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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331641/penicillin-susceptible-oxidase-negative-nonhemolytic-nonmotile-bacillus-megaterium-in-disguise-of-bacillus-anthracis
#1
Shih Keng Loong, Boon Teong Teoh, Jefree Johari, Chee Sieng Khor, Juraina Abd-Jamil, Siti Sarah Nor'e, Nur Izyan Samsudin, Noor Syahida Azizan, Che Norainon Yaacob, Asma Anati CheMatSeri, Nur Hidayana Mahfodz, Sazaly AbuBakar
Bacillus anthracis is a bacterial pathogen of major concern. The spores of this bacteria can survive harsh environmental conditions for extended periods and are well recognized as a potential bioterror weapon with significant implications. Accurate and timely identification of this Bacillus species in the diagnostic laboratory is essential for disease and public health management. Biosafety Level 3 measures and ciprofloxacin treatment were instituted when B. anthracis was suspected from a patient with gangrenous foot...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323523/rapid-dna-vaccination-against-burkholderia-pseudomallei-flagellin-by-tattoo-or-intranasal-application
#2
Jacqueline M Lankelma, Alex Wagemakers, Emma Birnie, Bastiaan W Haak, Jos J A Trentelman, Tassili A F Weehuizen, Jasmin Ersöz, Joris J T H Roelofs, Joppe W Hovius, W Joost Wiersinga, Adriaan D Bins
Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease with a high mortality that is endemic in South-East Asia and Northern Australia. The causative pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is listed as potential bioterror weapon due to its high virulence and potential for easy dissemination. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for prevention of melioidosis. Here, we explore the use of rapid plasmid DNA vaccination against B. pseudomallei flagellin for protection against respiratory challenge. We tested three flagellin DNA vaccines with different subcellular targeting designs...
March 21, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296884/increased-von-willebrand-factor-decreased-adamts13-and-thrombocytopenia-in-melioidosis
#3
Emma Birnie, Gavin C K W Koh, Ester C Löwenberg, Joost C M Meijers, Rapeephan R Maude, Nicholas P J Day, Sharon J Peacock, Tom van der Poll, W Joost Wiersinga
BACKGROUND: Melioidosis, caused by bioterror treat agent Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an important cause of community-acquired Gram-negative sepsis in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. New insights into the pathogenesis of melioidosis may help improve treatment and decrease mortality rates from this dreadful disease. We hypothesized that changes in Von Willebrand factor (VWF) function should occur in melioidosis, based on the presence of endothelial stimulation by endotoxin, pro-inflammatory cytokines and thrombin in melioidosis, and investigated whether this impacted on outcome...
March 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282873/crystal-structure-of-the-receptor-binding-domain-of-botulinum-neurotoxin-type-ha-also-known-as-type-fa-or-h
#4
Guorui Yao, Kwok-Ho Lam, Kay Perry, Jasmin Weisemann, Andreas Rummel, Rongsheng Jin
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), which have been exploited as cosmetics and muscle-disorder treatment medicines for decades, are well known for their extreme neurotoxicity to humans. They pose a potential bioterrorism threat because they cause botulism, a flaccid muscular paralysis-associated disease that requires immediate antitoxin treatment and intensive care over a long period of time. In addition to the existing seven established BoNT serotypes (BoNT/A-G), a new mosaic toxin type termed BoNT/HA (aka type FA or H) was reported recently...
March 8, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263059/postexposure-recovery-and-analysis-of-biological-agent-in-a-simulated-biothreat-scenario-using-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Sakshi Rajoria, Ravi Bhushan Kumar, Pallavi Gupta, Syed Imteyaz Alam
Some pathogens and toxins have the potential to be used as weapons of mass destruction and instigate population-based fear. Rapid, sensitive, and unambiguous identification of biothreat agents is of paramount importance for confirmation of the event and to mitigate the direct and indirect damages to public health and resources. Although there are several potential dissemination scenarios to describe an attack with a biological weapon, artificially generated bioaerosol is of the greatest concern from a bioterrorism or warfare perspective, potentially capable of causing mass destruction to a civilian or military population by inhalation of toxic bioaerosol...
March 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259756/preparation-and-characterization-of-a-human-scfv-against-the-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-alpha-toxin
#6
Dongdong Wang, Yuhuan Yue, Guangmou Wu, Yuan Tian, Yuling Liu, Jia Yu, Yuangang Ji, Jinpeng Wang, Jian Li, Rongrong Pan, Hongyuan Ma, Guoli Zhang
Alpha-toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens is an important virulence factor, causing food poisoning and gas gangrene in humans. As such, it is considered a potential bioterrorism threat. To date, there is still no human effective therapeutic drug against alpha-toxin. In this study, a human single chain antibody against alpha-toxin was produced from synthetic (Tomlinson I + J) naive phage display libraries, and its preventive and therapeutic efficacy in mice was examined. To prove the neutralizing potential of the scFv, alpha-toxin was preincubated with scFv and subsequently tested for its lecithinase and hemolytic activity, as well as its lethal effect in mice following intravenous administration...
March 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237237/expanding-veterinary-biosurveillance-in-washington-dc-the-creation-and-utilization-of-an-electronic-based-online-veterinary-surveillance-system
#7
Andrew Hennenfent, Vito DelVento, John Davies-Cole, Fern Johnson-Clarke
OBJECTIVES: To enhance the early detection of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism events using companion animal-based surveillance. METHODS: Washington, DC, small animal veterinary facilities (n=17) were surveyed to determine interest in conducting infectious disease surveillance. Using these results, an electronic-based online reporting system was developed and launched in August 2015 to monitor rates of canine influenza, canine leptospirosis, antibiotic resistant infections, canine parvovirus, and syndromic disease trends...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230502/implementation-of-bioterrorism-agents-diagnosis-by-electron-microscopy-in-portuguese-reference-laboratory
#8
R Cordeiro, L Jordao, A Pelerito, I Lopes de Carvalho, M S Nuncio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223457/the-source-and-evolutionary-history-of-a-microbial-contaminant-identified-through-soil-metagenomic-analysis
#9
Matthew R Olm, Cristina N Butterfield, Alex Copeland, T Christian Boles, Brian C Thomas, Jillian F Banfield
In this study, strain-resolved metagenomics was used to solve a mystery. A 6.4-Mbp complete closed genome was recovered from a soil metagenome and found to be astonishingly similar to that of Delftia acidovorans SPH-1, which was isolated in Germany a decade ago. It was suspected that this organism was not native to the soil sample because it lacked the diversity that is characteristic of other soil organisms; this suspicion was confirmed when PCR testing failed to detect the bacterium in the original soil samples...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223027/mapping-of-the-continuous-epitopes-displayed-on-the-clostridium-perfringens-type-d-epsilon-toxin
#10
Guilherme Guerra Alves, Ricardo Andrez Machado-de-Ávila, Carlos Delfin Chávez-Olórtegui, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
The epsilon toxin, produced by Clostridium perfringens, is responsible for enterotoxemia in ruminants and is a potential bioterrorism agent. In the present study, 15 regions of the toxin were recognized by antibodies present in the serum, with different immunodominance scales, and may be antigen determinants that can be used to formulate subunit vaccines.
February 3, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166079/osteomyelitis-of-humerus-and-intramuscular-abscess-due-to-melioidosis
#11
G S Vijaykumar, P Thilakavathy, S S Jeremiah, G Vithiya
Melioidosis is a clinically diverse disease caused by gram negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is a potential bioterrorism agent. The high risk group includes the agricultural and construction workers whose contact with contaminated soil and water may expose them to bacteria. The clinical manifestations varies from asymptomatic infection to overwhelming sepsis. To diagnose melioidosis a high index of suspicion along with isolation and identification of the organism from the clinical samples is needed...
April 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155078/the-promise-of-molecular-imaging-in-the-study-and-treatment-of-infectious-diseases
#12
Sanjay K Jain
Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and it is imperative that we develop imaging tools that aid in their study, facilitate diagnosis, and guide treatment. The alarming rise of highly virulent and multi-drug-resistant pathogens, their rapid spread leading to frequent global pandemics, fears of bioterrorism, and continued life-threatening nosocomial infections in hospitals remain as major challenges to health care in the USA and worldwide. Early diagnosis and rapid monitoring are essential for appropriate management and control of infections...
February 2, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106357/possession-use-and-transfer-of-select-agents-and-toxins-biennial-review-of-the-list-of-select-agents-and-toxins-and-enhanced-biosafety-requirements-final-rule
#13
(no author information available yet)
In accordance with the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 (the Bioterrorism Response Act), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has reviewed the list of biological agents and toxins that have the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety. Following the review, HHS has decided: Not to finalize the proposed changes to the list of select agents and toxins at this time; to finalize provisions to address toxin permissible limits and the inactivation of select agents; to finalize specific provisions to the section of the regulations addressing biosafety; and to clarify regulatory language concerning security, training, incident response, and records...
January 19, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089771/extended-therapeutic-window-for-post-exposure-treatment-of-ricin-intoxication-conferred-by-the-use-of-high-affinity-antibodies
#14
Tal Noy-Porat, Ron Alcalay, Eyal Epstein, Tamar Sabo, Chanoch Kronman, Ohad Mazor
The plant toxin ricin is considered a potential bioterror agent against which there is no available antidote. To date, neutralizing antibodies are the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication, yet so far they were shown to be effective only when given within several hours post exposure. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient ricin-countermeasures, we tested whether high-affinity antibodies that were previously isolated from immunized non-human primates, may confer effective post-exposure therapy for ricin-intoxicated mice treated at late time-points after exposure...
January 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074376/synthetic-biology-genome-editing-and-the-risk-of-bioterrorism
#15
Marko Ahteensuu
The SynBioSecurity argument says that synthetic biology introduces new risks of intentional misuse of synthetic pathogens and that, therefore, there is a need for extra regulations and oversight. This paper provides an analysis of the argument, sets forth a new version of it, and identifies three developments that raise biosecurity risks compared to the situation earlier. The developments include (1) a spread of the required know-how, (2) improved availability of the techniques, instruments and biological parts, and (3) new technical possibilities such as "resurrecting" disappeared pathogens...
January 10, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067258/a-new-method-for-assessing-the-risk-of-infectious-disease-outbreak
#16
Yilan Liao, Bing Xu, Jinfeng Wang, Xiaochi Liu
Over the past few years, emergent threats posed by infectious diseases and bioterrorism have become public health concerns that have increased the need for prompt disease outbreak warnings. In most of the existing disease surveillance systems, disease outbreak risk is assessed by the detection of disease outbreaks. However, this is a retrospective approach that impacts the timeliness of the warning. Some disease surveillance systems can predict the probabilities of infectious disease outbreaks in advance by determining the relationship between a disease outbreak and the risk factors...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039021/buccal-viral-dna-as-a-trigger-for-brincidofovir-therapy-in-the-mousepox-model-of-smallpox
#17
Ryan Crump, Maria Korom, R Mark Buller, Scott Parker
Orthopoxviruses continue to pose a significant threat to the population as potential agents of bioterrorism. An intentional release of natural or engineered variola virus (VARV) or monkeypox viruses would cause mortality and morbidity in the target population. To address this, antivirals have been developed and evaluated in animal models of smallpox and monkeypox. One such antiviral, brincidofovir (BCV, previously CMX001), has demonstrated high levels of efficacy against orthopoxviruses in animal models and is currently under clinical evaluation for prevention and treatment of diseases caused by cytomegaloviruses and adenoviruses...
March 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038869/modelling-and-bayesian-analysis-of-the-abakaliki-smallpox-data
#18
Jessica E Stockdale, Theodore Kypraios, Philip D O'Neill
The celebrated Abakaliki smallpox data have appeared numerous times in the epidemic modelling literature, but in almost all cases only a specific subset of the data is considered. The only previous analysis of the full data set relied on approximation methods to derive a likelihood and did not assess model adequacy. The data themselves continue to be of interest due to concerns about the possible re-emergence of smallpox as a bioterrorism weapon. We present the first full Bayesian statistical analysis using data-augmentation Markov chain Monte Carlo methods which avoid the need for likelihood approximations and which yield a wider range of results than previous analyses...
December 9, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024103/multiple-reaction-monitoring-for-multiplex-detection-of-three-bacterial-toxins-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#19
S I Alam, A Uppal, P Gupta, D V Kamboj
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B and shiga toxin are implicated in a number of diseases and food-borne intoxications and are considered potential agents for bioterrorism and warfare. Artificially generated aerosol is the likely mode of delivery of these for nefarious uses, potentially capable of causing mass destruction to human and animal health by inhalation of toxic bioaerosol. Multiplex and unambiguous detection of these agents is of paramount importance for emergency response in a biothreat scenario and for food safety...
December 26, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981238/new-insights-into-autoinducer-2-signaling-as-a-virulence-regulator-in-a-mouse-model-of-pneumonic-plague
#20
Eric C Fitts, Jourdan A Andersson, Michelle L Kirtley, Jian Sha, Tatiana E Erova, Sadhana Chauhan, Vladimir L Motin, Ashok K Chopra
The Enterobacteriaceae family members, including the infamous Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, have a highly conserved interbacterial signaling system that is mediated by the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing molecule. The AI-2 system is implicated in regulating various bacterial virulence genes in diverse environmental niches. Deletion of the gene encoding the synthetic enzyme for the AI-2 substrate, luxS, leads to either no significant change or, paradoxically, an increase in in vivo bacterial virulence...
November 2016: MSphere
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