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Nuclear accident

Joji M Otaki, Wataru Taira
Adverse biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident have been revealed using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, since 2012, which were often considered incompatible with the conventional understanding of radiation biology. This discrepancy likely originates from different system conditions and methodologies. In this article, we first respond to comments from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) regarding our study; "technical errors" in unit usage and mathematical models noted by UNSCEAR are not errors but reflect our research philosophy not to introduce theoretical assumptions associated with unit conversion and mathematical fit...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Heredity
Toshihide Tsuda, Lena Lindahl, Akiko Tokinobu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article describes the debates in Japan regarding the 100 mSv threshold assumption and ethical issues related to it, and explores the background to distorted risk information and absence of risk communication in Japan. Then we seek proper risk communication based on scientific evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: On March 11, 2011 an accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Since then a number of misunderstandings have become common in Japan as a result of public statements by the Japanese and local governments that have no basis in medical science or are contradictory to medical science...
April 20, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
Yusuke Matsuya, Takakiyo Tsujiguchi, Masaru Yamaguchi, Takaaki Kimura, Ryosuke Mori, Ryota Yamada, Ryo Saga, Yohei Fujishima, Hiroyuki Date
In the northern part of Japan, close cooperation is essential in preparing for any possible emergency response to radiation accidents because several facilities, such as the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, the MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant and the Vitrified Waste Storage Center, exist in Rokkasho Village (Aomori Prefecture). After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, special attention should be given to the relationship between radiation and human health, as well as establishing a system for managing with a radiation emergency...
April 18, 2017: Radiation Research
R Cerny, K Johnova, P Otahal, L Thinova, J Kluson
Radioactive aerosol particles represent a serious risk for people facing the consequences of nuclear accident of any kind. The first responders to emergency situation need to be protected by personal protective equipment which includes radiation protection suit supplemented with gas mask. The purpose of this work is to estimate the dose to the organs of responder's body as a result of radionuclide deposition in the filtration unit of the gas mask. The problem was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. The dose absorbed by different organs for five representative radionuclides and the dose distribution over the responder's body are presented in this paper...
April 11, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
F Savino, M Pugliese, M Quarto, P Adamo, F Loffredo, F De Cicco, V Roca
It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Atsushi Takahashi, Tetsuya Ohira, Mayu Uemura, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Seiji Yasumura, Shigeatsu Hashimoto, Hiromasa Ohira, Akira Sakai, Akira Ohtsuru, Hiroaki Satoh, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Yoshihiro Sugiura, Hiroaki Shishido, Yoshimitsu Hayashi, Hideto Takahashi, Hironori Nakano, Gen Kobashi, Kotaro Ozasa, Hitoshi Ohto, Masafumi Abe
Although the incidence of hepatobiliary enzyme abnormality increased immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, longer-term trends remain unclear. The aims of this study were to determine longer-term trends in hepatobiliary enzyme abnormality and to elucidate lifestyle factors associated with such changes among residents of a nuclear-disaster-affected area. This longitudinal survey enrolled 20,395 adults living in the vicinity of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Bruno Fiévet, Pascal Bailly du Bois, Philippe Laguionie, Mehdi Morillon, Mireille Arnaud, Pascal Cunin
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172442.].
2017: PloS One
Minoru Kitamura, Makio C Honda, Yasunori Hamajima, Yuichiro Kumamoto, Michio Aoyama, Hajime Kawakami, Tatsuo Aono, Miho Fukuda, Yoshihisa Mino
We investigated temporal changes of the contamination of oceanic zooplankton with radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident one month to three years after the accident at subarctic and subtropical stations (1900 and 900-1000 km from the plant, respectively) in the western North Pacific. The maximum activity concentrations of (137)Cs in zooplankton were two orders of magnitude higher than the pre-accident level. In the first four months after the accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium in subtropical zooplankton decreased rapidly, but no similar change was observed at the subarctic station...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Siwar Chibani, Israa Medlej, Sébastien Lebegue, Janos Angyan, Laurent Cantrel, Michael Badawi
Using periodic dispersion corrected Density Functional Theory, the adsorption of I2 and ICH3, which may be released during a severe nuclear accident, has been investigated for three divalent (Cu2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+) cation-exchanged mordenite with a Si/Al ratio of 23. However, gas such as H2O, CO, ClCH3, and Cl2 present in the containment atmosphere could inhibit the selective adsorption of iodine species. In order to identify the most promising adsorbent materials, we have performed a systematic study in which all the possible cationic sites in the main channel of the mordenite structure have been considered...
April 5, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Montserrat Bellés, Sergio Gonzalo, Noemí Serra, Roser Esplugas, Meritxell Arenas, José Luis Domingo, Victoria Linares
Nuclear accidents of tremendous magnitude, such as those of Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011), mean that individuals living in the contaminated areas are potentially exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). However, the dose-response relationship for effects of low doses of radiation is not still established. The present study was aimed at investigating in mice the early effects of low-dose internal radiation exposure on the kidney. Adult male (C57BL/6J) mice were divided into three groups. Two groups received a single subcutaneous (s...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Research
Tomohiro Yamaki, Masahiro Otani, Kohei Ono, Takuro Mimura, Koshiro Oda, Takeshi Minamii, Shingo Matsumoto, Yuzy Matsuo, Makoto Kawamukai, Takashi Akihiro
A considerable portion of agricultural land in central-east Japan has been contaminated by radioactive material, particularly radioactive Cs, due to the industrial accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Understanding the mechanism of absorption, translocation, and accumulation of Cs(+) in plants will greatly assist in developing approaches to help reduce the radioactive contamination of agricultural products. At present, however, little is known regarding the Cs(+) transporters in rice. A transporter-enriched yeast expression library was constructed and the library was screened for Cs(+) transporter genes...
March 28, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Elizabeth K Cahoon, Eldar A Nadirov, Olga N Polanskaya, Vasilina V Yauseyenka, Ilya V Velalkin, Tamara I Yeudachkova, Tamara I Maskvicheva, Victor F Minenko, Wayne Liu, Vladimir Drozdovitch, Kiyohoko Mabuchi, Mark P Little, Lydia B Zablotska, Robert J McConnell, Maureen Hatch, Kamau O Peters, Alexander V Rozhko, Alina V Brenner
Context: Although radiation exposure is an important predictor of thyroid cancer upon diagnosis of a thyroid nodule, the relationship between childhood radiation exposure and thyroid nodules has not been comprehensively evaluated. Objective: To examine the association between internal I-131 thyroid radiation dose and thyroid nodules in young adults exposed during childhood. Design, setting, and participants: In this cross-sectional study, we screened 11,970 residents of Belarus aged ≤18 years at the time of the Chernobyl nuclear accident (April 1986) for thyroid disease (median age 21 years) with thyroid palpation, ultrasonography, blood and urine analysis, and medical follow-up when appropriate...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
M Castrillejo, N Casacuberta, M Christl, J Garcia-Orellana, C Vockenhuber, H-A Synal, P Masqué
The first basin-wide distribution of (236)U/(238)U atom ratios and (129)I concentrations is presented for the Mediterranean Sea. During the GEOTRACES GA04S-MedSeA expedition in 2013 seawater was collected from 10 vertical profiles covering the principal sub-basins of the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective was to understand the distributions of (236)U and (129)I in relation to the water masses, and to constrain their sources in this region. The (236)U/(238)U atom ratios and the (129)I concentrations ranged from (710±40)×10(-12) to (2220±60)×10(-12) and from (4...
March 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Taiki Kawagoshi, Naoko Shiomi, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Yoshito Watanabe, Shoichi Fuma, Kazutaka Doi, Isao Kawaguchi, Masanari Aoki, Masahide Kubota, Yoshiaki Furuhata, Yusaku Shigemura, Masahiko Mizoguchi, Fumio Yamada, Morihiko Tomozawa, Shinsuke H Sakamoto, Satoshi Yoshida, Yoshihisa Kubota
Since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiation effects on nonhuman biota in the contaminated areas have been a major concern. Here, we analyzed the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations (translocations and dicentrics) in the splenic lymphocytes of large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) inhabiting Fukushima Prefecture. A. speciosus chromosomes 1, 2, and 5 were flow-sorted in order to develop A. speciosus chromosome-specific painting probes, and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) was performed using these painting probes to detect the translocations and dicentrics...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Mitsunori Ishihara, Takeo Tadono
The east Japan earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 was a big natural disaster, comprising the large earthquake shock, tsunami, and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. These disasters caused changes in the land use and land cover (LULC) in Japan's Tohoku district. While the LULC map created before the disaster is available, as yet there is no precise LULC map of the district after the disaster. In this study, we created a precise LULC map for the years 2013-2015 post-disaster with 30-m spatial resolution using the Landsat-8 with the Operational Land Imager (OLI) to evaluate the changes in LULC induced by the disaster...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Aki Tanaka, Philip H Kass, Beatriz Martinez-Lopez, Shinichi Hayama
The Great East Japan Earthquakes of March 11, 2011 caused immense harm to the community and subsequent nuclear accident in Fukushima Prefecture extended the damage. Local residents were forced to evacuated without pets and the left behind animals were rescued from the restricted zone one month later. Unplanned animal rescue and unregulated sheltering caused secondary damage to animals such as disease epidemics at impounded animal shelter. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the incidence of upper respiratory infection (URI) and diarrhea in cats at the first response animal shelter in Fukushima, and investigate factors affecting the duration of disease and determinants of treatments performed...
2017: PloS One
Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Simon Authier, Karen Wong, Albert J Fornace
Ionizing radiation (IR) directly damages cells and tissues or indirectly through reactive free radicals that may lead to longer term adverse sequelae such as cancers, persistent inflammation, or possible death. Potential exposures include nuclear reactor accidents, improper disposal of equipment containing radioactive materials or medical errors, and terrorist attacks. Metabolomics (comprehensive analysis of compounds <1 kDa) by mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed as a tool for high-throughput biodosimetry and rapid assessment of exposed dose and triage needed...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
Stephanie D Byrum, Marie S Burdine, Lisa Orr, Samuel G Mackintosh, Simon Authier, Mylene Pouliot, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Alan J Tackett
Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a complex multi-organ disease resulting from total body exposure to high doses of radiation. Individuals can be exposed to total body irradiation (TBI) in a number of ways, including terrorist radiological weapons or nuclear accidents. In order to determine whether an individual has been exposed to high doses of radiation and needs countermeasure treatment, robust biomarkers are needed to estimate radiation exposure from biospecimens such as blood or urine. In order to identity such candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure, high-resolution proteomics was used to analyze plasma from non-human primates following whole body irradiation (Co-60 at 6...
2017: PloS One
Naoki Kaneyasu, Hideo Ohashi, Fumie Suzuki, Tomoaki Okuda, Fumikazu Ikemori, Naofumi Akata, Toshihiro Kogure
Most studies of the properties of airborne radionuclides emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant have focused on the relatively early stages of the accident, and little is known about the characteristics of radiocesium in the long-term. In this study, we analyzed activity size distributions of airborne radiocesium collected over 5 months in Tsukuba, Japan. Radiocesium in the accumulation mode size range (0.1-2 μm in aerodynamic diameter) was overwhelming in the early aerosol samples and decreased with time, while that associated with coarse aerosols remained airborne...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ivan Kajan, Teemu Kärkelä, Ari Auvinen, Christian Ekberg
Ruthenium is a fission product that can be released from the fuel in case of a severe nuclear accident. In this work the impact of the atmosphere composition, including air radiolysis products, on the transport of ruthenium through a primary circuit was examined. Experiments were performed at temperatures 1300, 1500 and 1700 K in a slightly humid air. In the experiments significant effect of nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO2) and nitric acid on the ruthenium chemistry in the model primary circuit was observed. The obtained results indicate a strong effect of air radiolysis products on the quantity partitioning of transported ruthenium to gaseous and aerosol compounds...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
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