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Bioterrorism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809473/aie-materials-with-different-electric-charges-as-artificial-tongue-design-construction-and-assembly-with-various-pathogenic-bacteria-for-effective-bacterial-imaging-and-discrimination
#1
Guang-Jian Liu, Sheng-Nan Tian, Cui-Yun Li, Guo-Wen Xing, Lei Zhou
Imaging-based total bacterial count and type identification of bacteria play crucial rules in clinical diagnostics, public health, biological and medical science, environmental protection. Herein, we designed and synthesized a series of tetraphenylethenes (TPEs) functionalized with one or two aldehyde, carboxylic acid and quaternary ammonium groups, which were successfully used as fluorescent materials for rapid and efficient staining of 8 kinds of representative bacterial species, including pathogenic bacteria Vibrio cholera, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes and potential bioterrorism agent Yersinia pestis...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775316/efficient-functional-neutralization-of-lethal-peptide-toxins-in-vivo-by-oligonucleotides
#2
Tarek Mohamed Abd El-Aziz, Corinne Ravelet, Jordi Molgo, Emmanuelle Fiore, Simon Pale, Muriel Amar, Sawsan Al-Khoury, Jérôme Dejeu, Mahmoud Fadl, Michel Ronjat, Germain Sotoing Taiwe, Denis Servent, Eric Peyrin, Michel De Waard
Medical means to save the life of human patients affected by drug abuse, envenomation or critical poisoning are currently limited. While the compounds at risks are most often well identified, particularly for bioterrorism, chemical intervention to counteract the toxic effects of the ingested/injected compound(s) is restricted to the use of antibodies. Herein, we illustrate that DNA aptamers, targeted to block the pharmacophore of a poisonous compound, represent a fast-acting and reliable method of neutralization in vivo that possesses efficient and long-lasting life-saving properties...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760903/tetrazole-based-trans-translation-inhibitors-kill-bacillus-anthracis-spores-to-protect-host-cells
#3
John N Alumasa, Tyler D P Goralski, Kenneth C Keiler
Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, remains a significant threat to humans, including potential use in bioterrorism and biowarfare. The capacity to engineer strains with increased pathogenicity coupled with the ease of disseminating lethal doses of B. anthracis spores makes it necessary to identify chemical agents that target and kill spores. Here, we demonstrate that a tetrazole-based trans-translation inhibitor, KKL-55, is bactericidal against vegetative cells of B. anthracis in culture. Using a fluorescent analog, we show that this class of compounds co-localizes with developing endospores and bind purified spores in vitro KKL-55 was effective against spores at concentrations close to its MIC for vegetative cells...
July 31, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747367/rapid-detection-of-bacillus-anthracis-blood-stream-infections-using-a-novel-assay-in-the-genexpert-system
#4
Padmapriya P Banada, Srinidhi Deshpande, Riccardo Russo, Eric Singleton, Darshini Shah, Bhavana Patel, Michele Burday, Ranie Koshy, Qing Wang, Martin Jones, Alexander Gall, Sergey Lokhov, Robert Kwiatkowski, David Persing, Nancy Connell, David Alland
BACKGROUND.Bacillus anthracis is a tier1 select agent with the potential to quickly cause severe disease. Rapid identification of this pathogen may accelerate treatment and reduce mortality in the event of a bioterrorism attack. We developed a rapid and sensitive assay to detect B. anthracis bacteremia using a system that is suitable for point of care testing.METHODS. A filter-based cartridge that included both sample processing and PCR amplification functions was loaded with all reagents needed for sample processing and multiplex nested PCR...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740731/comparing-new-generation-candidate-vaccines-against-human-orthopoxvirus-infections
#5
R A Maksyutov, S N Yakubitskyi, I V Kolosova, S N Shchelkunov
The lack of immunity to the variola virus in the population, increasingly more frequent cases of human orthopoxvirus infection, and increased risk of the use of the variola virus (VARV) as a bioterrorism agent call for the development of modern, safe vaccines against orthopoxvirus infections. We previously developed a polyvalent DNA vaccine based on five VARV antigens and an attenuated variant of the vaccinia virus (VACV) with targeted deletion of six genes (VACΔ6). Independent experiments demonstrated that triple immunization with a DNA vaccine and double immunization with VACΔ6 provide protection to mice against a lethal dose (10 LD50) of the ectromelia virus (ECTV), which is highly pathogenic for mice...
April 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694806/a-bivalent-anthrax-plague-vaccine-that-can-protect-against-two-tier-1-bioterror-pathogens-bacillus-anthracis-and-yersinia-pestis
#6
Pan Tao, Marthandan Mahalingam, Jingen Zhu, Mahtab Moayeri, Michelle L Kirtley, Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, William S Lawrence, Stephen H Leppla, Ashok K Chopra, Venigalla B Rao
Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692391/harnessing-syndromic-surveillance-emergency-department-data-to-monitor-health-impacts-during-the-2015-special-olympics-world-games
#7
Emily Kajita, Monica Z Luarca, Han Wu, Bessie Hwang, Laurene Mascola
INTRODUCTION: Mass gatherings that attract a large international presence may cause or amplify point-source outbreaks of emerging infectious disease. The Los Angeles County Department of Public Health customized its syndromic surveillance system to detect increased syndrome-specific utilization of emergency departments (EDs) and other medical encounters coincident to the 2015 Special Olympics World Games. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried live databases containing data on ED visits, California Poison Control System calls, and Los Angeles County coroner-investigated deaths for increases in daily counts from July 19 to August 6, 2015...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692386/the-evolution-of-biosense-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#8
Deborah W Gould, David Walker, Paula W Yoon
The BioSense program was launched in 2003 with the aim of establishing a nationwide integrated public health surveillance system for early detection and assessment of potential bioterrorism-related illness. The program has matured over the years from an initial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-centric program to one focused on building syndromic surveillance capacity at the state and local level. The uses of syndromic surveillance have also evolved from an early focus on alerts for bioterrorism-related illness to situational awareness and response, to various hazardous events and disease outbreaks...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692384/advancing-the-use-of-emergency-department-syndromic-surveillance-data-new-york-city-2012-2016
#9
Ramona Lall, Jasmine Abdelnabi, Stephanie Ngai, Hilary B Parton, Kelly Saunders, Jessica Sell, Amanda Wahnich, Don Weiss, Robert W Mathes
INTRODUCTION: The use of syndromic surveillance has expanded from its initial purpose of bioterrorism detection. We present 6 use cases from New York City that demonstrate the value of syndromic surveillance for public health response and decision making across a broad range of health outcomes: synthetic cannabinoid drug use, heat-related illness, suspected meningococcal disease, medical needs after severe weather, asthma exacerbation after a building collapse, and Ebola-like illness in travelers returning from West Africa...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673681/the-association-between-self-perceived-proficiency-of-personal-protective-equipment-and-objective-performance-an-observational-study-during-a-bioterrorism-simulation-drill
#10
Itay Fogel, Osant David, Chaya H Balik, Arik Eisenkraft, Lion Poles, Omri Shental, Michael Kassirer, Tal Brosh-Nissimov
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak emphasized the potential misuse of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers (HCWs) during such an event. We aimed to compare self-perceived proficiency of PPE use and objective performance, and identify predictors of low compliance and PPE misuse. METHODS: An observational study combined with subjective questionnaires were carried out during a bioterror simulation drill. Forty-two observers evaluated performance under PPE...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666604/a-human-time-dose-response-model-for-q-fever
#11
Charles W Heppell, Joseph R Egan, Ian Hall
The causative agent of Q fever, Coxiella burnetii, has the potential to be developed for use in biological warfare and it is classified as a bioterrorism threat agent by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and as a category B select agent by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). In this paper we focus on the in-host properties that arise when an individual inhales a dose of C. burnetii and establish a human time-dose response model. We also propagate uncertainty throughout the model allowing us to robustly estimate key properties including the infectious dose and incubation period...
June 15, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662754/animal-models-of-ebolavirus-infection
#12
Marisa C St Claire, Dan R Ragland, Laura Bollinger, Peter B Jahrling
Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic member of the family Filoviridae that causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans and NHP. The 2013-2016 West African outbreak has increased interest in the development and refinement of animal models of Ebola virus disease. These models are used to test countermeasures and vaccines, gain scientific insights into the mechanisms of disease progression and transmission, and study key correlates of immunology. Ebola virus is classified as a BSL4 pathogen and Category A agent, for which the United States government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism...
June 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652232/characterization-of-a-francisella-tularensis-caenorhabditis-elegans-pathosystem-for-the-evaluation-of-therapeutic-compounds
#13
Elamparithi Jayamani, Nagendran Tharmalingam, Rajmohan Rajamuthiah, Jeffrey J Coleman, Wooseong Kim, Ikechukwu Okoli, Ana M Hernandez, Kiho Lee, Gerard J Nau, Frederick M Ausubel, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia. Because of its potential as a bioterrorism agent, there is a need for new therapeutic agents. We therefore developed a whole animal Caenorhabditis elegans-F. tularensis pathosystem for high throughput screening to identify and characterize potential therapeutic compounds. We found that the C. elegans p38 MAP kinase cascade is involved in the immune response to F. tularensis and we developed a robust F. tularensis-mediated C...
June 26, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629922/vaccination-with-a-codon-optimized-a27l-containing-plasmid-decreases-virus-replication-and-dissemination-after-vaccinia-virus-challenge
#14
Osmarie Martínez, Ariana Bravo Cruz, Saritza Santos, Maite Ramírez, Eric Miranda, Joanna Shisler, Miguel Otero
Smallpox is a disease caused by Variola virus (VARV). Although eradicated by WHO in 1980, the threat of using VARV on a bioterror attack has increased. The current smallpox vaccine ACAM2000, which consists of live vaccinia virus (VACV), causes complications in individuals with a compromised immune system or with previously reported skin diseases. Thus, a safer and efficacious vaccine needs to be developed. Previously, we reported that our virus-free DNA vaccine formulation, a pVAX1 plasmid encoding codon-optimized VACV A27L gene (pA27LOPT) with and without Imiquimod adjuvant, stimulates A27L-specific production of IFN-γ and increases humoral immunity 7days post-vaccination...
June 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619165/the-use-of-animals-as-a-surveillance-tool-for-monitoring-environmental-health-hazards-human-health-hazards-and-bioterrorism
#15
REVIEW
Jacqueline Pei Shan Neo, Boon Huan Tan
This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606813/comparative-efficacy-of-intramuscular-and-scarification-routes-of-administration-of-live-smallpox-vaccine-in-a-murine-challenge-model
#16
A Phelps, A J Gates, L Eastaugh, M Hillier, D O Ulaeto
In recent years concern has mounted regarding the possibility of a re-emergence of smallpox through biowarfare or bioterrorism. There is also concern over the incidence of human monkeypox in endemic areas and the potential for monkeypox to be accidentally transported to non-endemic areas. In the event of re-emergence of smallpox or emergence of monkeypox, the accepted route of administration for live replicating smallpox vaccine is dermal scarification, which generates a virus-shedding lesion that persists for several days at the vaccination site...
June 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605495/green-tea-and-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-are-bactericidal-against-bacillus-anthracis
#17
Shane D Falcinelli, Maggie C Shi, Arthur M Friedlander, Jennifer Chua
Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is listed as a Category A biothreat agent by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The virulence of the organism is due to expression of two exotoxins and capsule, which interfere with host cellular signaling, alter host water homeostasis, and inhibit phagocytosis of the pathogen, respectively. Concerns regarding the past and possible future use of B. anthracis as a bioterrorism agent have resulted in an impetus to develop more effective protective measures and therapeutics...
June 12, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602714/functional-analysis-of-bas2108-2109-two-component-system-evidence-for-protease-regulation-in-bacillus-anthracis
#18
Vatika Gupta, Neha Chaudhary, Somya Aggarwal, Nidhi Adlakha, Pooja Gulati, Rakesh Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis (BA) is a major bioterrorism concern which has evolved complex regulatory mechanisms for its virulence factors. Secreted proteases play an imperative role in the pathogenesis of BA, however their regulation remains elusive. Two component systems (TCS) are often employed by bacteria to sense and adapt to the environmental perturbations. In several pathogens, TCS are commonly associated with the regulation of virulence factors including proteases. The genome of BA encodes 41 TCS pairs, however, the role of any TCS in regulation of its proteases is not known...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577520/duration-of-neutralizing-antibody-persisting-in-thai-individuals-after-childhood-vaccination-against-smallpox
#19
Kannikar Kwanchum, Silawun Ampol, Anchalee Thongput, Navin Horthongkham, Suthiphol Udomphunthurak, Sontana Siritantikorn, Wannee Kantakamalakul
BACKGROUND: Although smallpox was completely eliminated by 1980, it remains possible that variola virus could be intentionally released in an act of bioterrorism. Thus, several studies have been performed to detect antibody levels after smallpox vaccination of the current population in various countries to indicate the duration of maintenance of immunological memory. Our study endeavored to investigate the level of neutralizing (Nt) antibody responses of Thai individuals who had been immunized with smallpox vaccine during childhood...
June 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573317/further-optimization-of-peptide-substrate-enhanced-assay-performance-for-bont-a-detection-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry
#20
Dongxia Wang, Jakub Baudys, Kaitlin M Hoyt, John R Barr, Suzanne R Kalb
Rapid and sensitive detection of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which cause botulism, is essential in a public health emergency or bioterrorism event. We have previously developed a mass spectrometry (MS)-based functional method, Endopep-MS assay, for the fast detection and differentiation of all BoNT serotypes by affinity enriching the toxin and detecting the serotype-specific cleavage products of peptide substrates derived from the in vivo targets. To improve the performance of the Endopep-MS assay, we report here the further optimization of the peptide substrate for the detection of serotype A botulinum neurotoxins...
August 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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