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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918604/real-time-naked-eye-multiplex-detection-of-toxins-and-bacteria-using-aiegens-with-the-assistance-of-graphene-oxide
#1
Ruoyu Zhang, Xiaolei Cai, Guangxue Feng, Bin Liu
Toxins and bacteria in water or food pose a threat to human life and could potentially be exploited for bioterrorism. Real-time naked-eye detection of these contaminants is highly desirable to provide a direct and simple analytical method and address the challenges of the existing strategies. Using the detection of ricin and B. subtilis as an example, a naked-eye multiplex detection model is established. In this work, a green fluorogen with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics was encapsulated in silica nanoshells...
December 5, 2016: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908237/plant-factories-for-the-production-of-monoclonal-antibodies
#2
REVIEW
E V Sheshukova, T V Komarova, Y L Dorokhov
Like animal cells, plant cells bear mechanisms for protein synthesis and posttranslational modification (glycosylation and phosphorylation) that allow them to be seriously considered as factories for therapeutic proteins, including antibodies, with the development of biotechnology. The plant platform for monoclonal antibody production is an attractive approach due to its flexibility, speed, scalability, low cost of production, and lack of contamination risk from animal-derived pathogens. Contemporary production approaches for therapeutic proteins rely on transgenic plants that are obtained via the stable transformation of plant cells as well as the transient (temporary) expression of foreign proteins...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863572/emergency-preparedness-and-the-development-of-health-care-coalitions-a-dynamic-process
#3
REVIEW
Deborah H Kim
Health care emergency preparedness has undergone significant changes since the first widespread distribution of federal funds occurred in 2002. Prior to the development of the Health Resources and Service Administration Bioterrorism Preparedness grant, support to hospitals and public health was limited to smaller regional preparedness programs such as the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program. Measurable progress with both the hospital preparedness program and public health emergency preparedness requires development of partnerships, establishment of coalitions, development of measurable objectives, and a community willingness to work together to solve complex preparedness problems...
December 2016: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847371/sensitive-detection-of-francisella-tularensis-directly-from-whole-blood-using-the-genexpert-system
#4
Padmapriya P Banada, Srinidhi Deshpande, Soumitesh Chakravorty, Riccardo Russo, James Occi, Gabriel Meister, Kelly J Jones, Carl H Gelhaus, Michelle W Valderas, Martin Jones, Nancy Connell, David Alland
BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis is a potential bioterrorism agent that is highly infectious at very low doses. Diagnosis of tularemia by blood culture and nucleic acid based diagnostic tests are insufficiently sensitive. Here, we demonstrate a highly sensitive, F. tularensis assay that incorporates sample processing and detection into a single cartridge suitable for point of care detection. METHODS: Assay limit of detection (LOD) and dynamic range were determined in a filter based cartridge run on the GeneXpert system...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810468/the-risk-of-bioterrorism-re-analyzed
#5
Didier Raoult
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809794/alternative-pre-approved-and-novel-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-anthrax
#6
REVIEW
Breanne M Head, Ethan Rubinstein, Adrienne F A Meyers
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a spore forming and toxin producing rod-shaped bacterium that is classified as a category A bioterror agent. This pathogenic microbe can be transmitted to both animals and humans. Clinical presentation depends on the route of entry (direct contact, ingestion, injection or aerosolization) with symptoms ranging from isolated skin infections to more severe manifestations such as cardiac or pulmonary shock, meningitis, and death...
November 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798209/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-linezolid-and-levofloxacin-on-bacillus-anthracis-toxin-production-spore-formation-and-cell-growth
#7
Breanne M Head, Michelle Alfa, Daniel S Sitar, Ethan Rubinstein, Adrienne F A Meyers
BACKGROUND: Owing to its ability to form spores and toxins, Bacillus anthracis is considered a bioterror agent. Although current therapeutic strategies can be effective, treatment does not prevent sporulation and toxin production. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the combined effect of a protein synthesis inhibitor and a bactericidal agent on B. anthracis toxin production, sporulation and cell growth. METHODS: Susceptibility and synergy titrations were conducted on B...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795340/comparison-of-magpix%C3%A2-%C3%A2-assays-and-elisa-for-the-detection-of-hemorrhagic-fever-viruses
#8
Neal G Satterly, Matthew A Voorhees, Abbe D Ames, Randal J Schoepp
Viral hemorrhagic fevers with their high mortality rates, lack of medical countermeasures, and potential use as instruments of bioterrorism, pose a significant threat to the developed and the developing areas of the world. The key to preventing the spread of these diseases is early and accurate detection. For decades, the gold-standard immunoassay for hemorrhagic fever detection has been the ELISA; however newer technologies are emerging with increased sensitivity. One such technology is the Luminex MAGPIX®™ platform using XMAP® microspheres...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778086/-on-site-detection-of-bioterrorism-relevant-agents-rapid-detection-methods-for-viruses-bacteria-and-toxins-capabilities-and-limitations
#9
Daniel Stern, Martin Richter, Livia Schrick, Peter Lasch, Kathrin Keeren, Angela Polleichtner, Karin Lemmer, Andreas Nitsche, Roland Grunow, Christian Herzog, Brigitte G Dorner, Lars Schaade
In Europe, besides the threat of terrorist attacks involving conventional methods such as explosive devices and automatic weapons, there is also a potential threat of terrorist groups using non-conventional material like biological agents in the scope of future attacks. Consequently, rapid and reliable detection systems for biological agents are being developed and tested continuously to inform crisis management. For environmental detection, a broad spectrum of different laboratory-based techniques has been developed for relevant biological agents...
October 24, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768891/cross-neutralizing-and-protective-human-antibody-specificities-to-poxvirus-infections
#10
Iuliia Gilchuk, Pavlo Gilchuk, Gopal Sapparapu, Rebecca Lampley, Vidisha Singh, Nurgun Kose, David L Blum, Laura J Hughes, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Michael B Townsend, Ashley V Kondas, Zachary Reed, Zachary Weiner, Victoria A Olson, Erika Hammarlund, Hans-Peter Raue, Mark K Slifka, James C Slaughter, Barney S Graham, Kathryn M Edwards, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Sebastian Joyce, James E Crowe
Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses...
October 20, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726795/forensic-phytopathology-a-critical-review
#11
Paul Bayman, Luz M Serrato-Díaz
Forensic phytopathology is the application of plant pathology to legal or criminal matters. It is an emerging field. The existing literature focuses mainly on potential agricultural bioterrorism threats to the United States. Here we try to take a broader view including agricultural bioterrorism, mycoherbicide applications to eradicate plants used for illegal drugs, civil cases involving charges of sale or movement of diseased plants, and mycotoxins. In several of the examples given the evidence is inconclusive, but the examples are no less interesting for that...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726760/comparative-microbial-genomics-and-forensics
#12
Steven E Massey
Forensic science concerns the application of scientific techniques to questions of a legal nature and may also be used to address questions of historical importance. Forensic techniques are often used in legal cases that involve crimes against persons or property, and they increasingly may involve cases of bioterrorism, crimes against nature, medical negligence, or tracing the origin of food- and crop-borne disease. Given the rapid advance of genome sequencing and comparative genomics techniques, we ask how these might be used to address cases of a forensic nature, focusing on the use of microbial genome sequence analysis...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722869/plague-vaccines-status-and-future
#13
Wei Sun
Three major plague pandemics caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis have killed nearly 200 million people in human history. Due to its extreme virulence and the ease of its transmission, Y. pestis has been used purposefully for biowarfare in the past. Currently, plague epidemics are still breaking out sporadically in most of parts of the world, including the United States. Approximately 2000 cases of plague are reported each year to the World Health Organization. However, the potential use of the bacteria in modern times as an agent of bioterrorism and the emergence of a Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722860/taxonomy-of-yersinia-pestis
#14
Zhizhen Qi, Yujun Cui, Qingwen Zhang, Ruifu Yang
This chapter summarized the taxonomy and typing works of Yersinia pestis since it's firstly identified in Hong Kong in 1894. Phenotyping methods that based on phenotypic characteristics, including biotyping, serotyping, antibiogram analysis, bacteriocin typing, phage typing, and plasmid typing, were firstly applied in classification of Y. pestis in subspecies level. And then, with the advancement of molecular biological technology, the methods based on outer membrane protein profiles, fatty acid composition, and bacterial mass fingerprinting were also used to identify the populations within Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703269/rapid-detection-of-abrin-in-foods-with-an-up-converting-phosphor-technology-based-lateral-flow-assay
#15
Xiao Liu, Yong Zhao, Chongyun Sun, Xiaochen Wang, Xinrui Wang, Pingping Zhang, Jingfu Qiu, Ruifu Yang, Lei Zhou
Abrin is a natural plant toxin found in the seeds of Abrus precatorius. It may be used for food poisoning or bioterrorism, seriously endangering public health. In this study, a reliable method for the rapid detection of abrin in foods was developed, based on an up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow assay (abrin-UPT-LFA). Nine high-affinity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against abrin were prepared, and the optimum mAbs (mAb-6F4 and mAb-10E11) were selected for use in the assay in double-antibody-sandwich mode...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695643/francisella-tularensis-immune-cell-activator-suppressor-or-stealthy-evader-the-evolving-view-from-the-petri-dish
#16
Kristen M Holland, Sarah J Rosa, Karsten R O Hazlett
One of the hallmarks of pulmonary tularemia, which results from inhalation of Francisella tularensis - a significant bioterrorism concern, is the lack of an acute TH1-biased inflammatory response in the early phase of disease (days 1-3) despite significant bacterial loads. In an effort to understand this apparent hypo-responsiveness, many laboratories have utilized in vitro cell-based models as tools to probe the nature and consequences of host cell interactions with F. tularensis. The first uses of this model suggested that mammalian host cells recognize this bacterium principally through TLR2 to evoke a robust, classical TH1-biased cytokine response including TNF, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ...
June 2016: Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668749/identification-of-genome-wide-mutations-in-ciprofloxacin-resistant-f-tularensis-lvs-using-whole-genome-tiling-arrays-and-next-generation-sequencing
#17
Crystal J Jaing, Kevin S McLoughlin, James B Thissen, Adam Zemla, Shea N Gardner, Lisa M Vergez, Feliza Bourguet, Shalini Mabery, Viacheslav Y Fofanov, Heather Koshinsky, Paul J Jackson
Francisella tularensis is classified as a Class A bioterrorism agent by the U.S. government due to its high virulence and the ease with which it can be spread as an aerosol. It is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) is a broad spectrum antibiotic effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Increased Cipro resistance in pathogenic microbes is of serious concern when considering options for medical treatment of bacterial infections. Identification of genes and loci that are associated with Ciprofloxacin resistance will help advance the understanding of resistance mechanisms and may, in the future, provide better treatment options for patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647868/progress-toward-the-development-of-a-neat-protein-vaccine-for-anthrax-disease
#18
Miriam A Balderas, Chinh T Q Nguyen, Austen Terwilliger, Wendy A Keitel, Angelina Iniguez, Rodrigo Torres, Frederico Palacios, Celia W Goulding, Anthony W Maresso
Bacillus anthracis is a sporulating Gram-positive bacterium that is the causative agent of anthrax and a potential weapon of bioterrorism. The U.S.-licensed anthrax vaccine is made from an incompletely characterized culture supernatant of a nonencapsulated, toxigenic strain (anthrax vaccine absorbed [AVA]) whose primary protective component is thought to be protective antigen (PA). AVA is effective in protecting animals and elicits toxin-neutralizing antibodies in humans, but enthusiasm is dampened by its undefined composition, multishot regimen, recommended boosters, and potential for adverse reactions...
December 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642076/in-silico-and-in-vitro-methods-to-identify-ebola-virus-vp35-dsrna-inhibitors
#19
Jason G Glanzer, Brendan M Byrne, Aaron M McCoy, Ben J James, Joshua D Frank, Greg G Oakley
Ebola virus continues to be problematic as sporadic outbreaks in Africa continue to arise, and as terrorist organizations have considered the virus for bioterrorism use. Several proteins within the virus have been targeted for antiviral chemotherapy, including VP35, a dsRNA binding protein that promotes viral replication, protects dsRNA from degradation, and prevents detection of the viral genome by immune complexes. To augment the scope of our antiviral research, we have now employed molecular modeling techniques to enrich the population of compounds for further testing in vitro...
November 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640728/impact-of-gene-editing-tools-like-crispr-cas9-on-the-public-health-response-to-disease-outbreaks
#20
Samuel M Pope
The purpose of this communication is to explore the implications of genome editing techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9, on public health-related responses to outbreaks of disease. The recent commercialization of genome editing techniques makes the creation and release of genetically altered pathogens a much easier task, increasing the possibility to the point of needing discussion. Three areas need to be addressed: predictions concerning potential genetic alterations, predictions and implications concerning the release of genetically altered pathogens, and the short- and long-term implications of the release of genetically altered pathogens...
September 19, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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