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Hadis Shakeri, Andreas B Gevaert, Dorien M Schrijvers, Guido R Y De Meyer, Gilles W De Keulenaer, Pieter-Jan D F Guns, Katrien Lemmens, Vincent F Segers
Aims: Cardiovascular ageing is a key determinant of life expectancy. Cellular senescence, a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest, is an important contributor to ageing due to the accumulation of damaged cells. Targeting cellular senescence could prevent age-related cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), an epidermal growth factor with cardioprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects, on cellular senescence. Methods & results: Senescence was induced in cultured rat aortic endothelial cells (ECs) and aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by 2 hours exposure to 30 µM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
March 8, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Yanjie Li, Clemens Altaner
Time and resource are the restricting factors for the wider use of chemical information of wood in tree breeding programs. NIR offers an advantage over wet-chemical analysis in these aspects and is starting to be used for tree breeding. This work describes the development of a NIR-based assessment of extractive content in heartwood of E. bosistoana, which does not require milling and conditioning of the samples. This was achieved by applying the signal processing algorithms (external parameter orthogonalisation (EPO) and significance multivariate correlation (sMC)) to spectra obtained from solid wood cores, which were able to correct for moisture content, grain direction and sample form...
March 1, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Alice Varnava, Robert Bracchi, Karen Samuels, Dyfrig A Hughes, Philip A Routledge
BACKGROUND: The All Wales Medicines Strategy Group (AWMSG) develops prescribing advice and is responsible for appraising new medicines for use in Wales. In this article, we examine the medicines appraisal process in Wales, its timeliness and its impact on medicines availability in Wales, and compare its processes and recommendations with the two other UK health technology appraisal bodies [the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Scottish Medicines Consortium (SMC)]...
March 8, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Virginia Morón-Calvente, Salvador Romero-Pinedo, Sofía Toribio-Castelló, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Ana C Abadía-Molina, Domingo I Rojas-Barros, Shawn T Beug, Eric C LaCasse, Alex MacKenzie, Robert Korneluk, Francisco Abadía-Molina
Monocytes and macrophages constitute the first line of defense of the immune system against external pathogens. Macrophages have a highly plastic phenotype depending on environmental conditions; the extremes of this phenotypic spectrum are a pro-inflammatory defensive role (M1 phenotype) and an anti-inflammatory tissue-repair one (M2 phenotype). The Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins have important roles in the regulation of several cellular processes, including innate and adaptive immunity. In this study we have analyzed the differential expression of the IAPs, NAIP, cIAP1 and cIAP2, during macrophage differentiation and polarization into M1 or M2...
2018: PloS One
Alexej Bubnov, Cyril Vacek, Michał Czerwiński, Terezia Vojtylová, Wiktor Piecek, Věra Hamplová
Several new lactic acid derivatives containing the keto linkage group far from the chiral part and short alkyl chains have been synthesized and characterised by polarising optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, as well as electro-optic and dielectric spectroscopy. The materials possess a self-assembling behaviour on the nanoscale level as they form polar smectic liquid crystalline mesophases, namely the orthogonal paraelectric SmA* and the tilted ferroelectric SmC* phases, in a broad temperature range down to room temperature...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
F Zhou, Y Tan, X-H Chen, F-L Wu, D-J Yang, X-W Zhang, X-M Wu, Y-Q Deng
OBJECTIVE: To study the improving effect of atorvastatin on plaque stability in diabetes mellitus (DM) mice complicated with atherosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice were used to establish the DM mouse model. Half of the mice received atorvastatin after successful modeling. ApoE-/- and C57BL/6J mice were used as controls. Oil red O staining and Masson staining were performed to detect the lipid and collagen components in mice. Immunohistochemical assay was used to observe the expressions of smooth muscle cell (SMC) and Ly-6c...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Amadou Barry, Djibrilla Issiaka, Tiangoua Traore, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Boubacar Diarra, Issaka Sagara, Diakalia Kone, Ogobara K Doumbo, Patrick Duffy, Michal Fried, Alassane Dicko
BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), the administration of complete therapeutic courses of antimalarials to children aged 3-59 months during the malaria transmission season, is a new strategy recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for malaria control in Sahelian countries such as Mali with seasonal transmission. The strategy is a highly cost-effective approach to reduce malaria burden in these areas. Despite the substantial benefits of SMC on malaria infection and disease, the optimal approach to deliver SMC remains to be determined...
2018: PloS One
Zhi-Hua Wan, Guo-Hao Li, Yong-Lian Guo, Wen-Zhou Li, Lin Chen, Yuan-Jie Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cavernous nerve injury (CNI) causes fibrosis and loss of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the corpus cavernosum and leads to erectile dysfunction, and lysyl oxidase (LOX) activation has been found to play an important role in fibrotic diseases. AIM: To evaluate the role of LOX in penile fibrosis after bilateral CNI (BCNI). METHODS: Rats underwent BCNI or a sham operation and were treated with vehicle or β-aminopropionitrile, a specific LOX activity inhibitor...
March 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Ping Lü, Qibin Jiao, Daisuke Shimura, Yoichiro Kusakari, Fang Liu, Susumu Minamisawa
BACKGROUND: Previous research has revealed that patent vein grafts lose their venous identity Eph-B4 but not gain arterial identity Ephrin-B2 during adaptation to the arterial circulation, and vascular identity marker, e.g., the Eph-B4 signaling is a critical determinant of venous wall thickness of vein grafts. But what is the remodeling pattern, especially the remodeling pattern of vascular identity in the venous segment of arteriovenous shunt at a late stage post-operation has not been fully explored...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Eglantina Idrizaj, Rachele Garella, Fabio Francini, Roberta Squecco, Maria Caterina Baccari
AIM: To investigate the signaling pathways involved in the relaxin (RLX) effects on ileal preparations from mice through mechanical and electrophysiological experiments. METHODS: For mechanical experiments, ileal preparations from female mice were mounted in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution. The mechanical activity was recorded via force-displacement transducers, which were coupled to a polygraph for continuous recording of isometric tension. Electrophysiological measurements were performed in current- and voltage-clamp conditions by a microelectrode inserted in a single smooth muscle cell (SMC) of the ileal longitudinal layer...
February 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Rebecca F Grais, Ibrahim M Laminou, Lynda Woi-Messe, Rockyath Makarimi, Seidou H Bouriema, Celine Langendorf, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Umberto D'Alessandro, Philippe J Guérin, Thierry Fandeur, Carol H Sibley
BACKGROUND: In Niger, malaria transmission is markedly seasonal with most of the disease burden occurring in children during the rainy season. Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) with amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ + SP) is recommended in the country to be administered monthly just before and during the rainy season. Moreover, clinical decisions on use of SP for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) now depend upon the validated molecular markers for SP resistance in Plasmodium falciparum observed in the local parasite population...
February 27, 2018: Malaria Journal
Stefan Blunder, Barbara Messner, Bernhard Scharinger, Christian Doppler, Iris Zeller, Andreas Zierer, Günther Laufer, David Bernhard
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the potential life-threatening consequences of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs), the pathogenesis of these diseases is still poorly understood. While some aspects of TAA formation have been elucidated, the role of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in both bicuspid aortic valve (BAV)-associated and degenerative tricuspid aortic valve (TAV)-associated TAAs has not yet been fully unravelled. Thus, this work was aimed at uncovering processes in SMC biology that may contribute to TAA formation...
February 5, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Gi Jeong Kim, Dong-Hoon Kim, Kyueng-Whan Min, Young Hwan Kim, Young Ha Oh
PURPOSE: Decreased expression of p27kip1 and p57kip2 is considered as a prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Previous in vitro studies have reported that reduced expression of p27kip1 and p57kip2 is associated with resistance to taxane, which is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we investigated the association of low p27kip1 and p57kip2 expression with outcomes in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: We investigated 226 cases of breast cancer from Kangbuk SMC between 2000 and 2005...
February 14, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Zhou Tan, Jingya Li, Xuejing Zhang, Xueqin Yang, Zunyi Zhang, Ke-Jie Yin, Huarong Huang
TP53 is a widely studied tumor suppressor gene that controls various cellular functions including cell differentiation. However, little is known about its functional roles in smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation from embryonic stem cells (ESCs). SMC differentiation is at the heart of our understanding of vascular development, normal blood pressure homeostasis and the pathogenesis of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, restenosis, as well as aneurysm. Using retinoid acid (RA)-induced SMC differentiation models, we observed that p53 expression is increased during in vitro differentiation of mouse ESCs into SMCs...
February 26, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Chengzhong Liu
There are two systems as the red channel system and the white channel system carved or painted on the wooden figurine of Laoguanshan of Benque school. The two systems are horizontally staggered each other without overlapped. The red channel system, similar to Shuangbaoshan wooden figurine, have channels, but without points. For the white channel system, the running courses of channels result from the sensation distributions of the points after optional stimulation. The Laoguanshan wooden figurine focuses on the illustration of the white channel system, named as white channel figurine...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Mahipal Ganji, Indra A Shaltiel, Shveta Bisht, Eugene Kim, Ana Kalichava, Christian H Haering, Cees Dekker
It has been hypothesized that Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes such as condensin and cohesin spatially organize chromosomes by extruding DNA into large loops. Here, we provide unambiguous evidence for loop extrusion by directly visualizing the formation and processive extension of DNA loops by yeast condensin in real-time. We find that a single condensin complex is able to extrude tens of kilobase pairs of DNA at a force-dependent speed of up to 1,500 base pairs per second, using the energy of ATP hydrolysis...
February 22, 2018: Science
Islam M Ghazi, Marguerite L Monogue, Masakatsu Tsuji, David P Nicolau
We evaluated the in vivo efficacy of humanized exposures of cefiderocol, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, against a test panel of P. aeruginosa (PSA) previously shown to develop resistance to 2 preclinical candidate siderophores (MB-1 and SMC-3176). In the thigh infection model, the PSA bacterial density in untreated controls grew from 5.54 ± 0.23 to 8.68 ± 0.57 log10 CFU over 24 h. The humanized cefiderocol exposure resulted in >1 log10 CFU reduction in all 8 isolates, while MB-1 and SMC-3176 exhibited variable activity similar to that previously reported...
February 22, 2018: Pharmacology
Minette-Joëlle Zeukeng, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez, Pascal Bonnabry
INTRODUCTION: This study compared the characteristics of new human drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicine Agency (EMA), and Swissmedic (SMC) in the period 2007 to 2016. METHODS: The list of new drugs and therapeutic biologics approved by the FDA, the EMA, and SMC in the period 2007 to 2016 was collected from websites of those agencies. The study included regulatory information, approval date, and indication for each drug...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Karen S Moulton, Marcella Li, Keith Strand, Shawna Burgett, Penn McClatchey, Rebecca Tucker, Seth B Furgeson, Sizhao Lu, Bruce Kirkpatrick, Joseph C Cleveland, Raphael A Nemenoff, Amrut V Ambardekar, Mary Cm Weiser-Evans
Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an essential regulator of the differentiated vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype. Our goal was to establish that PTEN loss promotes SMC dedifferentiation and pathological vascular remodeling in human atherosclerotic coronary arteries and nonatherosclerotic coronary arteries exposed to continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). Arteries were categorized as nonatherosclerotic hyperplasia (NAH), atherosclerotic hyperplasia (AH), or complex plaque (CP)...
February 22, 2018: JCI Insight
Ying-Hsien Kao, Po-Han Chen, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Yo-Chen Chang, Yu-Chun Lin, Ming-Shian Tsai, Po-Huang Lee, Cheng-I Cheng
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) during embryogenesis and injury repair of vessel walls. Whether mechanical stimuli modulate HDGF expression remains unknown. This study aimed at investigating whether cyclic mechanical stretch plays a regulatory role in HDGF expression and regenerative cytokine production in aortic SMCs. A SMC cell line was grown on a silicone-based elastomer chamber with extracellular matrix coatings (either type I collagen or fibronectin) and received cyclic and uni-axial mechanical stretches with 10% deformation at frequency 1 Hz...
February 21, 2018: Bioscience Reports
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