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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773767/the-role-of-brincidofovir-in-preparation-for-a-potential-smallpox-outbreak
#1
Scott A Foster, Scott Parker, Randall Lanier
Smallpox (variola) virus is considered a Category A bioterrorism agent due to its ability to spread rapidly and the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection. Current recommendations recognize the importance of oral antivirals and call for having at least two smallpox antivirals with different mechanisms of action available in the event of a smallpox outbreak. Multiple antivirals are recommended due in large part to the propensity of viruses to become resistant to antiviral therapy, especially monotherapy...
October 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742310/sampling-and-inactivation-of-wet-disseminated-spores-from-flooring-materials-using-commercially-available-robotic-vacuum-cleaners
#2
Katy-Anne Thompson, Susan Paton, Thomas Pottage, Allan Bennett
AIMS: Four commercially available robotic vacuum cleaners were assessed for sampling efficiency of wet disseminated Bacillus atrophaeus spores on carpet, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and laminate flooring. Furthermore, their operability was evaluated and decontamination efficiency of one robot was assessed using a sodium hypochlorite solution. METHODS AND RESULTS: In an environmental chamber, robots self-navigated around 4 m2 of flooring containing a single contaminated 0...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715287/multisectoral-prioritization-of-zoonotic-diseases-in-uganda-2017-a-one-health-perspective
#3
Musa Sekamatte, Vikram Krishnasamy, Lilian Bulage, Christine Kihembo, Noelina Nantima, Fred Monje, Deo Ndumu, Juliet Sentumbwe, Betty Mbolanyi, Robert Aruho, Winyi Kaboyo, David Mutonga, Colin Basler, Sarah Paige, Casey Barton Behravesh
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic diseases continue to be a public health burden globally. Uganda is especially vulnerable due to its location, biodiversity, and population. Given these concerns, the Ugandan government in collaboration with the Global Health Security Agenda conducted a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Workshop to identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern to the Ugandan government. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization tool, a semi-quantitative tool developed by the U...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694705/crystal-structures-of-aprt-from-francisella-tularensis-an-n-h-n-hydrogen-bond-imparts-adenine-specificity-in-adenine-phosporibosyltransferases
#4
Gowribidanur C Pavithra, Udupi A Ramagopal
Francisella tularensis is classified as a category A bioterrorism agent, which also causes tularemia. Here, we present the crystal structure of apo and adenine bound form of the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) from Francisella tularensis.. APRT is an enzyme involved in the salvage of adenine (a 6-aminopurine) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP). The purine salvage pathway relies on two essential and distinct enzymes to convert 6-aminopurine and 6-oxopurines into corresponding nucleotides. The mechanism by which these enzymes differentiate different purines is not clearly understood...
April 25, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623844/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-assessment-of-silver-nanoparticles-against-clostridium-botulinum-type-a-botulinum
#5
Mohammad Aminianfar, Siavash Parvardeh, Mohsen Soleimani
BACKGROUND: Clostridium botulinum causes botulism, resulting from the ingestion of a botulinal toxin, which is a serious paralytic illness. Due to strong antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles' products, the applications of silver nanoparticles in the field of healthcare in particular are being expanded. Therefore, the objective of current study was to assess a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of botulism toxicity using silver nanoparticles. METHODS: A preliminary test was conducted, based on the ranges that produce illness in laboratory animals, to determine absolute lethal dose (LD100) of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) in mice...
April 3, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602786/sensitive-and-specific-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-set-of-assays-for-fast-screening-detection-and-identification-of-bacillus-anthracis-in-a-field-setting
#6
Mostafa Bentahir, Jérôme Ambroise, Cathy Delcorps, Paola Pilo, Jean-Luc Gala
Four isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assays (RPA) were developed for fast in-field identification of Bacillus (B.) anthracis RPAs targeted three specific sequences (i.e. BA_5345 chromosomal marker, lethal factor lef -pXO1, and capsule biosynthesis capA -pXO2), and a conserved sequence of the B. cereus group in the adenylate cyclase gene ( adk ). B. anthracis -specific RPA assays were first tested on purified genomic DNAs (n=60) containing 11 representatives of B. anthracis , then on soil (n=8) and white powder (n=8) samples spiked with inactivated B...
March 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588398/the-light-chain-defines-the-duration-of-action-of-botulinum-toxin-serotype-a-subtypes
#7
Sabine Pellett, Marite Bradshaw, William H Tepp, Christina L Pier, Regina C M Whitemarsh, Chen Chen, Joseph T Barbieri, Eric A Johnson
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the causative agent of botulism and a widely used pharmaceutical to treat a variety of neurological diseases. BoNTs are 150-kDa protein toxins organized into heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) domains linked by a disulfide bond. The HC selectively binds to neurons and aids cell entry of the enzymatically active LC. There are seven immunological BoNT serotypes (A to G); each serotype includes genetic variants, termed subtypes. Only two subtypes, BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1, are currently used as therapeutics...
March 27, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579106/impact-of-nutritional-stress-on-drug-susceptibility-and-biofilm-structures-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-and-burkholderia-thailandensis-grown-in-static-and-microfluidic-systems
#8
Chitchanok Anutrakunchai, Jan G M Bolscher, Bastiaan P Krom, Sakawrat Kanthawong, Sorujsiri Chareonsudjai, Suwimol Taweechaisupapong
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis and regarded as a bioterrorism threat. It can adapt to the nutrient-limited environment as the bacteria can survive in triple distilled water for 16 years. Moreover, B. pseudomallei exhibits intrinsic resistance to diverse groups of antibiotics in particular while growing in biofilms. Recently, nutrient-limited condition influenced both biofilm formation and ceftazidime (CAZ) tolerance of B. pseudomallei were found. However, there is no information about how nutrient-limitation together with antibiotics used in melioidosis treatment affects the structure of the biofilm produced by B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565285/rapid-viral-diagnosis-of-orthopoxviruses-by-electron-microscopy-optional-or-a-must
#9
REVIEW
Hans R Gelderblom, Dick Madeley
Diagnostic electron microscopy (DEM) was an essential component of viral diagnosis until the development of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT). The simple negative staining technique of DEM was applied widely to smallpox diagnosis until the world-wide eradication of the human-specific pathogen in 1980. Since then, the threat of smallpox re-emerging through laboratory escape, molecular manipulation, synthetic biology or bioterrorism has not totally disappeared and would be a major problem in an unvaccinated population...
March 22, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556501/a-review-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-and-routes-of-introduction-into-the-united-states-and-the-potential-for-virus-establishment
#10
REVIEW
Vienna R Brown, Sarah N Bevins
Classical swine fever (CSF) is caused by CSF virus (CSFV) which can be the source of substantial morbidity and mortality events in affected swine. The disease can take one of several forms (acute, chronic, or prenatal) and depending on the virulence of the inoculating strain may result in a lethal infection irrespective of the form acquired. Because of the disease-free status of the United States and the high cost of a viral incursion, a summary of US vulnerabilities for viral introduction and persistence is provided...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554163/smallpox-vaccine-complications-the-dermatologist-s-role-in-diagnosis-and-management
#11
Janelle Robertson, Jason Susong, Emily B Wong
In 2002, the United States implemented a new program for smallpox vaccinations among military personnel using a live vaccinia virus product. Approximately 2.4 million US military service members and health care workers have since been inoculated, with considerable numbers experiencing adverse reactions. Military dermatologists are at the forefront of describing and treating these reactions, from relatively benign generalized vaccinia (GV) and erythema multiforme (EM) to more severe progressive vaccinia (PV) and eczema vaccinatum (EV)...
February 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547971/potential-targets-for-next-generation-anti-microbial-glycoconjugate-vaccines
#12
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521256/definitions-and-historical-perspectives-in-environmental-forensics
#13
Gary A Toranzos, Raúl J Cano
Environmental forensics is a tool that uses chemical, physical, and statistical techniques to investigate contaminants in the environment as a means to determine attribution for legal purposes. Environmental microbiology is a branch of science that has benefited from the use of metagenomics. The term microbial forensics, which includes nucleic acid sequencing methods, is now used to investigate the sources of microorganisms for attribution purposes as well. Environmental microbial forensics can fully address the questions that must be answered for attribution of causation and subsequent remedial actions within a reasonably short time frame...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455699/existing-approaches-to-chemical-biological-radiological-and-nuclear-cbrn-education-and-training-for-health-professionals-findings-from-an-integrative-literature-review
#14
Mayumi Kako, Karen Hammad, Satoko Mitani, Paul Arbon
OBJECTIVES: This review was conducted to explore the literature to determine the availability, content, and evaluation of existing chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) education programs for health professionals. METHODS: An integrative review of the international literature describing disaster education for CBRN (2004-2016) was conducted. The following relevant databases were searched: Proquest, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Journals @ OVID, Google Scholar, Medline, and Ichuschi ver...
April 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434400/evaluation-of-gamma-radiation-inactivation-of-a-bioterrorism-agent-bacillus-anthracis-spores-on-different-materials
#15
Mesut Ortatatli, Kadir Canitez, Sermet Sezigen, Ruşen Koray Eyison, Levent Kenar
Decontamination of suspected packages, such as sealed envelopes, liquids and tools that are likely contaminated with biological agents is of great importance. In this study, we aimed to determine the gamma radiation dose required for the decontamination of paper, fabric and liquid materials without causing any damage to the structure of these materials. Each study group included 11 pieces of paper, fabric and sterile saline contaminated with 0.8 × 105 virulent Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis ) spores. These specimens were exposed to doses of 5...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425329/how-valid-are-assumptions-about-re-emerging-smallpox-a-systematic-review-of-parameters-used-in-smallpox-mathematical-models
#16
Valentina Costantino, Mohana P Kunasekaran, Abrar A Chughtai, Chandini R MacIntyre
Background: Globally eradicated in 1980, smallpox is listed as a category A bioterrorism agent. If smallpox were to re-emerge, it may be due to an act of bioterrorism or a laboratory accident, and the impact is likely to be severe. Preparedness against smallpox is subject to more uncertainty than other infectious diseases because it is eradicated, there is uncertainty about population immunity, and the current global health workforce has no practical experience or living memory of smallpox...
February 7, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424457/a-point-of-care-diagnostic-system-to-influenza-viruses-using-chip-based-ultra-fast-pcr
#17
Soon-Hwan Kwon, Sujin Lee, Jeyoun Jang, Yujin Seo, Hee-Young Lim
In order to diagnose the infectious disease from clinical samples, the various protocols such as culturing microorganism, rapid diagnostic test using chromatographic method, ELISA, conventional PCR are developed. Since a novel strain of avian influenza can be cross-infected human as well as birds and livestock due to genetic reassortment, some strains of influenza such as H7N9 and H5N1 have emerged as a severe virus which can be threaten the health of poultry as well as human. Therefore, we explored the development of simultaneously and rapid diagnostic tool for seasonal influenza (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (A/H5N1, A/H7N9)...
June 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406805/a-systems-approach-to-agricultural-biosecurity
#18
Manish Anand
This article highlights the importance of systems approaches in addressing agricultural biosecurity threats. On the basis of documentary analysis and stakeholder interaction, a brief survey of agricultural biosecurity threats and vulnerabilities from global and Indian perspectives is provided, followed by an exploration of technological and institutional capabilities. Finally, a perspective on the agricultural disease diagnostic networks is provided, drawing instances from global developments. Technical barriers to agroterrorism are lower than those to human-targeted bioterrorism, and the sector is unique as even a very small disease outbreak could prompt international export restrictions...
January 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401327/beyond-the-dirty-dozen-a-proposed-methodology-for-assessing-future-bioweapon-threats
#19
Theodore J Cieslak, Mark G Kortepeter, Ronald J Wojtyk, Hugo-Jan Jansen, Ricardo A Reyes, James O Smith
Background: Defense policy planners and countermeasure developers are often faced with vexing problems involving the prioritization of resources and efforts. This is especially true in the area of Biodefense, where each new emerging infectious disease outbreak brings with it questions regarding the causative agent's potential for weaponization. Recent experience with West Nile Virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Monkeypox, and H1N1 Influenza highlights this problem. Appropriately, in each of these cases, the possibility of bioterrorism was raised, although each outbreak ultimately proved to have a natural origin...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396040/identification-of-a-botulinum-neurotoxin-like-toxin-in-a-commensal-strain-of-enterococcus-faecium
#20
Sicai Zhang, Francois Lebreton, Michael J Mansfield, Shin-Ichiro Miyashita, Jie Zhang, Julia A Schwartzman, Liang Tao, Geoffrey Masuyer, Markel Martínez-Carranza, Pål Stenmark, Michael S Gilmore, Andrew C Doxey, Min Dong
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), produced by various Clostridium strains, are a family of potent bacterial toxins and potential bioterrorism agents. Here we report that an Enterococcus faecium strain isolated from cow feces carries a BoNT-like toxin, designated BoNT/En. It cleaves both VAMP2 and SNAP-25, proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons, at sites distinct from known BoNT cleavage sites on these two proteins. Comparative genomic analysis determines that the E. faecium strain carrying BoNT/En is a commensal type and that the BoNT/En gene is located within a typical BoNT gene cluster on a 206 kb putatively conjugative plasmid...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
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