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Paediatric anaesthesia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338031/preoperative-analgesia-for-children-and-adolescents-to-reduce-pain-associated-with-dental-treatment
#1
Catherine McCann
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, ISI Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled clinical trials of analgesics given before dental treatment versus placebo or no analgesics in children and adolescents up to 17 years of age. Children and adolescents having dental treatment under sedation (including nitrous oxide/oxygen) or general anaesthesia were excluded...
March 2017: Evidence-based Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323237/comparison-of-the-mcgrath-%C3%A2-mac-video-laryngoscope-with-direct-macintosh-laryngoscopy-for-novice-laryngoscopists-in-children-without-difficult-intubation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Antoine Giraudon, Maryline Bordes-Demolis, Barbara Blondeau, Nadia Sibai de Panthou, Nathan Ferrand, Maeva Bello, Victoria Dahlet, François Semjen, Matthieu Biais, Karine Nouette-Gaulain
INTRODUCTION: Airway management and tracheal intubation are routinely performed in paediatric anaesthesia and yet are associated with preventable adverse events. The McGrath(®) MAC is a video laryngoscope with a curved blade similar to the Macintosh blade, which has not been previously described in first intention paediatric tracheal intubation. We aimed to compare direct laryngoscopy to the McGrath(®) MAC video laryngoscope among novice laryngoscopists. METHODS: Six paediatric anaesthesia residents with novice skills in paediatric laryngoscopy were randomly assigned to perform tracheal intubation using either direct Macintosh laryngoscopy (DL) or the McGrath(®) MAC video laryngoscope (MM) as the first attempted device in children weighing between 10 and 20kg without difficult intubation...
March 17, 2017: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274051/effectiveness-of-two-topical-anaesthetic-agents-used-along-with-audio-visual-aids-in-paediatric-dental-patients
#3
Nidhi Agarwal, Jayata Dhawan, Dipanshu Kumar, Ashish Anand, Karan Tangri
INTRODUCTION: Topical anaesthetic agents enable pain free intraoral procedures, symptomatic pain relief for toothache, superficial mucosal lesions and pain related to post extraction time. Most common anxiety provoking and fearful experience for children in dental operatory is administration of local anaesthesia because on seeing the needle, children usually become uncooperative. One of recent trend of behaviour management technique is using non-aversive techniques out of which audiovisual distraction has emerged as a very successful technique for managing children in dental settings...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274038/comparative-assessment-of-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-of-children-before-and-after-full-mouth-rehabilitation-under-general-anaesthesia-and-local-anaesthesia
#4
Jaai Vinod Rane, Jasmin Winnier, Rupinder Bhatia
INTRODUCTION: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is an aggressive form of caries in a child who is 71 months of age or younger. If the child is cooperative, the treatment may be completed under Local Anaesthesia (LA). General Anaesthesia (GA) is considered if the child is uncooperative, medically compromised or if the parents are unable to return for regular visits and requests treatment under GA. Improved Oral health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) has been reported after dental treatment under GA...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260237/interim-therapeutic-restoration-approach-versus-treatment-under-general-anaesthesia-approach
#5
Songping Nicholas Lim, Leroy Kiang, Ranjan Manohara, Huei Jinn Tong, Rahul Nair, Catherine Hong, Shijia Hu
BACKGROUND: Although dental treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) remains the long-established approach for treating anxious children, treatment under GA presents with increased risks, costs and parental acceptability issues. Interim therapeutic restoration (ITR) has been proposed as an alternative approach. AIM: To compare the incidence and types of failures between children managed with the ITR approach and those managed under GA within 12 months of treatment completion...
March 5, 2017: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250481/comparison-of-oral-dexmedetomidine-versus-oral-midazolam-as-premedication-to-prevent-emergence-agitation-after-sevoflurane-anaesthesia-in-paediatric-patients
#6
M Kavya Prabhu, Sripada G Mehandale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sevoflurane is the most often used inhalational agent in paediatric anaesthesia, but emergence agitation (EA) remains a major concern. Oral midazolam and parenteral dexmedetomidine are known to be effective in controlling EA. We attempted to elucidate whether oral dexmedetomidine is better than midazolam in controlling EA. METHODS: Prospective double-blinded study involving ninety patients aged 1-10 years, undergoing elective surgeries of <2 h of expected duration under sevoflurane general anaesthesia, randomised to receive either midazolam (Group A) or dexmedetomidine (Group B) as oral premedication was carried out to record level of sedation before induction, haemodynamic parameters and recovery time...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250480/efficacy-of-intranasal-dexmedetomidine-versus-oral-midazolam-for-paediatric-premedication
#7
Lakshmi Kumar, Ajay Kumar, Ramkumar Panikkaveetil, Bindu K Vasu, Sunil Rajan, Suresh G Nair
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Premedication is an integral component of paediatric anaesthesia which, when optimal, allows comfortable separation of the child from the parent for induction and conduct of anaesthesia. Midazolam has been accepted as a safe and effective oral premedicant. Dexmedetomidine is a selective alpha-2 agonist with sedative and analgesic effects, which is effective through the transmucosal route. We compared the efficacy and safety of standard premedication with oral midazolam versus intranasal dexmedetomidine as premedication in children undergoing elective lower abdominal surgery...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245519/pharmacokinetics-of-tranexamic-acid-in-neonates-and-infants-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#8
Ralph Gertler, Michael Gruber, Stanislas Grassin-Delyle, Saïk Urien, Klaus Martin, Peter Tassani-Prell, Siegmund Braun, Simon Burg, Gunther Wiesner
AIM: Tranexamic acid (TXA) continues to be one of the antifibrinolytics of choice during paediatric cardiac surgery. However, in infants less than one year of age, the optimal dosing based on pharmacokinetic (PK) considerations is still under discussion. METHODS: 43 children less than one year of age were enrolled. 37 required the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) while 6 were operated on without CPB. 50 mg kg(-1) TXA i.v. at the induction of anaesthesia was followed by 50 mg kg(-1) into the CPB prime in the CPB group...
February 28, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242616/safety-and-efficacy-of-chloral-hydrate-for-procedural-sedation-in-paediatric-ophthalmology-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Asimina Mataftsi, Paraskevi Malamaki, Efthymia Prousali, Paraskevi Riga, Dimitrios Lathyris, Nikolaos T Chalvatzis, Anna-Bettina Haidich
PURPOSE: Although chloral hydrate (CH) has been used as a sedative for decades, it is not widely accepted as a valid choice for ophthalmic examinations in uncooperative children. This study aimed to systematically review the literature on the drug's safety and efficacy. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, CENTRAL, Google Scholar and Trip database to 1 October 2015, using the keywords 'chloral hydrate', 'paediatric' and 'procedural sedation OR diagnostic sedation'...
February 27, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221205/muscle-relaxation-for-tracheal-intubation-during-paediatric-anaesthesia-a-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#10
Florence Julien-Marsollier, Daphné Michelet, Myriam Bellon, Anne-Laure Horlin, Jean-Michel Devys, Souhayl Dahmani
BACKGROUND: Muscle relaxation for tracheal intubation during paediatric anaesthesia remains a subject of debate. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of muscle relaxants (MR) compared with opioids on intubation conditions in children. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies and GRADE analysis. DATA SOURCES: Exhaustive literature analysis. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Clinical trials, with no high-risk bias, that examined the effect of MR in comparison with opioids on intubation conditions (excellent: primary outcome, acceptable: secondary outcome) in children were included...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221204/frequency-and-risk-factors-for-malnutrition-in-children-undergoing-general-anaesthesia-in-a-french-university-hospital
#11
Louis Gerbaud-Morlaes, Eric Frison, Florence Babre, Arnaud De Luca, Anne Didier, Maryline Borde, Brigitte Zaghet, Hélène Batoz, François Semjen, Karine Nouette-Gaulain, Raphael Enaud, Régis Hankard, Thierry Lamireau
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is often underdiagnosed in hospitalised children, although it is associated with postoperative complications, longer hospital lengths of stay and increased healthcare-related costs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the frequency of, and identify factors associated with, malnutrition in children undergoing anaesthesia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Paediatric anaesthesia department at the University Children's Hospital, Bordeaux, France...
February 17, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208976/dexamethasone-as-an-adjuvant-to-bupivacaine-in-supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block-in-paediatrics-for-post-operative-analgesia
#12
Karl Sa Ribeiro, Anjali Ollapally, Julie Misquith
INTRODUCTION: Sensory blockade of the brachial plexus with local anaesthetics for perioperative analgesia leads to stable haemodynamics intraoperatively, smoother emergence from general anaesthesia and decreased need for supplemental analgesics or suppositories in the Post-operative period. However, increasing the duration of local anaesthetic action is often desirable because it prolongs surgical anaesthesia and analgesia. Various studies in adults prove that steroids increase the duration of action of local anaesthetics when used as adjuncts...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185260/a-comparison-of-sugammadex-and-neostigmine-for-reversal-of-rocuronium-induced-neuromuscular-blockade-in-children
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
A S Ammar, K M Mahmoud, Z A Kasemy
BACKGROUND: Sugammadex is designed to be a reversal agent for steroidal muscle relaxants. The current trial was aimed to compare between sugammadex and neostigmine concerning the recovery time from neuromuscular blockade. We hypothesised that sugammadex might have shorter recovery time than neostigmine. METHODS: Sixty paediatric patients aged 2-10 years scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries were randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive 4 mg/kg sugammadex (Group S) or 0...
April 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178895/repetitive-urine-and-blood-sampling-in-neonatal-and-weaned-piglets-for-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modelling-in-drug-discovery-a-pilot-study
#14
Elke Gasthuys, Stijn Schauvliege, Thomas van Bergen, Joske Millecam, Ilaria Cerasoli, Ann Martens, Frank Gasthuys, Tim Vandecasteele, Pieter Cornillie, Wim Van den Broeck, Filip Boyen, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese
Piglets are considered to be suitable animal models for predicting the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of test drugs for potential use in the paediatric population. Such PK/PD studies require multiple blood and urine samplings. The goal of the present study was to determine a suitable blood collection strategy applicable in the youngest age categories of six days, four weeks and eight weeks of age, as well as a urine collection technique for male piglets in the same age categories. Blood was collected either by a surgically-placed jugular vein catheter (six days old [ n = 4] and four weeks old [ n = 2] piglets) or by direct venepuncture of the jugular vein (four weeks old [ n = 2] and eight weeks old [ n = 4] piglets)...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148321/training-residents-and-fellows-in-paediatric-cardiac-anaesthesia
#15
Dean B Andropoulos
The significant increase in complex anaesthetic care for infants, children, adolescents, and adults with CHD has given rise to specialized fellowship training programs. Specialized paediatric cardiac anaesthesia training for residents and fellows has advanced significantly since the 1970's, when there a handful of programs. With the advent of formal paediatric anaesthesia fellowship programs in the U.S., more specialized training became available in the 1990's and early 2000's. In the past decade, increasing numbers of second year advanced fellowships in paediatric cardiac anaesthesia have been organized; today in North America there are 18 programs with 25 positions...
December 2016: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138190/effects-of-medical-and-mental-status-on-treatment-modalities-in-patients-treated-under-general-anaesthesia-at-the-ktu-faculty-of-dentistry-in-trabzon-turkey-a-comparative-retrospective-study
#16
Ozgul Baygin, Tamer Tuzuner, Adem Kusgoz, Gorkem Yahyaoglu, Nagehan Yilmaz, Simge Aksoy
This study evaluated the differences in dental conditions and treatment modalities between disabled and non-cooperative healthy children under general anaesthesia. The data were collected from paediatric patients between 3 and 15 years of age who received dental treatment under general anaesthesia. Patients with at least one mental/physical disturbance (group 1) and other healthy non-cooperative patients (group 2) were compared with regard to gender, age, weight, and treatment time-type. The statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests...
February 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138179/thiopental-versus-ketofol-in-paediatric-sedation-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-randomized-trial
#17
Yasemin Burcu Ustun, Yunus Oktay Atalay, Ersin Koksal, Cengiz Kaya, Fatih Ozkan, Elif Bengi Sener, Ahmet Veysel Polat
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficiency of intravenous thiopental against intravenous ketamine-propofol combination in paediatric sedation for magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at Ondokuz Mayis University Hospital, Samsun, Turkey, from July 1, 2014, to January 1, 2015, and comprised children aged 1 month to 12 years undergoing elective magnetic resonance imaging who were randomly assigned to two equal groups. Group I received thiopental 3 mg/kg intravenously followed by an additional dose of thiopental 1 mg/kg to achieve a Ramsay sedation score of 4...
February 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108038/the-effect-of-endotracheal-tubes-versus-laryngeal-mask-airways-on-perioperative-respiratory-adverse-events-in-infants-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Thomas F E Drake-Brockman, Anoop Ramgolam, Guicheng Zhang, Graham L Hall, Britta S von Ungern-Sternberg
BACKGROUND: Perioperative respiratory adverse events (PRAE) are the most common critical incidents in paediatric anaesthesia and occur more often in infants. Use of laryngeal mask airways (LMAs) is associated with reduced PRAE compared with endotracheal tubes in older children (>1 year). We aimed to evaluate the effect of these devices on the incidence of PRAE in infants. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial at the Princess Margaret Hospital for Children in Perth (WA, Australia) by recruiting infants (aged 0-12 months) undergoing general (with or without regional or local) anaesthesia with anticipated fentanyl dose 1 μg/kg or lower for minor elective surgery...
January 17, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100529/children-and-parental-anxiolysis-in-paediatric-ambulatory-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-study-comparing-0-3%C3%A2-mg-kg-1-midazolam-to-tablet-computer-based-interactive-distraction
#19
C Marechal, J Berthiller, S Tosetti, B Cogniat, H Desombres, L Bouvet, B Kassai, D Chassard, M de Queiroz Siqueira
BACKGROUND: The operating theatre, anaesthesia induction and separation from parents create fear and anxiety in children. Anxiety leads to adverse behavioral changes appearing and sometimes persisting during the postoperative period. Our aim was to compare the effects of midazolam (0.3 mg kg(-)(1): MDZ) for premedication with age-appropriate tablet game apps (TAB) on children anxiety during and after ambulatory surgery. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted from May 16th, 2013 to March 25th, 2014 at the Children Hospital of Lyon...
February 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091756/-recommendation-on-temperature-management-after-cardiopulmonary-arrest-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-childhood-beyond-the-neonatal-period-statement-of-the-german-society-for-neonatology-and-pediatric-intensive-care-medicine%C3%A2-gnpi-and-the-scientific-working
#20
S Brenner, C Eich, G Rellensmann, M U Schuhmann, T Nicolai, F Hoffmann
The available data on the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in different patient groups are heterogeneous. Although the benefits have been proven for some collectives, recommendations for the use of hypothermia treatment in other groups are based on less robust data and conclusions by analogy. This article gives a review of the current evidence of temperature management in all age groups and based on this state of knowledge, recommends active temperature management with the primary aim of strict normothermia (36-36...
February 2017: Der Anaesthesist
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