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Diabetes type 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434209/urine-clusterin-apolipoprotein-j-is-linked-to-tubular-damage-and-renal-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Sang Soo Kim, Sang Heon Song, Jong Ho Kim, Yun Kyung Jeon, Bo Hyun Kim, Min-Cheol Kang, Sung Wan Chun, Soo Hyun Hong, Michelle Chung, Yong Ki Kim, In Joo Kim, Young-Bum Kim
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of urine clusterin/apolipoprotein J (Apo J) with the development and/or progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 159 type 2 diabetic patients and 20 non-diabetic subjects with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were enrolled. The baseline values of urine clusterin and tubular damage markers were measured. The primary outcome was the annual decline rate in eGFR and secondary outcomes were the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 or greater and the persistence/progression of albuminuria...
April 23, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434196/role-of-gut-microbiota-bile-acids-and-their-crosstalk-in-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
Haijun Liu, Cheng Hu, Xueli Zhang, Weiping Jia
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide and has become one of the greatest threats to global health. Bariatric surgery was initially designed to achieve weight loss and subsequently was noted to induce improvements or remission of type 2 diabetes. Currently, these bariatric operations such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the most effective procedures for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, the specific mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery has remained largely unknown...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434143/the-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-myocardial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
REVIEW
Tomohiro Suhara, Yuichi Baba, Briana K Shimada, Jason K Higa, Takashi Matsui
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) is a risk factor for heart failure. The mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) is a key mediator of the insulin signaling pathway. We will discuss the role of mTOR in myocardial dysfunction in T2DM. RECENT FINDINGS: In T2DM, chronically activated mTOR induces multiple pathological events, including a negative feedback loop that suppresses IRS (insulin receptor substrate)-1. While short-term treatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, is a promising strategy for cardiac diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and cardiac hypertrophy in T2DM, there are many concerns about chronic usage of rapamycin...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#4
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434032/diabetes-bone-and-glucose-lowering-agents-basic-biology
#5
REVIEW
Beata Lecka-Czernik
Skeletal fragility often accompanies diabetes and does not appear to correlate with low bone mass or trauma severity in individuals with diabetes. Instead (and in contrast to those with osteoporotic bone disease), bone remodelling and bone turnover are compromised in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, contributing to defective bone material quality. This review is one of a pair discussing the relationship between diabetes, bone and glucose-lowering agents; an accompanying review is provided in this issue of Diabetologia by Ann Schwartz (DOI: 10...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433975/absolute-benefits-of-empagliflozin-in-type-2-diabetes-a-game-changer
#6
EDITORIAL
Cyrus R Kumana, Kathryn C B Tan, Bernard M Y Cheung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 22, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433656/impaired-endothelium-derived-hyperpolarization-type-relaxation-in-superior-mesenteric-arteries-isolated-from-female-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rats
#7
Takayuki Matsumoto, Shota Kobayashi, Makoto Ando, Shun Watanabe, Maika Iguchi, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) is an important signaling mechanism of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and little attention has been paid to the EDH-type responses in female metabolic syndrome such as that observed with type-2 diabetes. We previously reported that EDH-type relaxation was impaired in superior mesenteric arteries from male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model of type-2 diabetes, however, the response was unclear in female OLETF rat. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine if EDH-type relaxation was altered in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from female OLETF rats compared to age-matched, control female Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats at age 50-59 weeks...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433618/evidence-based-recommendations-for-insulin-intensification-strategies-after-basal-insulin-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Sujoy Ghosh, A G Unnikrishnan, Banshi Saboo, Jothydev Kesavadev, S R Aravind, Sarita Bajaj, Rajesh Rajput, Krishna Seshadri, Narsingh Verma, Arvind Gupta, Brij Mohan Makkar, Mihir Saikia, Shailaja Kale, Suresh Damodaran, Ashish Dengra, T K M Eashwar, Anuj Maheshwari, Sharad Pendsey, Sanjeev R Phatak, Surendra Kumar Sharma, Surya Kumar Singh, A Ramachandran, Abdul H Zargar, Shashank R Joshi, Shaukat M Sadikot
Over the time due to progressive nature of diabetes, proactive intensification of the existing insulin therapy becomes imminent as it minimizes patients' exposure to chronic hypo/hyperglycaemia and reduces weight gain while achieving individualized glycaemic targets. This review focuses on the strength of evidence behind various options for intensification, primarily the insulins as also the GLP-1 analogues. The recommendations presented here are meant to serve as a guide for the physician managing type 2 diabetes patients requiring insulin intensification upon failing of basal insulin therapy...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433616/investigating-the-link-between-benign-prostatic-hypertrophy-bmi-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#9
B Shivananda Nayak, Khaleel Sinanan, Shivang Sharma, Vashista Shripat, Rukaiya Sidat, Safiyah Siddiqui, Niketa Sieunarine, Seymour Sieunarine
AIMS: To investigate the link between benign prostatic hypertrophy, BMI and type 2 diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was the retrospective study conducted at the urology clinic of NCRHA and SWRHA, in Trinidad. Data was obtained from 85 patients with high PSA values (>4.0ng/mL). The data collected were age, ethnicity, weight, height, lifestyle and their most recent blood sugar levels were recorded. Ultrasound reports of patients diagnosed with BPH were also analyzed to gather data on whether their hyperplasia was benign or malignant...
April 15, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433560/glycaemic-control-and-hypoglycaemia-with-insulin-glargine-300-u-ml-compared-with-glargine-100-u-ml-in-japanese-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-using-basal-insulin-plus-oral-anti-hyperglycaemic-drugs-edition-jp-2-randomised-12-month-trial-including-6-month-extension
#10
Y Terauchi, M Koyama, X Cheng, M Sumi, M C Riddle, G B Bolli, T Hirose
AIMS: To compare insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300) with glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100) in Japanese adults with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on basal insulin and oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs over 12 months. METHODS: EDITION JP 2 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 study. Following a 6-month treatment period, participants continued receiving previously assigned once daily Gla-300 or Gla-100, plus oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs, in a 6-month extension period. Glycaemic control, hypoglycaemia and adverse events were assessed...
April 19, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433448/anemia-complicating-type-2-diabetes-prevalence-risk-factors-and-prognosis
#11
Richard Gauci, Michael Hunter, David G Bruce, Wendy A Davis, Timothy M E Davis
AIMS: To determine the prevalence, risk factors and prognosis of anemia in representative community-based patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Data from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II (FDS2; n=1551, mean age 65.7years, 51.9% males) and Busselton Diabetes Study (BDS; n=186, mean age 70.2years, 50.0% males) cohorts, and from 186 matched BDS participants without diabetes, were analyzed. The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin ≤130g/L males, ≤120g/L females) was determined in each sample...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433337/increased-resource-utilization-and-overall-morbidity-are-associated-with-general-versus-regional-anesthesia-for-carotid-endarterectomy-in-data-collected-by-the-michigan-surgical-quality-collaborative
#12
Ahmad S Hussain, Andrew Mullard, William F Oppat, Kevin D Nolan
OBJECTIVE: Advocates for performing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under regional anesthesia (RA) cite reduction in hemodynamic instability and the ability for neurologic monitoring, but many still prefer general anesthesia (GA) as benefits of RA have not been clearly demonstrated, reliable RA may not be available in all centers, and a certain amount of movement by the patient during the procedure may not be uniformly tolerated. We evaluated the association of anesthesia type and perioperative morbidity and mortality as well as resource utilization in patients undergoing CEA using the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (MSQC) database...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432898/cost-effectiveness-of-sensor-augmented-pump-therapy-versus-standard-insulin-pump-therapy-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-in-denmark
#13
S Roze, S de Portu, J Smith-Palmer, A Delbaere, W Valentine, M Ridderstråle
AIMS: The use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased in recent years. Sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAP) with low glucose suspend (LGS) (allowing temporary suspension of insulin delivery if blood glucose level falls below a pre-defined threshold level) provides additional benefits over CSII alone, but is associated with higher acquisition costs. Therefore, a cost-effectiveness analysis of SAP+LGS versus CSII in patients with T1D was performed...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432897/hba1c-variability-in-type-2-diabetes-is-associated-with-the-occurrence-of-new-onset-albuminuria-within-three-years
#14
Sreemanee Raaj Dorajoo, Joceline Shi Ling Ng, Jessica Hui Fen Goh, Su Chi Lim, Chun Wei Yap, Alexandre Chan, Joyce Yu Chia Lee
AIMS: To evaluate the association between HbA1c coefficient of variation (HbA1c-CV) and 3-year new-onset albuminuria risk. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study involving 716 normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetes patients was conducted between 2010 and 2014. HbA1c-CV was used to categorize patients into low, moderate or high variability groups. Multivariate logistic models were constructed and validated. Integrated discrimination (IDI) and net reclassification (NRI) improvement indices were used to quantify the added predictive value of HbA1c-CV...
February 14, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432895/predictive-ability-of-visit-to-visit-variability-in-hba1c-and-systolic-blood-pressure-for-the-development-of-microalbuminuria-and-retinopathy-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Toshiko Takao, Machi Suka, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa, Yutaka Matsuyama, Yasuhiko Iwamoto
AIMS: We explored whether visit-to-visit variability in both glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) simultaneously predicted the development of microalbuminuria and retinopathy, and whether the predictive ability of these measurements changed according to mean HbA1c and SBP levels in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted on 243 type 2 diabetes patients with normoalbuminuria and 486 without retinopathy at the first visit and within 1year thereafter...
April 7, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432876/effect-of-pistachio-consumption-on-the-modulation-of-urinary-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-in-prediabetic-subjects
#16
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Daniel Cañueto, Simona Giardina, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nicolau Cañellas, Xavier Correig, Mònica Bulló
The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432754/intraclass-differences-in-the-risk-of-hospitalisazion-for-heart-failure-among-type-2-diabetic-patients-initiating-a-dipeptydil-peptidase-4-inhibitor-or-a-sulphonylurea-results-from-the-osmed-health-db-registry
#17
Gian Paolo Fadini, Stefania Saragoni, Pierluigi Russo, Luca Degli Esposti, Saula Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Mario Melazzini, Angelo Avogaro
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is frequent in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and several glucose-lowering medications may increase HF risk. In the SAVOR-TIMI trial, patients on Saxagliptin experienced a 27% higher risk of hospitalisation for HF (HHF). In a retrospective study on 127,555 patients, we showed that DPP-4i therapy was associated with a lower HHF risk than sulphonylurea (SU) therapy. We herein re-analyzed such data to evaluate intraclass differences among DPP-4i and SU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included T2D patients initiating DPP-4i or SU alone or in combination with metformin...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432751/acute-kidney-injury-plasma-lactate-concentrations-and-lactic-acidosis-in-metformin-users-a-godarts-study
#18
Paul J Connelly, Mike Lonergan, Enrique Soto-Pedre, Louise Donnelly, Kaixin Zhou, Ewan R Pearson
AIMS: Metformin is renally excreted and has been associated with the development of lactic acidosis. Although current advice is to omit metformin during illnesses that may increase risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), the evidence supporting this is lacking. We investigated the relationship between AKI, lactate concentrations and the risk of lactic acidosis in those exposed to metformin. METHODS: We undertook a population-based case-control study of lactic acidosis in 1,746 participants with Type 2 diabetes and 846 individuals without diabetes with clinically measured lactates with and without AKI between 1994-2014...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432748/future-challenges-and-therapeutic-opportunities-in-type-2-diabetes-changing-the-paradigm-of-current-therapy
#19
REVIEW
D R Owens, L Monnier, A H Barnett
Most algorithms for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not recommend treatment escalation until glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) fails to reach the recommended target of 7% (53 mmol/mol) within approximately 3 months on any treatment regimen ('treat to failure'). Clinical inertia and/or poor adherence to therapy contribute to patients not reaching glycaemic targets when managed according to this paradigm. Clinical inertia exists across the entire spectrum of anti-diabetes therapies, although it is most pronounced when initiating and optimizing insulin therapy...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432746/impact-of-baseline-hba1c-diabetes-duration-and-bmi-on-clinical-outcomes-in-the-lixilan-o-trial-testing-iglarlixi-insulin-glargine-lixisenatide-titratable-fixed-ratio-combination-versus-insulin-glargine-and-lixisenatide-monocomponents
#20
M J Davies, L A Leiter, B Guerci, G Grunberger, F J Ampudia-Blasco, C Yu, W Stager, E Niemoeller, E Souhami, J Rosenstock
To determine whether baseline characteristics impact clinical outcomes in the LixiLan-O trial (N = 1170), the efficacy and safety of iGlarLixi, a titratable fixed-ratio combination of insulin glargine 100 U (iGlar) and lixisenatide (Lixi) was compared with iGlar or Lixi alone in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on oral therapy. Subgroups according to baseline glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; <8%, ≥8% [<64, ≥64 mmol/mol]); T2DM disease duration (<7, ≥7 years) and body mass index (BMI; <30, ≥30 kg/m(2) ) were investigated...
April 22, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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