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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694806/a-bivalent-anthrax-plague-vaccine-that-can-protect-against-two-tier-1-bioterror-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#1
Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, Mahtab Moayeri, Michelle L Kirtley, Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, William S Lawrence, Stephen H Leppla, Ashok K Chopra, Venigalla B Rao
Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692391/harnessing-syndromic-surveillance-emergency-department-data-to-monitor-health-impacts-during-the-2015-special-olympics-world-games
#2
Emily Kajita, Monica Z Luarca, Han Wu, Bessie Hwang, Laurene Mascola
INTRODUCTION: Mass gatherings that attract a large international presence may cause or amplify point-source outbreaks of emerging infectious disease. The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health customized its syndromic surveillance system to detect increased syndrome-specific utilization of emergency departments (EDs) and other medical encounters coincident to the 2015 Special Olympics World Games. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried live databases containing data on ED visits, California Poison Control System calls, and Los Angeles County coroner-investigated deaths for increases in daily counts from July 19 to August 6, 2015...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692386/the-evolution-of-biosense-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#3
Deborah W Gould, David Walker, Paula W Yoon
The BioSense program was launched in 2003 with the aim of establishing a nationwide integrated public health surveillance system for early detection and assessment of potential bioterrorism-related illness. The program has matured over the years from an initial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-centric program to one focused on building syndromic surveillance capacity at the state and local level. The uses of syndromic surveillance have also evolved from an early focus on alerts for bioterrorism-related illness to situational awareness and response, to various hazardous events and disease outbreaks...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692384/advancing-the-use-of-emergency-department-syndromic-surveillance-data-new-york-city-2012-2016
#4
Ramona Lall, Jasmine Abdelnabi, Stephanie Ngai, Hilary B Parton, Kelly Saunders, Jessica Sell, Amanda Wahnich, Don Weiss, Robert W Mathes
INTRODUCTION: The use of syndromic surveillance has expanded from its initial purpose of bioterrorism detection. We present 6 use cases from New York City that demonstrate the value of syndromic surveillance for public health response and decision making across a broad range of health outcomes: synthetic cannabinoid drug use, heat-related illness, suspected meningococcal disease, medical needs after severe weather, asthma exacerbation after a building collapse, and Ebola-like illness in travelers returning from West Africa...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673681/the-association-between-self-perceived-proficiency-of-personal-protective-equipment-and-objective-performance-an-observational-study-during-a-bioterrorism-simulation-drill
#5
Itay Fogel, Osant David, Chaya H Balik, Arik Eisenkraft, Lion Poles, Omri Shental, Michael Kassirer, Tal Brosh-Nissimov
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak emphasized the potential misuse of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers (HCWs) during such an event. We aimed to compare self-perceived proficiency of PPE use and objective performance, and identify predictors of low compliance and PPE misuse. METHODS: An observational study combined with subjective questionnaires were carried out during a bioterror simulation drill. Forty-two observers evaluated performance under PPE...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666604/a-human-time-dose-response-model-for-q-fever
#6
Charles W Heppell, Joseph R Egan, Ian Hall
The causative agent of Q fever, Coxiella burnetii, has the potential to be developed for use in biological warfare and it is classified as a bioterrorism threat agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and as a category B select agent by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). In this paper we focus on the in-host properties that arise when an individual inhales a dose of C. burnetii and establish a human time-dose response model. We also propagate uncertainty throughout the model allowing us to robustly estimate key properties including the infectious dose and incubation period...
June 15, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662754/animal-models-of-ebolavirus-infection
#7
Marisa C St Claire, Dan R Ragland, Laura Bollinger, Peter B Jahrling
Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic member of the family Filoviridae that causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans and NHP. The 2013-2016 West African outbreak has increased interest in the development and refinement of animal models of Ebola virus disease. These models are used to test countermeasures and vaccines, gain scientific insights into the mechanisms of disease progression and transmission, and study key correlates of immunology. Ebola virus is classified as a BSL4 pathogen and Category A agent, for which the United States government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism...
June 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652232/characterization-of-a-francisella-tularensis-caenorhabditis-elegans-pathosystem-for-the-evaluation-of-therapeutic-compounds
#8
Elamparithi Jayamani, Nagendran Tharmalingam, Rajmohan Rajamuthiah, Jeffrey J Coleman, Wooseong Kim, Ikechukwu Okoli, Ana M Hernandez, Kiho Lee, Gerard J Nau, Frederick M Ausubel, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. Because of its potential as a bioterrorism agent, there is a need for new therapeutic agents. We therefore developed a whole animal Caenorhabditis elegans-F. tularensis pathosystem for high throughput screening to identify and characterize potential therapeutic compounds. We found that the C. elegans p38 MAP kinase cascade is involved in the immune response to F. tularensis and we developed a robust F. tularensis-mediated C...
June 26, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629922/vaccination-with-a-codon-optimized-a27l-containing-plasmid-decreases-virus-replication-and-dissemination-after-vaccinia-virus-challenge
#9
Osmarie Martínez, Ariana Bravo Cruz, Saritza Santos, Maite Ramírez, Eric Miranda, Joanna Shisler, Miguel Otero
Smallpox is a disease caused by Variola virus (VARV). Although eradicated by WHO in 1980, the threat of using VARV on a bioterror attack has increased. The current smallpox vaccine ACAM2000, which consists of live vaccinia virus (VACV), causes complications in individuals with a compromised immune system or with previously reported skin diseases. Thus, a safer and efficacious vaccine needs to be developed. Previously, we reported that our virus-free DNA vaccine formulation, a pVAX1 plasmid encoding codon-optimized VACV A27L gene (pA27LOPT) with and without Imiquimod adjuvant, stimulates A27L-specific production of IFN-γ and increases humoral immunity 7days post-vaccination...
June 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619165/the-use-of-animals-as-a-surveillance-tool-for-monitoring-environmental-health-hazards-human-health-hazards-and-bioterrorism
#10
REVIEW
Jacqueline Pei Shan Neo, Boon Huan Tan
This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606813/comparative-efficacy-of-intramuscular-and-scarification-routes-of-administration-of-live-smallpox-vaccine-in-a-murine-challenge-model
#11
A Phelps, A J Gates, L Eastaugh, M Hillier, D O Ulaeto
In recent years concern has mounted regarding the possibility of a re-emergence of smallpox through biowarfare or bioterrorism. There is also concern over the incidence of human monkeypox in endemic areas and the potential for monkeypox to be accidentally transported to non-endemic areas. In the event of re-emergence of smallpox or emergence of monkeypox, the accepted route of administration for live replicating smallpox vaccine is dermal scarification, which generates a virus-shedding lesion that persists for several days at the vaccination site...
June 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605495/green-tea-and-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-are-bactericidal-against-bacillus-anthracis
#12
Shane D Falcinelli, Maggie C Shi, Arthur M Friedlander, Jennifer Chua
Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is listed as a Category A biothreat agent by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virulence of the organism is due to expression of two exotoxins and capsule, which interfere with host cellular signaling, alter host water homeostasis, and inhibit phagocytosis of the pathogen, respectively. Concerns regarding the past and possible future use of B. anthracis as a bioterrorism agent have resulted in an impetus to develop more effective protective measures and therapeutics...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602714/functional-analysis-of-bas2108-2109-two-component-system-evidence-for-protease-regulation-in-bacillus-anthracis
#13
Vatika Gupta, Neha Chaudhary, Somya Aggarwal, Nidhi Adlakha, Pooja Gulati, Rakesh Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis (BA) is a major bioterrorism concern which has evolved complex regulatory mechanisms for its virulence factors. Secreted proteases play an imperative role in the pathogenesis of BA, however their regulation remains elusive. Two component systems (TCS) are often employed by bacteria to sense and adapt to the environmental perturbations. In several pathogens, TCS are commonly associated with the regulation of virulence factors including proteases. The genome of BA encodes 41 TCS pairs, however, the role of any TCS in regulation of its proteases is not known...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577520/duration-of-neutralizing-antibody-persisting-in-thai-individuals-after-childhood-vaccination-against-smallpox
#14
Kannikar Kwanchum, Silawun Ampol, Anchalee Thongput, Navin Horthongkham, Suthiphol Udomphunthurak, Sontana Siritantikorn, Wannee Kantakamalakul
BACKGROUND: Although smallpox was completely eliminated by 1980, it remains possible that variola virus could be intentionally released in an act of bioterrorism. Thus, several studies have been performed to detect antibody levels after smallpox vaccination of the current population in various countries to indicate the duration of maintenance of immunological memory. Our study endeavored to investigate the level of neutralizing (Nt) antibody responses of Thai individuals who had been immunized with smallpox vaccine during childhood...
June 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573317/further-optimization-of-peptide-substrate-enhanced-assay-performance-for-bont-a-detection-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#15
Dongxia Wang, Jakub Baudys, Kaitlin M Hoyt, John R Barr, Suzanne R Kalb
Rapid and sensitive detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which cause botulism, is essential in a public health emergency or bioterrorism event. We have previously developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based functional method, Endopep-MS assay, for the fast detection and differentiation of all BoNT serotypes by affinity enriching the toxin and detecting the serotype-specific cleavage products of peptide substrates derived from the in vivo targets. To improve the performance of the Endopep-MS assay, we report here the further optimization of the peptide substrate for the detection of serotype A botulinum neurotoxins...
June 2, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529302/changes-of-global-infectious-disease-governance-in-2000s-rise-of-global-health-security-and-transformation-of-infectious-disease-control-system-in-south-korea
#16
Eun Kyung Choi, Jong-Koo Lee
This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516833/animal-models-of-ebolavirus-infection
#17
Marisa C St Claire, Dan R Ragland, Laura Bollinger, Peter B Jahrling
Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic member of the family Filoviridae that causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humansand NHP. The 2013-2016 West African outbreak has increased interest in the development and refinement of animal models of Ebola virus disease. These models are used to test countermeasures and vaccines, gain scientific insights into the mechanisms of disease progression and transmission, and study key correlates of immunology. Ebola virus is classified as a BSL4 pathogen and Category A agent, for which the United States government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism...
May 17, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480295/variation-in-tularemia-clinical-manifestations-arkansas-2009-2013
#18
Laura K Lester Rothfeldt, Richard F Jacobs, J Gary Wheeler, Susan Weinstein, Dirk T Haselow
BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis, although naturally occurring in Arkansas, is also a Tier 1 select agent and potential bioterrorism threat. As such, tularemia is nationally notifiable and mandatorily reported to the Arkansas Department of Health. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics among reported cases and outcomes to improve understanding of the epidemiology of tularemia in Arkansas. METHODS: Surveillance records on all tularemia cases investigated during 2009-2013 were reviewed...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475321/metal-ions-effectively-ablate-the-action-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a
#19
Paul T Bremer, Sabine Pellett, James P Carolan, William H Tepp, Lisa M Eubanks, Karen N Allen, Eric A Johnson, Kim D Janda
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) causes a debilitating and potentially fatal illness known as botulism. The toxin is also a bioterrorism threat, yet no pharmacological antagonist to counteract its effects has reached clinical approval. Existing strategies to negate BoNT/A intoxication have looked to antibodies, peptides, or organic small molecules as potential therapeutics. In this work, a departure from the traditional drug discovery mindset was pursued, in which the enzyme's susceptibility to metal ions was exploited...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472295/biochemical-characterization-of-the-gtp-sensing-protein-cody-of-bacillus-anthracis
#20
Shikha Joon, Monisha Gopalani, Amit Rahi, Parul Kulshreshtha, Himanshu Gogoi, Sonika Bhatnagar, Rakesh Bhatnagar
The pleiotropism of the GTP-sensing transcriptional regulator CodY is evident by the gamut of processes that it regulates in almost all low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, including general metabolism, biosynthesis of some amino acids and transport systems, nitrogen uptake, sporulation, biofilm formation, motility and virulence. The role of CodY in virulence has been established in Bacillus anthracis, the top rated bioterrorism agent. In this study, we investigated the biochemical attributes of this global regulator...
June 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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