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Diabetes treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224190/metabolic-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-obese-individuals
#1
REVIEW
David E Cummings, Francesco Rubino
Several bariatric operations originally designed to promote weight loss have been found to powerfully treat type 2 diabetes, causing remission in most cases, through diverse mechanisms additional to the secondary consequences of weight loss. These observations have prompted consideration of such operations as 'metabolic surgery', used expressly to treat diabetes, including among patients who are only mildly obese or merely overweight. Large, long-term observational studies consistently demonstrate that bariatric/metabolic surgery is associated with reductions in all cardiovascular risk factors, actual cardiovascular events, microvascular diabetes complications, cancer and death...
December 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224179/antidiabetic-polypill-improves-central-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mixed-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-type-2-diabetes
#2
Carmen Infante-Garcia, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Carmen Hierro-Bujalance, Esperanza Ortegon, Eleanor Pickett, Rosemary Jackson, Fernando Hernandez-Pacho, Tara Spires-Jones, Monica Garcia-Alloza
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an important risk factor to suffer dementia, being Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common form. Both AD and T2D are closely related to aging and with a growing elderly population it might be of relevance to explore new therapeutic approaches that may slow or prevent central complications associated with metabolic disorders. Therefore, we propose the use of the antidiabetic polypill (PP), a pharmacological cocktail, commonly used by T2D patients that include metformin, aspirin, simvastatin, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224132/treatment-of-mild-to-moderate-hypoglycemia-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-treated-with-insulin-pump-therapy-are-current-recommendations-effective
#3
Véronique Gingras, Katherine Desjardins, Mohamed Raef Smaoui, Valérie Savard, Virginie Messier, Ahmad Haidar, Laurent Legault, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
AIMS: Mild-to-moderate hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 4.0 mmol/L) is recommended to be treated with 15 g of carbohydrates and to repeat the treatment if hypoglycemia persists after 15 min. This recommendation was established before intensive insulin therapy and based on studies using insulin with different pharmacokinetic profiles from actual insulin analogs showing that 15 g of glucose increases blood glucose by ~ 1.5 mmol/L in 15 min. We aimed to explore the effect of current recommended treatment of mild-to-moderate hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes (T1D) participants and factors associated with treatment effectiveness...
December 9, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224106/g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper-and-sex-specific-metabolic-homeostasis
#4
Geetanjali Sharma, Eric R Prossnitz
Obesity and metabolic syndrome display disparate prevalence and regulation between males and females. Human, as well as rodent, females with regular menstrual/estrous cycles exhibit protection from weight gain and associated chronic diseases. These beneficial effects are predominantly attributed to the female hormone estrogen, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2). E2 exerts its actions via multiple receptors, nuclear and extranuclear estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ, and the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously termed GPR30)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224103/sex-differences-and-role-of-estradiol-in-hypoglycemia-associated-counter-regulation
#5
Karen P Briski, Hussain N Alhamami, Ayed Alshamrani, Santosh K Mandal, Manita Shakya, Mostafa H H Ibrahim
Vital nerve cell functions, including maintenance of transmembrane voltage and information transfer, occur at high energy expense. Inadequate provision of the obligate metabolic fuel glucose exposes neurons to risk of dysfunction or injury. Clinical hypoglycemia rarely occurs in nondiabetic individuals but is an unfortunate regular occurrence in patients with type 1 or advanced insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Requisite strict glycemic control, involving treatment with insulin, sulfonylureas, or glinides, can cause frequent episodes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia due to defective counter-regulation, including reduced glycemic thresholds and diminished magnitude of motor responses...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224086/role-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Dongling Liu, Xiang Zeng, Xiao Li, Jawahar L Mehta, Xianwei Wang
NLRP3 inflammasome is a key multiprotein signaling platform that tightly controls inflammatory responses and coordinates antimicrobial host defenses by activating caspase-1 for the subsequent maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and induces pyroptosis. The assembly and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome are linked to the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as hypertension and diabetes, and their major consequences-myocardial remodeling. The study of the NLRP3 inflammasome in these cardiovascular disease states may uncover important triggers and endogenous modulators of the disease, and lead to new treatment strategies...
December 9, 2017: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224016/survival-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-in-a-population-referred-for-invasive-evaluation-of-coronary-disease
#7
Per Mølstad, Olaf Rødevand
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term and time trends of survival in patients with a clinical diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared to patients without diabetes in a population referred for invasive treatment of coronary disease. METHODS: Patients examined for heart disease at the Feiring LHL Clinics from March 1999 until December 2014 were followed for survival until 20 September, 2015. This yielded 43,872 patients with a known survival status including 1,326 (3...
December 9, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223954/effect-of-pcsk9-inhibitors-on-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-hypercholesterolemia-a-meta-analysis-of-35-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
REVIEW
Aris Karatasakis, Barbara A Danek, Judit Karacsonyi, Bavana V Rangan, Michele K Roesle, Thomas Knickelbine, Michael D Miedema, Houman Khalili, Zahid Ahmad, Shuaib Abdullah, Subhash Banerjee, Emmanouil S Brilakis
BACKGROUND: We sought to examine the efficacy and safety of 2 PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) inhibitors: alirocumab and evolocumab. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing treatment with and without PCSK9 inhibitors; 35 randomized controlled trials comprising 45 539 patients (mean follow-up: 85.5 weeks) were included. Mean age was 61.0±2.8 years, and mean baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 106±22 mg/dL...
December 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223934/-hypoglycaemia-in-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-insulin-therapy-results-of-the-global-hat-study-in-argentina
#9
José E Costa Gil, María A Linari, Natalia Pugnaloni, Fabio G Zambon, Federico Pérez Manghi, Mariana Rezzónico
We describe the results of the HAT study in 433 Argentinean patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and 823 with type 2 diabetes (T2D). HAT was an international non-interventional study assessing severe and non-severe hypoglycaemia in patients with T1D and T2D under insulin treatment through a two-part self-assessment questionnaire (retrospective and prospective). The annual incidence of at least one hypoglycaemic episode was 46 episode/patient/year in T1D and 14.2 in T2D (retrospective), 96.5 and 24.6 episode/patient/year in T1D and T2D, respectively (prospective)...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223854/baicalein-improves-liver-inflammation-in-diabetic-db-db-mice-by-regulating-hmgb1-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#10
Huafeng Yin, Lihao Huang, Ting Ouyang, Lvyi Chen
The current study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effects and possible mechanisms of Baicalein (BA) on the diabetic liver injury in vivo and in vitro. The results exhibited that BA significantly restored the blood glucose in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and inhibited the levels of insulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Moreover, BA strikingly attenuated the extent of steatosis in the liver tissues of diabetic mice...
December 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223734/activation-of-the-epor-%C3%AE-common-receptor-complex-by-cibinetide-ameliorates-impaired-wound-healing-in-mice-with-genetic-diabetes
#11
Alessandra Bitto, Natasha Irrera, Gabriele Pizzino, Giovanni Pallio, Federica Mannino, Mario Vaccaro, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Federica Aliquò, Letteria Minutoli, Michele R Colonna, Maria Rosaria Galeano, Michael Brines, Chiara De Ponte, Massimo Collino, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla
Diabetes is characterized by poor wound healing which currently lacks an efficacious treatment. The innate repair receptor (IRR) is a master regulator of tissue protection and repair which is expressed as a response injury or metabolic stress, including in diabetes. Activation of the IRR might provide benefit for diabetic wound healing. A specific IRR agonist cibinetide was administered in an incisional wound healing model performed mice with genetic diabetes (db+/db+) and compared to the normal wild-type. Animals were treated daily with cibinetide (30μg/kg/s...
December 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223588/-9-o-%C3%AE-l-rhamnopyranosyl-lyoniresinol-from-lespedeza-cuneata-suppresses-ovarian-cancer-cell-proliferation-through-induction-of-apoptosis
#12
Jiwon Baek, Dahae Lee, Tae Kyoung Lee, Ji Hoon Song, Ju Sung Lee, Seong Lee, Sang-Woo Yoo, Ki Sung Kang, Eunjung Moon, Sanghyun Lee, Ki Hyun Kim
Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don. (Fabaceae), known as Chinese bushclover or sericea lespedeza, has been used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes, hematuria, and insomnia, and it has been reported that bioactive compounds from L. cuneata possess various pharmacological properties. However, there has been no study to determine the active compounds from L. cuneata with potential activity against ovarian cancer. This study aimed to isolate cytotoxic compounds from L. cuneata and identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoptosis pathway in ovarian cancer cells...
November 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223583/the-global-burden-of-tuberculosis-results-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#13
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: An understanding of the trends in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality is crucial to tracking of the success of tuberculosis control programmes and identification of remaining challenges. We assessed trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis over the past 25 years for 195 countries and territories. METHODS: We analysed 10 691 site-years of vital registration data, 768 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 361 site-years of mortality surveillance data using the Cause of Death Ensemble model to estimate tuberculosis mortality rates...
December 6, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223467/does-insulin-therapy-matter-determinants-of-diabetes-care-outcomes
#14
Jennifer A Andersen, Larry Gibbs
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to care standards for people with diabetes (PWDs) on insulin therapy versus PWDs who are not on insulin therapy, controlling for social determinants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Utilizing the United States 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey, this study used logistic regression analyses to estimate differences in self-care behaviors, healthcare provider quality of care, and diabetic complications for individuals on insulin therapy and individuals not on insulin therapy...
December 6, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223443/response-to-pioglitazone-in-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-with-vs-without-type-2-diabetes
#15
Fernando Bril, Srilaxmi Kalavalapalli, Virginia C Clark, Romina Lomonaco, Consuelo Soldevila-Pico, I-Chia Liu, Beverly Orsak, Fermin Tio, Kenneth Cusi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pioglitazone is effective for long-term treatment of patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with prediabetes or type-2 diabetes. However, it is not clear how the presence of type-2 diabetes affects the drug's efficacy. We compared metabolic and histologic responses to pioglitazone in patients with NASH and prediabetes vs type-2 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of adults with biopsy-proven NASH (52 with type-2 diabetes and 49 with prediabetes), enrolled from the general population of San Antonio, Texas from 2008 through 2014...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223135/simultaneous-anti-diabetic-and-anti-vascular-calcification-activity-of-nocardia-sp-utmc-751
#16
Fatemeh Salimi, Saeedeh Jafari-Nodooshan, Nazanin Zohourian, Sedighe Kolivand, Javad Hamedi
Alpha-amylase can act as a significant player in causing hyperglycemia, leading to protein glycation, which is the main complication in this condition, besides causing vascular calcification (VC), an important vascular failure caused due to thisIn order to find a natural source of the biocompounds with inhibitory effects on alpha-amylase,, fifteen fermentation broth extracts of actinobacteria (FBEA) (200 μg mL-1 ) have been screened. Finally, the effects of the most efficient FBE have been investigated on osteopontin (OPN, a VC marker) mRNA level in the vascular smooth muscle cells under the calcification conditions, and the chemical constituents of the most efficient FBE were analyzed using GC-MS analysis...
December 9, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222997/-that-wasn-t-really-a-place-to-worry-about-diabetes-housing-access-and-diabetes-self-management-among-low-income-adults
#17
Danya E Keene, Monica Guo, Sascha Murillo
Lack of affordable housing access represents a significant and growing problem for low-income households in the United States and these housing challenges may present barriers to the management of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. In this qualitative study, we examined how both housing challenges and housing resources shaped diabetes self-management behaviors. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 low-income residents of one US city, New Haven, Connecticut, who had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and either resided in or qualified for subsidized housing...
December 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222714/domperidone-prolongs-oral-to-duodenal-transit-time-in-video-capsule-endoscopy
#18
Michael Mcfarlane, B Liu, C Nwokolo
PURPOSE: Domperidone is thought to accelerate gastric emptying via D2 receptor antagonism at the gastro-oesophageal and gastro-duodenal junctions. Listed in the BNF as a prokinetic anti-emetic, it has been used in video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to accelerate capsule delivery to the small intestine. We audited VCEs performed at UHCW from 2011, when as standard practice, domperidone was given pre-VCE, to 2012, after its discontinuation due to doubts about its effectiveness. METHODS: Thirty-one patients received oral domperidone 20 mg pre-VCE...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222386/15-diabetes-advocacy-standards-of-medical-care-in-diabetes-2018
#19
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) "Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes" includes ADA's current clinical practice recommendations and is intended to provide the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals and guidelines, and tools to evaluate quality of care. Members of the ADA Professional Practice Committee, a multidisciplinary expert committee, are responsible for updating the Standards of Care annually, or more frequently as warranted. For a detailed description of ADA standards, statements, and reports, as well as the evidence-grading system for ADA's clinical practice recommendations, please refer to the Standards of Care Introduction Readers who wish to comment on the Standards of Care are invited to do so at professional...
January 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222385/14-diabetes-care-in-the-hospital-standards-of-medical-care-in-diabetes-2018
#20
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) "Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes" includes ADA's current clinical practice recommendations and is intended to provide the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals and guidelines, and tools to evaluate quality of care. Members of the ADA Professional Practice Committee, a multidisciplinary expert committee, are responsible for updating the Standards of Care annually, or more frequently as warranted. For a detailed description of ADA standards, statements, and reports, as well as the evidence-grading system for ADA's clinical practice recommendations, please refer to the Standards of Care Introduction Readers who wish to comment on the Standards of Care are invited to do so at professional...
January 2018: Diabetes Care
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