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Nuclear accident

I Labunska, V Kashparov, S Levchuk, D Santillo, P Johnston, S Polishchuk, N Lazarev, Y Khomutinin
This study reports for the first time temporal trends for the period of 2011-2016 in 137 Cs content in cow's milk originating from private farms and households of 14 settlements located in the territories of the Rivne region, Ukraine. These areas are still radioactively contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in 1986. In 2016, the average 137 Cs activity concentration in milk exceeded the Ukrainian Permissible Level (PL) for adults of 100 Bq/l in samples from 6 settlements and the PL for children of 40 Bq/l in 8 settlements, reaching activity concentration of around 500 Bq/l in some samples...
May 15, 2018: Environment International
Ki Moon Seong, TaeWoo Kwon, Jina Park, BuHyun Youn, Hyuck-Jin Cha, Yonghwan Kim, Changjong Moon, Seung-Sook Lee, Young Woo Jin
PURPOSE: Since the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, Korean radiation experts have agreed that reliable data on health risks of low-dose radiation (LDR) are needed to ease the anxiety of lay people. The intent of this study was to devise a sustainable biological program suited for the research environment in Korea and aimed at the health effects of radiation exposures <100 millisieverts (mSv). To address pressing public concerns over LDR risk, we investigated the current understanding of LDR effects by analyzing the previous reports of international authorities for radiation protection and research publications that appeared after the Chernobyl accident...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Toshihiro Wada, Atsushi Tomiya, Masahiro Enomoto, Toshiyuki Sato, Daigo Morishita, Shigehiko Izumi, Kouji Niizeki, Shunji Suzuki, Takami Morita, Gyo Kawata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hirokazu Miyatake, Nobuaki Yoshizawa, Gen Suzuki
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in a release of radionuclides into the environment. Since the accident, measurements of radiation in the environment such as air dose rate and deposition density of radionuclides have been performed by various organizations and universities. In particular, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing observations of air dose rate using a car-borne survey system continuously over widespread areas. Based on the data measured by JAEA, we estimated effective dose from external exposure in the prefectures surrounding Fukushima...
May 11, 2018: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Guido Cervone, Carolynne Hultquist
A methodology is presented to calibrate contributed Safecast dose rate measurements acquired between 2011 and 2016 in the Fukushima prefecture of Japan. The Safecast data are calibrated using observations acquired by the U.S. Department of Energy at the time of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi power plant nuclear accident. The methodology performs a series of interpolations between the U.S. government and contributed datasets at specific temporal windows and at corresponding spatial locations. The coefficients found for all the different temporal windows are aggregated and interpolated using quadratic regressions to generate a time dependent calibration function...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Kaori Murase, Joe Murase, Koji Machidori, Kentaro Mizuno, Yutaro Hayashi, Kenjiro Kohri
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the change of discharge rate after cryptorchidism surgery between pre- and post-disaster in Japan. Cryptorchidism cannot be diagnosed before birth and is not a factor that would influence a woman's decision to seek an abortion. Therefore, this disease is considered suitable for assessing how the Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident (2011) influenced congenital diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained cryptorchidism discharge data collected over six years from hospitals that were included in an impact assessment survey of the Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC survey) database in Japan and used these data to estimate the discharge rate after cryptorchidism surgery before and after the disaster...
May 8, 2018: Urology
Mathieu Giraudeau, Jean-Marc Bonzom, Simon Ducatez, Karine Beaugelin-Seiller, Pierre Deviche, Thierry Lengagne, Isabelle Cavalie, Virginie Camilleri, Christelle Adam-Guillermin, Kevin J McGraw
The nuclear accident in the Fukushima prefecture released a large amount of artificial radionuclides that might have short- and long-term biological effects on wildlife. Ionizing radiation can be a harmful source of reactive oxygen species, and previous studies have already shown reduced fitness effects in exposed animals in Chernobyl. Due to their potential health benefits, carotenoid pigments might be used by animals to limit detrimental effects of ionizing radiation exposure. Here, we examined concentrations of carotenoids in blood (i...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lue Sun, Yohei Inaba, Keizo Sato, Aki Hirayama, Koji Tsuboi, Ryuji Okazaki, Koichi Chida, Takashi Moritake
Many reports have demonstrated that radiation stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mitochondria for a few hours to a few days after irradiation. However, these studies were performed using cell lines, and there is a lack of information about redox homeostasis in irradiated animals and humans. Blood redox homeostasis reflects the body condition well and can be used as a diagnostic marker. However, most redox homeostasis studies have focused on plasma or serum, and the anti-oxidant capacity of whole blood has scarcely been investigated...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Adam Varley, Andrew Tyler, Yuri Bondar, Ali Hosseini, Viachaslau Zabrotski, Mark Dowdall
Cs-137 is considered to be the most significant anthropogenic contributor to human dose and presents a particularly difficult remediation challenge after a dispersal following nuclear incident. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant meltdown in April 1986 represents the largest nuclear accident in history and released over 80 PBq of 137 Cs into the environment. As a result, much of the land in close proximity to Chernobyl, which includes the Polessie State Radioecology Reserve in Belarus, remains highly contaminated with 137 Cs to such an extent they remain uninhabitable...
May 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Zhidan Chen, Stephen L Coy, Evan L Pannkuk, Evagelia C Laiakis, Albert J Fornace, Paul Vouros
High-throughput methods to assess radiation exposure are a priority due to concerns that include nuclear power accidents, the spread of nuclear weapon capability, and the risk of terrorist attacks. Metabolomics, the assessment of small molecules in an easily accessible sample, is the most recent method to be applied for the identification of biomarkers of the biological radiation response with a useful dose-response profile. Profiling for biomarker identification is frequently done using an LC-MS platform which has limited throughput due to the time-consuming nature of chromatography...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Hugo Jaegler, Fabien Pointurier, Yuichi Onda, Amélie Hubert, J Patrick Laceby, Maëva Cirella, Olivier Evrard
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident resulted in a significant release of radionuclides that were deposited on soils in Northeastern Japan. Plutonium was detected at trace levels in soils and sediments collected around the FDNPP. However, little is known regarding the spatial-temporal variation of plutonium in sediment transiting rivers in the region. In this study, plutonium isotopic compositions were first measured in soils (n = 5) in order to investigate the initial plutonium deposition...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mark A Prelas, Modeste Tchakoua Tchouaso
This paper discusses the use of one of the safest isotopes known isotopes, Kr-85, as a candidate fuel source for deep space missions. This isotope comes from 0.286% of fission events. There is a vast quantity of Kr-85 stored in spent fuel and it is continually being produced by nuclear reactors. In using Kr-85 with a novel Dual Cycle Conversion System (DCCS) it is feasible to boost the system efficiency from 26% to 45% over a single cycle device while only increasing the system mass by less than 1%. The Kr-85 isotope is the ideal fuel for a Photon Intermediate Direct Energy Conversion (PIDEC) system...
April 26, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Mutsuo Inoue, Toshiki Morokado, Ken Fujimoto, Shizuho Miki, Hisaki Kofuji, Yutaka Isoda, Seiya Nagao
We examined the vertical 134 Cs and 137 Cs concentration profiles in the southwestern Okhotsk Sea in 2011, 2013, and 2017. In June 2011, atmospheric deposition-derived 134 Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) was detected at depths of 0-200 m (0.06-0.6 mBq/L). In July 2013, 134 Cs detected at depths of 100-200 m (∼0.05 mBq/L) was ascribed to the transport of low-level 134 Cs-contaminated water and/or the convection of radioactive depositions (<0.03 mBq/L at depths of 0-50 m)...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
C A McMahon, V Smith, K Leonard, R Ryan
Ireland does not have any nuclear installations, but a nuclear accident at a site elsewhere, particularly in Europe, could result in widespread but low-level contamination of the Irish environment. Ireland's National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents was established, following the Chernobyl accident, for the national response to a nuclear accident abroad affecting Ireland. It has since been extended to also cover domestic radiological emergencies for which a national-level input is required to support the local response...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Haruko M Wainwright, Akiyuki Seki, Satoshi Mikami, Kimiaki Saito
In this study, we quantify the temporal changes of air dose rates in the regional scale around the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, and predict the spatial distribution of air dose rates in the future. We first apply the Bayesian geostatistical method developed by Wainwright et al. (2017) to integrate multiscale datasets including ground-based walk and car surveys, and airborne surveys, all of which have different scales, resolutions, spatial coverage, and accuracy. This method is based on geostatistics to represent spatial heterogeneous structures, and also on Bayesian hierarchical models to integrate multiscale, multi-type datasets in a consistent manner...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Sae Ochi, Shigeaki Kato, Claire Leppold, Tomohiro Morita, Masaharu Tsubokura, Tomoyoshi Oikawa, Ryuzaburo Shineha, Yukio Kanazawa, Masatoshi Fujiwara
OBJECTIVE: As status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is highly affected by environmental factors, a catastrophic disaster may also affect RA activity. Herein we conducted a retrospective cohort study in the disaster area of the 2011 triple disaster in Fukushima, Japan: an earthquake, tsunamis and a nuclear accident. METHODS: Clinical records of RA patients who attended a hospital near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were collected. For those who underwent whole-body counter testing, internal radiation exposure levels were also collected...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
K Sakai
Six and a half years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, an area of existing exposure situation remains. One of the main concerns of people is the higher level of ionising radiation than before the accident, although this is not expected to have any discernible health effect. Since the accident, several 'abnormalities' in environmental organisms have been reported. It is still not clear if these abnormalities were induced by radiation. It appears that the impact of the released radioactivity has not been sufficient to threaten the maintenance of biological diversity, the conservation of species, or the health and status of natural habitats, which are the focus in environmental protection...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
Tomokazu Fukuda
The damage caused by the earthquake on 11 March, 2011 resulted in a serious nuclear accident in Japan. Due to the damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment. In particular, one of the largest safety concerns is radioactive cesium (134 Cs and 137 Cs). Due to the FNPP nuclear accident, a 20 km area was restricted from human activity, and various types of domestic animals were left in the zone. We collected the organs and tissues from sacrificed animals to obtain scientific data to evaluate the internal deposition of radioactive compounds...
April 26, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Jun Koarashi, Syusaku Nishimura, Mariko Atarashi-Andoh, Takeshi Matsunaga, Tsutomu Sato, Seiya Nagao
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident caused serious radiocesium (137 Cs) contamination in soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. It is well documented that the interaction of 137 Cs with soil constituents, particularly clay minerals, in surface soil layers exerts strong control on the behavior of this radionuclide in the environment; however, there is little understanding of how soil aggregation-the binding of soil particles together into aggregates-can affect the mobility and bioavailability of 137 Cs in soils...
April 18, 2018: Chemosphere
Manuel López-Vicente, Yuichi Onda, Junko Takahashi, Hiroaki Kato, Shinya Chayama, Keigo Hisadome
Owing to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident a vast amount of radiocesium was released polluting the land. Afterwards, a variety of decontamination practices has been done, reducing the ambient dose rates. In this study we evaluated the effectiveness of eight forest decontamination practices by means of monitoring the radiocesium (137 Cs) concentration in soil and leaf samples, and the daily discharge rates in ten plots during 27 months (May 2013-July 2015). A forest plantation located 16 km southwest to the FDNPP and within the exclusion area was selected...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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