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Prolactinoma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769550/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-increases-the-susceptibility-to-develop-aggressive-prolactinomas-in-the-pituitary-gland
#1
Shaima Jabbar, Kenneth Reuhl, Dipak K Sarkar
Excess alcohol use is known to promote development of aggressive tumors in various tissues in human patients, but the cause of alcohol promotion of tumor aggressiveness is not clearly understood. We used an animals model of fetal alcohol exposure that is known to promote tumor development and determined if alcohol programs the pituitary to acquire aggressive prolactin-secreting tumors. Our results show that pituitaries of fetal alcohol-exposed rats produced increased levels of intra-pituitary aromatase protein and plasma estrogen, enhanced pituitary tissue growth, and upon estrogen challenge developed prolactin-secreting tumors (prolactinomas) that were hemorrhagic and often penetrated into the surrounding tissue...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768629/controversial-issues-in-the-management-of-hyperprolactinemia-and-prolactinomas-an-overview-by-the-neuroendocrinology-department-of-the-brazilian-society-of-endocrinology-and-metabolism
#2
Lucio Vilar, Julio Abucham, José Luciano Albuquerque, Luiz Antônio Araujo, Monalisa F Azevedo, Cesar Luiz Boguszewski, Luiz Augusto Casulari, Malebranche B C Cunha Neto, Mauro A Czepielewski, Felipe H G Duarte, Manuel Dos S Faria, Monica R Gadelha, Heraldo M Garmes, Andrea Glezer, Maria Helane Gurgel, Raquel S Jallad, Manoel Martins, Paulo A C Miranda, Renan M Montenegro, Nina R C Musolino, Luciana A Naves, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira Júnior, Cíntia M S Silva, Camila Viecceli, Marcello D Bronstein
Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas (approximately 40% of cases), and they represent an important cause of hypogonadism and infertility in both sexes. The magnitude of prolactin (PRL) elevation can be useful in determining the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. Indeed, PRL levels > 250 ng/mL are highly suggestive of the presence of a prolactinoma. In contrast, most patients with stalk dysfunction, drug-induced hyperprolactinemia or systemic diseases present with PRL levels < 100 ng/mL. However, exceptions to these rules are not rare...
March 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728863/igf-1-levels-may-increase-paradoxically-with-dopamine-agonist-treatment-for-prolactinomas
#3
Amit Akirov, Yona Greenman, Benjamin Glaser, Irena S'chigol, Yossi Mansiterski, Yoav Eizenberg, Ilana Shraga-Slutzky, Ilan Shimon
OBJECTIVE: Hyperprolactinemia is common in acromegaly and in these patients, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 level may decrease with dopamine agonist. We report a series of patients with prolactinoma and a paradoxical increase of IGF-1 levels during cabergoline treatment. METHODS: Clinical characteristics and response to treatment of patients with prolactinomas, in whom normal or slightly elevated baseline IGF-1 levels increased with cabergoline. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of ten prolactinoma patients (nine males, mean age 48 ± 14 years)...
May 4, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726995/the-balance-of-pi3k-and-erk-signaling-is-dysregulated-in-prolactinoma-and-modulated-by-dopamine
#4
Allyson K Roof, Siwanon Jirawatnotai, Tammy Trudeau, Crystal Kuzyk, Margaret E Wierman, Hiroaki Kiyokawa, Arthur Gutierrez-Hartmann
Prolactin-secreting adenomas, or prolactinomas, cause hypogonadism, osteoporosis, and infertility. Although dopamine agonists (DAs) are used clinically to treat prolactinoma, and reduce prolactin secretion via cAMP inhibition, the precise mechanism by which DAs inhibit lactotrope proliferation has not been defined. Here we report the novel finding that PI3K signals through AKT and mTOR to drive proliferation of pituitary somatolactotrope GH4T2 cells. We demonstrate that the DA cabergoline reduces activity of the mTOR effector s6K, and diminishes GH4T2 cell proliferation primarily via activation of the long isoform of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)...
May 2, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726992/interaction-of-aip-with-protein-kinase-a-camp-dependent-protein-kinase
#5
Marie Helene Schernthaner-Reiter, Giampaolo Trivellin, Constantine A Stratakis
Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene cause mostly somatotropinomas and/or prolactinomas in a subset of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). AIP has been shown to interact with phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and G proteins, suggesting a link to the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) pathway. Upregulation of PKA is seen in sporadic somatotropinomas that carry GNAS1 mutations, and those in Carney complex that are due to PRKAR1A mutations. To elucidate the mechanism of AIP-dependent pituitary tumorigenesis, we studied potential functional and physical interactions of AIP with PKA's main subunits PRKAR1A (R1α) and PRKACA (Cα)...
May 2, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712721/comparative-population-based-analysis-of-pituitary-incidentalomas-vs-clinically-manifesting-sellar-masses
#6
Nadine Marie Vaninetti, David B Clarke, Deborah A Zwicker, Churn-Ern Yip, Barna Tugwell, Steve Doucette, Chris Theriault, Khaled Aldahmani, Syed Ali Imran
PURPOSE: Sellar masses may present either with clinical manifestations of mass effect/hormonal dysfunction (CMSM) or incidentally on imaging (PI). This novel population-based study compares these two entities. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients within a provincial pituitary registry between January 2006 and June 2014. RESULTS: 903 patients were included (681 CMSM, 222 PI). CMSM mainly presented with secondary hormone deficiencies (SHD) or stalk compression (29...
April 30, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708436/prolactin-levels-do-not-rise-among-transgender-women-treated-with-estradiol-and-spironolactone
#7
Jason R Bisson, Kelly J Chan, Joshua D Safer
CONTEXT: Existing transgender treatment guidelines suggest that for transfeminine hormone treatment there is a need to monitor prolactin levels. Also, recent studies suggest that use of cyproterone acetate as an adjunctive anti-androgen during transgender hormone treatment may elevate serum prolactin. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether the reported relationship between transfeminine estradiol treatment and hyperprolactinemia would be evident when the regimen used spironolactone as the adjunctive anti-androgen...
April 30, 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688280/the-occurrence-of-benign-brain-tumours-in-transgender-individuals-during-cross-sex-hormone-treatment
#8
Nienke M Nota, Chantal M Wiepjes, Christel J M de Blok, Louis J G Gooren, Saskia M Peerdeman, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Martin den Heijer
Benign brain tumours may be hormone sensitive. To induce physical characteristics of the desired gender, transgender individuals often receive cross-sex hormone treatment, sometimes in higher doses than hypogonadal individuals. To date, long-term (side) effects of cross-sex hormone treatment are largely unknown. In the present retrospective chart study we aimed to compare the incidence of common benign brain tumours: meningiomas, pituitary adenomas (non-secretive and secretive), and vestibular schwannomas in transgender individuals receiving cross-sex hormone treatment, with those reported in general Dutch or European populations...
April 23, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685620/medical-management-of-a-prolactinoma-in-a-15-year-old-girl
#9
Morgan S Bowling, Alejandro Zamudio, Fatema Jaffery
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675363/clinical-and-imaging-features-of-pituitary-apoplexy-and-role-of-imaging-in-differentiation-of-clinical-mimics
#10
REVIEW
Pradeep Goyal, Michael Utz, Nishant Gupta, Yogesh Kumar, Manisha Mangla, Sonali Gupta, Rajiv Mangla
To discuss the clinical syndrome, review common imaging findings of pituitary apoplexy (PA) and role of imaging in therapy and follow-up. Also, to review other acute clinical scenarios with similar clinical and/or imaging findings as PA. PA is a severe and potentially life-threatening medical emergency, characterized by constellation of symptoms/signs that occur as a result of acute hemorrhage and/or infarction in pituitary gland. Patients present with acute and sudden onset of symptoms/signs, most commonly with severe headache, vision deficits/ophthalmoplegia, altered mental status, and possible pan hypopituitarism...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664314/iran-pituitary-tumor-registry-description-of-the-program-and-initial-results
#11
Mohammad Ebrahim Khamseh, Mohammad Reza Mohajeri Tehrani, Zohreh Mousavi, Mojtaba Malek, Mehrnaz Imani, Nasim Hoshangian Tehrani, Mohammad Ghorbani, Hamideh Akbari, Farzaneh Sarvghadi, Atieh Amouzegar, Fatemeh Esfahanian, Nahid Hashemi Madani, Zahra Emami
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to present initial results on clinical presentation, therapeutic modalities, and outcome information of patients with pituitary tumors registered in Iran Pituitary Tumor Registry (IPTR). METHODS: We collected data from a web-based electronic medical records of patients with various pituitary tumors referred to four tertiary care centers in the country. Retrospective analysis was performed on demographic, clinical, and therapeutic information of 298 patients including 51 clinically nonfunctioning adenoma (CNFA), 85 acromegaly, 135 prolactinoma, and 27 Cushing's disease (CD)...
December 31, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660734/interpretation-of-serum-gonadotropin-levels-in-hyperprolactinemia
#12
Ali Abbara, Sophie A Clarke, Alexander Nesbitt, Sabreen Ali, Alexander N Comninos, Emma Hatfield, Niamh Martin, Amir Sam, Karim Meeran, Waljit S Dhillo
<br>Background/Aims: Hyperprolactinemia is a common cause of amenorrhea due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Prolactin is hypothesized to impede the reproductive axis through an inhibitory action at the hypothalamus. However, limited data exists to aid the interpretation of serum gonadotropins in the context of hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: Serum gonadotropin values were reviewed in 243 patients with elevated serum monomeric prolactin due to discrete etiologies at a tertiary reproductive endocrine centre between 2012 and 2015...
April 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622766/olfactory-marker-protein-regulates-prolactin-secretion-and-production-by-modulating-ca-2-and-trh-signaling-in-lactotrophs
#13
Chan Woo Kang, Ye Eon Han, Mi Kyung Lee, Yoon Hee Cho, NaNa Kang, JaeHyung Koo, Cheol Ryong Ku, Eun Jig Lee
Olfactory marker protein (OMP) is a marker of olfactory receptor-mediated chemoreception, even outside the olfactory system. Here, we report that OMP expression in the pituitary gland plays a role in basal and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced prolactin (PRL) production and secretion. We found that OMP was expressed in human and rodent pituitary glands, especially in PRL-secreting lactotrophs. OMP knockdown in GH4 rat pituitary cells increased PRL production and secretion via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling...
April 6, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615783/isolation-and-characterisation-of-cd9-positive-pituitary-adult-stem-progenitor-cells-in-rats
#14
Kotaro Horiguchi, Ken Fujiwara, Saishu Yoshida, Takashi Nakakura, Ken Arae, Takehiro Tsukada, Rumi Hasegawa, Shu Takigami, Shunji Ohsako, Takashi Yashiro, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
S100β protein and SOX2-double positive (S100β/SOX2-positive) cells have been suggested to be adult pituitary stem/progenitor cells exhibiting plasticity and multipotency. The aim of the present study was to isolate S100β/SOX2-positive cells from the adult anterior lobes of rats using a specific antibody against a novel membrane marker and to study their characteristics in vitro. We found that cluster of differentiation (CD) 9 is expressed in the majority of adult rat S100β/SOX2-positive cells, and we succeeded in isolating CD9-positive cells using an anti-CD9 antibody with a pluriBead-cascade cell isolation system...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574220/long-term-outcome-of-non-functioning-and-hormonal-active-pituitary-adenoma-after-gamma-knife-radio-surgery
#15
Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Shyamal C Bir, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Papireddy Bollam, Anil Nanda
INTRODUCTION: Stereotactic radiosurgery [SRS], particularly Gamma knife radiosurgery [GKRS] is an established treatment option for residual and recurrent pituitary adenoma tumors. It helps in the preservation of surrounding normal neuronal, vascular and hormone producing structures and cause less neurological deficits. The aim of the research is to evaluate the efficacy and define the role of GKRS for the treatment of non-functioning [NFA] and hormonal-active [HAA] pituitary adenoma. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 111 patients of histologically proven pituitary adenoma who underwent GKRS treatment at LSU Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA over seventeen year period is presented...
March 21, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557627/-atypical-presentation-of-a-giant-prolactinoma-in-a-15-year-old-boy
#16
Elisa Vaiani, Cintia Morales, Florencia Soto, Yeny Blanco, Carlos Rugilo, Marta Ciaccio, Alicia Belgorosky
Giant prolactinomas are rare pituitary adenomas characterized by their great local invasion. In this paper, we report a 15-year-old male with left retro-ocular pain and ipsilateral exophthalmos of 4 months of evolution, secondary to a tumour in the base of the skull that invaded the orbit. Hormonal studies revealed serum prolactin of 6913,7 ng/ml (normal value < 20), confirming the diagnosis of giant prolactinoma. The patient started treatment with the dopaminergic agonist cabergoline in increasing doses...
April 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546691/cabergoline-versus-bromocriptine-for-the-treatment-of-giant-prolactinomas-a-quantitative-and-systematic-review
#17
Hai Yan Huang, Shao Jian Lin, Wei Guo Zhao, Zhe Bao Wu
The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of bromocriptine (BRC) versus cabergoline (CAB) in patients with giant prolactinomas. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Clinical Trials.gov for studies dated before March 1st, 2016, that used BRC or CAB for the treatment of patients with giant prolactinomas. Specific eligibility criteria were set to identify articles and cases. The selected articles were reviewed, and the data were extracted for analysis. The compared outcomes included tumor shrinkage, tumor response, normalization of prolactin (PRL) level, and visual field defect (VFD) improvement...
June 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545227/clinical-outcomes-after-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-giant-pituitary-adenomas
#18
Khaled Elshazly, Varun R Kshettry, Christopher J Farrell, Gurston Nyquist, Marc Rosen, James J Evans
BACKGROUND: Giant pituitary adenomas represent a surgical challenge. We present the results of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for giant pituitary adenomas. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 55 patients with giant pituitary adenomas (>4 cm in maximum diameter) who underwent surgery with an EEA between 2008 and 2016. Factors affecting the extent of resection were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 55...
March 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535143/pheochromocytomas-and-pituitary-adenomas-in-three-patients-with-max-exon-deletions
#19
LETTER
Adrian F Daly, Emilie Castermans, Lindsey Oudijk, Mirtha A Guitelman, Pablo Beckers, Iulia Potorac, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Nathalie Sacre, Aart-Jan van der Lely, Vincent Bours, Wouter W de Herder, Albert Beckers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532430/complete-evaluation-of-pituitary-tumours-in-a-single-tertiary-care-institution
#20
Dimitrios Askitis, Damianos Tsitlakidis, Nicolle Müller, Albrecht Waschke, Gunter Wolf, Ulrich Alfons Müller, Christof Kloos
INTRODUCTION: We retrospectively evaluated all patients with pituitary tumours treated in our department from 1/1/1997 to 01/11/2014. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and fifteen patients (124 females, 91 males, mean age 50.9 years) were treated because of pituitary tumours. All patients underwent basal hormonal analysis and when required dynamic testing in order to check for hormonal activity. Pituitary masses were divided into groups concerning their hormonal status and were further classified according to gender, age at diagnosis, tumour size, and the development of postoperative pituitary insufficiency when neurosurgical intervention was conducted...
May 2018: Endocrine
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