Read by QxMD icon Read

Nuclear accident

David L Georgeson, Byron H Christiansen
Idaho National Laboratory transitioned from an external dosimetry system reliant on thermoluminescent dosimeters to one that uses optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters in 2010. This change not only affected the dosimeters worn by personnel, but those found in the nuclear-accident dosimeters used across Idaho National Laboratory. The elimination of on-site use and processing of thermoluminescent dosimeters impacted Idaho National Laboratory's ability to process nuclear-accident dosimeters in a timely manner...
March 14, 2018: Health Physics
Makoto Hasegawa, Michio Murakami, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Satoshi Suzuki, Hitoshi Ohto
After the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, there was a strong demand to promote disaster preparedness approaches and health checkups for the prevention of lifestyle diseases. This study examined the yearly change in the percentage of those who prepared for disasters and who utilized health checkups in Fukushima Prefecture, and identified the factors governing disaster preparedness and utilization of health checkups. We used the public opinion survey from 2011 to 2015 ( n = 677-779 each year) on prefectural policies that is conducted every year by the Fukushima Prefecture government Public Consultation Unit...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Satoshi Suzuki, Michio Murakami, Tatsuhiro Nishikiori, Shigeki Harada
Fukushima residents' negative views on the safety of water and air environments have been a concern since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. The objective of this study was to clarify the factors determining these negative views and their association with radiation risk perception using the opinion poll conducted by Fukushima Prefecture from 2010 to 2015. In a model, in which the objective variables were the views on the safety of water and air environments, and the explanatory variables were the regions constituting Fukushima and the age and sex of the residents, the odds ratio (OR) of the views on the safety of the water and air environments (reference region: the least affected region) was significantly low at 0...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Emiko Oguri, Hironori Deguchi
We investigated134 Cs and137 Cs activity concentrations in the common Japanese moss species Hypnum plumaeforme collected from 32 sites within ca. 100 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. A total of 32 samples of H. plumaeforme were collected during the field surveys from November 2013 to September 2014. The maximum radiocesium activity concentrations in H. plumaeforme were 60.9 ± 1.8 kBq kg-1 for134 Cs and 123 ± 2.3 kBq kg-1 for137 Cs. The mean value for the134 Cs/137 Cs was 1...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Zhongshan Liu, Daojiang Yu, Jianwei Xu, Xiujie Li, Xianyao Wang, Zhixu He, Tianlan Zhao
Irradiation-induced skin ulcers can be resultant from nuclear accident or reaction to radiation therapy of tumor and is intractable for healing. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) have been considered to be the potential therapeutic tools for tissue regeneration. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. This study aims to investigate the effects of hUC-MSCs on irradiation-induced skin ulcers healing and the related mechanisms. The ulcers were induced by irradiating the skin of adult SD rats...
March 7, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Manabu Fujii, Keisuke Ono, Chihiro Yoshimura, Manami Miyamoto
Anthropogenically released radioactive cesium (RCs) poses serious ecological and environmental concerns given its persistency in the environment. Although accumulation of RCs in aqueous and sedimentary environments is often reported to associate with organic matter (OM), the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Here, we investigated RCs in fine sediments along the Abukuma River, the largest river near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, 1.5-4 years after the accident. Measuring the density-separated sediment fractions with a broad range of OM content (%) indicated that the RCs concentration (Bq·kg-1 ) is positively correlated with OM content for intermediate-density fractions in which OM is primarily characterized by autochthonous origin...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
Koji Uchiyama, Masami Miyashita, Yoshinobu Tanishima, Shigenobu Maeda, Hitoshi Sato, Jun Yoshikawa, Shuji Watanabe, Masamichi Shibata, Shuji Ohhira, Gen Kobashi
Significant differences in findings were seen between the intake amounts of iodine-131 that were derived from direct measurements and the estimated intake from environmental monitoring data at the Fukushima accident. To clarify these discrepancies, we have investigated the iodine-131 and tellurium-132 body burdens of five human subjects, who after being exposed to a radioactive plume, underwent 21.5 h whole body counter measurements at Fukui Prefectural Hospital, so clear intake scenario and thyroid counter measurement data were available...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sadaf Saremi, Mats Isaksson, Karin C Harding
Radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 still circulate in the Baltic marine ecosystem and activity levels in water, sediments and fish species such as herring and perch are monitored annually. However, the activity levels of radionuclides in marine mammals have only been sporadically reported. Tissue samples from a museum collection were analysed in two species of seals, and the trends over time in activity level of radioactive caesium (Cs-137) after the Chernobyl accident were reconstructed. We also performed a literature review summarizing activity levels in marine mammals world-wide...
March 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Naohide Shinohara, Hiroko Yoshida-Ohuchi
Outdoor decontamination efforts have been ongoing since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident; however, little is known about indoor contamination. Therefore, house dust was sampled based on particle size in 21 wooden buildings (19 residential houses and 2 community centers) within the evacuation area close to the FDNPP, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Activities of radiocesium (137 Cs) per gram of house dust increased with decreasing particle size (mean: 6.1 × 103 , 2.6 × 103 , 1...
February 27, 2018: Environment International
E P Prokopakis, A Kaprana, A Karatzanis, G A Velegrakis, J Melissas, G Chalkiadakis
The mean gamma-ray distribution in Crete during the years after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and its correlation with the Papillary Thyroid Cancer (PTC) distribution was identified. A total of 4285 patients underwent total thyroidectomy in our centre between 1990 and 2012. Data of gamma-ray (nSv/h) distribution were selected from the Greek Statistical Authorisation. A geo-spatial statistical model was used to estimate the expected number of patients with PTC and Kriging interpolation prediction model to estimate their distribution...
February 28, 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Satu Pakarinen, Jussi Korpela, Jari Torniainen, Jari Laarni, Hannu Karvonen
Maintaining optimal performance in demanding situations is challenged by stress-induced alterations in performance. Here, we quantified the stress of nuclear power plant (NPP) operators (N = 20) during a full-scale simulator training for incident and accident scenarios. We compared the ambulatory electrocardiography measurements of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), and self-reported stress during baselines and simulated scenarios. Perceived (scale 0-10) and physiologically measured stress were low during baseline after the scenarios and normal NPP operation (means 1...
March 1, 2018: Psychophysiology
Dalila Lebsir, Line Manens, Stephane Grison, Philippe Lestaevel, Teni Ebrahimian, David Suhard, Guillaume Phan, Isabelle Dublineau, Karine Tack, Marc Benderitter, Annick Pech, Jean-Rene Jourdain, Maâmar Souidi
BACKGROUND: A single dose of potassium iodide (KI) is recommended to reduce the risk of thyroid cancer during nuclear accidents. However in case of prolonged radioiodine exposure, more than one dose of KI may be necessary. This work aims to evaluate the potential toxic effect of repeated administration of KI. METHODS: Adult Wistar rats received an optimal dose of KI 1 mg/kg over a period of 1, 4 or 8 days. RESULTS: hormonal status (TSH, FT4) of treated rats was unaffected...
February 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Hiroko Yoshida-Ohuchi, Norihiro Matsuda, Kimiaki Saito
In order to estimate residents' external dose due to radionuclide exposure resulting from fallout deposit on the ground, the shielding and dose reduction effects provided by structures such as houses and workplaces are taken into account as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. Many works on both calculation and measurement for European and American settlements have been reported and factors such as, shielding factors, protection factors, reduction factors, and location factors have been determined...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hideo Yamazaki, Masanobu Ishida, Ryoichi Hinokio, Yosuke Alexandre Yamashiki, Ryokei Azuma
A monitoring survey was conducted from August 2011 to July 2016 of the spatiotemporal distribution in the 400 km2 area of the northern part of Tokyo Bay and in rivers flowing into it of radiocesium released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. The average inventory in the river mouth (10 km2) was 131 kBq⋅m-2 and 0.73 kBq⋅m-2 in the central bay (330 km2) as the decay corrected value on March 16, 2011. Most of the radiocesium that flowed into Tokyo Bay originated in the northeastern section of the Tokyo metropolitan area, where the highest precipitation zone of 137Cs in soil was almost the same level as that in Fukushima City, then flowed into and was deposited in the Old-Edogawa River estuary, deep in Tokyo Bay...
2018: PloS One
Ryan O'Mara, Robert Hayes
In nuclear forensics or accident dosimetry, building materials such as bricks can be used to retrospectively determine radiation fields using thermoluminescence and/or optically stimulated luminescence. A major problem with brick material is that significant chemical processing is generally necessary to isolate the quartz from the brick. In this study, a simplified treatment process has been tested in an effort to lessen the processing burden for retrospective dosimetry studies. It was found that by using thermoluminescence responses, the dose deposition profile of a brick sample could be reconstructed without any chemical treatment...
April 2018: Health Physics
Roser Esplugas, Maria Isabel LLovet, Montserrat Bellés, Noemí Serra, Joan Carles Vallvé, José Luis Domingo, Victoria Linares
137-Cesium (137Cs) is one of the most important distributed radionuclides after a nuclear accident. Humans are usually co-exposed to various environmental toxicants, being Bisphenol-A (BPA) one of them. Exposure to IR and BPA in early life is of major concern, due to the higher vulnerability of developing organs. We evaluate the renal and hepatic effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) and BPA. Sixty male mice (C57BL/6J) were randomly assigned to six experimental groups (n=10) and received a single subcutaneous dose of 0...
February 22, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Junwen Wu
After the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA),137 Cs activities of seawater in the Western North Pacific (WNP) and China Seas were determined in order to examine whether137 Cs derived from FNA across the Kuroshio was still existed and if there were any indications of FNA's impact. High137 Cs activities at 200-500m were observed in the south of Kuroshio during 2015, indicating137 Cs from FNA could cross the Kuroshio. Surface137 Cs activities were on average 1.43±0.42Bqm-3 for WNP, 1.11±0.14Bqm-3 for South China Sea (SCS) and 1...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Tsugiya Nakamura, Toshiyasu Tanaka, Osamu Kimura, Yukiko Fujii, Koichi Haraguchi, Tetsuya Endo
Hokkaido, the northernmost of the main islands of Japan, is surrounded by the North Pacific Ocean, the Japan Sea and the Okhotsk Sea, and three independent stocks of Pacific cod are thought to inhabit those three areas. The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), which is located in the north of Honshu, the main island of Japan, was disputed in 2011. Most of the radiocesium from the FDNPP was released into the western North Pacific Ocean, and the biota in those areas were considerably contaminated soon after the FDNPP accident...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Eliezer Be'eri, Simon Owen, Maurit Beeri, Scott R Millis, Arik Eisenkraft
OBJECTIVES: Chemical-biological-radio-nuclear (CBRN) gas masks are the standard means for protecting the general population from inhalation of toxic industrial compounds (TICs), for example after industrial accidents or terrorist attacks. However, such gas masks would not protect patients on home mechanical ventilation, as ventilator airflow would bypass the CBRN filter. We therefore evaluated in vivo the safety of adding a standard-issue CBRN filter to the air-outflow port of a home ventilator, as a method for providing TIC protection to such patients...
February 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Akiko Sato, Yuliya Lyamzina
Since the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, tremendous resources have been devoted to recovery, and the Japanese Government is gradually lifting evacuation orders. However, public concerns remain prevalent, affecting some people's return to a normal life and threatening their well-being. This study reviews government reports, academic papers, newspaper articles and conference presentations with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of issues which relate to radiation concerns in the recovery process in the aftermath of the accident...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"