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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102444/patients-with-bicuspid-and-tricuspid-aortic-valve-exhibit-distinct-regional-microrna-signatures-in-mildly-dilated-ascending-aorta
#1
Sebastian Albinsson, Alessandro Della Corte, Azra Alajbegovic, Katarzyna K Krawczyk, Ciro Bancone, Umberto Galderisi, Marilena Cipollaro, Marisa De Feo, Amalia Forte
MicroRNAs are able to modulate gene expression in a range of diseases. We focused on microRNAs as potential contributors to the pathogenesis of ascending aorta (AA) dilatation in patients with stenotic tricuspid (TAV) or bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Aortic specimens were collected from the 'concavity' and the 'convexity' of mildly dilated AAs and of normal AAs from heart transplant donors. Aortic RNA was analyzed through PCR arrays, profiling the expression of 84 microRNAs involved in cardiovascular disease...
January 19, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101099/magnetic-resonance-volumetry-prediction-of-subjective-memory-complaints-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-associations-with-genetic-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#2
Sigbjørn Rogne, Torgil Vangberg, Petter Eldevik, Gry Wikran, Ellisiv B Mathiesen, Henrik Schirmer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are strong predictors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subsequent Alzheimer's disease. Our aims were to see if fully automated cerebral MR volume measurements could distinguish subjects with SMC and MCI from controls, and if probable parental late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, total plasma homocysteine, and cardiovascular risk factors were associated with MR volumetric findings. METHODS: 198 stroke-free subjects comprised the control (n = 58), the SMC (n = 25) and the MCI (n = 115) groups...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099082/therapeutics-targeting-drivers-of-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-and-acute-aortic-dissections-insights-from-predisposing-genes-and-mouse-models
#3
Dianna M Milewicz, Siddharth K Prakash, Francesco Ramirez
Thoracic aortic diseases, including aneurysms and dissections of the thoracic aorta, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for thoracic aortic disease include increased hemodynamic forces on the ascending aorta, typically due to poorly controlled hypertension, and heritable genetic variants. The altered genes predisposing to thoracic aortic disease either disrupt smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction or adherence to an impaired extracellular matrix, or decrease canonical transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089542/parallelization-and-high-performance-computing-enables-automated-statistical-inference-of-multi-scale-models
#4
Nick Jagiella, Dennis Rickert, Fabian J Theis, Jan Hasenauer
Mechanistic understanding of multi-scale biological processes, such as cell proliferation in a changing biological tissue, is readily facilitated by computational models. While tools exist to construct and simulate multi-scale models, the statistical inference of the unknown model parameters remains an open problem. Here, we present and benchmark a parallel approximate Bayesian computation sequential Monte Carlo (pABC SMC) algorithm, tailored for high-performance computing clusters. pABC SMC is fully automated and returns reliable parameter estimates and confidence intervals...
January 10, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087137/nos-interacting-protein-nosip-is-increased-in-the-colon-of-patients-with-hirschsprung-s-disease
#5
Anne-Marie O'Donnell, David Coyle, Prem Puri
PURPOSE: Voltage-dependent K(+) channels (Kv channels) participate in electrical rhythmicity and smooth muscle responses and are regulated by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Kv channels also participate in the interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) responses to neural inputs. The Kv family consists of 12 subfamilies, Kv1-Kv12, with five members of the Kv7 family identified to date: Kv7.1-Kv7.5. A recent study identified the potassium channel Kv7.5 as having a role in the excitability of ICC-IM in the mouse colon...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079982/recombinant-soluble-apyrase-apt102-inhibits-thrombosis-and-intimal-hyperplasia-in-vein-grafts-without-adversely-affecting-hemostasis-or-re-endothelialization
#6
Y Ji, O Adeola, T L Strawn, S S Jeong, R Chen, W P Fay
BACKGROUND: Occlusion of vein grafts (VGs) after bypass surgery due to thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia (IH) is a major clinical problem. Apyrases are enzymes that scavenge extracellular ATP and ADP and promote adenosine formation at sites of vascular injury and hence have potential to inhibit vein graft pathology. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of recombinant soluble human apyrase, APT102, on platelets, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and thrombosis and IH in murine VGs...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079757/pathogenesis-of-abdominal-pain-in-bowel-obstruction-role-of-mechanical-stress-induced-upregulation-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-gut-smooth-muscle-cells
#7
You-Min Lin, Yu Fu, John Winston, Ravi Radhakrishnan, Sushil K Sarna, Li-Yen M Huang, Xuan-Zheng Shi
Abdominal pain is one of the major symptoms in bowel obstruction (BO); its cellular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical stress in obstruction upregulates expression of nociception mediator nerve growth factor (NGF) in gut smooth muscle cells (SMC), and NGF sensitizes primary sensory nerve to contribute to pain in BO. Partial colon obstruction was induced with a silicon band implanted in the distal bowel of Sprague-Dawley rats. Colon-projecting sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, T13 to L2) were identified for patch clamp and gene expression studies...
January 6, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076368/functional-laterality-of-task-evoked-activation-in-sensorimotor-cortex-of-preterm-infants-an-optimized-3-t-fmri-study-employing-a-customized-neonatal-head-coil
#8
Lukas Scheef, Jurek A Nordmeyer-Massner, Adam Pr Smith-Collins, Nicole Müller, Gaby Stegmann-Woessner, Jacob Jankowski, Jürgen Gieseke, Mark Born, Hermann Seitz, Peter Bartmann, Hans H Schild, Klaas P Pruessmann, Axel Heep, Henning Boecker
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in neonates has been introduced as a non-invasive method for studying sensorimotor processing in the developing brain. However, previous neonatal studies have delivered conflicting results regarding localization, lateralization, and directionality of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in sensorimotor cortex (SMC). Amongst the confounding factors in interpreting neonatal fMRI studies include the use of standard adult MR-coils providing insufficient signal to noise, and liberal statistical thresholds, compromising clinical interpretation at the single subject level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074631/transdifferentiation-of-human-dermal-fibroblasts-to-smooth-muscle-like-cells-to-study-the-effect-of-myh11-and-acta2-mutations-in-aortic-aneurysms
#9
Kak K Yeung, Natalija Bogunovic, Niels Keekstra, Adriaan A M Beunders, Jorrit Pals, Kim van der Kuij, Eline Overwater, Willem Wisselink, Jan D Blankensteijn, Victor W M van Hinsbergh, Rene J P Musters, Gerard Pals, Dimitra Micha, Behrouz Zandieh-Doulabi
Mutations in genes encoding proteins of the smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractile apparatus contribute to familial aortic aneurysms. To investigate the pathogenicity of these mutations, SMC are required. We demonstrate a novel method to generate SMC-like cells from human dermal fibroblasts by transdifferentiation to study the effect of variants in genes encoding proteins of the SMC contractile apparatus (ACTA2 and MYH11) in patients with aortic aneurysms. Dermal fibroblasts from 7 healthy donors and cells from 7 patients with MYH11 or ACTA2 variants were transdifferentiated into SMC-like cells within a 2 week duration using 5ng/mL TGFβ1 on a scaffold containing collagen and elastin...
January 11, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071929/effects-of-smartphone-based-memory-training-for-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Seo Jin Oh, Sungmin Seo, Ji Hyun Lee, Myeong Ju Song, Min-Sup Shin
OBJECTIVES: We explored whether newly developed application (Smartphone-based brain Anti-aging and memory Reinforcement Training, SMART) improved memory performance in older adults with subjective memory complaints (SMC). METHOD: A total of 53 adults (range: 50-68 years; 52.8% female) were randomized into either one of two intervention groups [SMART (n = 18) vs. Fit Brains® (n = 19)] or a wait-list group (n = 16). Participants in the intervention groups underwent 15-20 minutes of training per day, five days per week for 8 weeks...
January 10, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071663/covalent-modification-of-pericardial-patches-for-sustained-rapamycin-delivery-inhibits-venous-neointimal-hyperplasia
#11
Hualong Bai, Jung Seok Lee, Elizabeth Chen, Mo Wang, Ying Xing, Tarek M Fahmy, Alan Dardik
Prosthetic grafts and patches are commonly used in cardiovascular surgery, however neointimal hyperplasia remains a significant concern, especially under low flow conditions. We hypothesized that delivery of rapamycin from nanoparticles (NP) covalently attached to patches allows sustained site-specific delivery of therapeutic agents targeted to inhibit localized neointimal hyperplasia. NP were covalently linked to pericardial patches using EDC/NHS chemistry and could deliver at least 360 ng rapamycin per patch without detectable rapamycin in serum; nanoparticles were detectable in the liver, kidney and spleen but no other sites within 24 hours...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069021/preoperative-optimization-of-patient-expectations-improves-long-term-outcome-in-heart-surgery-patients-results-of-the-randomized-controlled-psy-heart-trial
#12
Winfried Rief, Meike C Shedden-Mora, Johannes A C Laferton, Charlotte Auer, Keith J Petrie, Stefan Salzmann, Manfred Schedlowski, Rainer Moosdorf
BACKGROUND: Placebo effects contribute substantially to outcome in most fields of medicine. While clinical trials typically try to control or minimize these effects, the potential of placebo mechanisms to improve outcome is rarely used. Patient expectations about treatment efficacy and outcome are major mechanisms that contribute to these placebo effects. We aimed to optimize these expectations to improve outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. METHODS: In a prospective three-arm randomized clinical trial with a 6 month follow-up, 124 patients scheduled for CABG surgery were randomized to either a brief psychological pre-surgery intervention to optimize outcome expectations (EXPECT); or a psychological control intervention focusing on emotional support and general advice, but not on expectations (SUPPORT); or to standard medical care (SMC)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069011/myeloperoxidase-oxidized-high-density-lipoprotein-impairs-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-by-inhibiting-smooth-muscle-cell-migration
#13
Boda Zhou, Lingyun Zu, Yong Chen, Xilong Zheng, Yuhui Wang, Bing Pan, Min Dong, Enchen Zhou, Mingming Zhao, Youyi Zhang, Lemin Zheng, Wei Gao
BACKGROUND: High density lipoprotein (HDL) has been proved to be a protective factor for coronary heart disease. Notably, HDL in atherosclerotic plaques can be nitrated (NO2-oxHDL) and chlorinated (Cl-oxHDL) by myeloperoxidase (MPO), likely compromising its cardiovascular protective effects. METHOD: Here we determined the effects of NO2-oxHDL and Cl-oxHDL on SMC migration using wound healing and transwell assays, proliferation using MTT and BrdU assays, and apoptosis using Annexin-V assay in vitro, as well as on atherosclerotic plaque stability in vivo using a coratid artery collar implantation mice model...
January 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062493/olfactomedin-2-regulates-smooth-muscle-phenotypic-modulation-and-vascular-remodeling-through-mediating-runt-related-transcription-factor-2-binding-to-serum-response-factor
#14
Ning Shi, Chen-Xiao Li, Xiao-Bing Cui, Stanislav I Tomarev, Shi-You Chen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of Olfactomedin 2 (Olfm2) in smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Platelet-derived growth factor-BB induces Olfm2 expression in primary SMCs while modulating SMC phenotype as shown by the downregulation of SMC marker proteins. Knockdown of Olfm2 blocks platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced SMC phenotypic modulation, proliferation, and migration...
January 5, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060910/age-associated-alu-element-instability-in-white-blood-cells-is-linked-to-lower-survival-in-elderly-adults-a-preliminary-cohort-study
#15
R Garrett Morgan, Massimo Venturelli, Cole Gross, Cantor Tarperi, Federico Schena, Carlo Reggiani, Fabio Naro, Anna Pedrinolla, Lucia Monaco, Russell S Richardson, Anthony J Donato
BACKGROUND: ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan. OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival. DESIGN: Preliminary cohort study. METHODS: We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs) and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs) biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD)- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057211/roles-of-smc-complexes-during-t-lymphocyte-development-and-function
#16
J S Rawlings
T lymphocytes (T cells) comprise a critical component of the immune system charged with diverse functions during an immune response. As a function of maturation in the thymus, T cells become quiescent and remain so until they participate in an immune response in the periphery. Recent work indicates that the control of T cell proliferation is mediated, at least in part, by chromatin architecture. Quiescent T cells possess a condensed chromatin, whereas proliferating T cells have a more open chromatin configuration...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054347/ano1-in-intramuscular-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-plays-a-key-role-in-the-generation-of-slow-waves-and-tone-in-the-internal-anal-sphincter
#17
C A Cobine, E E Hannah, M H Zhu, H E Lyle, J R Rock, K M Sanders, S M Ward, K D Keef
The mechanism underlying tone generation in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is controversial. We examined the hypothesis that tone depends upon generation of electrical slow waves (SWs) initiated in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) by activation of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (encoded by Ano1) and voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channels (encoded by Cacna1c). Phasic contractions and tone in the IAS were nearly abolished by ANO1 and CavL antagonists. ANO1 antagonists also abolished SWs as well as transient depolarizations that persisted after addition of CavL antagonists...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049660/an-exclusive-cellular-and-molecular-network-governs-intestinal-smooth-muscle-cell-differentiation-in-vertebrates
#18
Dafne Gays, Christopher Hess, Annalisa Camporeale, Ugo Ala, Paolo Provero, Christian Mosimann, Massimo M Santoro
Intestinal smooth muscle cells (iSMCs) are a critical component of the adult gastrointestinal (GI) tract and support intestinal differentiation, peristalsis, and epithelial homeostasis during development. Despite these critical roles, the origin of iSMCs and the mechanisms responsible for their differentiation and function remain fairly unknown in vertebrates. Here, using genetic lineage tracing in zebrafish, we demonstrated that iSMCs arise from the lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) in a stepwise process. Early during organogenesis, LPM cells progressively migrate ventral to the endoderm tube wrapping the developing gut...
January 3, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039781/subjective-memory-complaints-in-healthy-older-adults-fewer-complaints-associated-with-depression-and-perceived-health-more-complaints-also-associated-with-lower-memory-performance
#19
Pedro Montejo Carrasco, Mercedes Montenegro-Peña, Ramón López-Higes, Eduardo Estrada, David Prada Crespo, Christian Montejo Rubio, David García Azorín
OBJECTIVES: (i) To analyze if general cognitive performance, perceived health and depression are predictors of Subjective Memory Complaints (SMC) contrasting their effect sizes; (ii) to analyze the relationship between SMC and objective memory by comparing a test that measures memory in daily life and a classical test of associated pairs; (iii) to examine if different subgroups, formed according to the MFE score, might have different behaviors regarding the studied variables. METHODS: Sample: 3921 community-dwelling people (mean age 70...
December 16, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038380/the-p2y2-nucleotide-receptor-is-an-inhibitor-of-vascular-calcification
#20
Shaomin Qian, Jenna N Regan, Maxwell T Shelton, April Hoggatt, Khalid S Mohammad, Paul B Herring, Cheikh I Seye
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mutations in the 5'-nucleotidase ecto (NT5E) gene that encodes CD73, a nucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine, are linked to arterial calcification. However, the role of purinergic receptor signaling in the pathology of intimal calcification is not well understood. In this study, we examined whether extracellular nucleotides acting via P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) modulate arterial intimal calcification, a condition highly correlated with cardiovascular morbidity. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E, P2Y2R double knockout mice (ApoE(-/-)P2Y2R(-/-)) were used to determine the effect of P2Y2R deficiency on vascular calcification in vivo...
December 15, 2016: Atherosclerosis
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