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Diabetes type 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908130/designed-macrocyclic-peptides-as-nanomolar-amyloid-inhibitors-based-on-minimal-recognition-elements
#1
Anna Spanopoulou, Luzia Heidrich, Hong-Ru Chen, Christina Frost, Dean Hrle, Eleni Malideli, Kathleen Hille, Alexandros Grammatikopoulos, Jürgen Bernhagen, Martin Zacharias, Gerhard Rammes, Aphrodite Kapurniotu
Amyloid self-assembly is linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but so far none of the anti-amyloid molecules has reached the clinic. Macrocyclic peptides belong to the most attractive drug candidates. Here we present macrocyclic peptides (MCIPs) designed using minimal IAPP-derived recognition elements as a novel class of nanomolar amyloid inhibitors of both Abeta40(42) and IAPP or Abeta40(42) alone and show that chirality controls inhibitor selectivity. Sequence optimization led to the discovery of an Abeta40(42)-selective MCIP exhibiting high proteolytic stability in human plasma and human blood-brain-barrier (BBB) crossing ability in a cell model, two highly desirable properties for anti-amyloid drugs in AD...
June 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908085/body-mass-index-and-the-risk-of-mortality-among-chinese-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#2
H Xu, M Zhang, D Xu, F Zhang, B Yao, Y Yan, N Zhao, W Xu, G Qin
AIMS: To examine the associations between BMI and the risks of all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific and cancer-specific mortality among people with Type 2 diabetes, and thus provide recommendations for weight management in the population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted among 52 763 people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2014 in Shanghai, China. All cases of death were identified by linking to the Shanghai Vital Statistics...
June 16, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908078/ultrasound-detection-of-insulin-induced-lipohypertrophy-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#3
J E Kapeluto, B W Paty, S D Chang, G S Meneilly
AIMS: To define standard criteria for the detection of lipohypertrophy using ultrasonography and to determine the accuracy of this method. METHOD: Individuals using insulin therapy for ≥2 years with unknown lipohypertrophy status were enrolled at a diabetes education centre. A team of diabetes educator nurses performed a clinical examination for evidence of lipohypertrophy and a separate team of ultrasonographers examined participants in a blinded fashion. RESULTS: The echo signature for lipohypertrophy consisted of location in the subcutaneous layer and lesions that were 1) well circumscribed either by hyperechoic foci with defined borders or a nodular shape with a hypoechoic halo, 2) heterogeneous in echotexture compared with surrounding tissue, 3) associated with distortion of surrounding connective tissue with 4) absence of vascularity and 5) absence of capsule...
June 16, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908010/rapamycin-improves-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-type-2-diabetes-rats-through-activation-of-autophagy
#4
Wan Zhou, Shandong Ye
Insulin resistance (IR) is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to explore the effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), on IR in T2DM rats, and to validate whether the underlying mechanism was associated with autophagy. In this study, the model of T2DM rats was established by feeding the animals with a high-fat diet (HFD) and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were randomly divided into model of T2DM control group (DM-C, n=15), metformin group (DM-M, n=15), rapamycin group (DM-Rapa, n=15), 3-methyladenine (3-MA) group (DM-3-MA, n=15), and rapamycin+3-MA group (DM-Rapa-3-MA, n=15)...
June 16, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907893/semaglutide-s-c-once-weekly-in-type-2-diabetes-a-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis
#5
Kristin Cecilie Carlsson Petri, Steen Hvass Ingwersen, Anne Flint, Jeppe Zacho, Rune Viig Overgaard
INTRODUCTION: Semaglutide, a new treatment option approved for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to be injected subcutaneously once weekly. This analysis used a population pharmacokinetic model of semaglutide to identify clinically relevant covariates for exposure. METHODS: A total of 1612 patients with up to seven pharmacokinetic observations each were included in the analysis. All subjects had type 2 diabetes mellitus and were enrolled in one of five trials in the phase III development program for subcutaneous semaglutide once weekly (the SUSTAIN program)...
June 15, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907582/social-network-characteristics-are-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-complications-the-maastricht-study
#6
Stephanie Brinkhues, Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers, Christian J P A Hoebe, Carla J H van der Kallen, Annemarie Koster, Ronald M A Henry, Coen D A Stehouwer, Paul H M Savelkoul, Nicolaas C Schaper, Miranda T Schram
OBJECTIVE: The relation between clinical complications and social network characteristics in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has hardly been studied. Therefore, we examined the associations of social network characteristics with macro- and microvascular complications in T2DM and investigated whether these associations were independent of glycemic control, quality of life, and well-known cardiovascular risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with T2DM originated from the Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study ( n = 797, mean age 62...
June 15, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907581/analysis-of-fractures-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-treated-with-empagliflozin-in-pooled-data-from-placebo-controlled-trials-and-a-head-to-head-study-versus-glimepiride
#7
Sven Kohler, Stefan Kaspers, Afshin Salsali, Cordula Zeller, Hans J Woerle
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of empagliflozin on bone fractures and bone mineral density in patients with type 2 diabetes in pooled placebo-controlled trial data and a head-to-head study versus glimepiride. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Pooled data were analyzed from patients who were randomized 1:1:1 to empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg, or placebo in phase I-III clinical trials. Data were also analyzed from the EMPA-REG H2H-SU trial in which patients received empagliflozin 25 mg or glimepiride as an add-on to metformin for 104 weeks with a 104-week extension...
June 15, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907546/clinical-value-of-flash-glucose-monitoring-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-treated-with-continuous-subcutaneous-insulin-infusion
#8
Jesus Moreno-Fernandez, Marcos Pazos-Couselo, Maria González-Rodriguez, Pedro Rozas, Manuel Delgado, Miguel Aguirre, Jose Manuel Garcia-Lopez
AIM: To analyze the clinical impact of the Flash glucose monitoring system in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). METHODS: A 24-week retrospective cohort study in CSII-treated T1DM patients exposed (1:1) to the Flash glucose monitoring system vs. self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose (SMBG). The primary outcome was the difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels between both groups at the end of the study...
June 12, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907545/differential-proteome-analysis-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-2-and-its-pathophysiological-complications
#9
REVIEW
Waleed Sohail, Fatimah Majeed, Amber Afroz
The prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM 2) is increasing every passing year due to some global changes in lifestyles of people. The exact underlying mechanisms of the progression of this disease are not yet known. However recent advances in the combined omics more particularly in proteomics and genomics have opened a gateway towards the understanding of predetermined genetic factors, progression, complications and treatment of this disease. Here we shall review the recent advances in proteomics that have led to an early and better diagnostic approaches in controlling DM 2 more importantly the comparison of structural and functional protein biomarkers that are modified in the diseased state...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907536/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-and-infection-among-patients-with-diabetic-foot-ulcer
#10
Shin-Yi Lin, Nai-Yu Lin, Yu-Yao Huang, Chi-Chun Hsieh, Yhu-Chering Huang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) in Taiwan, and to assess the concordance between colonizing and clinical MRSA isolates from the patients. METHOD: A total of 354 nasal specimens were collected from 112 to 242 diabetic patients with and without foot ulcer, respectively. MRSA clinical isolates from DFU wound cultures were collected for comparison. RESULTS: Nasal carriage rate of S...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907426/maternal-obesity-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-total-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-connection-in-their-offspring
#11
Evelyn G Alvarado-Terrones, Maryangel Perea-Cabrera, Miguel Klünder-Klünder, Begoña Segura-Stanford, Julio R Erdmenger-Orellana, Arturo Lopez-Yañez Blanco, Elizabeth Hernández-Carbajal, Javier T Granados Riverón, Leonardo J Mejía-Marín, Norma A Balderrabano-Saucedo, Alejandra Contreras-Ramos, Guadalupe Díaz-Rosas, Rocío Sánchez-Urbina
The incidence of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) in the Caucasian population is 2.5/100,000 live births (LB), and the incidence in the Hispanic population is 19.8/100,000 LB. Without knowing the exact etiology for the development of congenital heart disease, our objective was to determine the maternal factors associated with the development of TAPVC. METHODS: 55 mother-child binomials with isolated TAPVC (group I) and 152 healthy mother-child binomials (group II) were included...
June 12, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907250/evaluating-risk-factors-for-differences-in-fibroid-size-and-number-using-a-large-electronic-health-record-population
#12
Michael J Bray, Eric S Torstenson, Sarah H Jones, Todd L Edwards, Digna R Velez Edwards
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate individual characteristics of women with fibroids in relation to fibroid size and number. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 2302 women (black and white, age range 18-87) with image- or surgery-confirmed fibroids from the Synthetic Derivative, a database of de-identified demographic and clinical information from patient electronic health records (EHRs) from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. We performed multivariate regression analyses on the following outcomes: volume of largest fibroid, largest dimension of all fibroids, and number of fibroids (single vs multiple)...
August 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907153/comparison-of-two-low-fat-diets-differing-in-protein-and-carbohydrate-on-psychological-wellbeing-in-adults-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#13
Nerylee Ann Watson, Kathryn Ann Dyer, Jonathan David Buckley, Grant David Brinkworth, Alison Mary Coates, Gaynor Parfitt, Peter Ranald Charles Howe, Manny Noakes, Karen Joy Murphy
BACKGROUND: Although higher-protein diets (HP) can assist with weight loss and glycemic control, their effect on psychological wellbeing has not been established. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a HP and a higher-carbohydrate diet (HC), combined with regular exercise, on psychological wellbeing both during weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance phases (WM). METHODS: In a parallel RCT, 61 adults with T2D (mean ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5...
June 15, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907099/loss-of-job-related-right-to-healthcare-associated-with-employment-turnover-challenges-for-the-mexican-health-system
#14
Germán Guerra, Emilio Gutiérrez-Calderón, Nelly Salgado de Snyder, Víctor Hugo Borja-Aburto, Adolfo Martínez-Valle, Miguel Ángel González-Block
BACKGROUND: The Mexican health system segments access and right to healthcare according to worker position in the labour market. In this contribution we analyse how access and continuity of healthcare gets interrupted by employment turnover in the labour market, including its formal and informal sectors, as experienced by affiliates to the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) at national level, and of workers with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Mexico City. METHODS: Using data from the National Employment and Occupation Survey, 2014, and from IMSS electronic medical records for workers in Mexico City, we estimated annual employment turnover rates to measure the loss of healthcare access due to labour market dynamics...
June 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906034/schmidt%C3%A2-s-syndrome-a-difficult-diagnosis-in-the-latin-american-context
#15
Claudia Barreda-Velit, Rodrigo Salcedo-Pereda, Jesús Ticona
Background: Schmidt’s syndrome, also known as poliglandular autoimmune syndrome type 2, is a rare disease that has a prevalence between 1.5-4.5 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. The diagnosis consists in the concomitant presentation of Addison disease, autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune endocrinological conditions. The aim of this paper is to describe a case of Schmidt’s syndrome in the peruvian context and to analyze the difficulties in the diagnosis. Clinical case: We present the case of a 43-year-old woman that presents to the emergency room with headache, nausea, vomits and a “syncope episode”...
March 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905983/understanding-the-rate-limiting-step-of-glycogenolysis-using-qm-mm-calculations-on-the-human-glycogen-phosphorylase
#16
Natercia Bras, Pedro Fernandes, Maria João Ramos
Liver's glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a key enzyme to human health, as its increased activity is associated with type 2 diabetes. The GP catalytic mechanism has been explored by quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics methods. Herein, we propose a mechanism that proceeds via three steps: i) it begins with a H transfer from the phosphate group of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (HPO42--PLP) cofactor to the phosphate substrate; ii) then, the glycosidic linkage is cleaved through protonation of the glycosidic oxygen atom by an hydroxyl of the inorganic phosphate group; and iii) an oxygen atom of the phosphate performs a nucleophilic attack on the anomeric carbon of glucose, concomitantly with the return of a proton from phosphate to PO43--PLP, which finally leads to the formation of the glucose-1-phosphate product and recovers the initial state of the PLP cofactor...
June 15, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905826/a-visual-analytics-approach-for-pattern-recognition-in-patient-generated-data
#17
Daniel J Feller, Marissa Burgermaster, Matthew E Levine, Arlene Smaldone, Patricia G Davidson, David J Albers, Lena Mamykina
Objective: To develop and test a visual analytics tool to help clinicians identify systematic and clinically meaningful patterns in patient-generated data (PGD) while decreasing perceived information overload. Methods: Participatory design was used to develop Glucolyzer, an interactive tool featuring hierarchical clustering and a heatmap visualization to help registered dietitians (RDs) identify associative patterns between blood glucose levels and per-meal macronutrient composition for individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905825/targeting-the-incretin-glucagon-system-with-triagonists-to-treat-diabetes
#18
Megan E Capozzi, Richard D DiMarchi, Matthias H Tschöp, Brian Finan, Jonathan E Campbell
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been efficacious for the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their ability to reduce weight and attenuate hyperglycemia. However, the activity of GLP-1R-directed strategies is sub-maximal, and the only potent, sustainable treatment for metabolic dysfunction is bariatric surgery, necessitating the development of novel therapeutics. GLP-1 is structurally related to glucagon and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), allowing for the development of intermixed, unimolecular peptides with activity at each of their respective receptors...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905590/are-college-students-told-by-health-care-providers-about-their-risk-factors-for-developing-diabetes
#19
Jennifer L Saylor, Christina J Calamaro, Thomas Hardie, Michelle Ness, Janice Selekman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Communication about risk factors for diabetes between nurse practitioners and college students may not be occurring as the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes increases. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to evaluate if college students are being told of their risk for diabetes based on known risk factors of weight, sleep, and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study was completed using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012...
June 4, 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905159/atypical-postictal-transient-subcortical-t2-hypointensity-in-a-newly-diagnosed-diabetic-patient-with-seizures
#20
Matteo Paoletti, Ana Bacila, Anna Pichiecchio, Lisa Maria Farina, Elisa Rognone, Riccardo Cremascoli, Simona Fanucchi, Raffaele Manni, Stefano Bastianello
Common postictal MRI findings include transient cortical T2 hyperintensity, restricted diffusion, and gyral and/or adjacent leptomeningeal contrast enhancement. In certain uncommon pathological conditions, other signal abnormalities can be present, suggesting a different underlying pathogenic mechanism. We report the case of a 66-year-old man, recently diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2, presenting with new-onset visual and auditory hallucinations, "absence" seizures, and repeated peaks of hyperglycaemia without hyperketonaemia or increased serum osmolarity...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
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