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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135306/a-calculation-tool-and-process-to-pre-position-pharmaceuticals-for-anthrax-post-exposure-prophylaxis
#1
Gary D Peksa, Michael J Robbins, Alexis R Beyer, Elisabeth K Weber, Keneatha Johnson
Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is considered a severe bioterrorism threat because of its high mortality rate. The Chicago Healthcare System Coalition for Preparedness and Response (CHSCPR) aims to pre-position antibiotic medical countermeasures (MCMs) at healthcare facilities in order to provide on-site anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis. Pharmacists proposed moving toward a new process that involved the development of a standardized calculation methodology for acquiring supply drugs. This was an interventional quality improvement project aimed at optimizing inventory, acquisition, and distribution of antibiotic MCMs for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis at Chicago hospitals for hospital personnel, associated first responders, and their families...
November 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125719/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-obiltoxaximab-after-intramuscular-administration-to-healthy-humans
#2
Christa F Nagy, Timothy S Leach, Alex King, Robert Guttendorf
Inhalational anthrax is a highly lethal infection caused by Bacillus anthracis and a serious bioterrorism threat. Protective antigen (PA) is a critical component required for the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. Obiltoxaximab, a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that neutralizes PA, is approved in the United States for intravenous use for the treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with appropriate antibacterial drugs and for prophylaxis of inhalational anthrax when alternative therapies are not available or appropriate...
November 10, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124058/implementation-of-a-regional-training-program-on-african-swine-fever-as-part-of-the-cooperative-biological-engagement-program-across-the-caucasus-region
#3
Marco De Nardi, Anaïs Léger, Tatul Stepanyan, Bagrat Khachatryan, Talgat Karibayev, Igor Sytnik, Samat Tyulegenov, Assel Akhmetova, Serhiy Nychyk, Mykola Sytiuk, Oleg Nevolko, Roman Datsenko, Tengiz Chaligava, Lasha Avaliani, Otar Parkadze, Lena Ninidze, Natia Kartskhia, Tsira Napetvaridze, Zviad Asanishvili, Demna Khelaia, Ioseb Menteshashvili, Meruzhan Zadayan, Lyudmila Niazyan, Nataliya Mykhaylovska, Bradford Raymond Brooks, Gulnara Zhumabayeva, Saltanat Satabayeva, Magda Metreveli, Theresa Gallagher, Richard Obiso
A training and outreach program to increase public awareness of African swine fever (ASF) was implemented by Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Ministries of Agriculture in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. The implementing agency was the company SAFOSO (Switzerland). Integration of this regional effort was administered by subject matter experts for each country. The main teaching effort of this project was to develop a comprehensive regional public outreach campaign through a network of expertise and knowledge for the control and prevention of ASF in four neighboring countries that experience similar issues with this disease...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098371/effect-of-humidity-on-sporicidal-activity-of-iodine-vapor-on-bacillus-thuringiensis
#4
Xuesong Jiang, Kyle R Overdeep, Elliot R Wainwright, Timothy P Weihs, Hai-Quan Mao
The emergence of Bacillus anthracis as a potential bioterrorism and biological warfare agent points to the need for safe, effective, and economical sporicides for infection prevention and control. This work examined the efficacy of iodine vapor decontamination technologies to inactivate a surrogate for B. anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis spores on glass materials. 10(6)-10(7) colony-forming units of spores inoculated onto circular glass cover slips were treated with different concentrations of iodine vapor under various temperature and relative humidity...
November 2, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077390/lab-on-chip-devices-gaining-ground-losing-size
#5
Veronica C Romao, Sofia A M Martins, Jose Germano, Filipe A Cardoso, Susana Cardoso, Paulo P Freitas
Portable analytical devices are notably gaining relevance in the panorama of urgent testing. Such devices have the potential to play an important role as easy-to-handle tools in critical situations. Epidemic infectious disease agents (e.g., Ebola virus, Coronavirus, Zika virus) could be controlled more easily by testing travelers on-site at the country borders to prevent outbreaks from spreading. The increasing incidence of hospital-acquired infections caused by antibiotic resistant pathogens could be minimized by point-of-care microbial analysis as well as rapid screening tests of bacteria resistance...
October 27, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070654/plague-recognition-treatment-and-prevention
#6
Ruifu Yang
Plague is caused by Yersinia pestis and not commonly encountered in clinics, although natural plague foci are widely distributed around the world. Y. pestis has been listed as a Category A bioterrorism agent. A neglected diagnosis will cause severe consequences. Therefore, this minireview briefly introduces the current understanding on Y. pestis, and then focuses on practical aspects of plague, including clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, to alert clinicians about this notorious disease...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070085/the-south-dakota-model-health-care-professions-student-disaster-preparedness-and-deployment-training
#7
Matt P Owens, Cheri Buffington, Michael P Frost, Randall J Waldner
OBJECTIVE: The Association of American Medical Colleges recommended an increase in medical education for public health emergencies, bioterrorism, and weapons of mass destruction in 2003. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) implemented a 1-day training event to provide disaster preparedness training and deployment organization for health professions students called Disaster Training Day (DTD). METHODS: Hospital staff and emergency medical services personnel provided the lecture portion of DTD using Core Disaster Life Support (CDLS; National Disaster Life Support Foundation) as the framework...
October 26, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057799/a-monoclonal-monoclonal-antibody-based-capture-elisa-for-abrin
#8
Christina C Tam, Luisa W Cheng, Xiaohua He, Paul Merrill, David Hodge, Larry H Stanker
Abrin, one of the most highly potent toxins in the world, is derived from the plant, Abrus precatorius. Because of its high toxicity, it poses potential bioterror risks. Therefore, a need exists for new reagents and technologies that would be able to rapidly detect abrin contamination as well as lead to new therapeutics. We report here a group of abrin-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize abrin A-chain, intact A-B chain toxin, and agglutinin by Western blot. Additionally, these mAbs were evaluated for their ability to serve as capture antibodies for a sandwich (capture) ELISA...
October 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038656/unveiling-a-drift-resistant-cryptotope-within-marburgvirus-nucleoprotein-recognized-by-llama-single-domain-antibodies
#9
John Anthony Garza, Alexander Bryan Taylor, Laura Jo Sherwood, Peter John Hart, Andrew Hayhurst
Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever virus that is increasingly re-emerging in Africa, has been imported to both Europe and the US, and is also a Tier 1 bioterror threat. As a negative sense RNA virus, MARV has error prone replication which can yield progeny capable of evading countermeasures. To evaluate this vulnerability, we sought to determine the epitopes of 4 llama single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or VHH) specific for nucleoprotein (NP), each capable of forming MARV monoclonal affinity reagent sandwich assays...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027937/abrin-toxicity-and-bioavailability-after-temperature-and-ph-treatment
#10
Christina C Tam, Thomas D Henderson, Larry H Stanker, Xiaohua He, Luisa W Cheng
Abrin, one of most potent toxins known to man, is derived from the rosary pea (jequirity pea), Abrus precatorius and is a potential bioterror weapon. The temperature and pH stability of abrin was evaluated with an in vitro cell free translation (CFT) assay, a Vero cell culture cytotoxicity assay, and an in vivo mouse bioassay. pH treatment of abrin had no detrimental effect on its stability and toxicity as seen either in vitro or in vivo. Abrin exposure to increasing temperatures did not completely abrogate protein translation...
October 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024445/a-rapid-bio-optical-sensor-for-diagnosing-q-fever-in-clinical-specimens
#11
Bonhan Koo, Choong Eun Jin, Se Yoon Park, Tae Yoon Lee, Jeonghun Nam, Young-Rock Jang, Sun Mi Kim, Ji Yeun Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Yong Shin
Recent zoonotic outbreaks, such as Zika, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, and Ebola, have highlighted the need for rapid and accurate diagnostic assays that can be used to aid pathogen control. Q-fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the transmission of Coxiella burnetii that can cause serious illness in humans via aerosols and is considered a potential bioterrorism agent. However the existing assays are not suitable for the detection of this pathogen due to its low levels in real samples. We here describe a rapid bio-optical sensor for the accurate detection of Q fever and validate its clinical utility...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021156/safety-and-accuracy-of-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-to-identify-highly-pathogenic-organisms
#12
James T Rudrik, Marty K Soehnlen, Michael J Perry, Maureen Sullivan, Wanda Reiter-Kintz, Philip A Lee, Denise Pettit, Anthony Tran, Erin Swaney
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization -- time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) sample preparation methods including the direct, on-plate formic acid, and ethanol/formic acid tube extraction were evaluated for their ability to render highly pathogenic organisms non-viable and safe for handling in a Biosafety Level-2 laboratory. Of these, the tube extraction procedure was the most successful, with none of the tested strains surviving this sample preparation method. Tube extracts from several agents of bioterrorism and their near neighbors were analyzed in an eight laboratory study to examine the utility of the Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS MALDI-TOF MS systems and their IVD, research use only, and Security-Relevant databases, as applicable, to accurately identify these agents...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018123/characterization-of-inner-and-outer-membrane-proteins-from-francisella-tularensis-strains-lvs-and-schu-s4-and-identification-of-potential-subunit-vaccine-candidates
#13
Deborah M B Post, Bram Slütter, Birgit Schilling, Aroon T Chande, Jed A Rasmussen, Bradley D Jones, Alexandria K D'Souza, Lorri M Reinders, John T Harty, Bradford W Gibson, Michael A Apicella
Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and a potential bioterrorism agent. In the present study, we isolated, identified, and quantified the proteins present in the membranes of the virulent type A strain, Schu S4, and the attenuated type B strain, LVS (live vaccine strain). Spectral counting of mass spectrometric data showed enrichment for membrane proteins in both strains. Mice vaccinated with whole LVS membranes encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing the adjuvant polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I·C)] showed significant protection against a challenge with LVS compared to the results seen with naive mice or mice vaccinated with either membranes or poly(I·C) alone...
October 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987302/ricin-poisoning-after-oral-ingestion-of-castor-beans-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature-and-laboratory-testing
#14
Oscar F Lopez Nunez, Anthony F Pizon, Kenichi Tamama
BACKGROUND: Ricin is a protein toxin derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis. Several cases secondary to its consumption have been published and, more recently, its use as a potential bioterrorism agent has also been reported. Oral absorption of ricin is highly erratic, leading to a wide spectrum of symptoms. In addition, conventional urine drug screening tests will not be able to detect this compound, posing a diagnostic challenge. CASE REPORT: A male teenager intended to die by ingesting 200 castor beans after mixing and blending them with juice...
November 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979006/anthrax-where-margins-are-merging-between-emerging-threats-and-bioterrorism
#15
Dibyendu Banerjee, Baishali Chakraborty, Banya Chakraborty
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has classified all the emerging infectious diseases agents under three categories. Among Category A priority pathogens comes Bacillus anthracis -the causative agent of Anthrax. It is a gram positive spore bearing bacteria, and the disease is typically associated with grazing animals, and affects the people as a zoonosis. The disease can be classically transmitted by three routes namely: cutaneous, gastrointestinal and pulmonary, with a fourth route recently identified as "injection anthrax", seen in intravenous drug abusers...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954065/guidelines-for-the-management-of-human-brucellosis-in-the-state-of-paran%C3%A3-brazil
#16
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Natacha Cerchiari, Juliana Clélia Cequinel, Elizabeth El Hajjar Droppa, Suzana Dal Ri Moreira, Tânia Portella Costa, Amanda de Paula Boni Navarro, Antonieta Milleo Handar, Margely Nunes de Souza
Human brucellosis is a re-emerging disease with the potential for bioterrorism. The number of cases in Brazil has increased; however, the ideal management has not been established. These guidelines are intended for use by clinicians and other health-care workers providing medical care for patients with suspected brucellosis in the State of Paraná. We included a brief description of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention of exposure, prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis, treatment of disease, monitoring of adverse effects during treatment, management of treatment failure and relapse cases...
July 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943257/immuno-detection-of-cleaved-snap-25-from-differentiated-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-provides-a-sensitive-assay-for-determination-of-botulinum-a-toxin-and-antitoxin-potency
#17
G Yadirgi, P Stickings, S Rajagopal, Y Liu, D Sesardic
Botulinum toxin type A is a causative agent of human botulism. Due to high toxicity and ease of production it is classified by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention as a category A bioterrorism agent. The same serotype, BoNT/A, is also the most widely used in pharmaceutical preparations for treatment of a diverse range of neuromuscular disorders. Traditionally, animals are used to confirm the presence and activity of toxin and to establish neutralizing capabilities of countermeasures in toxin neutralization tests...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934201/forensic-genetics-and-genomics-much-more-than-just-a-human-affair
#18
REVIEW
Miguel Arenas, Filipe Pereira, Manuela Oliveira, Nadia Pinto, Alexandra M Lopes, Veronica Gomes, Angel Carracedo, Antonio Amorim
While traditional forensic genetics has been oriented towards using human DNA in criminal investigation and civil court cases, it currently presents a much wider application range, including not only legal situations sensu stricto but also and, increasingly often, to preemptively avoid judicial processes. Despite some difficulties, current forensic genetics is progressively incorporating the analysis of nonhuman genetic material to a greater extent. The analysis of this material-including other animal species, plants, or microorganisms-is now broadly used, providing ancillary evidence in criminalistics in cases such as animal attacks, trafficking of species, bioterrorism and biocrimes, and identification of fraudulent food composition, among many others...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930520/molecular-evolution-of-hemagglutinin-gene-of-influenza-a-virus
#19
Antara De
In the history of human civilization, influenza is the second most catastrophic killer disease for mankind with plague ranking first in the medieval times. The 1918-1919 'Spanish flu' killed 20-50 million people worldwide. According to a report from WHO, there have been four pandemics, several epidemics and recurrent seasonal outbreaks of influenza in different parts of the world. The virus is a potential bioterrorism threat with biological 'Chernobyl-like disaster' that occurred in Soviet Russia in 1977. Here, the author reviews the biology of the surface exposed hemagglutinin of the influenza virus, a gene under constant positive selection pressure to evade host immunity and vaccination...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904964/plague-a-millenary-infectious-disease-reemerging-in-the-xxi-century
#20
REVIEW
A J Dos Santos Grácio, Maria Amélia A Grácio
Plague, in the Middle Ages known as Black Death, continues to occur at permanent foci in many countries, in Africa, Asia, South America, and even the USA. During the last years outbreaks were reported from at least 3 geographical areas, in all cases after tens of years without reported cases. The recent human plague outbreaks in Libya and Algeria suggest that climatic and other environmental changes in Northern Africa may be favourable for Y. pestis epidemiologic cycle. If so, other Northern Africa countries with plague foci also may be at risk for outbreaks in the near future...
2017: BioMed Research International
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