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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161793/effect-of-rifaximin-on-hepatic-fibrosis-in-bile-duct-ligated-rat-model
#1
Seung Kak Shin, Oh Sang Kwon, Jong Joon Lee, Yeon Ho Park, Cheol Soo Choi, Sung Hwan Jeong, Duck Joo Choi, Yun Soo Kim, Ju Hyun Kim
Background/Aims: The translocation of bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides from the gut can promote fibrosis in cirrhotic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rifaximin on hepatic fibrosis in a bile duct-ligated rat model. Methods: The bile duct ligation (BDL) was carried out for eight days (acute injury model: sham-operated rats [G1], BDL rats [G2], and BDL rats treated with rifaximin [G3]) or 22 days (chronic injury model: sham-operated rats [G4], BDL rats [G5], and BDL rats treated with rifaximin [G6])...
November 25, 2017: Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe Chi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161710/distribution-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-and-subtypes-in-the-metropolitan-area-of-naples-italy-in-the-era-of-interferon-free-regimens
#2
Elena Grimaldi, Maria Elena Della Pepa, Francesca Martora, Pasqualino Magliocca, Maria Rosaria Iovene, Nicola Coppola, Giovanna Donnarumma, Massimiliano Galdiero
AIMS: The objective of this work was to study the distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes from 2010 to 2015 in 1,221 anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive specimens from patients living in the metropolitan area of Naples, since HCV genotypes and subtypes remain cornerstones in the management of chronic HCV infection even in the directly acting antivirals era. METHODS: The study was carried out on 1,221 anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive plasma samples collected between April 2010 and December 2015...
November 22, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161691/failure-to-thrive-in-the-context-of-carney-complex
#3
Amit Tirosh, Adi Auerbach, Belen Bonella, Phaedon D Zavras, Elena Belyavskaya, Charalampos Lyssikatos, Karen Meir, Ram Weiss, Hagit Daum, Maya B Lodish, David Gillis, Constantine A Stratakis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carney complex (CNC) is a rare syndrome associated with multiple tumors and several other unique manifestations. We describe the clinical, genetic, and laboratory findings in a cohort of patients with CNC and failure to thrive (FTT). METHODS: A retrospective case series of pediatric patients with CNC presenting with FTT. RESULTS: We describe a patient with infantile Cushing syndrome (CS) who presented with severe FTT and liver disease; the patient was subsequently diagnosed with CNC...
November 21, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161598/roles-and-potential-mechanisms-of-selenium-in-countering-thyrotoxicity-of-dehp
#4
Pei Zhang, Xie Guan, Min Yang, Li Zeng, Changjiang Liu
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a ubiquitous environmental contaminant could disturb thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis. Selenium as an essential trace element has protective effects on thyroids. To verify roles of selenium in countering thyrotoxicity of DEHP and elucidate potential mechanisms, Sprague-Dawley rats and Nthy-ori 3-1 cells were treated with DEHP or/and selenomethionine (SeMet). Results showed that selenium supplementation elevated plasma free thyroxine (FT4) that was decreased by DEHP, and free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were also partially recovered...
November 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161418/no-improvement-in-hemoglobin-a1c-following-hepatitis-c-viral-clearance-in-patients-with-and-without-hiv
#5
Chloe S Chaudhury, Julia Sheehan, Cheryl Chairez, Elizabeth Akoth, Chloe Gross, Rachel Silk, Sarah Kattakuzhy, Elana Rosenthal, Shyam Kottilil, Henry Masur, Colleen Hadigan
Hepatitis C clearance with directly acting antivirals (DAAs) may be associated with acute decreases in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). We prospectively evaluated 251 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected subjects (31% human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive) pre- and post-DAA therapy (median follow-up 28 months). Changes in HbA1c and glucose were minimal and did not differ by sustained virologic response (SVR), HIV, diabetes, or fibrosis. Following SVR, mean change in HbA1c was -0.022 ± 0.53%; however, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161258/insulin-resistance-and-hyperandrogenism-drive-steatosis-and-fibrosis-risk-in-young-females-with-pcos
#6
Salvatore Petta, Alessandro Ciresi, Jessica Bianco, Vincenzo Geraci, Roberta Boemi, Luigi Galvano, Franco Magliozzo, Giovanni Merlino, Antonio Craxì, Carla Giordano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) recognize obesity and insulin resistance (IR) as common pathogenic background. We assessed 1) whether PCOS is a risk factor for steatosis, and 2) the impact, in PCOS patients, of IR and hyperandrogenism on steatosis and fibrosis. METHODS: We considered 202 consecutive Italian PCOS nondiabetic patients and 101 age-matched controls. PCOS was diagnosed applying the Rotterdam diagnostic criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161087/the-hygiene-hypothesis-in-the-age-of-the-microbiome
#7
Markus J Ege
The original version of the hygiene hypothesis suggested that infections transmitted early in life by "unhygienic contact" prevented allergies. Examples were endemic fecal-oral infections by viral, bacterial, or protozoic pathogens, such as hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori, or Toxoplasma gondii. Later, this concept also included microorganisms beyond pathogens, such as commensals and symbionts, and the hygiene hypothesis was extended to inflammatory diseases in general. An impressive illustration of the hygiene hypothesis was found in the consistent farm effect on asthma and allergies, which has partly been attributed to immunomodulatory properties of endotoxin as emitted by livestock...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160945/lacosamide-pharmacokinetics-in-a-critically-ill-patient-receiving-continuous-venovenous-hemofiltration
#8
Miguel J Franquiz, Shamir N Kalaria, Michael J Armahizer, Mathangi Gopalakrishnan, Paul J McCarthy, Neeraj Badjatia
OBJECTIVE: Lacosamide is a new generation antiepileptic drug (AED) that is eliminated by both hepatic and renal mechanisms. Lacosamide elimination by Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) has never been studied. The objective of this case report was to describe lacosamide pharmacokinetics in the setting of CRRT. METHODS: Case report of a single patient admitted to the study center with status epilepticus and multi-organ failure. The patient required both continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and several AEDs...
November 21, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160931/hepatitis-c-viremic-donors-for-hepatitis-c-negative-liver-transplant-recipients-ready-for-prime-time
#9
EDITORIAL
Elizabeth C Verna, David S Goldberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160763/efficient-brain-uptake-of-piperine-and-its-pharmacokinetics-characterization-after-oral-administration
#10
Tianjing Ren, Qianwen Wang, Chenrui Li, Mengbi Yang, Zhong Zuo
1. Piperine, the major biological active component in black pepper has been associated with miscellaneous pharmacological effects, especially on central nervous system. To correlates with its neurological activity, a comprehensive pharmacokinetic profile of piperine in brain, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid after oral administration in rats was investigated in the current study. 2. It was noted that piperine could efficiently penetrate and homogeneously distribute into brain with similar pharmacokinetics profiles in each region...
November 21, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160747/lipopolysaccharide-mediates-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-by-regulating-autophagy-and-retinoic-acid-signaling
#11
Ming Chen, Jiaxing Liu, Wenqi Yang, Wenhua Ling
Bacterial translocation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leakage occur at a very early stage of liver fibrosis in animal models. We studied the role of LPS in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we demonstrated that LPS treatment led to a dramatic increase in autophagosome formation and autophagic flux in LX-2 cells and HSCs, which was mediated through the AKT-MTOR and AMPK-ULK1 pathway. LPS significantly decreased the lipid content, including the lipid droplet (LD) number and lipid staining area in HSCs; pretreatment with macroautophagy/autophagy inhibitors or silencing ATG5 attenuated this decrease...
November 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160516/hepatitis-e-seroprevalence-and-associated-factors-in-rural-settlers-in-central-brazil
#12
Nara Rubia de Freitas, Sheila Araújo Teles, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Marcos Andre de Matos, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Regina Maria Bringel Martins
INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and associated factors were investigated in rural settlements in Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 464 settlers were interviewed, and serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG/IgM. Positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS: Sixteen participants (3.4%; 95% CI 2.0-5.7) were positive for anti-HEV IgG. None was positive for anti-HEV IgM. HEV RNA was not detected. Dwelling in a rural settlement for >5 years was associated with HEV seropositivity...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160436/use-of-injected-heroin-and-risk-of-hepatitis-c-in-three-cities-in-colombia
#13
Dedsy Yajaira Berbesi-Fernández, Angela Maria Segura-Cardona, Liliana Patricia Montoya-Velez, Alexandra Ángel Santamaría
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C is one of the most neglected diseases by governments internationally. OBJECTIVE: Identify the prevalence of hepatitis C and associated injection drug users in three cities of factors Colombia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 668 injecting drug users recruited through respondent-driven sampling, inquired about demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Laboratory testing was used on filter paper and cases of hepatitis C viral load tests with RNA were confirmed...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160366/erdosteine-ameliorates-the-harmful-effects-of-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-on-the-liver-of-rats
#14
Aziz Mutlu Barlas, Kemal Kismet, Serap Erel, Serdar Kuru, Turgut Cavusoglu, Mehmet Senes, Zeynep Adiyaman, Pinar Celepli, Sema Hucumenoglu, Recep Pekcici
PURPOSE: To investigate the potential protective effects of erdosteine against the harmful effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the liver in an experimental rat model. METHODS: Forty rats were divided into 4 groups. In the sham group, only the hepatic pedicle was mobilized. No other manipulation or treatment was performed. In the other groups, ischemia was achieved by clamping the hepatic pedicle for 60 min. After that, 90 min reperfusion was provided. In the control group, no treatment was given...
October 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160125/effects-of-paeoniflorin-on-the-activities-and-mrna-expression-of-rat-cyp1a2-cyp2c11-and-cyp3a1-enzymes-in-vivo
#15
Sicong Li, Xuting Li, Dingsheng Yuan, Bin Wang, Rui Yang, Min Zhang, Jinliang Li, Fuqiang Zeng
1. Paeoniflorin is the major constituent in extracts of the peony root, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of paeoniflorin on the activities and mRNA expression of the rat hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP1A2), CYP2C11 and CYP3A1 in vivo. 2. Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were treated with paeoniflorin at the dosage of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg or 0.9% sodium chloride solution by intragastric administration for 7 days, then were given probe drugs phenacetin (CYP1A2), tolbutamide (CYP2C11), or midazolam (CYP3A1) orally on the eighth day...
November 21, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160080/adjuvant-activity-of-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-chitosan-nanoparticles-characterized-by-mast-cell-activation-and-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-17-production
#16
Sandra Jesus, Edna Soares, Gerrit Borchard, Olga Borges
Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are extremely attractive vaccine adjuvants, able to promote antigen delivery and in some instances, exert intrinsic immunostimulatory properties that enhance antigen specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/chitosan NPs were designed with the aim of being able to combine the properties of the 2 polymers in the preparation of an adjuvant for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). This manuscript reports important results of an in vitro mechanistic study and immunization studies with HBsAg associated with different concentrations of the nanoparticles...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159910/patients-with-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-need-a-personalized-management-a-lesson-from-clinical-practice
#17
Edoardo G Giannini, Laura Bucci, Francesca Garuti, Matteo Brunacci, Barbara Lenzi, Matteo Valente, Eugenio Caturelli, Giuseppe Cabibbo, Fabio Piscaglia, Roberto Virdone, Martina Felder, Francesca Ciccarese, Francesco Giuseppe Foschi, Rodolfo Sacco, Gianluca Svegliati Baroni, Fabio Farinati, Gian Lodovico Rapaccini, Andrea Olivani, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maria Di Marco, Filomena Morisco, Marco Zoli, Alberto Masotto, Franco Borzio, Luisa Benvegnù, Fabio Marra, Antonio Colecchia, Gerardo Nardone, Mauro Bernardi, Franco Trevisani
The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer advanced stage (BCLC C) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) includes a heterogeneous population, where sorafenib alone is the recommended treatment. In this study our aim was to assess treatment and overall survival (OS) of BCLC C patients sub-classified according to clinical features (Performance Status [PS], macro-vascular invasion [MVI], extra-hepatic spread [EHS] or MVI+EHS) determining their allocation to this stage. From the Italian Liver Cancer database, we analysed 835 consecutive BCLC C patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2014...
November 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159841/trends-in-hepatitis-c-related-mortality-in-switzerland
#18
O Keiser, F Giudici, B Müllhaupt, C Junker, J-F Dufour, D Moradpour, P Bruggmann, B Terziroli, D Semela, M Brezzi, B Bertisch, J Estill, F Negro, A Spoerri
In order to accurately assess the burden of hepatitis C (HCV) and develop effective interventions, we must understand the magnitude and trends of mortality related to the disease. In the United States, HCV-related mortality is continuously increasing. We have no comparable data for Switzerland and other European countries, although a modelling study predicted a similar increase. We analysed time trends (1 January 1995-31 December 2014) in HCV-specific mortality rates in the Swiss general population using the death registry of the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159839/increased-renal-echogenicity-in-children-with-appendicitis
#19
Hila Tal, Daniel Ben-Mordechay, Aviva Ben-Shlush, Lisa Raviv-Zilka, Michalle Soudack
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound (US) is an important modality for the detection of acute appendicitis in children but has limited sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, additional US findings may contribute to the diagnosis. In our experience, children with acute appendicitis often have increased renal cortical echogenicity on US imaging. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of increased renal cortical echogenicity with appendicitis. METHODS: This study included 240 consecutive pediatric patients with no renal or liver disease who underwent US examinations for suspected appendicitis between February 2014 and January 2016...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159825/modulation-of-the-intestinal-bile-acid-fxr-fgf15-axis-improves-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-mice
#20
Phillipp Hartmann, Katrin Hochrath, Angela Horvath, Peng Chen, Caroline T Seebauer, Cristina Llorente, Lirui Wang, Yazen Alnouti, Derrick E Fouts, Peter Stärkel, Rohit Loomba, Sally Coulter, Christopher Liddle, Ruth T Yu, Lei Ling, Stephen J Rossi, Alex M DePaoli, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans, David A Brenner, Bernd Schnabl
Alcoholic liver disease is associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Functional consequences of alcohol-associated dysbiosis are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify a mechanism of how changes in the intestinal microbiota contribute to alcoholic liver disease. Metagenomic sequencing of intestinal contents demonstrated that chronic ethanol feeding in mice is associated with an overrepresentation of bacterial genomic DNA encoding choloylglycine hydrolase, which deconjugates bile acids in the intestine...
November 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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