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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144234/lrp1-integrates-murine-macrophage-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-responses-in-atherosclerosis
#1
Xunde Xian, Yinyuan Ding, Marco Dieckmann, Li Zhou, Florian Plattner, Mingxia Liu, John S Parks, Robert E Hammer, Philippe Boucher, Shirling Tsai, Joachim Herz
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a multifunctional cell surface receptor with diverse physiological roles, ranging from cellular uptake of lipoproteins and other cargo by endocytosis to sensor of the extracellular environment and integrator of a wide range of signaling mechanisms. As a chylomicron remnant receptor, LRP1 controls systemic lipid metabolism in concert with the LDL receptor in the liver, whereas in smooth muscle cells (SMC) LRP1 functions as a co-receptor for TGFβ and PDGFRβ in reverse cholesterol transport and the maintenance of vascular wall integrity...
November 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134149/the-response-of-soil-microbial-communities-to-variation-in-annual-precipitation-depends-on-soil-nutritional-status-in-an-oligotrophic-desert
#2
Cristina Montiel-González, Yunuen Tapia-Torres, Valeria Souza, Felipe García-Oliva
Background: Soil microbial communities (SMC) play a central role in the structure and function of desert ecosystems. However, the high variability of annual precipitation could results in the alteration of SMC and related biological processes depending on soil water potential. The nature of the physiological adjustments made by SMC in order to obtain energy and nutrients remains unclear under different soil resource availabilities in desert ecosystems. In order to examine this dynamic, the present study examined the effects of variation in annual precipitation on physiological adjustments by the SMC across two vegetation-soil systems of different soil organic matter input in an oligotrophic desert ecosystem...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131557/comparison-of-self-made-cryopreservative-fibrin-glue-and-commercial-fibrin-glue-kit-in-pterygium-surgery-1-year-follow-up
#3
Jingwen Gong, Jiaqi Fan, Ting Shen, Jin Jiang
PURPOSE: To assess long-term efficacy and safety of self-made cryopreservative fibrin glue (SMC) applied in pterygium surgery. METHODS: Prospective, comparative, interventional case series. Forty eyes of 40 patients with nasal primary pterygium, 24 male and 16 female, were enrolled. The patients were assigned to two groups and each contained 12 male and eight female based on the pterygium area encroaching onto the cornea. In one group, the conjunctival autograft was attached to the sclera with SMC stored for 2 months, and in the other group, commercial fibrin glue kit (CK) was applied after the pterygium was removed...
November 13, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129641/cohesin-ubiquitylation-and-mobilization-facilitate-stalled-replication-fork-dynamics
#4
Camilla Frattini, Sara Villa-Hernández, Grazia Pellicanò, Rachel Jossen, Yuki Katou, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Rodrigo Bermejo
Replication fork integrity is challenged in conditions of stress and protected by the Mec1/ATR checkpoint to preserve genome stability. Still poorly understood in fork protection is the role played by the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) cohesin complex. We uncovered a role for the Rsp5(Bul2) ubiquitin ligase in promoting survival to replication stress by preserving stalled fork integrity. Rsp5(Bul2) physically interacts with cohesin and the Mec1 kinase, thus promoting checkpoint-dependent cohesin ubiquitylation and cohesin-mediated fork protection...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127112/reduced-expression-of-glutathione-s-transferase-%C3%AE-4-promotes-vascular-neointimal-hyperplasia-in-ckd
#5
Jinlong Luo, Guang Chen, Ming Liang, Aini Xie, Qingtian Li, Qunying Guo, Rajendra Sharma, Jizhong Cheng
Neointima formation is the leading cause of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. We have shown that CKD accelerates this process by transforming the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) lining the AVF from a contractile to the synthetic phenotype. However, the underlying mechanisms affecting this transformation are not clear. Previous studies have shown that the α-class glutathione transferase isozymes have an important role in regulating 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-mediated proliferative signaling of cells. Here, using both the loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase α4 (GSTA4) in modulating cellular 4-HNE levels for the transformation and proliferation of SMCs...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125493/validation-of-ultrasensitive-mutant-huntingtin-detection-in-human-cerebrospinal-fluid-by-single-molecule-counting-immunoassay
#6
Valentina Fodale, Roberto Boggio, Manuel Daldin, Cristina Cariulo, Maria Carolina Spiezia, Lauren Mary Byrne, Blair R Leavitt, Edward Wild, Douglas Macdonald, Andreas Weiss, Alberto Bresciani
BACKGROUND: The measurement of disease-relevant biomarkers has become a major component of clinical trial design, but in the absence of rigorous clinical and analytical validation of detection methodology, interpretation of results may be misleading. In Huntington's disease (HD), measurement of the concentration of mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients may serve as both a disease progression biomarker and a pharmacodynamic readout for HTT-lowering therapeutic approaches...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123158/inhibition-of-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinease-suppresses-formation-and-progression-of-experimental-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#7
Jing Yu, Rui Liu, Jianhua Huang, Lixin Wang, Wei Wang
Accumulating evidence suggests an important role of Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinease (PI3K) pathway in inflammatory cells infiltration. Given  the essential role of inflammatory cells infiltration during the formation and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), to investigate the possibility of preventing AAA formation and progression via targeting PI3K is anticipated. Here, experimental AAAs was created in rats by transient intraluminal porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) infusion into the infrarenal aorta firstly...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118001/real-time-detection-of-condensin-driven-dna-compaction-reveals-a-multistep-binding-mechanism
#8
Jorine M Eeftens, Shveta Bisht, Jacob Kerssemakers, Marc Kschonsak, Christian H Haering, Cees Dekker
Condensin, a conserved member of the SMC protein family of ring-shaped multi-subunit protein complexes, is essential for structuring and compacting chromosomes. Despite its key role, its molecular mechanism has remained largely unknown. Here, we employ single-molecule magnetic tweezers to measure, in real time, the compaction of individual DNA molecules by the budding yeast condensin complex. We show that compaction can proceed in large steps, driving DNA molecules into a fully condensed state against forces of up to 2 pN...
November 8, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109375/model-based-localization-and-tracking-using-bluetooth-low-energy-beacons
#9
F Serhan Daniş, Ali Taylan Cemgil
We introduce a high precision localization and tracking method that makes use of cheap Bluetooth low-energy (BLE) beacons only. We track the position of a moving sensor by integrating highly unreliable and noisy BLE observations streaming from multiple locations. A novel aspect of our approach is the development of an observation model, specifically tailored for received signal strength indicator (RSSI) fingerprints: a combination based on the optimal transport model of Wasserstein distance. The tracking results of the entire system are compared with alternative baseline estimation methods, such as nearest neighboring fingerprints and an artificial neural network...
October 29, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105817/loss-of-spry1-attenuates-vascular-smooth-muscle-proliferation-by-impairing-mitogen-mediated-changes-in-cell-cycle-regulatory-circuits
#10
Xuehui Yang, Yan Gong, Qing He, Jonathan D Licht, Lucy Liaw, Robert E Friesel
Signals from growth factors or mechanical stimuli converge to promote vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation, key events in the pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia upon vascular injury. Spry1, a regulator of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), plays a role in maintaining the contractile phenotype of VSMC. The aim of the current study was to determine the role of Spry1 in VSMC proliferation in vitro and injury induced neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. VSMC proliferation and neointima formation were evaluated in cultured human aortic SMC (hAoSMC) and ligation-induced injury of mouse carotid arteries from Spry1 gene targeted mice, and their corresponding wild type littermates...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104257/direct-feeding-at-the-breast-is-associated-with-breast-milk-feeding-duration-among-preterm-infants
#11
Shiran Pinchevski-Kadir, Shir Shust-Barequet, Michal Zajicek, Mira Leibovich, Tzipi Strauss, Leah Leibovitch, Iris Morag
BACKGROUND: In spite of high rates of initiating breast milk feeding (BMF) among preterm infants, a significant rate of discontinuation occurs shortly after discharge. AIM: To investigate the effect of mode (direct feeding at the breast vs. expressing) and exclusivity (breast milk combined with formula vs. breast milk only) as well as maternal perceptions on the duration of BMF among preterm infants. METHODS: The study included mothers whose infants were born before 32 weeks gestation, between January 2012 and August 2015 at Sheba Medical Center (SMC)...
November 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100632/the-anti-estrogenicity-of-chronic-exposure-to-semicarbazide-in-female-japanese-flounders-paralichthys-olivaceus-and-its-potential-mechanisms
#12
Zonghao Yue, Miao Yu, Haifeng Zhao, Jun Wang, Xiaona Zhang, Hua Tian, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
This study investigated the anti-estrogenic effects of chronic exposure to a new marine pollutant, semicarbazide (SMC; 1, 10, and 100μg/L), in female Paralichthys olivaceus, as well as the associated mechanism. After 130days of exposure, plasma 17β-estradiol and testosterone concentrations, and hepatic estrogen receptors, vitellogenin, and choriogenin mRNA levels decreased significantly in SMC-exposed groups. Moreover, down-regulation of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone, gonadotropic hormones and their receptors, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 17α-hydroxylase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450 19A, was observed after SMC exposure...
October 31, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099324/graf3-serves-as-a-blood-volume-sensitive-rheostat-to-control-smooth-muscle-contractility-and-blood-pressure
#13
Xue Bai, Kevin Mangum, Masao Kakoki, Oliver Smithies, Christopher P Mack, Joan M Taylor
Vascular resistance is a major determinant of BP and is controlled, in large part, by RhoA-dependent smooth muscle cell (SMC) contraction within small peripheral arterioles and previous studies from our lab indicate that GRAF3 is a critical regulator of RhoA in vascular SMC. The elevated contractile responses we observed in GRAF3 deficient vessels coupled with the hypertensive phenotype provided a mechanistic link for the hypertensive locus recently identified within the GRAF3 gene. On the basis of our previous findings that the RhoA signaling axis also controls SMC contractile gene expression and that GRAF3 expression was itself controlled by this pathway, we postulated that GRAF3 serves as an important counter-regulator of SMC phenotype...
November 3, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096622/tissue-engineered-smooth-muscle-cell-and-endothelial-progenitor-cell-bi-level-cell-sheets-prevent-progression-of-cardiac-dysfunction-microvascular-dysfunction-and-interstitial-fibrosis-in-a-rodent-model-of-type-1-diabetes-induced-cardiomyopathy
#14
Masashi Kawamura, Michael J Paulsen, Andrew B Goldstone, Yasuhiro Shudo, Hanjay Wang, Amanda N Steele, Lyndsay M Stapleton, Bryan B Edwards, Anahita Eskandari, Vi N Truong, Kevin J Jaatinen, Arnar B Ingason, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yoshiki Sawa, Y Joseph Woo
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for coronary artery disease and diabetic cardiomyopathy, and adversely impacts outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting. Current treatments focus on macro-revascularization and neglect the microvascular disease typical of diabetes mellitus-induced cardiomyopathy (DMCM). We hypothesized that engineered smooth muscle cell (SMC)-endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) bi-level cell sheets could improve ventricular dysfunction in DMCM. METHODS: Primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and EPCs were isolated from the bone marrow of Wistar rats, and MSCs were differentiated into SMCs by culturing on a fibronectin-coated dish...
November 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091771/multiple-cis-acting-rdnas-contribute-to-nucleoid-separation-and-recruit-the-bacterial-condensin-smc-scpab
#15
Koichi Yano, Hironori Niki
Condensins load onto DNA to organize chromosomes. Smc-ScpAB clearly loads onto the parS sites bound by Spo0J, but other loading site(s) must operate independently of parS. In this study, we asked where and how Smc-ScpAB normally selects its loading site. Our results suggest that rDNA is also a loading site. A pull-down assay revealed that Smc-ScpAB preferentially loads onto rDNA in the wild-type cell and even in a Δspo0J mutant but not in a Δsmc mutant. Moreover, we showed that deletion mutants of rDNAs cause a defect in nucleoid separation, and at least two rDNAs near oriC are essential for separation...
October 31, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089445/novel-imaging-of-the-prostate-reveals-spontaneous-gland-contraction-and-excretory-duct-quiescence-together-with-different-drug-effects
#16
Robert Kügler, Andrea Mietens, Mathias Seidensticker, Sabine Tasch, Florian M Wagenlehner, Andre Kaschtanow, Yudy Tjahjono, Claudia U Tomczyk, Daniela Beyer, Gail P Risbridger, Betty Exintaris, Stuart J Ellem, Ralf Middendorff
Prostate carcinoma and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) with associated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are among the most prevalent and clinically relevant diseases in men. BPH is characterized by an enlargement of prostate tissue associated with increased tone of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) which surround the single glands composing the prostate. Secretions of the glands leave the prostate through local excretory ducts during the emission phase of ejaculation. Pharmacological treatment of BPH suggests different local drug targets based on reduction of prostate smooth muscle tone as the main effect and disturbed ejaculation as a common side effect...
October 31, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089350/unspliced-xbp1-confers-vsmc-homeostasis-and-prevents-aortic-aneurysm-formation-via-foxo4-interaction
#17
Guizhen Zhao, Yi Fu, Zeyu Cai, Fang Yu, Ze Gong, Rongbo Dai, Yanhua Hu, Lingfang Zeng, Qingbo Xu, Wei Kong
Rationale: Although not fully understood, the phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells exhibits at the early onset of the pathology of aortic aneurysms. Exploring the key regulators that are responsible for maintaining the contractile phenotype of VSMCs may confer vascular homeostasis and prevent aneurysmal disease. X-box binding protein 1, which exists in a transcriptionally inactive unspliced form (XBP1u) and a spliced active form (XBP1s), is a key component in response to endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress...
October 31, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082353/application-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-model-smooth-muscle-cell-function-in-vascular-diseases
#18
HaYeun Ji, Hye Sung Kim, Hae-Won Kim, Kam W Leong
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) play an essential role in remodeling the vasculature during disease progression. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provide an attractive approach to obtain autologous SMC source for patient-specific disease modeling. Here we discuss the current methods to 1) derive functional SMC from iPSC, 2) model vascular diseases using SMC generated from patient-derived iPSC, and 3) modulate microenvironmental cues to enhance cellular differentiation and functionality and better mimic the physiological environment...
March 2017: Curr Opin Biomed Eng
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074488/endothelial-hif-2%C3%AE-contributes-to-severe-pulmonary-hypertension-by-inducing-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#19
Haiyang Tang, Aleksandra Babicheva, Kimberly M McDermott, Yali Gu, Ramon J Ayon, Shanshan Song, Ziyi Wang, Akash Gupta, Tong Zhou, Xutong Sun, Swetaleena Dash, Zilu Wang, Angela Balistrieri, Qiu Yu Zheng, Arlette G Cordery, Ankit A Desai, Franz Rischard, Zain Khalpey, Jian Wang, Stephen M Black, Joe G N Garcia, Ayako Makino, Jason X-J Yuan
Pulmonary vascular remodeling characterized by concentric wall thickening and intraluminal obliteration contributes to the elevated PVR in patients with IPAH. Here we report that increased HIF-2α in lung vascular endothelial cells (LVEC) under normoxic conditions is involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) by inducing endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), which subsequently results in vascular remodeling and occlusive lesions. We observed significant EndMT and markedly increased expression of SNAI, an inducer of EndMT, in LVEC from IPAH patients and PH animals compared with controls...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067760/hot-debate-in-hot-springs-report-on-the-second-international-meeting-on-smc-proteins
#20
Tatsuya Hirano, Tomoko Nishiyama, Katsuhiko Shirahige
The second international meeting on "SMC proteins: Chromosomal Organizers from Bacteria to Human" (SMC2017) was held in Nanyo City, Yamagata, Japan, from 13 to 16 June 2017. The meeting was attended by 134 participants (among them, 76 from outside of Japan) who were interested in one of the highly conserved classes of chromosomal proteins regulating large-scale chromosome structure and function. A keynote lecture was followed by 41 oral presentations and 71 poster presentations in the four-day meeting. Diverse topics surrounding eukaryotic SMC protein complexes (cohesins, condensins and SMC5/6) and prokaryotic SMCs, and a wide range of cutting-edge approaches (from polymer physics through medical genetics) were presented...
October 25, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
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