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Dirty bomb

Sarah Bauerle Bass, Thomas F Gordon, Laurie Maurer, Judith Greener, Gabriella Mora, Dominique Ruggieri, Caitlin Wolak, Claudia Parvanta
Potential terror events such as "dirty bombs" could have significant public health effects, but little is known about how low-literacy populations perceive dirty bombs, their trust in public health or government officials to provide credible information, and their willingness to comply with recommended actions. We surveyed 50 low-literacy adults from a large urban center; they were mostly members of ethnic minority groups. We used unique social marketing methods-perceptual mapping and vector message modeling-to create 3-dimensional models that reflected respondents' knowledge of what a dirty bomb is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their concerns about complying with "shelter in place" recommendations...
September 2016: Health Security
A Rump, D Stricklin, A Lamkowski, S Eder, M Abend, M Port
Background: In the case of a nuclear or radiological incident, there is a risk of external and internal contamination with radionuclides in addition to external irradiation. There is no consensus whether decorporation treatment should be initiated right away on spec or pending the results of internal dosimetry to determine the indication. Method: Based on biokinetic models for plutonium-239, americium-241 and cesium-137, the efficacy of a decorporation treatment using DTPA or Prussian blue was simulated depending on the initiation time and the duration of treatment for different invasion pathways and physicochemical properties of the inhaled compounds...
August 17, 2016: Drug Research
A Rump, D Stricklin, A Lamkowski, S Eder, M Abend, M Port
In the case of a nuclear accident or a terrorist attack by a "dirty bomb," there is a risk of external and internal contamination with radionuclides in addition to external irradiation. Internal irradiation as a consequence of radionuclide incorporation is associated with a higher risk of stochastic radiation effects (e.g., tumors). Decorporation treatment will enhance the elimination of radionuclides and reduce the committed effective dose as a metric of stochastic health effects. Although treatment efficacy is better when started early, beginning the therapy without knowing the committed effective dose may unnecessarily expose the patient to the side effects of the medication...
August 2016: Health Physics
Sarah Bauerle Bass, Thomas F Gordon, Ryan Gordon, Claudia Parvanta
BACKGROUND: Eye tracking is commonly used in marketing to understand complex responses to materials, but has not been used to understand how low-literacy adults access health information or its relationship to decision making. METHODS: This study assessed how participants use a literacy appropriate "dirty bomb" decision aid. Participants were randomized to receive a CDC "factsheet" (n = 21) or literacy-appropriate aid (n = 29) shown on a computer screen...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Nadia Abdul-Karim, Christopher S Blackman, Philip P Gill, Kersti Karu
The continued usage of explosive devices, as well as the ever growing threat of 'dirty' bombs necessitates a comprehensive understanding of particle dispersal during detonation events in order to develop effectual methods for targeting explosive and/or additive remediation efforts. Herein, the distribution of explosive analytes from controlled detonations of aluminised ammonium nitrate and an RDX-based explosive composition were established by systematically sampling sites positioned around each firing. This is the first experimental study to produce evidence that the post-blast residue mass can distribute according to an approximate inverse-square law model, while also demonstrating for the first time that distribution trends can vary depending on individual analytes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Waylon Weber, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, Dunstana Melo, Raymond Guilmette, Sally A Amundson, David J Brenner
In the event of a dirty bomb scenario or an industrial nuclear accident, a significant dose of volatile radionuclides such as 137Cs and 90Sr may be dispersed into the atmosphere as a component of fallout and inhaled or ingested by hundreds and thousands of people. To study the effects of prolonged exposure to ingested radionuclides, we have performed long-term (30 day) internal-emitter mouse irradiations using soluble-injected 137CsCl and 90SrCl2 radioisotopes. The effect of ionizing radiation on the induction and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in peripheral mouse lymphocytes in vivo was determined using the γ-H2AX biodosimetry marker...
2015: PloS One
Tara Kugelman, Damian G Zuloaga, Sydney Weber, Jacob Raber
The brain might be exposed to irradiation under a variety of situations, including clinical treatments, nuclear accidents, dirty bomb scenarios, and military and space missions. Correctly recalling tasks learned prior to irradiation is important but little is known about post-learning effects of irradiation. It is not clear whether exposure to X-ray irradiation during memory consolidation, a few hours following training, is associated with altered contextual fear conditioning 24h after irradiation and which brain region(s) might be involved in these effects...
February 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Sarah Bauerle Bass, Judith R Greener, Dominique Ruggieri, Claudia Parvanta, Gabriella Mora, Caitlin Wolak, Rebecca Normile, Thomas F Gordon
OBJECTIVES: Radiological terror presents a real threat, but little is known about how low-income, urban African Americans may respond to such threats. The aim of this study was to understand the unique challenges of this group and to explore their knowledge of what a "dirty bomb" is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their barriers to complying with "shelter in place" recommendations. METHODS: Thirty-seven 18-65-year-olds who were users of community centers in disadvantaged areas participated in 3 focus groups in Philadelphia...
February 2015: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Adil Mohammad, Yongsheng Yang, Mansoor A Khan, Patrick J Faustino
Prussian blue (PB) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Radiogardase, the first approved medical countermeasure for the treatment of radiocesium poisoning in the event of a major radiological incident such as a "dirty bomb" or nuclear attack. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue drug products (DPs) and APIs under laboratory storage condition by monitoring the loss in water content and the in vitro cesium binding. The water content was measured by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)...
January 25, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Joseph Lucas, Holly K Dressman, Sunil Suchindran, Mai Nakamura, Nelson J Chao, Heather Himburg, Kerry Minor, Gary Phillips, Joel Ross, Majid Abedi, Robert Terbrueggen, John P Chute
Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI)...
2014: PloS One
Emily Snyder, John Drake, John Cardarelli, Kathy Hall, Jeff Szabo, Rick Demmer, Michael Lindberg, Karen Riggs, Ryan James
After the release of radioactive materials from a large radiological dispersal device (e.g., dirty bomb), improvised nuclear detonation, or nuclear power plant accident, up to hundreds of square miles may be contaminated. A portion of this area will be evacuated; however, people living in the portion that is not evacuated yet is still contaminated with low-levels of radioactive contamination will be asking for ways they can reduce their exposure. Whether cleaning activities can significantly reduce exposure is not fully understood...
September 2014: Health Physics
Stephanie F Dailey, David Kaplan
UNLABELLED: Based on the disaster mental health literature and research on quarantine, confinement, social distancing, and isolation, considerable evidence exists which supports the idea that individuals who shelterin-place (SIP) may experience adverse emotional and/or mental-health responses. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the impact of a long-term (48-hour) SIP simulation on mental health during a "dirty bomb" detonation. DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n = 73) completed the Mental Health Inventory (MHI; Veit and Ware, 1983) and a self-report questionnaire on current functioning...
March 2014: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
James D Blair
Many Cesium 137 machines used by hospitals for blood irradiation are still susceptible to theft by terrorists who can convert them to so-called dirty bombs, according to the author, who describes the harm the explosion of one such bomb can do and urges concerned citizens, media, and security professionals to take action before a disaster occurs.
2014: Journal of Healthcare Protection Management
Enjae Jung, Erin E Perrone, Pavan Brahmamdan, Jacquelyn S McDonough, Ann M Leathersich, Jessica A Dominguez, Andrew T Clark, Amy C Fox, W Michael Dunne, Richard S Hotchkiss, Craig M Coopersmith
World conditions place large populations at risk from ionizing radiation (IR) from detonation of dirty bombs or nuclear devices. In a subgroup of patients, ionizing radiation exposure would be followed by a secondary infection. The effects of radiation combined injury are potentially more lethal than either insult in isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms of mortality and possible therapeutic targets in radiation combined injury. Mice were exposed to IR with 2.5 Gray (Gy) followed four days later by intratracheal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)...
2013: PloS One
Loren G Yamamoto
High-energy ionizing radiation is harmful. Low-level exposure sources include background, occupational, and medical diagnostics. Radiation disaster incidents include radioactive substance accidents and nuclear power plant accidents. Terrorism and international conflict could trigger intentional radiation disasters that include radiation dispersion devices (RDD) (a radioactive dirty bomb), deliberate exposure to industrial radioactive substances, nuclear power plant sabotage, and nuclear weapon detonation. Nuclear fissioning events such as nuclear power plant incidents and nuclear weapon detonation release radioactive fallout that include radioactive iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, uranium, plutonium, and many other radioactive isotopes...
September 2013: Pediatric Emergency Care
Yong Zhang, Matthew P Sadgrove, Russell J Mumper, Michael Jay
The threat of nuclear terrorism by the deliberate detonation of a nuclear weapon or radiological dispersion device ("dirty bomb") has made emergency response planning a priority. The only FDA-approved treatments for contamination with isotopes of the transuranic elements Am, Pu, and Cm are the Ca and Zn salts of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). These injectable products are not well suited for use in a mass contamination scenario as they require skilled professionals for their administration and are rapidly cleared from the circulation...
October 2013: AAPS Journal
Miriam E Van Dyke, Lisa C McCormick, Norman E Bolus, Jesse Pevear, Ziad N Kazzi
UNLABELLED: Because of the increasing risk of radiological emergencies, public health agencies and first-response organizations are working to increase their capability of responding. Nuclear medicine technologists (NMTs) have expertise in certain areas, such as radiation safety, radiobiology, decontamination, and the use of radiation detection and monitoring equipment, that could be useful during the response to events that involve radiological materials. METHODS: To better understand the potential role that NMTs may have in response efforts, a cross-sectional survey was conducted...
September 2013: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
Sally L Reynolds, Mary Margaret Crulcich, Glenn Sullivan, Miriam T Stewart
OBJECTIVE: In the aftermath of the detonation of a radiological dispersal device (RDD), or "dirty bomb," a large influx of children would be expected to present to the emergency department, including many patients not directly affected by the event who present with concerns regarding radiation exposure. Our objective was to develop an algorithm for efficiently and effectively triaging and appropriately treating children based on the likelihood of their having been contaminated or exposed...
July 2013: Pediatric Emergency Care
Daniel J Barnett, Carol B Thompson, Natalie L Semon, Nicole A Errett, Krista L Harrison, Marilyn K Anderson, Justin L Ferrell, Jennifer M Freiheit, Robert Hudson, Mary McKee, Alvaro Mejia-Echeverry, James Spitzer, Ran D Balicer, Jonathan M Links, J Douglas Storey
This study examines the attitudinal impact of an Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM)-based training curriculum on local public health department (LHD) workers' willingness to respond to representative public health emergency scenarios. Data are from 71 U.S. LHDs in urban and rural settings across nine states. The study explores changes in response willingness and EPPM threat and efficacy appraisals between randomly assigned control versus intervention health departments, at baseline and 1 week post curriculum, through an EPPM-based survey/resurvey design...
2014: Health Communication
M Brooke Rogers, Richard Amlôt, G James Rubin
It is a common assumption that, in the event of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) attack, a well-prepared and informed public is more likely to follow official recommendations regarding the appropriate safety measures to take. We present findings from a UK study investigating the ability of crisis communication to influence perceptions of risk and behavioral intentions in the general public in response to CBRN terrorism. We conducted a focus group study involving a scenario presented in mock news broadcasts to explore levels of public knowledge, information needs, and intended behavioral reactions to an attack involving an overt radiological dispersal device (RDD), or dirty bomb...
March 2013: Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science
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