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Bryan A Johnson, Heather L Aloor, Cary A Moody
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) exhibit constitutive activation of ATM and ATR DNA damage response (DDR) pathways, which are required for productive viral replication. Expression of HPV31 E7 alone is sufficient to activate the DDR through an unknown mechanism. Here, we demonstrate that the E7 Rb binding domain is required to increase levels of many DDR proteins, including ATM, Chk2, Chk1, the MRN components MRE11, Rad50, and NBS1, as well as the homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA1 and Rad51. Interestingly, we have found that the increase in these DNA repair proteins does not occur solely at the level of transcription, but that E7 broadly increases the half-life of these DDR factors, a phenotype that is lost in the E7 Rb binding mutant...
October 19, 2016: Virology
R C Yan, J Wang, Z Z Huang, Z Y Wang, X F Wu, J C Huang, L H Chang, D Q Li, G H Zhang
Objective: To investigate the killing effects of radiation and mutant Rad50 transfection on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE1. Methods: The experimental groups included: control group, Ad-Rad50-GFP group, Ad-EGFP group, irradiation group, Ad-Rad50-GFP combined with irradiation group, and Ad-EGFP combined with irradiation group. CNE1 cells were transfected with recombinant adenoviral vector Ad-Rad50-GFP carrying mutant Rad50 gene. The expressions of Mre11, Rad50, Nbs1, and relevant constituents composing MRN complex were detected by Western Blot...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Juan A Montero, Cristina Sanchez-Fernandez, Carlos I Lorda-Diez, Juan A Garcia-Porrero, Juan M Hurle
DNA damage independent of caspase activation accompanies programmed cell death in different vertebrate embryonic organs. We analyzed the significance of DNA damage during the regression of the interdigital tissue, which sculpts the digits in the embryonic limb. Interdigit remodeling involves oxidative stress, massive apoptosis and cell senescence. Phosphorylation of H2AX mediated by ATM precedes caspase dependent apoptosis and cell senescence during interdigit regression. The association of γH2AX with other downstream DNA repair factors, including MDC1, Rad50 and 53BP1 suggests a defensive response of cells against DNA damage...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Julyun Oh, Amr Al-Zain, Elda Cannavo, Petr Cejka, Lorraine S Symington
The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex orchestrates the cellular response to DSBs through its structural, enzymatic, and signaling roles. Xrs2/Nbs1 is essential for nuclear translocation of Mre11, but its role as a component of the complex is not well defined. Here, we demonstrate that nuclear localization of Mre11 (Mre11-NLS) is able to bypass several functions of Xrs2, including DNA end resection, meiosis, hairpin resolution, and cellular resistance to clastogens. Using purified components, we show that the MR complex has equivalent activity to MRX in cleavage of protein-blocked DNA ends...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Cell
José Carlos Páez-Franco, Ignacio González-Sánchez, Nora A Gutiérrez-Nájera, Lilián G Valencia-Turcotte, Alfonso Lira-Rocha, Marco A Cerbón, Rogelio Rodríguez-Sotres
9-[(3-chloro)phenylamine]-2-[3-(diethylamine)propylamine]thiazolo[5,4-b]quinolone (D3ClP) is a bioisostere of N-(4-(acridin-9-ylamino)-3-methoxyphenyl)methanesulfonamide (m-AMSA) a DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor with proven cytotoxic activity and known to induce DNA damage and apoptotic cell death in K562 cells. However, recent evidence is not consistent with DNA topoisomerase II (DNA TOP2) as the primary target of D3ClP, in contrast to m-AMSA. We provide evidence of histone γH2AX phosphorylation at Ser135 in HeLa cells treated with D3ClP, a marker of DNA double strand repair through Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) pathway...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Sameera Nallanthighal, Amit B Shirode, Julius A Judd, Ramune Reliene
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-documented human carcinogen. The increased use of IR in medical procedures has doubled the annual radiation dose and may increase cancer risk. Genomic instability is an intermediate lesion in IR-induced cancer. We examined whether pomegranate extract (PE) suppresses genomic instability induced by x-rays. Mice were treated orally with PE and exposed to an x-ray dose of 2 Gy. PE intake suppressed x-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in peripheral blood and chromosomal damage in bone marrow...
September 27, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
Tomas Aparicio, Jean Gautier
DNA termini at double-strand breaks are often chemically heterogeneous and require processing before initiation of repair. In a recent report, we demonstrated that CtIP and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) nuclease complex cooperate with BRCA1 to specifically repair topoisomerase II-DNA adducted breaks. In contrast, BRCA1 is dispensable for repair of restriction endonuclease-generated double-strand breaks.
July 2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Seung Ho Choi, Hae Yong Yoo
TopBP1 has been identified as a direct activator of ATR and interacts with the Nbs1 subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex in egg extracts in a checkpoint-regulated manner. In this study, we show that Mdc1 associates with both TopBP1 and Nbs1 in egg extracts and human cells. We cloned a cDNA encoding the full-length version of Xenopus Mdc1. The association between Mdc1 and TopBP1 involves the first pair of BRCT repeats in TopBP1. The N-terminal region (161-230) of Mdc1 is required for this binding. The interaction between Mdc1 and Nbs1 involves the two tandem BRCT repeats of Nbs1...
October 7, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yang Gao, Jennifer R Kaczynski, Scott W Nelson
The Mre11-Rad50 (MR) protein complex, made up of a nuclease and ATPase, respectively, is involved in the processing of double-strand breaks as part of an intricate mechanism for their repair. Although it is clear that the MR complex is subject to allosteric regulation and that there is communication between the nuclease and ATPase active sites, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed statistical coupling analysis (SCA) on the Mre11 and Rad50 to predict linked residues based on their evolutionary correlation...
August 29, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Christopher J Staples, Giancarlo Barone, Katie N Myers, Anil Ganesh, Ian Gibbs-Seymour, Abhijit A Patil, Ryan D Beveridge, Caroline Daye, Richard Beniston, Sarah Maslen, Ivan Ahel, J Mark Skehel, Spencer J Collis
Through an RNAi-based screen for previously uncharacterized regulators of genome stability, we have identified the human protein C5orf45 as an important factor in preventing the accumulation of DNA damage in human cells. Here, we functionally characterize C5orf45 as a binding partner of the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) damage-sensing complex. Hence, we rename C5orf45 as MRNIP for MRN-interacting protein (MRNIP). We find that MRNIP is rapidly recruited to sites of DNA damage. Cells depleted of MRNIP display impaired chromatin loading of the MRN complex, resulting in reduced DNA end resection and defective ATM-mediated DNA damage signaling, a reduced ability to repair DNA breaks, and radiation sensitivity...
September 6, 2016: Cell Reports
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Prosper N'Gouemo, Kamal Datta
Binge drinking is known to cause damage in critical areas of the brain, including the hippocampus, which is important for relational memory and is reported to be sensitive to alcohol toxicity. However, the roles of DNA double-strand break (DSB) and its repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR), and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in alcohol-induced hippocampal injury remain to be elucidated. The purpose of this first study was to assess alcohol-induced DNA DSB and the mechanism by which alcohol affects DSB repair pathways in rat hippocampus...
August 2016: Alcohol
Na Li, Ella R Thompson, Simone M Rowley, Simone McInerny, Lisa Devereux, David Goode, LifePool Investigators, Michelle W Wong-Brown, Rodney J Scott, Alison H Trainer, Kylie L Gorringe, Paul A James, Ian G Campbell
Rad50 interactor 1 (RINT1) has recently been reported as an intermediate-penetrance (odds ratio 3.24) breast cancer susceptibility gene, as well as a risk factor for Lynch syndrome. The coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of RINT1 were sequenced in 2024 familial breast cancer cases previously tested negative for BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 mutations and 1886 population-matched cancer-free controls using HaloPlex Targeted Enrichment Assays. Only one RINT1 protein-truncating variant was detected in a control...
September 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Chuan-Pin Yang, Yu-Liang Kuo, Yi-Chao Lee, Kuen-Haur Lee, Chi-Wu Chiang, Ju-Ming Wang, Che-Chia Hsu, Wen-Chang Chang, Ding-Yen Lin
The nucleolus is the cellular site of ribosomal (r)DNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis. The 58-kDa microspherule protein (MSP58) is a nucleolar protein involved in rDNA transcription and cell proliferation. However, regulation of MSP58-mediated rDNA transcription remains unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid system with MSP58 as bait, we isolated complementary (c)DNA encoding Rad50-interacting protein 1 (RINT-1), as a MSP58-binding protein. RINT-1 was implicated in the cell cycle checkpoint, membrane trafficking, Golgi apparatus and centrosome dynamic integrity, and telomere length control...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Vassilis L Souliotis, Konstantinos Vougas, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Petros P Sfikakis
BACKGROUND: Excessive autoantibody production characterizing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) occurs irrespective of the disease's clinical status and is linked to increased lymphocyte apoptosis. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that defective DNA damage repair contributes to increased apoptosis in SLE. METHODS: We evaluated nucleotide excision repair at the N-ras locus, DNA double-strand breaks repair and apoptosis rates in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from anti-dsDNA autoantibody-positive patients (six with quiescent disease and six with proliferative nephritis) and matched healthy controls following ex vivo treatment with melphalan...
2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Paulius Grigaravicius, Andreas von Deimling, Pierre-Olivier Frappart
RINT1 was first identified as an RAD50-interacting protein and its function was therefore linked to the maintenance of genomic stability. It was also shown that RINT1 was a key player in ER-Golgi trafficking as a member of an ER tethering complex interacting with STX18. However, due to early embryonic lethality of rint1-null mice, the in vivo functions of RINT1 remained for the most part elusive. We recently described the consequences of Rint1 inactivation in various neuronal cells of the central nervous system...
August 2, 2016: Autophagy
Clémence Coudre, Julien Alani, William Ritchie, Véronique Marsaud, Brigitte Sola, Julie Cahu
Multiple myeloma (MM) is still an incurable hematological malignancy. Despite recent progress due to new anti-myeloma agents, the pathology is characterized by a high frequency of de novo or acquired resistance. Delineating the mechanisms of MM resistance is essential for therapeutic advances. We previously showed that long-term genotoxic stress induces the establishment of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, a pro-inflammatory response that favors the emergence of cells with cancer stem-like properties...
June 24, 2016: Cell Cycle
Kristi L Jensen, Paul Russell
Homologous recombination (HR) repair of programmed meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) requires endonucleolytic clipping of Rec12(Spo11)-oligonucleotides from 5' DNA ends followed by resection to generate invasive 3' single-stranded DNA tails. The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) endonuclease and Ctp1 (CtIP and Sae2 ortholog) are required for both activities in fission yeast but whether they are genetically separable is controversial. Here, we investigate the mitotic DSB repair properties of Ctp1 C-terminal domain (ctp1-CD) mutants that were reported to be specifically clipping deficient...
September 30, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Huiming Lu, Raghavendra A Shamanna, Guido Keijzers, Roopesh Anand, Lene Juel Rasmussen, Petr Cejka, Deborah L Croteau, Vilhelm A Bohr
The RecQ helicase RECQL4, mutated in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, regulates genome stability, aging, and cancer. Here, we identify a crucial role for RECQL4 in DNA end resection, which is the initial and an essential step of homologous recombination (HR)-dependent DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR). Depletion of RECQL4 severely reduces HR-mediated repair and 5' end resection in vivo. RECQL4 physically interacts with MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN), which senses DSBs and initiates DNA end resection with CtIP. The MRE11 exonuclease regulates the retention of RECQL4 at laser-induced DSBs...
June 28, 2016: Cell Reports
Zdenek Kleibl, Vessela N Kristensen
The presence of breast cancer in any first-degree female relative in general nearly doubles the risk for a proband and the risk gradually increases with the number of affected relatives. Current advances in molecular oncology and oncogenetics may enable the identification of high-risk individuals with breast-cancer predisposition. The best-known forms of hereditary breast cancer (HBC) are caused by mutations in the high-penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. Other genes, including PTEN, TP53, STK11/LKB1, CDH1, PALB2, CHEK2, ATM, MRE11, RAD50, NBS1, BRIP1, FANCA, FANCC, FANCM, RAD51, RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, and XRCC2 have been described as high- or moderate-penetrance breast cancer-susceptibility genes...
August 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Marie-Claude N Laffitte, Philippe Leprohon, Maripier Hainse, Danielle Légaré, Jean-Yves Masson, Marc Ouellette
The parasite Leishmania often relies on gene rearrangements to survive stressful environments. However, safeguarding a minimum level of genome integrity is important for cell survival. We hypothesized that maintenance of genomic integrity in Leishmania would imply a leading role of the MRE11 and RAD50 proteins considering their role in DNA repair, chromosomal organization and protection of chromosomes ends in other organisms. Attempts to generate RAD50 null mutants in a wild-type background failed and we provide evidence that this gene is essential...
June 2016: PLoS Genetics
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