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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629922/vaccination-with-a-codon-optimized-a27l-containing-plasmid-decreases-virus-replication-and-dissemination-after-vaccinia-virus-challenge
#1
Osmarie Martínez, Ariana Bravo Cruz, Saritza Santos, Maite Ramírez, Eric Miranda, Joanna Shisler, Miguel Otero
Smallpox is a disease caused by Variola virus (VARV). Although eradicated by WHO in 1980, the threat of using VARV on a bioterror attack has increased. The current smallpox vaccine ACAM2000, which consists of live vaccinia virus (VACV), causes complications in individuals with a compromised immune system or with previously reported skin diseases. Thus, a safer and efficacious vaccine needs to be developed. Previously, we reported that our virus-free DNA vaccine formulation, a pVAX1 plasmid encoding codon-optimized VACV A27L gene (pA27LOPT) with and without Imiquimod adjuvant, stimulates A27L-specific production of IFN-γ and increases humoral immunity 7days post-vaccination...
June 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619165/the-use-of-animals-as-a-surveillance-tool-for-monitoring-environmental-health-hazards-human-health-hazards-and-bioterrorism
#2
REVIEW
Jacqueline Pei Shan Neo, Boon Huan Tan
This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606813/comparative-efficacy-of-intramuscular-and-scarification-routes-of-administration-of-live-smallpox-vaccine-in-a-murine-challenge-model
#3
A Phelps, A J Gates, L Eastaugh, M Hillier, D O Ulaeto
In recent years concern has mounted regarding the possibility of a re-emergence of smallpox through biowarfare or bioterrorism. There is also concern over the incidence of human monkeypox in endemic areas and the potential for monkeypox to be accidentally transported to non-endemic areas. In the event of re-emergence of smallpox or emergence of monkeypox, the accepted route of administration for live replicating smallpox vaccine is dermal scarification, which generates a virus-shedding lesion that persists for several days at the vaccination site...
June 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605495/green-tea-and-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-are-bactericidal-against-bacillus-anthracis
#4
Shane D Falcinelli, Maggie C Shi, Arthur M Friedlander, Jennifer Chua
Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is listed as a Category A biothreat agent by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virulence of the organism is due to expression of two exotoxins and capsule, which interfere with host cellular signaling, alter host water homeostasis, and inhibit phagocytosis of the pathogen, respectively. Concerns regarding the past and possible future use of B. anthracis as a bioterrorism agent have resulted in an impetus to develop more effective protective measures and therapeutics...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602714/functional-analysis-of-bas2108-2109-two-component-system-evidence-for-protease-regulation-in-bacillus-anthracis
#5
Vatika Gupta, Neha Chaudhary, Somya Aggarwal, Nidhi Adlakha, Pooja Gulati, Rakesh Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis (BA) is a major bioterrorism concern which has evolved complex regulatory mechanisms for its virulence factors. Secreted proteases play an imperative role in the pathogenesis of BA, however their regulation remains elusive. Two component systems (TCS) are often employed by bacteria to sense and adapt to the environmental perturbations. In several pathogens, TCS are commonly associated with the regulation of virulence factors including proteases. The genome of BA encodes 41 TCS pairs, however, the role of any TCS in regulation of its proteases is not known...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577520/duration-of-neutralizing-antibody-persisting-in-thai-individuals-after-childhood-vaccination-against-smallpox
#6
Kannikar Kwanchum, Silawun Ampol, Anchalee Thongput, Navin Horthongkham, Suthiphol Udomphunthurak, Sontana Siritantikorn, Wannee Kantakamalakul
BACKGROUND: Although smallpox was completely eliminated by 1980, it remains possible that variola virus could be intentionally released in an act of bioterrorism. Thus, several studies have been performed to detect antibody levels after smallpox vaccination of the current population in various countries to indicate the duration of maintenance of immunological memory. Our study endeavored to investigate the level of neutralizing (Nt) antibody responses of Thai individuals who had been immunized with smallpox vaccine during childhood...
June 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573317/further-optimization-of-peptide-substrate-enhanced-assay-performance-for-bont-a-detection-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#7
Dongxia Wang, Jakub Baudys, Kaitlin M Hoyt, John R Barr, Suzanne R Kalb
Rapid and sensitive detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which cause botulism, is essential in a public health emergency or bioterrorism event. We have previously developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based functional method, Endopep-MS assay, for the fast detection and differentiation of all BoNT serotypes by affinity enriching the toxin and detecting the serotype-specific cleavage products of peptide substrates derived from the in vivo targets. To improve the performance of the Endopep-MS assay, we report here the further optimization of the peptide substrate for the detection of serotype A botulinum neurotoxins...
June 2, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529302/changes-of-global-infectious-disease-governance-in-2000s-rise-of-global-health-security-and-transformation-of-infectious-disease-control-system-in-south-korea
#8
Eun Kyung Choi, Jong-Koo Lee
This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516833/animal-models-of-ebolavirus-infection
#9
Marisa C St Claire, Dan R Ragland, Laura Bollinger, Peter B Jahrling
Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic member of the family Filoviridae that causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humansand NHP. The 2013-2016 West African outbreak has increased interest in the development and refinement of animal models of Ebola virus disease. These models are used to test countermeasures and vaccines, gain scientific insights into the mechanisms of disease progression and transmission, and study key correlates of immunology. Ebola virus is classified as a BSL4 pathogen and Category A agent, for which the United States government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism...
May 17, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480295/variation-in-tularemia-clinical-manifestations-arkansas-2009-2013
#10
Laura K Lester Rothfeldt, Richard F Jacobs, J Gary Wheeler, Susan Weinstein, Dirk T Haselow
BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis, although naturally occurring in Arkansas, is also a Tier 1 select agent and potential bioterrorism threat. As such, tularemia is nationally notifiable and mandatorily reported to the Arkansas Department of Health. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics among reported cases and outcomes to improve understanding of the epidemiology of tularemia in Arkansas. METHODS: Surveillance records on all tularemia cases investigated during 2009-2013 were reviewed...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475321/metal-ions-effectively-ablate-the-action-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-a
#11
Paul T Bremer, Sabine Pellett, James P Carolan, William H Tepp, Lisa M Eubanks, Karen N Allen, Eric A Johnson, Kim D Janda
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) causes a debilitating and potentially fatal illness known as botulism. The toxin is also a bioterrorism threat, yet no pharmacological antagonist to counteract its effects has reached clinical approval. Existing strategies to negate BoNT/A intoxication have looked to antibodies, peptides, or organic small molecules as potential therapeutics. In this work, a departure from the traditional drug discovery mindset was pursued, in which the enzyme's susceptibility to metal ions was exploited...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472295/biochemical-characterization-of-the-gtp-sensing-protein-cody-of-bacillus-anthracis
#12
Shikha Joon, Monisha Gopalani, Amit Rahi, Parul Kulshreshtha, Himanshu Gogoi, Sonika Bhatnagar, Rakesh Bhatnagar
The pleiotropism of the GTP-sensing transcriptional regulator CodY is evident by the gamut of processes that it regulates in almost all low G+C Gram-positive bacteria, including general metabolism, biosynthesis of some amino acids and transport systems, nitrogen uptake, sporulation, biofilm formation, motility and virulence. The role of CodY in virulence has been established in Bacillus anthracis, the top rated bioterrorism agent. In this study, we investigated the biochemical attributes of this global regulator...
June 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455330/regulation-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-synthesis-and-toxin-complex-formation-by-arginine-and-glucose-in-clostridium-botulinum-atcc-3502
#13
Chase M Fredrick, Guangyun Lin, Eric A Johnson
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by neurotoxigenic clostridia is the most potent biological toxin known and the causative agent of the paralytic disease botulism. The nutritional, environmental, and genetic regulation of BoNT synthesis, activation, stability, and toxin complex (TC) formation are not well studied. Previous studies indicated that growth and BoNT formation was affected by arginine and glucose in C. botulinum types A and B. In the present study, C. botulinum ATCC 3502 was grown in toxin production medium (TPM) with different levels of arginine, glucose and three products of arginine metabolism, citrulline, proline and ornithine...
April 28, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452296/forensic-approaches-to-detect-possible-agents-of-bioterror
#14
Alfredo A González, Jessica I Rivera-Pérez, Gary A Toranzos
Many biological agents have been strategic pathogenic agents throughout history. Some have even changed history as a consequence of early discoveries of their use as weapons of war. Many of these bioagents can be easily isolated from the environment, and some have recently been genetically manipulated to become more pathogenic for biowarfare. However, it is difficult to determine accidental outbreaks of disease from intentional exposures. In this review, we examine how molecular tools have been used in combination with forensic research to resolve cases of unusual outbreaks and trace the source of the biocrime...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437093/a-pathogen-specific-cargo-delivery-platform-based-on-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#15
Bastian Ruehle, Daniel L Clemens, Bai-Yu Lee, Marcus A Horwitz, Jeffrey I Zink
We present a synthetic approach to a highly pathogen-selective detection and delivery platform based on the interaction of an antibody nanovalve with a tetrasaccharide from the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Francisella tularensis bacteria, a Tier 1 Select Agent of bioterrorism. Different design considerations are explored, and proof-of-concept for highly pathogen-specific cargo release from mesoporous silica nanoparticles is demonstrated by comparisons of the release of a signal transducer and model drug by LPS from F...
May 5, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427845/development-of-a-micro-neutralization-assay-for-ebolaviruses-using-a-replication-competent-vesicular-stomatitis-hybrid-virus-and-a-quantitative-pcr-readout
#16
Stella S Lee, Kathryn Phy, Keith Peden, Li Sheng-Fowler
Development of vaccines against highly pathogenic viruses that could also be used as agents of bioterrorism is both a public health issue and a national security priority. Methods that can quantify neutralizing antibodies will likely be crucial in demonstrating vaccine effectiveness, as most licensed viral vaccines are effective due to their capacity to elicit neutralizing antibodies. Assays to determine whether antibodies are neutralizing traditionally involve infectious virus, and the assay most commonly used is the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
April 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406414/review-of-poxvirus-emergence-of-monkeypox
#17
A Morand, S Delaigue, J J Morand
This article reviews the different types of poxvirus infections. Smallpox, although eradicated, must continue to be monitored because of the potential risk of accidental or voluntary (by bioterrorism) reintroduction. Monkeypox and cowpox viruses are considered to be emergent today ; their high risk of dissemination is due to the increase in international transport as well as trends for new animals as pets and the loss of vaccinal protection against smallpox. Molluscum contagiosum (molluscipoxvirus) causes mild infections, is particularly frequent in children ; in adults it is a marker of the risk of sexually transmitted infections and can, in cases with profuse lesions, reveal AIDS...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392420/efficacy-of-delayed-brincidofovir-treatment-against-a-lethal-rabbitpox-virus-challenge-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#18
Irma M Grossi, Scott A Foster, Melicia R Gainey, Robert T Krile, John A Dunn, Thomas Brundage, Jody M Khouri
In the event of a bioterror attack with variola virus (smallpox), exposure may only be identified following onset of fever. To determine if antiviral therapy with brincidofovir (BCV; CMX001) initiated at, or following, onset of fever could prevent severe illness and death, a lethal rabbitpox model was used. BCV is in advanced development as an antiviral for the treatment of smallpox under the US Food and Drug Administration's 'Animal Rule'. This pivotal study assessed the efficacy of immediate versus delayed treatment with BCV following onset of symptomatic disease in New Zealand White rabbits intradermally inoculated with a lethal rabbitpox virus (RPXV), strain Utrecht...
April 7, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361720/the-bioethicist-who-cried-synthetic-biology-an-analysis-of-the-function-of-bioterrorism-predictions-in-bioethics
#19
Søren Holm
This article analyzes a specter that has haunted bioethics almost since its inception, namely the specter of the misuse of biotechnology by maleficent agents bent on mass destruction, or the complete eradication of human kind and life as we know it. The article provides a general account of why bioethicists cry "catastrophic bioterrorism potential" when new biotechnologies emerge, and an analysis of the arguments that flow from the prediction, especially in relation to synthetic biology.
April 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359755/a-novel-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-subunit-vaccine-candidate-elicits-protective-immune-response-in-a-mouse-model
#20
Jun Young Choi, Sungho Shin, Na Young Kim, Woo Sung Son, Tae Jin Kang, Dong Hyun Song, Chi Ho Yu, Gyeung Haeng Hur, Seong Tae Jeong, Young Kee Shin
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), produced by the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, is responsible for food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome, and is considered a potential bioterrorism agent. Unfortunately, still now no approved vaccines are available against SEB. In this study, we constructed a series of nontoxic SEB mutants (mSEBs) and examined whether these mSEBs provide protective immunity against SEB challenge. These mSEB vaccine candidates did not demonstrate superantigen activity in mouse splenocyte cultures...
March 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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