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Nuclear accident

Guosheng Yang, Hirofumi Tazoe, Masatoshi Yamada
In order to measure trace (236)U and (236)U/(238)U in environmental samples with a high matrix effect, a novel and simple method was developed that makes the digestion and purification procedures compatible with advanced triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A total dissolution of sample with HF + HNO3 + HClO4 was followed by chromatographic separation with a single resin column containing normal type DGA resin (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) as the extractant system. The analytical accuracy and precision of (236)U/(238)U ratios, measured as (236)U(16)O(+)/(238)U(16)O(+), were examined by using the reference materials IAEA-135, IAEA-385, IAEA-447, and JSAC 0471...
November 9, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Masaharu Tsubokura, Shuhei Nomura, Hajime Watanobe, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Chiaki Suzuki, Sae Ochi, Claire Leppold, Hirokatsu Kinoshita, Shigeaki Kato, Yasutoshi Saito
Background Iodine deficiency is an important modifier of the risk of thyroid cancer following irradiation; however, little information is available on a prevalence of iodine deficiency in Fukushima and its surroundings after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March, 2011. Methods To assess urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and a prevalence of iodine deficiency and to elucidate any associations between demographic characteristics and UIC levels among children and adolescents aged 18 or younger at the time of the accident in Fukushima Prefecture and its surroundings, we evaluated the data on voluntary UIC testing conducted by Hirata Central Hospital, Fukushima...
October 19, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Mi Hee Choi, Ha-Eun Shim, Seong-Jae Yun, Sang-Hyun Park, Dae Seong Choi, Beom-Su Jang, Yong Jun Choi, Jongho Jeon
There have been worldwide attentions on the efficient removal of radioactive iodine, because it is commonly released in nuclear plant accidents. Increasing concerns on environmental problems due to the radioactive iodine are leading us to develop stable and sustainable technology for remediation of radioelement contaminants. In this work, we report a highly efficient chromatographic method for specific and rapid capture of radioactive iodine. The gold nanoparticles immobilized dextran gel columns showed excellent removal capabilities of radioactive iodine in various conditions...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tetsuya Ohira, Hideto Takahashi, Seiji Yasumura, Akira Ohtsuru, Sanae Midorikawa, Satoru Suzuki, Toshihiko Fukushima, Hiroki Shimura, Tetsuo Ishikawa, Akira Sakai, Shunichi Yamashita, Koichi Tanigawa, Hitoshi Ohto, Masafumi Abe, Shinichi Suzuki
The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other)...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sheng Xu, Gordon T Cook, Alan J Cresswell, Elaine Dunbar, Stewart P H T Freeman, Xiaolin Hou, Helen Kinch, Philip Naysmith, David W C Sanderson, Luyuan Zhang
Japanese cedar leaves from Iwaki, Fukushima were analyzed for carbon, cesium and iodine isotopic compositions before and after the 2011 nuclear accident. The Δ(14)C values reflect ambient atmospheric (14)C concentrations during the year the leaves were sampled/defoliated, and also previous year(s). The elevated (129)I and (134,137)Cs concentrations are attributed to direct exposure to the radioactive fallout for the pre-fallout-expended leaves and to internal translocation from older parts of the tree for post-fallout-expended leaves...
2016: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Yukihisa Sanada, Tadashi Orita, Tatsuo Torii
Aerial radiological survey using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was applied to measurement surface contamination around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS). An unmanned helicopter monitoring system (UHMS) was developed to survey the environmental effect of radioactive cesium scattered as a result of the FDNPS accident. The UHMS was used to monitor the area surrounding the FDNPS six times from 2012 to 2015. Quantitative changes in the radioactivity distribution trend were revealed from the results of these monitoring runs...
October 3, 2016: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Yoshitake Yokokura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Japan Medical Association Journal: JMAJ
Siwar Chibani, Mouheb Chebbi, Sébastien Lebègue, Laurent Cantrel, Michael Badawi
Silver modified zeolites with a mordenite structure can capture volatile iodine compounds (I2 and ICH3) which can be released during a severe nuclear accident. However under these particular conditions, molecules such as CO and H2O present in the containment atmosphere are expected to inhibit the adsorption of iodine compounds. In the present work, periodic density functional theory calculations have been carried out to investigate the interaction of I2, ICH3, H2O and CO molecules in silver-exchanged mordenite with various Si/Al ratios with the aim of finding values that favor a selective adsorption of I2 and ICH3...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shinya Ochiai, Hidenao Hasegawa, Hideki Kakiuchi, Naofumi Akata, Shinji Ueda, Shinji Tokonami, Shun'ichi Hisamatsu
The concentrations of (137)Cs in the air, which were divided into coarse (>1.1 μm ϕ) and fine (<1.1 μm ϕ) fractions of particulate matter (PM), were measured from October 2012 to December 2014 in an area evacuated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Total atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with high concentrations during summer and autumn related to the dominant easterly wind blowing from the highly radioactivity contaminated area...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Masanobu Mori, Kin-Ichi Tsunoda, Shoichi Aizawa, Yoichi Saito, Yuko Koike, Takahiro Gonda, Shunji Abe, Kyuma Suzuki, Yumi Yuasa, Toshihiro Kuge, Hideki Tanaka, Hajime Arai, Shun Watanabe, Seiichi Nohara, Yoshitaka Minai, Yukiko Okada, Seiya Nagao
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident has resulted in the contamination of the environment in Gunma Prefecture with radioisotope cesium (radio-Cs, (134)Cs and (137)Cs). Concentrations of radio-Cs >500Bqkg(-1) were found in wakasagi (Hypomesus nipponensis) in Lake Onuma at the top of Mount (Mt.) Akagi in August 2011. To explain the mechanism of this contamination, monitoring studies have been conducted around Lake Onuma by measuring radio-Cs concentrations in samples of fish, aquatic plants, plankton, lake water, lake sediments, and surrounding soil...
October 2, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
M Hayakawa
In Fukushima Prefecture, disaster-related death is a social problem for individuals who were forced to leave their hometowns as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Disaster-related death is caused by stress, exhaustion, and worsening of pre-existing illnesses due to evacuation. The number of disaster-related deaths has reached almost 2000, and continues to rise. Prolonged uncertainty and deteriorating living conditions suggest no end to such deaths, although response measures have been taken to improve the situation...
October 4, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
Gian Marco Contessa, Carlo Grandi, Mario Scognamiglio, Elisabetta Genovese, Sandro Sandri
The accident at Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO's) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) has been one of the dominant topic in nuclear safety and it has brought new attention on the matter of accidents in NPPs due to external events related to natural causes. Climate change has risen new risks and the growing probability of extreme external events has increased exposure and vulnerability of workers in the nuclear sector. However extreme natural events are a threat not only to NPPs but to all facilities dealing with radioactive material and in an emergency scenario they can affect the effectiveness and implementation of safety devices and procedures and also prevent communications, causing delays in the readiness of response...
July 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
M Ohmori
The accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake received considerable media coverage. However, a leaning towards sensationalism and a proclivity for denouncing those in power resulted in articles that were, in several instances, scientifically inaccurate, causing anxiety among disaster victims and delaying recovery efforts. Individuals working for the local media in Fukushima had the task of reporting the disaster while being victims of the disaster at the same time...
October 3, 2016: Annals of the ICRP
Olivier Evrard, J Patrick Laceby, Yuichi Onda, Yoshifumi Wakiyama, Hugo Jaegler, Irène Lefèvre
Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in a 3000-km(2) radioactive contamination plume. Here, we model the progressive dilution of the radiocesium contamination in 327 sediment samples from two neighboring catchments with different timing of soil decontamination. Overall, we demonstrate that there has been a ~90% decrease of the contribution of upstream contaminated soils to sediment transiting the coastal plains between 2012 (median - M - contribution of 73%, mean absolute deviation - MAD - of 27%) and 2015 (M 9%, MAD 6%)...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shogo Takahara, Maiko Ikegami, Minoru Yoneda, Hitoshi Kondo, Azusa Ishizaki, Masashi Iijima, Yoko Shimada, Yasuto Matsui
Ingestion of contaminated soil is one potential internal exposure pathway in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Doses from this pathway can be overestimated if the availability of radioactive nuclides in soils for the gastrointestinal tract is not considered. The concept of bioaccessibility has been adopted to evaluate this availability based on in vitro tests. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of radioactive cesium from soils via the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) and the extractability of those via an extraction test with 1 mol/L of hydrochloric acid (HCl)...
September 30, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Tomohiro Morita, Masaharu Tsubokura, Tomoyuki Furutani, Shuhei Nomura, Sae Ochi, Claire Leppold, Kazuhiro Takahara, Yuki Shimada, Sho Fujioka, Masahiro Kami, Shigeaki Kato, Tomoyoshi Oikawa
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of the 3.11 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident) on the emergency medical service (EMS) system in Fukushima. METHODS: Total EMS time (from EMS call to arrival at a hospital) was assessed in the EMS system of Soma district, located 10-40 km north of the nuclear plant, from 11 March to 31 December 2011. We defined the affected period as when total EMS time was significantly extended after the disasters compared with the historical control data from 1 January 2009 to 10 March 2011...
2016: BMJ Open
Kazuki Iwaoka
After the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the current limits in Japan on the radionuclide contamination of food [100 Bq kg for general foods, 50 Bq kg for milk and infant foods, and 10 Bq kg for drinking water as radioactive cesium (Cs + Cs)] were established on the basis of an effective dose of 1 mSv y, consistent with international standards to mitigate the exposure of the general public to radiation. Measures that include recalling or restriction of food have been taken in cases when these limits were violated...
November 2016: Health Physics
Eunjoo Kim, Osamu Kurihara, Naoaki Kunishima, Takashi Nakano, Kotaro Tani, Misao Hachiya, Takumaro Momose, Tetsuo Ishikawa, Shinji Tokonami, Masahiro Hosoda, Makoto Akashi
The Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in 2011 resulted in a release of radionuclides into the environment (I: 142.9 PBq, Cs:12.4 PBq). This study presents the results of internal doses to 174 residents living near the FDNPP at the time of the accident based on whole-body (WB) measurements performed by the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period between 27 June and 28 July 2011. The 174 subjects consisted of 125 adults (≥18-y) and 49 children (<18-y) and included 90 persons of Namie town, one of the municipalities heavily contaminated with the radionuclides...
November 2016: Health Physics
Brian L Fish, Feng Gao, Jayashree Narayanan, Carmen Bergom, Elizabeth R Jacobs, Eric P Cohen, John E Moulder, Christie M Orschell, Meetha Medhora
The NIAID Radiation and Nuclear Countermeasures Program is developing medical agents to mitigate the acute and delayed effects of radiation that may occur from a radionuclear attack or accident. To date, most such medical countermeasures have been developed for single organ injuries. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used to mitigate radiation-induced lung, skin, brain, and renal injuries in rats. ACE inhibitors have also been reported to decrease normal tissue complication in radiation oncology patients...
November 2016: Health Physics
S Aleksanin
This article presents an overview of the capabilities for clinical management of radiation injuries available at the Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (NRCERM) of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (EMERCOM). NRCERM is a federal state budgetary institution and the Russian Federation's head organization for providing medical assistance for persons overexposed to ionizing radiation, responders to radiation emergencies and people evacuated from radiation contaminated areas...
September 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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