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Dirty bomb

Alexis Rump, Daniela Stricklin, Andreas Lamkowski, Stefan Eder, Michael Abend, Matthias Port
OBJECTIVE: In radiological emergencies, there is a risk of radionuclide incorporation. The radiological doses absorbed can be reduced by decorporation treatment. Antidote requirements depend on the scenario and treatment strategy ("urgent approach": immediate treatment of all patients with possible incorporation; "precautionary approach": treatment only after confirmation of incorporation). We calculated the number of daily antidote doses for different scenarios and the differences in outcome for both treatment strategies...
2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Keith L Monson, Sherine Ali, Michael D Brandhagen, Martine C Duff, Constance L Fisher, Karen K Lowe, Carna E Meyer, Maria A Roberts, Kyle R Tom, Aaron L Washington
An extensive literature review and new post-irradiation experimental results are presented of genotyping blood stains and hair, and physical examinations of latent fingerprints, hairs, and fibers. Results indicate that successful development of nuclear short tandem repeat (STR) and mitochondrial DNA sequence profiles from human blood and hair evidence is possible-up to a point-following exposure to gamma, neutron, beta, and alpha radiation at several levels that would most likely be present at this type of crime scene (i...
March 2018: Forensic Science International
Nils Rudqvist, Evagelia C Laiakis, Shanaz A Ghandhi, Suresh Kumar, Jeffrey D Knotts, Mashkura Chowdhury, Albert J Fornace, Sally A Amundson
In the event of an improvised nuclear device or "dirty bomb" in a highly populated area, potentially hundreds of thousands of people will require screening to ensure that exposed individuals receive appropriate treatment. For this reason, there is a need to develop tools for high-throughput radiation biodosimetry. Gene expression represents an emerging approach to biodosimetry and could potentially provide an estimate of both absorbed dose and individual radiation-induced injury. Since approximately 2-4% of humans are thought to be radiosensitive, and would suffer greater radiological injury at a given dose than members of the general population, it is of interest to explore the potential impact of such sensitivity on the biodosimetric gene expression signatures being developed...
April 2018: Radiation Research
Alexis Rump, Daniela Stricklin, Andreas Lamkowski, Stefan Eder, Matthias Port
In the case of an attack by a "dirty bomb" with cesium-137 there is a risk of internal contamination. The excretion of cesium-137 can be enhanced by Prussian Blue (PB), and thus the committed effective dose be reduced. We analyzed the benefit and costs of PB decorporation treatment. We simulated the reduction of the radiological dose by PB treatment after cesium-137 incorporation by inhalation. The saving of life time was quantified using the monetary "value of a statistical life" (VSL)...
February 2018: Drug Research
Florian Brulfert, Samir Safi, Aurélie Jeanson, Harald Foerstendorf, Stephan Weiss, Catherine Berthomieu, Sandrine Sauge-Merle, Éric Simoni
The threat of a dirty bomb which could cause internal contamination has been of major concern for the past decades. Because of their high chemical toxicity and their presence in the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium and neptunium are two actinides of high interest. Calmodulin (CaM) which is a ubiquitous protein present in all eukaryotic cells and is involved in calcium-dependent signaling pathways has a known affinity for uranyl and neptunyl ions. The impact of the complexation of these actinides on the physiological response of the protein remains, however, largely unknown...
July 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
David Hummel, Lucian Ivan
A "dirty bomb" is a type of radiological dispersal device (RDD) that has been the subject of significant safety and security concerns given the disruption that would result from a postulated terrorist attack. Assessing the risks of radioactive dose in a hypothetical scenario requires models that can accurately predict dispersion in a realistic environment. Modelling a RDD is complicated by the fact that the most important phenomena occur over vastly disparate spatial and temporal length scales. Particulate dispersion in the air is generally considered on scales of hundreds to thousands of meters, and over periods of minutes and hours...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Asaf Durakovic
The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare...
March 2017: Military Medicine
Alexis Rump, Daniela Stricklin, Andreas Lamkowski, Stefan Eder, Michael Abend, Matthias Port
Objective: In the case of a terrorist attack by a "dirty bomb" there is a risk of internal contamination with radionuclides through inhalation and wounds. We studied the efficacy of a decorporation treatment depending on the initiation time and duration. Approach: Based on biokinetic models, we simulated the impact of different diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid treatments on the committed effective dose after the incorporation of plutonium-239. Results: For the same level of radioactivity, the dose was higher after the fast absorption from the wound than after a slow invasion following inhalation...
January 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
R Alam
PURPOSE: We are now living in a society of constant fear of terrorism. This topic is pertaining to give a general knowledge of what is a radiological dispersion device or RDD and in case of its detonation, what are the options open to public for a safe action in terms of reducing the exposure and knowing the proper steps. These RDD are also called dirty bombs. METHODS: Compared to nuclear weapons, dirty bombs are easy to make. In order for a terrorist organization to construct and detonate a dirty bomb, it must acquire radioactive material by stealing it or buying it through legal or illegal channels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
J Raber, M J Davis, T Pfankuch, R Rosenthal, S R Doctrow, J E Moulder
The brain could be exposed to irradiation as part of a nuclear accident, radiological terrorism (dirty bomb scenario) or a medical radiological procedure. In the context of accidents or terrorism, there is considerable interest in compounds that can mitigate radiation-induced injury when treatment is initiated a day or more after the radiation exposure. As it will be challenging to determine the radiation exposure an individual has received within a relatively short time frame, it is also critical that the mitigating agent does not negatively affect individuals, including emergency workers, who might be treated, but who were not exposed...
March 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Sarah Bauerle Bass, Thomas F Gordon, Laurie Maurer, Judith Greener, Gabriella Mora, Dominique Ruggieri, Caitlin Wolak, Claudia Parvanta
Potential terror events such as "dirty bombs" could have significant public health effects, but little is known about how low-literacy populations perceive dirty bombs, their trust in public health or government officials to provide credible information, and their willingness to comply with recommended actions. We surveyed 50 low-literacy adults from a large urban center; they were mostly members of ethnic minority groups. We used unique social marketing methods-perceptual mapping and vector message modeling-to create 3-dimensional models that reflected respondents' knowledge of what a dirty bomb is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their concerns about complying with "shelter in place" recommendations...
September 2016: Health Security
A Rump, D Stricklin, A Lamkowski, S Eder, M Abend, M Port
Background: In the case of a nuclear or radiological incident, there is a risk of external and internal contamination with radionuclides in addition to external irradiation. There is no consensus whether decorporation treatment should be initiated right away on spec or pending the results of internal dosimetry to determine the indication. Method: Based on biokinetic models for plutonium-239, americium-241 and cesium-137, the efficacy of a decorporation treatment using DTPA or Prussian blue was simulated depending on the initiation time and the duration of treatment for different invasion pathways and physicochemical properties of the inhaled compounds...
November 2016: Drug Research
A Rump, D Stricklin, A Lamkowski, S Eder, M Abend, M Port
In the case of a nuclear accident or a terrorist attack by a "dirty bomb," there is a risk of external and internal contamination with radionuclides in addition to external irradiation. Internal irradiation as a consequence of radionuclide incorporation is associated with a higher risk of stochastic radiation effects (e.g., tumors). Decorporation treatment will enhance the elimination of radionuclides and reduce the committed effective dose as a metric of stochastic health effects. Although treatment efficacy is better when started early, beginning the therapy without knowing the committed effective dose may unnecessarily expose the patient to the side effects of the medication...
August 2016: Health Physics
Sarah Bauerle Bass, Thomas F Gordon, Ryan Gordon, Claudia Parvanta
BACKGROUND: Eye tracking is commonly used in marketing to understand complex responses to materials, but has not been used to understand how low-literacy adults access health information or its relationship to decision making. METHODS: This study assessed how participants use a literacy appropriate "dirty bomb" decision aid. Participants were randomized to receive a CDC "factsheet" (n = 21) or literacy-appropriate aid (n = 29) shown on a computer screen...
June 8, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Nadia Abdul-Karim, Christopher S Blackman, Philip P Gill, Kersti Karu
The continued usage of explosive devices, as well as the ever growing threat of 'dirty' bombs necessitates a comprehensive understanding of particle dispersal during detonation events in order to develop effectual methods for targeting explosive and/or additive remediation efforts. Herein, the distribution of explosive analytes from controlled detonations of aluminised ammonium nitrate and an RDX-based explosive composition were established by systematically sampling sites positioned around each firing. This is the first experimental study to produce evidence that the post-blast residue mass can distribute according to an approximate inverse-square law model, while also demonstrating for the first time that distribution trends can vary depending on individual analytes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Helen C Turner, Igor Shuryak, Waylon Weber, Melanie Doyle-Eisele, Dunstana Melo, Raymond Guilmette, Sally A Amundson, David J Brenner
In the event of a dirty bomb scenario or an industrial nuclear accident, a significant dose of volatile radionuclides such as 137Cs and 90Sr may be dispersed into the atmosphere as a component of fallout and inhaled or ingested by hundreds and thousands of people. To study the effects of prolonged exposure to ingested radionuclides, we have performed long-term (30 day) internal-emitter mouse irradiations using soluble-injected 137CsCl and 90SrCl2 radioisotopes. The effect of ionizing radiation on the induction and repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in peripheral mouse lymphocytes in vivo was determined using the γ-H2AX biodosimetry marker...
2015: PloS One
Tara Kugelman, Damian G Zuloaga, Sydney Weber, Jacob Raber
The brain might be exposed to irradiation under a variety of situations, including clinical treatments, nuclear accidents, dirty bomb scenarios, and military and space missions. Correctly recalling tasks learned prior to irradiation is important but little is known about post-learning effects of irradiation. It is not clear whether exposure to X-ray irradiation during memory consolidation, a few hours following training, is associated with altered contextual fear conditioning 24h after irradiation and which brain region(s) might be involved in these effects...
February 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Sarah Bauerle Bass, Judith R Greener, Dominique Ruggieri, Claudia Parvanta, Gabriella Mora, Caitlin Wolak, Rebecca Normile, Thomas F Gordon
OBJECTIVES: Radiological terror presents a real threat, but little is known about how low-income, urban African Americans may respond to such threats. The aim of this study was to understand the unique challenges of this group and to explore their knowledge of what a "dirty bomb" is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their barriers to complying with "shelter in place" recommendations. METHODS: Thirty-seven 18-65-year-olds who were users of community centers in disadvantaged areas participated in 3 focus groups in Philadelphia...
February 2015: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Adil Mohammad, Yongsheng Yang, Mansoor A Khan, Patrick J Faustino
Prussian blue (PB) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Radiogardase, the first approved medical countermeasure for the treatment of radiocesium poisoning in the event of a major radiological incident such as a "dirty bomb" or nuclear attack. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue drug products (DPs) and APIs under laboratory storage condition by monitoring the loss in water content and the in vitro cesium binding. The water content was measured by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA)...
January 25, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Joseph Lucas, Holly K Dressman, Sunil Suchindran, Mai Nakamura, Nelson J Chao, Heather Himburg, Kerry Minor, Gary Phillips, Joel Ross, Majid Abedi, Robert Terbrueggen, John P Chute
Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI)...
2014: PloS One
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