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Sebastien Hayoz, Jessica Pettis, Vanessa Bradley, Steven S Segal, William F Jackson
Inward rectifier K(+) channels (KIR) may contribute to skeletal muscle blood flow regulation and adapt to advanced age. Using mouse abdominal wall superior epigastric arteries (SEAs) from either young (3-6 months) or old (24-26 months) male C57BL/6 mice, we investigated whether SEA smooth muscle cells (SMCs) express functional KIR, and how aging may affect KIR function. Freshly dissected SEAs were either enzymatically dissociated to isolate SMCs for electrophysiological recording (perforated patch) and mRNA expression, or used intact for pressure myography...
April 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Burcu Balam Yavuz, Hacer Dogan Varan, Rónán O'Caoimh, Muhammet Cemal Kizilarslanoglu, Mustafa Kemal Kilic, D William Molloy, Rana Tuna Dogrul, Erdem Karabulut, Anton Svendrovski, Aykut Sağır, Eylem Sahin Cankurtaran, Yusuf Yesil, Mehmet Emin Kuyumcu, Meltem Halil, Mustafa Cankurtaran
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to validate the Turkish version of the Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Q mci-TR) screen. METHODS: In total, 100 patients aged ≥65 years referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic with memory loss were included. The Q mci was compared to the Turkish versions of the standardized Mini-Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). RESULTS: The Q mci-TR had higher accuracy than the MoCA in discriminating subjective memory complaints (SMCs) from cognitive impairment (mild cognitive impairment [MCI] or dementia), of borderline significance after adjusting for age and education ( P = ...
May 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Christopher P J Schubert, Carsten Müller, Andreas Bogner, Frank Giesselmann, Robert P Lemieux
Structural variants of the 'de Vries-like' mesogen 5-[4-(12,12,14,14,16,16-hexamethyl-12,14,16-trisilaheptadecyloxy)phenyl]-2-hexyloxypyrimidine (QL16-6), including two isomers with branched iso-tricarbosilane end-groups, were synthesized and their mesomorphic and 'de Vries-like' properties were characterized by polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, small angle and 2D X-ray scattering techniques. A comparative analysis of isomers with linear and branched tricarbosilane end-groups shows that they exhibit comparable mesomorphic and 'de Vries-like' properties...
April 18, 2017: Soft Matter
S P Sreenilayam, D M Agra-Kooijman, V P Panov, V Swaminathan, J K Vij, Yu P Panarin, A Kocot, A Panov, D Rodriguez-Lojo, P J Stevenson, Michael R Fisch, Satyendra Kumar
A heptamethyltrisiloxane liquid crystal (LC) exhibiting I-SmA^{*}-SmC^{*} phases has been characterized by calorimetry, polarizing microscopy, x-ray diffraction, electro-optics, and dielectric spectroscopy. Observations of a large electroclinic effect, a large increase in the birefringence (Δn) with electric field, a low shrinkage in the layer thickness (∼1.75%) at 20 °C below the SmA^{*}-SmC^{*} transition, and low values of the reduction factor (∼0.40) suggest that the SmA^{*} phase in this material is of the de Vries type...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
Yi-Dong Wang, Zhen-Jie Liu, Jun Ren, Mei-Xiang Xiang
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), a progressive segmental abdominal aortic dilation, is associated with high mortality. AAA is characterized by inflammation, smooth muscle cell (SMC) depletion and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Surgical intervention and endovascular therapy are recommended to prevent rupture of large AAAs. Unfortunately, there is no reliable pharmacological agent available to limit AAA expansion. In the past decades, extensive investigations and a body of ongoing clinical trials aimed at defining potent treatments to inhibit and even regress AAA growth...
April 13, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Yi-Reng Lin, Mei-Fang Huang, You-Ying Wu, Meng-Chieh Liu, Jing-Heng Huang, Ziyu Chen, Yow-Ling Shiue, Chia-En Wu, Shih-Shin Liang
In this work, we synthesized internal standards for four garlic organosulfur compounds (OSCs) by reductive amination with (13)C, D2-formaldehyde, and developed an isotope dilution analysis method to quantitate these organosulfur components in garlic samples. Internal standards were synthesized for internal absolute quantification of S-allylcysteine (SAC), S-allylcysteine sulfoxide (alliin), S-methylcysteine (SMC), and S-ethylcysteine (SEC). We used a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to detect (13)C, D2-formaldehyde-modified OSCs by ultrahigh-performance liquid phase chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and obtained MS spectra showing different ratios of (13)C, D2-formaldehyde-modified and H2-formaldehyde-modified compounds...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Cong-Lin Liu, Marcela M Santos, Cleverson Fernandes, Mengyang Liao, Karine Iamarene, Jin-Ying Zhang, Galina K Sukhova, Guo-Ping Shi
Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) mediates autoantigen and viral RNA-induced cytokine production. Increased TLR7 expression in human atherosclerotic lesions suggests its involvement in atherogenesis. Here we demonstrated TLR7 expression in macrophages, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and endothelial cells from mouse atherosclerotic lesions. To test a direct participation of TLR7 in atherosclerosis, we crossbred TLR7-deficient (Tlr7 (-/-)) mice with apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe (-/-)) mice and produced Apoe (-/-) Tlr7 (-/-) and Apoe (-/-) Tlr7 (+/+) littermates, followed by feeding them an atherogenic diet to produce atherosclerosis...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Xuwei Hou, Patricia Snarski, Yusuke Higashi, Tadashi Yoshida, Alexander Jurkevich, Patrick Delafontaine, Sergiy Sukhanov
Atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is the major determinant of most acute coronary events. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) death contributes to plaque destabilization. Here, we describe a novel antiapoptotic mechanism in vascular SMC that involves interaction of nuclear glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) with apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1), the major oxidized DNA repair enzyme. GAPDH down-regulation potentiated H2O2-induced DNA damage and SMC apoptosis. Conversely, GAPDH overexpression decreased DNA damage and protected SMCs against apoptosis...
April 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yuru Wang, Qiaoyuan Liu, Longkui Jiang, Minghao Yin, Shengsheng Wang
A great deal of robustness is allowed when visual tracking is considered as a classification problem. This paper combines a finite number of weak classifiers in a SMC framework as a strong classifier. The time-varying ensemble parameters (confidence of weak classifiers) are regarded as sequential arriving states and their posterior distribution is estimated in a Bayesian manner. Therefore, both the adaptiveness and stability are kept for the ensemble classification in handling scene changes and target deformation...
2017: PloS One
Jeffrey J Kelu, Sarah E Webb, John Parrington, Antony Galione, Andrew L Miller
We recently demonstrated a critical role for two-pore channel type 2 (TPC2)-mediated Ca(2+) release during the differentiation of slow (skeletal) muscle cells (SMC) in intact zebrafish embryos, via the introduction of a translational-blocking morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO). Here, we extend our study and demonstrate that knockdown of TPC2 with a non-overlapping splice-blocking MO, knockout of TPC2 (via the generation of a tpcn2(dhkz1a) mutant line of zebrafish using CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing), or the pharmacological inhibition of TPC2 action with bafilomycin A1 or trans-ned-19, also lead to a significant attenuation of SMC differentiation, characterized by a disruption of SMC myofibrillogenesis and gross morphological changes in the trunk musculature...
April 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
Su-Jiun Lin, Matthew J O'Connell
Cohesin is one of three multi-protein structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes that regulate eukaryotic chromosome dynamics. It forms a ring-shaped structure that embraces sister chromatids through interphase to promote their pairing. In preparation for mitosis, most cohesin is stripped from the chromosome arms in prophase by a poorly defined process that is associated with cohesin phosphorylation. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe this prophase pathway is dependent on the cohesin-related Smc5/6 complex, and this requirement is heightened in Smc5/6 hypomorphs by DNA damage, replication stress and Topoisomerase II (Top2) dysfunction...
April 5, 2017: Current Genetics
Koki Tabata, Kimihiro Komori, Ryo Otsuka, Junko Kajikuri, Takeo Itoh
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelium induces smooth muscle cell (SMC) relaxation mainly mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). It has previously been reported that functions of these endothelium factors have been greatly impaired in vein grafts. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the functions of EDNO and EDHF might be altered in artery graft.Methods and Results:In rabbits, the right carotid artery was excised and implanted in its original position as an autogenous graft ("artery graft") and the non-operated left carotid artery served as the "control artery"...
April 5, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Eun Hyun Seo, Hoowon Kim, Kyu Yeong Choi, Kun Ho Lee, Il Han Choo
BACKGROUND: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) and depressive symptoms (SDS) are common in the elderly population. However, the relationship among SMC, SDS, and cognitive function remains unclear. We investigated these associations in the elderly from cognitively normal (CN), pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and amnestic MCI (aMCI) groups. METHODS: Participants (CN, 299; pre-MCI, 106; aMCI, 267) underwent comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Hironori Niki
The tripartite ring of the bacterial condensin complex Smc-ScpAB entraps DNA to separate replicated chromosomes. The cycle of ring opening and closing is dependent on ATP hydrolysis. In this issue of Structure, Kamada et al. (2017) report on the tripartite-ring structural dynamics and their role in regulating this cycle.
April 4, 2017: Structure
Lintao Wang, Zhouqing Huang, Weijian Huang, Xuemei Chen, Peiren Shan, Peng Zhong, Zia Khan, Jingying Wang, Qilu Fang, Guang Liang, Yi Wang
Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease leading to loss of vascular homeostasis and entails fibrosis, macrophage foam cell formation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. Recent studies have reported that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved vascular pathophysiology and in the regulation of oxidative stress in macrophages. Although, oxidative stress and inflammation play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying mechanisms are complex and not completely understood...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
B Mesure, S Huber-Villaume, P Menu, É Velot
Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) are widely used in tissue engineering. In vascular engineering, the ability to obtain a vessel replacement with contractile smooth muscle cells (SMC) is a key factor. In this work, we demonstrated that WJ-MSCs differentiate towards a SMC phenotype with various stimulations in vitro and that the modification of redox state could be involved. WJ-MSCs were isolated from umbilical cords. After their expansion, the cells were stimulated with ascorbic acid (AA, 300 μM) or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (1 to 5 ng/mL)...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
Tatiana Uynuk-Ool, Miriam Rothdiener, Brandan Walters, Miriam Hegemann, Julian Palm, Phong Nguyen, Tanja Seeger, Ulrich Stöckle, Jan P Stegemann, Wilhelm K Aicher, Bodo Kurz, Melanie L Hart, Gerd Klein, Bernd Rolauffs
Controlling mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) shape is a novel method for investigating and directing MSC behaviour in vitro. it was hypothesized that specifigc MSC shapes can be generated by using stiffness-defined biomaterial surfaces and by applying cyclic tensile forces. Biomaterials used were thin and thick silicone sheets, fibronectin coating, and compacted collagen type I sheets. The MSC morphology was quantified by shape descriptors describing dimensions and membrane protrusions. Nanoscale stiffness was measured by atomic force microscopy and the expression of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker genes (ACTA2, TAGLN, CNN1) by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Alena Moiseenko, Vahid Kheirollahi, Cho-Ming Chao, Negah Ahmadvand, Jennifer Quantius, Jochen Wilhelm, Susanne Herold, Katrin Ahlbrecht, Rory E Morty, Albert A Rizvanov, Parviz Minoo, Elie El Agha, Saverio Bellusci
ACTA2 expression identifies pulmonary airway and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) as well as alveolar myofibroblasts (MYF). Mesenchymal progenitors expressing fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10), Wilms tumor 1 (Wt1), or glioma-associated oncogene 1 (Gli1) contribute to SMC formation from early stages of lung development. However, their respective contribution and specificity to the SMC and/or alveolar MYF lineages remain controversial. In addition, the contribution of mesenchymal cells undergoing active WNT signaling remains unknown...
April 3, 2017: Stem Cells
Tiago Roux Oliveira, Luiz Rennó Costa, João Marcos Yamasaki Catunda, Alexandre Visintainer Pino, William Barbosa, Márcio Nogueira de Souza
This paper addresses the application of the sliding mode approach to control the arm movements by artificial recruitment of muscles using Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES). Such a technique allows the activation of motor nerves using surface electrodes. The goal of the proposed control system is to move the upper limbs of subjects through electrical stimulation to achieve a desired elbow angular displacement. Since the human neuro-motor system has individual characteristics, being time-varying, nonlinear and subject to uncertainties, the use of advanced robust control schemes may represent a better solution than classical Proportional-Integral (PI) controllers and model-based approaches, being simpler than more sophisticated strategies using fuzzy logic or neural networks usually applied in this control problem...
March 28, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
Sofie De Moudt, Arthur Leloup, Cor Van Hove, Guido De Meyer, Paul Fransen
Most vaso-reactive studies in mouse aortic segments are performed in isometric conditions and at an optimal preload, which is the preload corresponding to a maximal contraction by non-receptor or receptor-mediated stimulation. In general, this optimal preload ranges from about 1.2 to 8.0 mN/mm, which according to Laplace's law roughly correlates with transmural pressures of 10-65 mmHg. For physiologic transmural pressures around 100 mmHg, preloads of 15.0 mN/mm should be implemented. The present study aimed to compare vascular reactivity of 2 mm mouse (C57Bl6) aortic segments preloaded at optimal (8...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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