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Diabetes type 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054111/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-attenuates-the-decline-of-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Ryotaro Bouchi, Tatsuya Fukuda, Takato Takeuchi, Yujiro Nakano, Masanori Murakami, Isao Minami, Hajime Izumiyama, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Activation of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) has been reported to be associated with impairment of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle mass, presumably leading to loss of muscle function. This study was aimed to investigate whether the use of DPP4 inhibitors (DPP4i) could attenuate the progressive loss of muscle mass in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total 105 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 62 ± 12 years; 39% female) were studied in this retrospective observational study...
October 20, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053995/effects-of-a-whey-protein-supplementation-on-oxidative-stress-body-composition-and-glucose-metabolism-among-overweight-people-affected-by-diabetes-mellitus-or-impaired-fasting-glucose-a-pilot-study
#2
Chiara Flaim, Michael Kob, Angela M Di Pierro, Markus Herrmann, Lucio Lucchin
Obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) are characterized by chronic inflammation and oxidative stress [Donath et al. 2013] and this leads to cardiovascular diseases [Hulsmans & Holvoet 2010]. Whey proteins (WP) have antioxidant [Chitapanarux et al. 2009], anti-inflammatory [Sugawara et al. 2012] and hypoglycemic activities [Mignone et al. 2015], while data on weight, body composition [Frestedt et al. 2008; Aldrich et al. 2011] and blood pressure are conflicting [Kawase et al. 2000; Lee et al. 2007]. WP have unpleasant taste and smell [Patel 2015], but a new WP isolate (ProLYOtin®) seems to be more palatable...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053861/physical-function-following-a-long-term-lifestyle-intervention-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-the-look-ahead-study
#3
Denise K Houston, Rebecca H Neiberg, Michael E Miller, James O Hill, John M Jakicic, Karen C Johnson, Edward W Gregg, Van S Hubbard, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, W Jack Rejeski, Rena R Wing, John P Bantle, Elizabeth Beale, Robert I Berkowitz, Maria Cassidy-Begay, Jeanne M Clark, Mace Coday, Linda M Delahanty, Gareth Dutton, Caitlin Egan, John P Foreyt, Frank L Greenway, Helen P Hazuda, Andrea Hergenroeder, Edward S Horton, Robert W Jeffery, Steven E Kahn, Anne Kure, William C Knowler, Cora E Lewis, Corby K Martin, Sara Michaels, Maria G Montez, David M Nathan, Jennifer Patricio, Anne Peters, Henry Pownall, Judith Regensteiner, Helmut Steinburg, Thomas A Wadden, Karen White, Susan Z Yanovski, Ping Zhang, Stephen B Kritchevsky
Background: Lifestyle interventions have been shown to improve physical function over the short term; however, whether these benefits are sustainable is unknown. The long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on physical function were assessed using a randomized post-test design in the Look AHEAD trial. Methods: Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2) middle-aged and older adults (aged 45-76 years at enrollment) with type 2 diabetes enrolled in Look AHEAD, a trial evaluating an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to achieve weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to diabetes support and education (DSE), underwent standardized assessments of performance-based physical function including a 4- and 400-m walk, lower extremity physical performance (expanded Short Physical Performance Battery, SPPBexp), and grip strength approximately 11 years post-randomization and 1...
October 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053727/impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-subjects-with-the-williams-beuren-syndrome-a-five-year-follow-up-cohort-study
#4
Maria Elena Lunati, Maria Francesca Bedeschi, Veronica Resi, Valeria Grancini, Eva Palmieri, Simona Salera, Faustina Lalatta, Giuseppe Pugliese, Emanuela Orsi
OBJECTIVE: The Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS) is associated with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) early in adulthood. However, the pathophysiology of IGM remains poorly defined, due to the lack of longitudinal studies investigating the contribution of β-cell dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. This study aimed at assessing incidence of IGM and the underlying mechanisms in WS adults. METHODS: This observational, longitudinal (5-year), cohort study enrolled thirty-one consecutive WS subjects attending a tertiary referral center...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053582/zinc-supplementation-improves-glucose-homeostasis-in-high-fat-fed-mice-by-enhancing-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function
#5
Vinícius Cooper-Capetini, Diogo Antonio Alves de Vasconcelos, Amanda Roque Martins, Sandro Massao Hirabara, José Donato, Angelo Rafael Carpinelli, Fernando Abdulkader
Zinc is an essential component of the insulin granule and it possibly modulates insulin secretion and signaling. Since insulin resistance is a hallmark in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this study aimed at investigating if zinc supplementation is able to improve glucose tolerance and β-cell function in a model of insulin resistance. Male C57BL/6 mice were distributed in four groups according to the diet: normal fat (NF); normal fat supplemented with ZnCl₂ (NFZ); high-fat (HF); and, high-fat chow supplemented with ZnCl₂ (HFZ)...
October 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053249/holistic-lipidomics-of-the-human-gut-phenotype-using-validated-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-hybrid-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry
#6
Lieven Van Meulebroek, Ellen De Paepe, Vicky Vercruysse, Beata Pomian, Simon Bos, Bruno Lapauw, Lynn Vanhaecke
As lipids are assigned a plethora of biological functions, it is evident that a dysregulated lipid metabolism signifies a key element in many pathological conditions. With this rationale, this study presents a validated lipidomics platform to map the fecal lipidome, which integrates unique information about the host-gut microbiome interactions, gastrointestinal functionality, and dietary pattern. This particular method accomplished coverage across all eight lipid categories; the fatty acyls, glycerolipids, phosphoglycerolipids, polyketides, prenols, saccharolipids, sphingolipids, and sterols...
October 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053215/the-identification-of-barriers-to-insulin-therapy-and-approaches-for-overcoming-them
#7
REVIEW
D Russell-Jones, F Pouwer, K Khunti
Poor glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a global problem despite the availability of numerous glucose-lowering therapies and clear guidelines for T2D management. Tackling clinical or therapeutic inertia, where the person with diabetes and/or their healthcare providers do not intensify treatment regimens despite this being appropriate, is key to improving patients' long-term outcomes. This gap between best practice and current level of care is most pronounced when considering insulin regimens, with studies showing that insulin initiation/intensification is frequently and inappropriately delayed for several years...
October 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053203/preoperative-weight-loss-with-glp-1-receptor-agonist-treatment-predicts-greater-weight-loss-achieved-by-the-combination-of-medical-weight-management-and-bariatric-surgery-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-longitudinal-analysis
#8
Tien Tang, Sally Abbott, Carel W le Roux, Violet Wilson, Rishi Singhal, Srikanth Bellary, Abd Tahrani
We examined the relationship between weight changes following preoperative glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) and weight changes from the start of medical weight management (MWM) till 12 months after bariatric surgery in patients with Type 2 diabetes in a retrospective cohort study. Forty-five patients (64.4% women, median age 49 (IQR 45-60) years) were included. The median weight loss from start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery was 17.9% (13.0%-29.3%). GLP-1 RA during MWM resulted in 5...
October 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053202/treatment-satisfaction-with-itca-650-a-novel-drug-device-delivering-continuous-exenatide-versus-twice-daily-injections-of-exenatide-in-type-2-diabetics-on-metformin
#9
Robert Henry, Julio Rosenstock, John F McCarthy, Ginger Carls, Tom Alessi, John Yee, Michelle Baron
AIMS: To evaluate treatment satisfaction in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), not adequately controlled by metformin, randomized to ITCA 650 (continuous exenatide in osmotic mini-pump) versus twice-daily exenatide injections (Ex-BID). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Diabetes Medication Satisfaction Tool (DM-SAT) was administered and assessments made at baseline, week 8, and week 20 in a 24 week open-label phase 2 trial. In Stage I (weeks 1-12), 155 patients, comprising the ITT population, were randomized to three groups: ITCA 650 20 μg/day, ITCA 650 40 μg/day and Ex-BID 10 μg BID...
October 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053049/a-bayesian-meta-analysis-method-for-estimating-risk-difference-of-rare-events
#10
Yuanyuan Tang, Qi Tang, Yao Yu, Shihua Wen
Bayesian meta-analysis has been more frequently utilized for synthesizing safety and efficacy information to support landmark decision-making due to its flexibility of incorporating prior information and availability of computing software. However, when the outcome is binary and the events are rare, where event counts can be zero, conventional meta-analysis methods including Bayesian methods may not work well. Several methods have been proposed to tackle this issue but the prior knowledge of event rate was not utilized to increase precision of risk difference estimates...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052956/meta-analysis-of-full-roc-curves-using-bivariate-time-to-event-models-for-interval-censored-data
#11
Annika Hoyer, Stefan Hirt, Oliver Kuss
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are the cornerstones of evidence based medicine and inform treatment, diagnosis, or prevention of individual patients as well as policy decisions in health care. Statistical methods for the meta-analysis of intervention studies are well established today. Meta-analysis for diagnostic accuracy trials has also been a vivid research area in recent years which is especially due to the increased complexity of their bivariate outcome of sensitivity and specificity. The situation is even more challenging when single studies report a full ROC curve with several pairs of sensitivity and specificity, each pair for a different threshold...
October 20, 2017: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052766/decreased-diabetes-risk-over-9%C3%A2-year-after-18-month-oral-l-arginine-treatment-in-middle-aged-subjects-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-metabolic-syndrome-extension-evaluation-of-l-arginine-study
#12
Lucilla D Monti, Elena Galluccio, Valentina Villa, Barbara Fontana, Serena Spadoni, Pier Marco Piatti
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine whether L-arginine supplementation lasting for 18 months maintained long-lasting effects on diabetes incidence, insulin secretion and sensitivity, oxidative stress, and endothelial function during 108 months among subjects at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. METHODS: One hundred and forty-four middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome were randomized in 2006 to an L-arginine supplementation (6...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052687/association-between-early-life-antibiotic-use-and-the-risk-of-islet-or-celiac-disease-autoimmunity
#13
Kaisa M Kemppainen, Kendra Vehik, Kristian F Lynch, Helena Elding Larsson, Ronald J Canepa, Ville Simell, Sibylle Koletzko, Edwin Liu, Olli G Simell, Jorma Toppari, Anette G Ziegler, Marian J Rewers, Åke Lernmark, William A Hagopian, Jin-Xiong She, Beena Akolkar, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Atkinson, Martin J Blaser, Jeffrey P Krischer, Heikki Hyöty, Daniel Agardh, Eric W Triplett
Importance: Evidence is lacking regarding the consequences of antibiotic use in early life and the risk of certain autoimmune diseases. Objective: To test the association between early-life antibiotic use and islet or celiac disease (CD) autoimmunity in genetically at-risk children prospectively followed up for type 1 diabetes (T1D) or CD. Design, Setting, and Participants: HLA-genotyped newborns from Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the United States were enrolled in the prospective birth cohort of The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study between November 20, 2004, and July 8, 2010...
October 9, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052590/reversing-the-tide-diagnosis-and-prevention-of-t2dm-in-populations-of-african-descent
#14
REVIEW
Jean N Utumatwishima, Stephanie T Chung, Amy R Bentley, Margaret Udahogora, Anne E Sumner
Populations of African descent are at the forefront of the worldwide epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The burden of T2DM is amplified by diagnosis after preventable complications of the disease have occurred. Earlier detection would result in a reduction in undiagnosed T2DM, more accurate statistics, more informed resource allocation and better health. An underappreciated factor contributing to undiagnosed T2DM in populations of African descent is that screening tests for hyperglycaemia, specifically, fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c, perform sub-optimally in these populations...
October 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052441/investigational-glucagon-receptor-antagonists-in-phase-i-and-ii-clinical-trials-for-diabetes
#15
André J Scheen, Nicolas Paquot, Pierre J Lefèbvre
Despite type 2 diabetes (T2D) being recognized as a bihormonal pancreatic disease, current therapies are mainly focusing on insulin, while targeting glucagon has been long dismissed. However, glucagon receptor (GCGr) antagonists are currently investigated in clinical trials. Area covered: Following a brief description of the rationale for antagonizing GCGr in T2D, lessons from GCGr knock-out mice and pharmacological means to antagonize GCGr, a detailed description of the main results obtained with GCGr antagonists in Phase I-II clinical trials is provided...
October 20, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052439/predictors-of-mortality-in-hospital-survivors-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-acute-coronary-syndromes
#16
Stefano Savonitto, Nuccia Morici, Anna Nozza, Francesco Cosentino, Pasquale Perrone Filardi, Ernesto Murena, Giorgio Morocutti, Marco Ferri, Claudio Cavallini, Marinus Jc Eijkemans, Barbara E Stähli, Ilse C Schrieks, Tadashi Toyama, H J Lambers Heerspink, Klas Malmberg, Gregory G Schwartz, A Michael Lincoff, Lars Ryden, Jean Claude Tardif, Diederick E Grobbee
AIM: To define the predictors of long-term mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and recent acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 7226 patients from a randomized trial, testing the effect on cardiovascular outcomes of the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist aleglitazar in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and recent acute coronary syndrome (AleCardio trial), were analysed. Median follow-up was 2 years. The independent mortality predictors were defined using Cox regression analysis...
October 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052181/probiotic-strains-and-mechanistic-insights-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Christiane S Hampe, Christian L Roth
INTRODUCTION: The intestinal microbial composition appears to differ between healthy controls and individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This observation has led to the hypothesis that perturbations of the intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of T2D. Manipulations of the intestinal microbiota may therefore provide a novel approach in the prevention and treatment of T2D. Indeed, fecal transplants have shown promising results in both animal models for obesity and T2D and in human clinical trials...
October 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052135/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-cancers
#18
Zhigang Yi, Zhenghong Yuan
Most hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in persistent infection. Significant portion of chronic HCV-infected patients develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chronic hepatitis C is also associated with extrahepatic manifestations, including cryoglobulinemia, lymphoma, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and neurological disorders. The molecular mechanisms of how HCV infection causes liver cancer are largely unknown. HCV replication or viral proteins may perturb cellular hemostasis and induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); viral components or viral replication products act as agonist to trigger innate immune response and cause chronic inflammation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051912/evaluating-diabetes-care-for-patients-with-serious-mental-illness-using-the-chronic-care-model-a-pilot-study
#19
Kelly Vaez, Lauren Diegel-Vacek, Catherine Ryan, Pamela Martyn-Nemeth
People with serious mental illness (SMI) have a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and shorter life span due to medical health problems. The chronic care model (CCM) has been used to improve care of patients with T2DM. One clinical organization that provided primary care to patients with SMI had excellent diabetes outcomes but did not have information on how they achieved those outcomes. Thus, we conducted a pilot study chart review for 30 patients with T2DM and SMI to determine how well the clinic's system aligned with the overall CCM components and which components correlated with diabetes control...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051757/role-of-gut-microbiota-on-cardio-metabolic-parameters-and-immunity-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Lidia Sanchez-Alcoholado, Daniel Castellano-Castillo, Laura Jordán-Martínez, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Pilar Cardila-Cruz, Daniel Elena, Antonio J Muñoz-Garcia, Maria I Queipo-Ortuño, Manuel Jimenez-Navarro
Gut microbiota composition has been reported as a factor linking host metabolism with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and intestinal immunity. Such gut microbiota has been shown to aggravate CVD by contributing to the production of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is a pro-atherogenic compound. Treg cells expressing the transcription factor Forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) play an essential role in the regulation of immune responses to commensal microbiota and have an atheroprotective role...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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