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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936767/smc-complexes-orchestrate-the-mitotic-chromatin-interaction-landscape
#1
REVIEW
Yasutaka Kakui, Frank Uhlmann
Chromatin is a very long DNA-protein complex that controls the expression and inheritance of the genetic information. Chromatin is stored within the nucleus in interphase and further compacted into chromosomes during mitosis. This process, known as chromosome condensation, is essential for faithful segregation of genomic DNA into daughter cells. Condensin and cohesin, members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family, are fundamental for chromosome architecture, both for establishment of chromatin structure in the interphase nucleus and for the formation of condensed chromosomes in mitosis...
September 21, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931531/clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-the-lightning-process-in-addition-to-specialist-medical-care-for-paediatric-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Esther M Crawley, Daisy M Gaunt, Kirsty Garfield, William Hollingworth, Jonathan A C Sterne, Lucy Beasant, Simon M Collin, Nicola Mills, Alan A Montgomery
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Lightning Process (LP) in addition to specialist medical care (SMC) compared with SMC alone, for children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalitis (ME). DESIGN: Pragmatic randomised controlled open trial. Participants were randomly assigned to SMC or SMC+LP. Randomisation was minimised by age and gender. SETTING: Specialist paediatric CFS/ME service. PATIENTS: 12-18 year olds with mild/moderate CFS/ME...
September 20, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930997/using-in-vivo-and-tissue-and-cell-explant-approaches-to-study-the-morphogenesis-and-pathogenesis-of-the-embryonic-and-perinatal-aorta
#3
Ashish Misra, Zhonghui Feng, Jiasheng Zhang, Zhi-Yin Lou, Daniel M Greif
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The aortic wall is composed of an inner layer of endothelial cells, a middle layer of alternating elastic lamellae and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and an outer layer of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix. In contrast to the widespread study of pathological models (e.g., atherosclerosis) in the adult aorta, much less is known about the embryonic and perinatal aorta. Here, we focus on SMCs and provide protocols for the analysis of the morphogenesis and pathogenesis of embryonic and perinatal aortic SMCs in normal development and disease...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930671/cohesin-can-remain-associated-with-chromosomes-during-dna-replication
#4
James D P Rhodes, Judith H I Haarhuis, Jonathan B Grimm, Benjamin D Rowland, Luke D Lavis, Kim A Nasmyth
To ensure disjunction to opposite poles during anaphase, sister chromatids must be held together following DNA replication. This is mediated by cohesin, which is thought to entrap sister DNAs inside a tripartite ring composed of its Smc and kleisin (Scc1) subunits. How such structures are created during S phase is poorly understood, in particular whether they are derived from complexes that had entrapped DNAs prior to replication. To address this, we used selective photobleaching to determine whether cohesin associated with chromatin in G1 persists in situ after replication...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926607/the-novel-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonist-finerenone-attenuates-neointima-formation-after-vascular-injury
#5
Jochen Dutzmann, Robert-Jonathan Musmann, Marco Haertlé, Jan-Marcus Daniel, Kristina Sonnenschein, Andreas Schäfer, Peter Kolkhof, Johann Bauersachs, Daniel G Sedding
BACKGROUND: The novel nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist finerenone holds promise to be safe and efficient in the treatment of patients with heart failure and/or chronic kidney disease. However, its effects on vascular function remain elusive. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the functional effect of selective MR antagonism by finerenone in vascular cells in vitro and the effect on vascular remodeling following acute vascular injury in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925984/a-robust-inner-and-outer-loop-control-method-for-trajectory-tracking-of-a-quadrotor
#6
Dunzhu Xia, Limei Cheng, Yanhong Yao
In order to achieve the complicated trajectory tracking of quadrotor, a geometric inner and outer loop control scheme is presented. The outer loop generates the desired rotation matrix for the inner loop. To improve the response speed and robustness, a geometric SMC controller is designed for the inner loop. The outer loop is also designed via sliding mode control (SMC). By Lyapunov theory and cascade theory, the closed-loop system stability is guaranteed. Next, the tracking performance is validated by tracking three representative trajectories...
September 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924389/structural-maintenance-of-chromosomes-protein-1-role-in-genome-stability-and-tumorigenesis
#7
REVIEW
Fei Yi, Zhuo Wang, Jingwei Liu, Ying Zhang, Zhijun Wang, Hongde Xu, Xiaoman Li, Ning Bai, Liu Cao, Xiaoyu Song
SMC1 (Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes protein 1), well known as one of the SMC superfamily members, has been explored to function in many activities including chromosome dynamics, cell cycle checkpoint, DNA damage repair and genome stability. Upon being properly assembled as part of cohesin, SMC1 can be phosphorylated by ATM and mediate downstream DNA damage repair after ionizing irradiation. Abnormal gene expression or mutation of SMC1 can cause defect in the DNA damage repair pathway, which has been strongly associated with tumorigenesis...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919287/active-fault-tolerant-control-based-on-interval-type-2-fuzzy-sliding-mode-controller-and-non-linear-adaptive-observer-for-3-dof-laboratory-helicopter
#8
Samir Zeghlache, Tarak Benslimane, Abderrahmen Bouguerra
In this paper, a robust controller for a three degree of freedom (3 DOF) helicopter control is proposed in presence of actuator and sensor faults. For this purpose, Interval type-2 fuzzy logic control approach (IT2FLC) and sliding mode control (SMC) technique are used to design a controller, named active fault tolerant interval type-2 Fuzzy Sliding mode controller (AFTIT2FSMC) based on non-linear adaptive observer to estimate and detect the system faults for each subsystem of the 3-DOF helicopter. The proposed control scheme allows avoiding difficult modeling, attenuating the chattering effect of the SMC, reducing the rules number of the fuzzy controller...
September 14, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903738/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-physical-activity-with-individual-goal-setting-and-volunteer-mentors-to-overcome-sedentary-lifestyle-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-cognitive-decline-the-indigo-trial-protocol
#9
Kay L Cox, Elizabeth V Cyarto, Christopher Etherton-Beer, Kathryn A Ellis, Helman Alfonso, Linda Clare, Danny Liew, David Ames, Leon Flicker, Osvaldo P Almeida, Dina LoGiudice, Nicola T Lautenschlager
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity (PA) effectively in those who are inactive is challenging. For those who have subjective memory complaints (SMC) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) this is a greater challenge necessitating the need for more engaging and innovative approaches. The primary aim of this trial is to determine whether a home-based 6-month PA intervention with individual goal-setting and peer mentors (GM-PA) can significantly increase PA levels in insufficiently active older adults at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
September 13, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903084/sepsis-mortality-score-for-the-prediction-of-mortality-in-septic-patients
#10
Wan Fadzlina Wan Muhd Shukeri, Azrina Md Ralib, Nor Zamzila Abdulah, Mohd Basri Mat-Nor
PURPOSE: To derive a prediction equation for 30-day mortality in sepsis using a multi-marker approach and compare its performance to the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. METHODS: This study included 159 septic patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Leukocytes count, procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activities of PON-1 were assayed from blood obtained on ICU presentation. Logistic regression was used to derive sepsis mortality score (SMS), a prediction equation describing the relationship between biomarkers and 30-day mortality...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899373/maximizing-the-impact-of-malaria-funding-through-allocative-efficiency-using-the-right-interventions-in-the-right-locations
#11
Nick Scott, S Azfar Hussain, Rowan Martin-Hughes, Freya J I Fowkes, Cliff C Kerr, Ruth Pearson, David J Kedziora, Madhura Killedar, Robyn M Stuart, David P Wilson
BACKGROUND: The high burden of malaria and limited funding means there is a necessity to maximize the allocative efficiency of malaria control programmes. Quantitative tools are urgently needed to guide budget allocation decisions. METHODS: A geospatial epidemic model was coupled with costing data and an optimization algorithm to estimate the optimal allocation of budgeted and projected funds across all malaria intervention approaches. Interventions included long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), intermittent presumptive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp), seasonal mass chemoprevention in children (SMC), larval source management (LSM), mass drug administration (MDA), and behavioural change communication (BCC)...
September 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888749/complete-penile-disassembly-for-repair-of-epispadias-causes-erectile-tissue-alteration-through-tgf-%C3%AE-1-overexpression-in-rabbit-model
#12
Ali Tourchi, Mahsa Shabaninia, Meghan Stewart, Hiroshi Miyamoto, Heather Di Carlo, John Gearhart
OBJECTIVE: To investigate corporal tissue viability and changes in endothelial content following current techniques used for epispadias repair in animal model MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty rabbits were allocated into three groups: Sham operation (penile degloving), complete disassembly model, and Cantwell-Ransley model. On weeks 2, 4, 12, and 24 post-op, the penile tissue was harvested and processed for (i)Masson's trichrome staining for smooth muscle cell(SMC)/collagen ratios (ii)immunohistochemical staining for endothelial factor(CD31) and TGF-β1 (iii)TUNEL assay to detect apoptosis...
September 6, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887989/biomimetic-microenvironment-complexity-to-redress-the-balance-between-biodegradation-and-de-novo-matrix-synthesis-during-early-phase-of-vascular-tissue-engineering
#13
Elham Vatankhah, Molamma P Prabhakaran, Seeram Ramakrishna
Physiological functionality of a tissue engineered vascular construct depends on the phenotype of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) cultured into the scaffold and mechanical robust of the construct relies on two simultaneous mechanisms including scaffold biodegradation and de novo matrix synthesis by SMCs which both can be influenced by scaffold properties and culture condition. Our focus in this study was to provide an appropriate environmental condition within tissue engineering context to meet foregoing requisites for a successful vascular regeneration...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886626/observation-of-the-de-vries-behavior-in-sma-phase-of-a-liquid-crystal-using-polarised-raman-scattering-and-infrared-spectroscopy
#14
A Kocot, J K Vij, T S Perova, K Merkel, V Swaminathan, S P Sreenilayam, N Yadav, V P Panov, P J Stevenson, A Panov, D Rodriguez-Lojo
Two approaches exist in the literature for describing the orientational distribution function (ODF) of the molecular directors in SmA* phase of liquid crystals, though several models are recently proposed in the literature for explaining the de Vries behaviour. These ODFs correspond to either the conventional unimodal arrangements of molecular directors arising from the mean field theory that leads to the broad or sugar-loaf like distribution or to the "diffuse-cone-shaped" type distribution proposed by de Vries...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881513/-effect-of-docosahexenoic-acid-microalgae-oil-supplementation-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-on-levels-of-serum-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-and-tolerance-to-ovalbumin-in-suckling-mice
#15
Y F Wu, H Q Li
Objective: To study the tolerance to ovalbumin (OVA) in suckling mice whose mothers had different doses of docosahexenoic acid (DHA) microalgae oil (DMO) supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Method: According to different doses of DMO fed to mother mice during pregnancy and lactation, 66 suckling mice were divided into four groups. Suckling mice whose mothers were fed with 0.7% DMO were designated as low dose group (group L) (n=16), 2.1% DMO as middle dose group (group M) (n=16), 3.5% DMO as high dose group (group H) (n=17) and no DMO as control group (n=17)...
September 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879357/fluorescent-mesogenic-boron-difluoride-complexes-derived-from-heterocyclic-benzoxazoles
#16
Ya-Wen Chen, Gene-Hsiang Lee, Chung K Lai
One new series of boron difluoride complexes 1 derived from heterocyclic benzoxazoles 2 was reported, and their mesomorphic and optical properties were also investigated. One single crystal of the mesogenic BF2 complex 1a (m = 12, n = 8) was obtained, and its single crystal and molecular structure were resolved. The geometry coordination at the central boron atom is tetrahedral. It crystallizes in a triclinic space group P1[combining macron] with Z = 4. The overall molecular shape was described as slightly bent Z-shapes, and the molecular length was ca...
September 28, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878745/coordination-of-chromosome-segregation-and-cell-division-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Amy L Bottomley, Andrew T F Liew, Kennardy D Kusuma, Elizabeth Peterson, Lisa Seidel, Simon J Foster, Elizabeth J Harry
Productive bacterial cell division and survival of progeny requires tight coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division to ensure equal partitioning of DNA. Unlike rod-shaped bacteria that undergo division in one plane, the coccoid human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus divides in three successive orthogonal planes, which requires a different spatial control compared to rod-shaped cells. To gain a better understanding of how this coordination between chromosome segregation and cell division is regulated in S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878053/subjective-memory-complaints-in-preclinical-autosomal-dominant-alzheimer-disease
#18
Daniel J Norton, Rebecca Amariglio, Hillary Protas, Kewei Chen, Daniel C Aguirre-Acevedo, Brendan Pulsifer, Gabriel Castrillon, Victoria Tirado, Claudia Munoz, Pierre Tariot, Jessica B Langbaum, Eric M Reiman, Francisco Lopera, Reisa A Sperling, Yakeel T Quiroz
OBJECTIVE: To cross-sectionally study subjective memory complaints (SMC) in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD). METHODS: We examined self-reported and study partner-based SMC in 52 young, cognitively unimpaired individuals from a Colombian kindred with early-onset ADAD. Twenty-six carried the PSEN-1 E280A mutation, averaging 7 years of age younger than the kindred's expected clinical onset. Twenty-six were age-matched noncarriers. Participants also underwent structural MRI and cognitive testing...
September 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876683/histological-evaluation-of-smooth-muscle-cell-in-the-patent-processus-vaginalis
#19
S M R Gilbert, K S Hamunyela
BACKGROUND: Inguinal hernia is a common pathology that necessitates surgical treatment during childhood. Most uncomplicated inguinal scrotal pathologies are considered to occur due to incomplete obliteration of the processes vaginalis (PV). The incomplete obliteration is proposed to be due to the persistence of smooth muscle cell (SMC) in the PV after birth. Immuno-histochemical studies have been published to evaluate the diversity and differentiation of SMC phenotypes in the PV resected in patients' inguinal hernia and hydrocele...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875468/multifunctional-jnk-inhibiting-nanotherapeutics-for-augmented-elastic-matrix-regenerative-repair-in-aortic-aneurysms
#20
Andrew Camardo, Dhruv Seshadri, Tom Broekelmann, Robert Mecham, Anand Ramamurthi
Growth of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), localized aortal wall expansions, is driven by the disruption and subsequent loss of aortal wall elastic fibers by matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). Since elastic fibers do not naturally regenerate or repair, arresting/reversing AAA growth has not been possible. Previously, we showed utility of doxycycline (DOX), an MMP inhibitor drug, to stimulate elastic matrix neoassembly and crosslinking at low microgram per milliliter doses in addition to inhibiting MMPs. We currently show in aneurysmal smooth muscle cell (SMC) cultures that effects of exogenous DOX in this dose range are linked to its upregulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) via its inhibition of the regulatory protein c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK 2)...
September 5, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
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