were available. We carried out a retrospective review of cohort members' prenatal, delivery and newborn records. The relationships of dose with neonatal anthropometrics and gestational length were modeled via linear regression with adjustment for potentially confounding variables...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854153/report-on-the-accident-at-windscale-no-1-pile-on-10-october-1957
#9
William Penney, Basil F J Schonland, J M Kay, Jack Diamond, David E H Peirson
A serious fire developed in the core of a nuclear reactor at Windscale Works, Sellafield, northwest England, which led to the release of significant quantities of radioactive material into the environment during 10-11th October, 1957. In 1957, Windscale Works was operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), and on 15th October it was announced by the Chairman of the UKAEA that a Committee of Inquiry had been established under the chairmanship of Sir William Penney to conduct an investigation into the accident...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851550/comparison-of-radiocesium-concentration-changes-in-leguminous-and-non-leguminous-herbaceous-plants-observed-after-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#10
Shigeo Uchida, Keiko Tagami
Transfer of radiocesium from soil to crops is an important pathway for human intake. In the period from one to two years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, food monitoring results showed that radiocesium concentrations in soybean (a legume) were higher than those in other annual agricultural crops; in these crops, root uptake is the major pathway of radiocesium from soil to plant. However, it was not clear whether or not leguminous and non-leguminous herbaceous plants have different Cs uptake abilities from the same soil because crop sample collection fields were different...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846975/stabilization-of-cesium-in-alkali-activated-municipal-solid-waste-incineration-fly-ash-and-a-pyrophyllite-based-system
#11
Kenji Shiota, Takafumi Nakamura, Masaki Takaoka, Siti Fatimah Aminuddin, Kazuyuki Oshita, Takashi Fujimori
Environmentally sound treatments are required to dispose of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) contaminated with radioactive cesium (Cs) from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan. This study focuses on the stabilization of Cs using an alkali-activated MSWIFA and pyophyllite-based system. Three composite solid products were synthesized after mixtures of raw materials (dehydrated pyrophyllite, MSWIFA, 14 mol/L aqueous sodium hydroxide, and sodium silicate solution) were cured at 105 °C for 24 h...
August 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817098/estimation-of-the-vertical-distribution-of-radiocesium-in-soil-on-the-basis-of-the-characteristics-of-gamma-ray-spectra-obtained-via-aerial-radiation-monitoring-using-an-unmanned-helicopter
#12
Kotaro Ochi, Miyuki Sasaki, Mutsushi Ishida, Shoichiro Hamamoto, Taku Nishimura, Yukihisa Sanada
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811855/impact-of-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-and-fukushima-nuclear-power-plant-accident-on-assisted-reproductive-technology-in-fukushima-prefecture-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#13
Masako Hayashi, Keiya Fujimori, Seiji Yasumura, Akihito Nakai
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidences and obstetric outcomes of women who conceived using assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures in Fukushima Prefecture before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. METHODS: Information was collected and analyzed from 12,070 women who conceived with or without ART in Fukushima Prefecture during the 9 months before and after the disaster. RESULTS: During the 9 months before and after the disaster, 138 (2...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811510/temporal-changes-in-the-radiocesium-distribution-in-forests-over-the-five-years-after-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#14
Naohiro Imamura, Masabumi Komatsu, Shinta Ohashi, Shoji Hashimoto, Takuya Kajimoto, Shinji Kaneko, Tsutomu Takano
To elucidate the temporal changes in the radiocesium distribution in forests contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, we monitored the (137)Cs concentration and inventory within forests from 2011 to 2015 across nine plots containing variable tree species and different contamination levels. The (137)Cs concentrations in needles and branches decreased exponentially at all coniferous plots, with effective ecological half-lives of 0.45-1.55 yr for needles and 0.83-1.69 yr for branches...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802269/removal-of-soluble-strontium-into-biogenic-carbonate-minerals-from-a-highly-saline-solution-using-halophilic-bacterium-bacillus-sp-tk2d
#15
Takumi Horiike, Yuma Dotsuta, Yuriko Nakano, Asumi Ochiai, Satoshi Utsunomiya, Toshihiko Ohnuki, Mitsuo Yamashita
Radioactive strontium ((90)Sr) leaked into saline environments, including the ocean, from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after a nuclear accident. Since the removal of (90)Sr using general adsorbents (e.g., zeolite) is not efficient at high salinity, a suitable alternative immobilization method is necessary. Therefore, we incorporated soluble Sr into biogenic carbonate minerals generated by urease-producing microorganisms from a saline solution. An isolate, Bacillus sp. strain TK2d, from marine sediment removed > 99% Sr after contact for four days in a saline solution (1...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778008/distribution-of-137-cs-on-components-in-urban-area-four-years-after-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#16
K Yoshimura, K Saito, K Fujiwara
Distribution of (137)Cs on components in urban areas such as roofs and roads is crucial for evaluating the behavior of radiocesium and ambient dose rates in the area. This study evaluated relative (137)Cs inventories, which are defined as the relative values of (137)Cs inventory on each component to that on a nearby permeable plane field, for 11 buildings in the evacuation zone about four years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The average relative inventory of paved ground accounted for 0...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776900/pathological-findings-of-japanese-black-cattle-living-in-the-restricted-area-of-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident-2013-2016
#17
Jun Sasaki, Kayoko Hiratani, Itaru Sato, Hiroshi Satoh, Yoshitaka Deguchi, Hiroyuki Chida, Masahiro Natsuhori, Takahisa Murata, Kenji Ochiai, Kumiko Otani, Keiji Okada, Nobuhiko Ito
Fifty-one Japanese black cattle from four farms in the evacuation zone of the Fukushima nuclear accident were examined pathologically during the period, 2013-2016. We found no evidence of a radiation effect on pathological findings in any of these autopsy cases, although nine cases (3.7%) of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) and three cases (1.2%) of goiter were diagnosed. Estimated integrating dose of external exposure in EBL cases ranged from a maximum of 1200 mSv to a minimum of 72 mSv. Clinically, five cases showed wobble, dysstasia or paralysis...
August 4, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776878/a-method-for-estimating-radioactive-cesium-concentrations-in-cattle-blood-using-urine-samples
#18
Itaru Sato, Ryoma Yamagishi, Jun Sasaki, Hiroshi Satoh, Kiyoshi Miura, Kaoru Kikuchi, Kumiko Otani, Keiji Okada
In the region contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident, radioactive contamination of live cattle should be checked before slaughter. In this study, we establish a precise method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples. Blood and urine samples were collected from a total of 71 cattle on two farms in the 'difficult-to-return zone'. Urine (137) Cs, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, and creatinine were measured and various estimation methods for blood (137) Cs were tested...
August 4, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771181/ghrelin-therapy-decreases-incidents-of-intracranial-hemorrhage-in-mice-after-whole-body-ionizing-irradiation-combined-with-burn-trauma
#19
Nikolai V Gorbunov, Juliann G Kiang
Nuclear industrial accidents and the detonation of nuclear devices cause a variety of damaging factors which, when their impacts are combined, produce complicated injuries challenging for medical treatment. Thus, trauma following acute ionizing irradiation (IR) can deteriorate the IR-induced secondary reactive metabolic and inflammatory impacts to dose-limiting tissues, such as bone marrow/lymphatic, gastrointestinal tissues, and vascular endothelial tissues, exacerbating the severity of the primary injury and decreasing survival from the exposure...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764125/vertical-distribution-and-temporal-dynamics-of-dissolved-137-cs-concentrations-in-soil-water-after-the-fukushima-dai-ichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#20
Sho Iwagami, Yuichi Onda, Maki Tsujimura, Manami Hada, Ishwar Pun
Radiocesium ((137)Cs) migration from headwater forested areas to downstream rivers has been investigated in many studies since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, which was triggered by a catastrophic earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The accident resulted in the release of a huge amount of radioactivity and its subsequent deposition in the environment. A large part of the radiocesium released has been shown to remain in the forest. The dissolved (137)Cs concentration and its temporal dynamics in river water, stream water, and groundwater have been reported, but reports of dissolved (137)Cs concentration in soil water remain sparse...
November 2017: Environmental Pollution
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