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Diabetes type 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102978/pretreatment-cardiometabolic-status-in-youth-with-early-onset-psychosis-baseline-results-from-the-tea-trial
#1
Karsten G Jensen, Christoph U Correll, Ditte Rudå, Dea G Klauber, Marie Stentebjerg-Olesen, Birgitte Fagerlund, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen, Anders Fink-Jensen, Anne Katrine Pagsberg
OBJECTIVE: To describe pretreatment cardiometabolic constitution in children and adolescents with first-episode psychosis (FEP). METHODS: Baseline cardiometabolic assessment was performed in youths aged 12-17 years with FEP entering the Tolerability and Efficacy of Antipsychotics (TEA) trial and matched healthy controls. Patients were included between June 10, 2010, and January 29, 2014. ICD-10 was used as the diagnostic classification system. Cardiometabolic risk markers were compared between patients versus controls and antipsychotic-naive versus antipsychotic-exposed patients...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102898/a-composite-autonomic-index-as-unitary-metric-for-heart-rate-variability-a-proof-of-concept
#2
Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Nadia Solaro, Massimo Pagani, Daniela Lucini
BACKGROUND: This study addresses whether a unitary cardiac autonomic nervous system index (ANSI), obtained combining multiple metrics from Heart Rate Variability (HRV) into a radar plot could provide an easy appreciation of autonomic performance in a clinical setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data are standardized using percentile ranking of autonomic proxies from a relatively large reference population (n= 1593, age 39±13 years). Autonomic indices are obtained from autoregressive spectral analysis of (ECG derived) HRV at rest and during standing up...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102614/expression-of-cd4-cd28-null-t-lymphocytes-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-relation-to-microvascular-complications-aortic-elastic-properties-and-carotid-intima-media-thickness
#3
Mona H El-Samahy, Azza A G Tantawy, Amira A M Adly, Nevin M Habeeb, Eman A R Ismail, Gehan M Hamed, Rasha Eladawy
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and altered immunity. CD4(+) CD28(null) T-cells are a subset of long-lived cytotoxic CD4(+) T-lymphocytes with proatherogenic and plaque-destabilizing properties. We hypothesized that the frequency of CD4(+) CD28(null) T-cells may be altered in T1DM and related to vascular complications. AIM: To assess the percentage of CD4(+) CD28(null) T-lymphocytes in children and adolescents with T1DM and their relation to vascular structure and glycemic control...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102434/low-muscle-mass-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-findings-from-the-koges
#5
Jang Won Son, Seong Su Lee, Sung Rae Kim, Soon Jib Yoo, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Nam H Cho
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Asians have a propensity to develop type 2 diabetes with a lower BMI than Western populations. This discrepancy may be due to differences in body fat and muscle mass for a given BMI. However, unlike adiposity, it is unclear whether muscle mass affects the risk of type 2 diabetes in Asian populations. METHODS: We conducted a 2-yearly prospective assessment of 6895 participants who were free of diabetes at the baseline examination as part of the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study...
January 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102355/determining-arterial-wave-transit-time-from-a-single-aortic-pressure-pulse-in-rats-vascular-impulse-response-analysis
#6
Ru-Wen Chang, Chun-Yi Chang, Liang-Chuan Lai, Ming-Shiou Wu, Tai-Horng Young, Yih-Sharng Chen, Chih-Hsien Wang, Kuo-Chu Chang
Arterial wave transit time (τw) in the lower body circulation is an effective biomarker of cardiovascular risk that substantially affects systolic workload imposed on the heart. This study evaluated a method for determining τw from the vascular impulse response on the basis of the measured aortic pressure and an assumed triangular flow (Q(tri)). The base of the unknown Q(tri) was constructed with a duration set equal to ejection time. The timing of the peak triangle was derived using a fourth-order derivative of the pressure waveform...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102093/cardiovascular-safety-and-benefits-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists
#7
Niels B Dalsgaard, Andreas Brønden, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) constitute a class of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and currently, six different GLP-1RAs are approved. Besides improving glycemic control, the GLP-1RAs have other beneficial effects such as weight loss and a low risk of hypoglycemia. Treatment with the GLP-1RA lixisenatide has been shown to be safe in patients with type 2 diabetes and recent acute coronary syndrome. Furthermore, liraglutide and semaglutide have been shown to reduce cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) risk in type 2 diabetes patients with established and/or high risk of CVD...
January 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102030/impact-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-on-nonglycemic-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Jennifer M Trujillo, Wesley A Nuffer
The efficacy of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin in reducing hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes is well documented. In addition, positive effects have been observed with these agents on nonglycemic variables, such as reductions in body weight and blood pressure, which may confer additional health benefits. SGLT2 inhibitors are also associated with evidence of renal-protecting benefits. Furthermore, during the landmark Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial, a substantial reduction in major adverse cardiovascular outcomes was demonstrated with empagliflozin therapy...
January 19, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101933/associations-of-common-variants-in-the-slc16a11-tcf7l2-and-abca1-genes-with-pediatric-onset-type-2-diabetes-and-related-glycemic-traits-in-families-a-case-control-and-case-parent-trio-study
#9
América L Miranda-Lora, Miguel Cruz, Mario Molina-Díaz, Jorge Gutiérrez, Samuel Flores-Huerta, Miguel Klünder-Klünder
BACKGROUND: There is evidence of associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related glycemic traits in adults, but there is a little information about such associations in youths. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of SNPs in the TCF7L2, SLC16A11, and ABCA1 genes with T2D and related glycemic traits in Mexican children and adolescents. SUBJECTS: A total of 99 families with children with T2D (n = 327) and 83 families with children without the disease (n = 212)...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101844/prediction-of-diabetes-remission-at-long-term-following-biliopancreatic-diversion
#10
Nicola Scopinaro, Gian Franco Adami, Paolo Bruzzi, Renzo Cordera
IMPORTANCE: In obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), the marked weight loss following bariatric surgery is accompanied in a consistent number of cases by T2DM resolution or control. The clinical need of preoperative parameters reliable in predicting a positive metabolic outcome at long term following the operation has then emerged. OBSERVATION: A cohort of 135 consecutive T2DM patients with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) at more than 5 years following biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) was considered...
January 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101822/lupinus-albus-conglutin-gamma-modifies-the-gene-expressions-of-enzymes-involved-in-glucose-hepatic-production-in-vivo
#11
Ana E González-Santiago, Belinda Vargas-Guerrero, Pedro M García-López, Alma L Martínez-Ayala, José A Domínguez-Rosales, Carmen M Gurrola-Díaz
Lupinus albus seeds contain conglutin gamma (Cγ) protein, which exerts a hypoglycemic effect and positively modifies proteins involved in glucose homeostasis. Cγ could potentially be used to manage patients with impaired glucose metabolism, but there remains a need to evaluate its effects on hepatic glucose production. The present study aimed to analyze G6pc, Fbp1, and Pck1 gene expressions in two experimental animal models of impaired glucose metabolism. We also evaluated hepatic and renal tissue integrity following Cγ treatment...
January 18, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101793/substance-use-disorders-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-dangerous-but-understudied-combination
#12
REVIEW
Kimberly N Walter, Julie A Wagner, Eda Cengiz, William V Tamborlane, Nancy M Petry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews research on substance use and disorders (SUDs) among adults with diabetes. It describes epidemiological data on SUDs in persons with type 2 diabetes, overviews effects of substance use on diabetes outcomes, and discusses treatments for SUDs in patients with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of current smoking range from 10 to 26% and alcohol use disorders are 0-5%. Rates of illicit SUDs are 3-4%, but there are no population-based studies using nationally representative samples...
January 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101310/effectiveness-and-safety-of-sitagliptin-in-patients-with-beta-thalassaemia-major-and-diabetes-mellitus-a-case-series
#13
Shahrzad Zonoozi, Maria Barnard, Emma Prescott, Romilla Jones, Farrukh T Shah, Ploutarchos Tzoulis
Sitagliptin, a modern antidiabetic agent which is weight neutral and associated with low rate of hypoglycaemias, is being increasingly used in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there is a paucity of data about its efficacy and safety in beta-thalassaemia major (β-TM). This retrospective case series of five patients (mean age of 45 years) is the first study evaluating the use of sitagliptin in patients with β-TM and DM. Four patients responded well to sitagliptin, as evidenced by a decrease in fructosamine by 77 and 96μmol/L (equivalent reduction in HbA1c of 1...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101160/facile-mechanical-shaking-method-is-an-improved-isolation-approach-for-islet-preparation-and-transplantation
#14
Nina Yin, Tao Chen, Yuling Yu, Yongming Han, Fei Yan, Zhou Zheng, Zebin Chen
Successful islet isolation is crucial for islet transplantation and cell treatment for type 1 diabetes. Current isolation methods are able to obtain 500-1,000 islets per rat, which results in a waste of ≥50% of total islets. In the present study, a facile mechanical shaking method for improving islet yield (up to 1,500 per rat) was developed and summarized, which was demonstrated to be more effective than the existing well-established stationary method. The present results showed that isolated islets have a maximum yield of 1,326±152 when shaking for 15 min for the fully-cannulated pancreas...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101124/reduced-up-regulation-of-the-nitric-oxide-pathway-and-impaired-endothelial-and-smooth-muscle-functions-in-the-female-type-2-diabetic-goto-kakizaki-rat-heart
#15
Martine Desrois, Carole Lan, Jamileh Movassat, Monique Bernard
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with greater relative risk of cardiovascular diseases in women than in men, which is not well understood. Consequently, we have investigated if male and female displayed differences in cardiac function, energy metabolism, and endothelial function which could contribute to increased cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetic female. METHODS: Male and female Control and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) isolated rat hearts were perfused during 28 min with a physiological buffer before freeze-clamping for biochemical assays...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100918/cardioprotective-effects-of-sglt2-inhibitors-are-possibly-associated-with-normalization-of-the-circadian-rhythm-of-blood-pressure
#16
REVIEW
Asadur Rahman, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akira Nishiyama
Improvement in cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study provides new insight into the therapeutic use of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Although SGLT2 inhibitors have several pleiotropic effects, the underlying mechanism responsible for their cardioprotective effects remains undetermined. In this regard, the absence of a nocturnal fall in blood pressure (BP), that is, non-dipping BP, is a common phenomenon in type 2 diabetes and has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CV morbidity and mortality...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100847/genetic-background-of-aberrant-thermogenin-expression-ucp1-in-obesity-leading-to-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Małgorzata Stosio, Agata Witkowicz, Anna Kowalska, Lidia Karabon
Cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances individually and interdependently lead to chronic pathological conditions observed in cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs). In Europe, the morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular disease are the highest among all diseases. Therefore, it seems important to search for new and alternative therapies for obesity, which is the main cause of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CD). Great attention has been paid to the role of brown adipose tissue in fat burning and the possibility of transformation of the white adipose tissue to cells with brown adipose tissue function as a potential form of treatment of obesity...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100774/loss-of-cyclin-dependent-kinase-2-in-the-pancreas-links-primary-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-to-progressive-depletion-of-%C3%AE-cell-mass-and-diabetes
#18
So Yoon Kim, Ji-Hyeon Lee, Matthew J Merrins, Oksana Gavrilova, Xavier Bisteau, Philipp Kaldis, Leslie S Satin, Sushil G Rane
The failure of pancreatic islet β-cells is a major contributor to the etiology of Type 2 diabetes. β-cell dysfunction and declining β-cell mass are two mechanisms that contribute to this failure, although it is unclear if they are molecularly linked. Here, we show that the cell cycle regulator, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2), couples primary β-cell dysfunction to the progressive deterioration of β-cell mass in diabetes. Mice with pancreas-specific deletion of Cdk2 are glucose intolerant primarily due to defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100436/incidence-of-breast-cancer-in-women-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
Talha Khan Burki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100206/hypoglycemic-effects-of-trichosanthes-kirilowii-and-its-protein-constituent-in-diabetic-mice-the-involvement-of-insulin-receptor-pathway
#20
Hsin-Yi Lo, Tsai-Chung Li, Tse-Yen Yang, Chia-Cheng Li, Jen-Huai Chiang, Chien-Yun Hsiang, Tin-Yun Ho
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a serious chronic metabolic disorder. Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. (TK) is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the clinical application of TK on diabetic patients and the hypoglycemic efficacies of TK are still unclear. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the usage of Chinese herbs in patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. Glucose tolerance test was performed to analyze the hypoglycemic effect of TK...
January 18, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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