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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933185/circulating-serpinb1-levels-and-clinical-features-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Kohzo Takebayashi, Kenji Hara, Tomoko Terasawa, Rika Naruse, Mariko Suetsugu, Takafumi Tsuchiya, Toshihiko Inukai
OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the association of serum SerpinB1 levels and various parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. The effect of canagliflozin (a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor), which can decrease circulating insulin levels, on serum SerpinB1 levels was also investigated. A recent study suggests that the serum levels of SerpinB1, also known as monocyte neutrophil elastase inhibitor, increase with insulin resistance, may have a protective effect for pancreatic β cells, and may decrease insulin resistance...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931088/sglt2-inhibitors-a-systematic-review-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-related-risk-factors-in-the-primary-literature
#2
Kelly R Burke, Christine A Schumacher, Spencer E Harpe
STUDY OBJECTIVE: There is currently minimal information regarding risk factors for the development of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i)-related diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We aim to identify individual patient characteristics associated with cases of SGLT2i-related DKA to better describe potential risk factors. DESIGN: Systematic review of primary literature. PATIENTS: 34 case reports of patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus who developed DKA while receiving an SGLT2i...
December 8, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928947/oral-glucose-lowering-drugs-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-from-the-negative-record-and-accord-to-neutral-tecos-and-promising-empa-reg
#3
C Tsioufis, E Andrikou, C Thomopoulos, N Papanas, D Tousoulis
Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality are higher among patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), particularly those with concomitant CV diseases, compared with other populations. In patients with T2DM, intensive glucose lowering reduces microvascular disease, but has a smaller and debated effect on CV events or mortality. In this setting, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required in 2008 that all new agents for the treatment of T2DM should be evaluated in terms of CV safety. Metformin has long been established as first-line pharmacological therapy in patients with T2DM, due to its proven beneficial CV effects...
December 8, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913134/corrigendum-to-sglt2-inhibitor-therapy-improves-blood-glucose-but-does-not-prevent-diabetic-bone-disease-in-diabetic-dba-2j-male-mice-bone-82-2016-101-107
#4
Kathryn M Thrailkill, R C Bunn, Jeffry S Nyman, Mallikarjuna R Rettiganti, Gael E Cockrell, Elizabeth C Wahl, Sasidhar Uppuganti, Charles K Lumpkin, John L Fowlkes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908315/-life-threatening-ketoacidosis-in-a-25-year-old-woman-treated-with-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor
#5
Mats Jacob Hermansson Lindberg, Frans Brandt Kristensen, Alev Yildiz
We report a case of atypical ketoacidosis in a patient treated with a sodium-glucose cotransporter- (SGLT) 2 inhibitor. The 25-year-old woman, who one year earlier had been prescribed dapagliflozin for presumed Type 2 diabetes, came to the emergency department in a state of severe ketoacidosis, pH 6.85, and a plasma glucose level of 14.3 mmol/l. She received standard treatment and recovered. We discuss the increasing evidence for atypical ketoacidosis being a serious side effect of the SGLT2 inhibitors.
November 21, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903028/-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-in-patients-with-kidney-disease
#6
Ivo Quack, Ralf Westenfeld
Patients with kidney disease have a significantly increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Especially diabetics have an increased risk to develop renal insufficiency and cardiovascular events. Two recent studies show that the SGLT2 inhibitor Empagliflozin and the GLP1 agonist Liraglutid are able to lower the cardiovascular risk of type2 diabetics with renal insufficiency. Recent observations suggest that bradycardia and asystole are main triggers for sudden cardiac death in patients with chronic kidney disease...
November 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902600/efficacy-and-safety-of-canagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
Wei Xiong, Ming Yue Xiao, Mei Zhang, Fei Chang
BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin is a new SGLT2 inhibitor which has been approved as an adjunct to diet and exercise for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus in more than 30 countries. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin in patients with T2D, we carried out a meta-analysis of phase III clinical trials to offer an additional evidence of the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin for evidence-based clinical practice, strictly restricting the treatment durations to 26 weeks (core period) and 52 weeks (extension period)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898586/an-update-on-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Daniel S Hsia, Owen Grove, William T Cefalu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the newest class of oral antihyperglycemic agents that have been approved for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Over the past year, there have been significant developments in both the safety and efficacy of this class of medications that are presented in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Apart from data on the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibitors, other metabolic benefits have been demonstrated for this class of medications...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894216/bone-effects-of-canagliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Thomas C Blevins, Azeez Farooki
Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), lowers blood glucose by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and increasing urinary glucose excretion. It has been reported that SGLT2 inhibitors may have potential adverse effects on bone, including increased fracture risk and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Across clinical studies, canagliflozin was not associated with meaningful changes in serum or urine calcium, vitamin D, or parathyroid hormone...
November 28, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889414/changes-in-glucose-induced-plasma-active-glucagon-like-peptide-1-levels-by-co-administration-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-inhibitors-with-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-in-rodents
#10
Takahiro Oguma, Chiaki Kuriyama, Keiko Nakayama, Yasuaki Matsushita, Kumiko Hikida, Minoru Tsuda-Tsukimoto, Akira Saito, Kenji Arakawa, Kiichiro Ueta, Masabumi Minami, Masaharu Shiotani
We investigated whether structurally different sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors, when co-administered with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors, could enhance glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in rodents. Three different SGLT inhibitors-1-(β-d-Glucopyranosyl)-4-chloro-3-[5-(6-fluoro-2-pyridyl)-2-thienylmethyl]benzene (GTB), TA-1887, and canagliflozin-were examined to assess the effect of chemical structure. Oral treatment with GTB plus a DPP4 inhibitor enhanced glucose-induced plasma active GLP-1 (aGLP-1) elevation and suppressed glucose excursions in both normal and diabetic rodents...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878313/targeting-renal-glucose-reabsorption-to-treat-hyperglycaemia-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-sglt2-inhibition
#11
REVIEW
Volker Vallon, Scott C Thomson
Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the kidney provides a safety valve that can prevent extreme hyperglycaemia as long as glomerular filtration is maintained. Most of the capacity for renal glucose reabsorption is provided by sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the early proximal tubule...
November 22, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876693/a-case-of-septic-shock-due-to-serratia-marcescens-pyelonephritis-and-bacteremia-in-a-patient-receiving-empagliflozin
#12
Wesley D Kufel, Ali Scrimenti, Jeffrey M Steele
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been associated with serious urinary tract infections (UTIs) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a label change to include this warning in December 2015 due to a small number of cases (n = 19) reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. Details of these cases are limited and none involved empagliflozin. To date, there has been no published literature comprehensively describing serious UTIs attributed to empagliflozin...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876617/canagliflozin-a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-attenuates-obesity-induced-inflammation-in-the-nodose-ganglion-hypothalamus-and-skeletal-muscle-of-mice
#13
Farhana Naznin, Hideyuki Sakoda, Tadashi Okada, Hironobu Tsubouchi, T M Zaved Waise, Kenji Arakawa, Masamitsu Nakazato
Chronic inflammation in systemic organs, such as adipose tissue, nodose ganglion, hypothalamus, and skeletal muscles, is closely associated with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Because sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exert both anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects by promoting urinary excretion of glucose and subsequent caloric loss, we investigated the effect of canagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, on obesity-induced inflammation in neural tissues and skeletal muscles of mice. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed male C57BL/6J mice were treated with canagliflozin for 8 weeks...
November 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867961/cardio-renal-protection-with-empagliflozin
#14
Richard J MacIsaac, George Jerums, Elif I Ekinci
Cardiovascular (CV) and kidney disease are common and significant complications in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CV disease is the leading cause of death, morbidly and hospitalisations for people with T2DM. Furthermore, diabetic kidney disease is a major risk factor for CV disease and is the main reason why patients need renal replacement therapy. In this perspective, we highlight the results of the recent landmark EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial which has shown that empagliflozin, a member of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor class of glucose lowering medications, reduces death from CV causes, hospitalisation for heart failure and progression to end stage kidney disease in patients with T2DM and established CV disease...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866701/place-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-east-asian-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-insights-into-the-management-of-asian-phenotype
#15
REVIEW
Lee Ling Lim, Alexander Tong Boon Tan, Kevin Moses, Viraj Rajadhyaksha, Siew Pheng Chan
The burden of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in East Asia is alarming. Rapid modernization and urbanization have led to major lifestyle changes and a tremendous increase in the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. The development of T2DM at a younger age, with lower body mass index, higher visceral adiposity, and more significant pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction compared to Caucasians are factors responsible for the increased prevalence of T2DM in East Asians. Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors (canagliflozin, dapaglifozin, empagliflozin, etc...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866224/the-beneficial-effects-of-empagliflozin-an-sglt2-inhibitor-on-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-mice-fed-a-western-diet
#16
Ji Hye Han, Tae Jung Oh, Ghayoung Lee, Hyo Jin Maeng, Dong Hwa Lee, Kyoung Min Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang, Hye Seung Lee, Kyong Soo Park, Young-Bum Kim, Soo Lim
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A recent large clinical study has shown that empagliflozin has a lower rate of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality when compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effect of empagliflozin (compared with glimepiride) on the progression of atherosclerosis, and its possible mechanisms of action. METHODS: Forty-eight 5-week-old male ApoE (-/-) mice were fed a western diet for 20 weeks and divided into four groups: control (saline, 154 mmol/l NaCl), glimepiride 0...
November 19, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865300/effect-of-dapagliflozin-treatment-on-fluid-and-electrolyte-balance-in-diabetic-rats
#17
Ling Chen, Lauren M LaRocque, Orhan Efe, Juan Wang, Jeff M Sands, Janet D Klein
AIM: This study evaluates the effect of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, on fluid or electrolyte balance and its effect on urea transporter-A1 (UT-A1), aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) protein abundance in diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by injection of streptozotocin into the tail vein. Serum Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) concentration, urine Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) excretion, blood glucose, urine glucose excretion, urine volume, urine osmolality and urine urea excretion were analyzed after the administration of dapagliflozin...
November 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865185/a-new-era-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-is-cardioprotection-at-long-last-a-reality
#18
EDITORIAL
Xavier Rossello, Derek M Yellon
The EMPA-REG OUTCOME and the LEADER trials have revealed a new era in the management of type 2 diabetes. The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin demonstrated a lower rate of the primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke compared to placebo. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, succeeded to demonstrate reduction on a composite outcome including first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. These two medications act through different mechanisms and has consequently shown different patterns of cardiovascular benefit...
November 12, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862830/urinary-tract-and-genital-infections-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-treated-with-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
Dandan Li, Tiansheng Wang, Su Shen, Zhenwei Fang, Yue Dong, Huilin Tang
AIMS: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were associated with increased risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and genital infections. However, differences among different doses were still controversial. Thus, we aimed to evaluate effects of different SGLT2 inhibitors on the risk of UTIs and genital infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials...
November 12, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858115/-the-new-esc-guidelines-for-acute-and-chronic-heart-failure-2016
#20
C U Oeing, C Tschöpe, B Pieske
The new guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure (HF) were presented in May 2016 during the congress of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in Florence. An important amendment affects the classification of HF which now differentiates between HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and left ventricular EF (LVEF) > 50%, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, LVEF < 40%) and the new entity HF with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF, LVEF 40-49%)...
December 2016: Herz
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