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Nuclear accident

Kiyoshi Shizuma, Yoko Fujikawa, Momo Kurihara, Yushi Sakurai
The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on March 11, 2011, caused severe radioactive contamination in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to clarify the safety of drinking water, we have conducted radiocesium monitoring of public tap water and groundwater in Minami-Soma City, which is 10-40 km north of the nuclear power plant. The source of tap water for Minami-Soma City is groundwater, which is treated by rapid filtration before distribution in two of the three treatment plants. The tap water was collected from six stations during 2012-2016 and groundwater was collected from 11 stations with wells between 5 and 100 m deep during 2014-2016...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Robert J Baker, Benjamin Dickins, Jeffrey K Wickliffe, Faisal A A Khan, Sergey Gaschak, Kateryna D Makova, Caleb D Phillips
Currently, the effects of chronic, continuous low dose environmental irradiation on the mitochondrial genome of resident small mammals are unknown. Using the bank vole (Myodes glareolus) as a model system, we tested the hypothesis that approximately 50 generations of exposure to the Chernobyl environment has significantly altered genetic diversity of the mitochondrial genome. Using deep sequencing, we compared mitochondrial genomes from 131 individuals from reference sites with radioactive contamination comparable to that present in northern Ukraine before the 26 April 1986 meltdown, to populations where substantial fallout was deposited following the nuclear accident...
September 2017: Evolutionary Applications
Katarzyna Szarlowicz, Witold Reczynski, Agnieszka Czajka, Barbara Spyt, Grzegorz Szacilowski
The Sudety Mts. form a chain of mountains in the South of Poland and during the last 200 years were subjected to strong industrial and agricultural pressure. The records of these human-induced changes are stored in natural archives like lake sediments. For the comprehensive study, three sediment cores taken from Mały Staw Lake (Sudety Mts.) were analyzed for the concentration of K, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Mg, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and radioactivity of (137)Cs and (210)Pb. As a result of the studies, the bathymetry map was developed and the sources of solid material supplied to the lake were identified...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sanae Midorikawa, Akira Ohtsuru, Michio Murakami, Hideto Takahashi, Satoru Suzuki, Takashi Matsuzuka, Hiroki Shimura, Tetsuya Ohira, Shin-Ichi Suzuki, Seiji Yasumura, Shunichi Yamashita, Hitoshi Ohto, Koichi Tanigawa, Kenji Kamiya
Importance: Thyroid cancer generally grows at a very slow rate in adults, and overdiagnosis is a global issue. However, the detection of early-stage thyroid cancer by screening is not well described in young patients. To prevent overdiagnosis, it is essential to understand the natural course of thyroid cancer growth detection by ultrasonography screening in young patients. Objective: To evaluate the natural progression of thyroid cancer in young patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: An observational study evaluated changes in the diameter of malignant or suspected malignant thyroid tumors on 2 occasions...
November 16, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
William J Walters, Villy Christensen
Ecotracer is a tool in the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) software package used to simulate and analyze the transport of contaminants such as methylmercury or radiocesium through aquatic food webs. Ecotracer solves the contaminant dynamic equations simultaneously with the biomass dynamic equations in Ecosim/Ecospace. In this paper, we give a detailed description of the Ecotracer module and analyze the performance on two problems of differing complexity. Ecotracer was modified from previous versions to more accurately model contaminant excretion, and new numerical integration algorithms were implemented to increase accuracy and robustness...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Masabumi Komatsu, Keizo Hirai, Junko Nagakura, Kyotaro Noguchi
We analysed suppressive effects of potassium (K) fertilisation on radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake by hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings from soils contaminated after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Three-year-old seedlings were planted in a clear-cut forest (ca. 4 ha) during June-July 2014, and potassium chloride fertiliser (83 kg K ha(-1)) was applied twice (August 2014 and April 2015). (137)Cs concentrations in the needles in the fertilised plots were one-eighth of those in the control (unfertilised) plots at the end of the second growing season (October 2015)...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Motoko Morimoto, Ayaka Kato, Jin Kobayashi, Kei Okuda, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Yasushi Kino, Yasuyuki Abe, Tsutomu Sekine, Tomokazu Fukuda, Emiko Isogai, Manabu Fukumoto
BACKGROUND: After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, radioactive contaminants were released over a widespread area. Monitoring the biological effects of radiation exposure in animals in the ex-evacuation zone should be continued to understand the health effects of radiation exposure in humans. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of radiation by investigating whether there is any alteration in the morphology and gene expressions of immune molecules in the intestine of pigs and inobuta (wild boar and domestic pig hybrid) in the ex-evacuation zone in 2012...
November 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Masanobu Ishida, Hideo Yamazaki
Radioactive contamination in the Tokyo metropolitan area in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was analyzed via surface soil sampled during a two-month period after the accident. 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were detected in these soil samples. The activity and inventory of radioactive material in the eastern part of Tokyo tended to be high. The 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio in soil was 0.978 ± 0.053. The 131I/137Cs ratio fluctuated widely, and was 19.7 ± 9.0 (weighted average 18...
2017: PloS One
Guosheng Yang, Hirofumi Tazoe, Masatoshi Yamada
In the present study, (129)I activities and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios were measured in 60 soil samples contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The (127)I concentrations, (129)I activities, and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in dry-weight were observed to be 0.121-23.6 mg kg(-1), 0.962-275 mBq kg(-1), and (0.215-79.3) × 10(-7), respectively. The maximum values of both (129)I activities and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in Japanese soil increased about three orders of magnitude due to this accident...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xinpeng Li, Hong Li, Yun Liu, Wei Xiong, Sheng Fang
The release rate of atmospheric radionuclide emissions is a critical factor in the emergency response to nuclear accidents. However, there are unavoidable biases in radionuclide transport models, leading to inaccurate estimates. In this study, a method that simultaneously corrects these biases and estimates the release rate is developed. Our approach provides a more complete measurement-by-measurement correction of the biases with a coefficient matrix that considers both deterministic and stochastic deviations...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
J Vives I Batlle, M Aoyama, C Bradshaw, J Brown, K O Buesseler, N Casacuberta, M Christl, C Duffa, N R E N Impens, M Iosjpe, P Masqué, J Nishikawa
This paper focuses on how a community of researchers under the COMET (CO-ordination and iMplementation of a pan European projecT for radioecology) project has improved the capacity of marine radioecology to understand at the process level the behaviour of radionuclides in the marine environment, uptake by organisms and the resulting doses after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident occurred in 2011. We present new radioecological understanding of the processes involved, such as the interaction of waterborne radionuclides with suspended particles and sediments or the biological uptake and turnover of radionuclides, which have been better quantified and mathematically described...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Benedikt Prand-Stritzko, Georg Steinhauser
The monitoring inspection of food after the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011) was essential for ensuring food safety in Japan and reducing the adverse health effects due to incorporation of inacceptable amounts of radionuclides, in particular radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). In this study, the mushroom fraction of the governmental data set of the first 5 years after the accident has been analyzed for contamination levels in mushrooms, in particular time trends and radioecological characteristics as well as associated health risks...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dalnim Lee, Songwon Seo, Min Kyoung Song, Hyang Ki Lee, Sunhoo Park, Young Woo Jin
Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the risk level perceived by Koreans on the radioactive contamination of Japanese food that is being distributed in Korea remains high. Many of these perceptions are based on subjective risk perception rather than an objective measure with scientific evidence, which makes communicating risks more difficult; therefore, it is critical to understand factors associated with risk perception for effective risk communication. In this study, we identified variables that are associated with buying tendencies and opinions about the regulatory policy of Japanese seafood after the accident...
2017: PloS One
Y R Lin, L G Chen, C Y Hsieh, M T Chang, K Y Fung, A Hu, S C Lo, F R Chen, J J Kai
Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a promising cladding material for accident-tolerant fuel in light water reactors due to its excellent resistance to chemical attacks at high temperatures, which can prevent severe accident-induced environmental disasters. Although it has been known for decades that radiation-induced swelling at low temperatures is driven by the formation of black spot defects with sizes smaller than 2 nm in irradiated SiC, the structure of these defect clusters and the mechanism of lattice expansion have not been clarified and remain as one of the most important scientific issues in nuclear materials research...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Biying Chen, Sheng Xu, Gordon T Cook, Stewart P H T Freeman, Xiaolin Hou, Cong-Qiang Liu, Philip Naysmith, Katsuhiko Yamaguchi
Radiocarbon ((14)C) has been measured in single tree ring samples collected from the southwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Our data indicate south-westwards dispersion of radiocarbon and the highest (14)C activity observed so far in the local environment during the 2011 accident. The abnormally high (14)C activity in the late wood of 2011 ring may imply an unknown source of radiocarbon nearby after the accident. The influence of (14)C shrank from 30 km during normal reactor operation to 14 km for the accident in the northwest of FDNPP, but remains unclear in the southwest...
2017: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Dilip K L Harijan, Vimlesh Chandra, Taeseung Yoon, Kwang S Kim
The effective capture and storage of radioactive iodine is of importance for nuclear waste storage during nuclear power station accidents. Here we report Fe3O4@PPy powder containing ∼12nm magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles encapsulated in the polypyrrole (PPy) matrix. It shows 1627mg/g uptake of iodine dissolved in water, within 2h at room temperature. Fe3O4@PPy is ferromagnetic in nature and can be separated from water using external magnetic field. The nitrogen gas sweeping test at 30°C shows release of 2% iodine from iodine adsorbed Fe3O4@PPy, revealing stable storage of iodine for a moderate period...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yukihisa Sanada, Genki Katata, Naoki Kaneyasu, Chika Nakanishi, Yoshimi Urabe, Yukiyasu Nishizawa
To understand the formation process of radiologically contaminated areas in eastern Japan caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident, the deposition mechanisms over complex topography are the key factors to be investigated. To characterize the atmospheric deposition processes of radionuclides over complex mountainous topography, we investigated the altitudinal distributions of the radiocesium deposited during the accident. In five selected areas, altitudinal characteristics of the air dose rates observed using airborne surveys were analyzed...
October 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska, Łukasz Kluczyński, Małgorzata Wilusz, Jacek Pantofliński, Renata Turek-Jabrocka, Dorota Pach, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk
RATIONALE: Traumatic thoracic injuries in adolescents are rare but could be connected with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and development of chronic hypopituitarism. Early recognition of these endocrine problems is a significant challenge to clinicians. We present difficulties in diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in adolescence. We also review the literature of similar cases. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 24-years-old male...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yoshitake Takebayashi, Yuliya Lyamzina, Yuriko Suzuki, Michio Murakami
The purpose of this study was to provide a review of the publications of the risk perceptions or anxiety regarding radiation among people living in Japan after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. Two database (MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and hand-searched the references in identified publications were searched. For each identified publication, the measurements and time related-change of risk perception and anxiety regarding radiation were summarized. Twenty-four publications were identified. Quantitative measures of risk perception or anxiety were roughly divided into two types: single-item Likert scales that measure anxiety about radiation; and theoretical, or model-based measures...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Weihua Zhang, Kurt Ungar
This article presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring obtained by three Canadian radiation monitoring stations before, after and during Fukushima-Daiichi accident. It includes 210 Pb, 212 Pb and 7 Be (naturally occurring radionuclides) and 131 I, 132 I, 129 Te, 129 m Te, 132 Te, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs and 133 Xe (Fukushima contaminants). The maximum activity concentrations were in range of 2.3-3.7 Bq/m 3 for 133 Xe; 2.0-4.4 mBq/m 3 for 131 I in aerosol form; 0.27-0.83 mBq/m 3 for 137 Cs depending on monitoring locations...
October 21, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
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