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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079255/moonlighting-at-replication-forks-a-new-life-for-homologous-recombination-proteins-brca1-brca2-and-rad51
#1
REVIEW
Arun Mouli Kolinjivadi, Vincenzo Sannino, Anna de Antoni, Hervé Técher, Giorgio Baldi, Vincenzo Costanzo
Coordination between DNA replication and DNA repair ensures maintenance of genome integrity, which is lost in cancer cells. Emerging evidence has linked Homologous Recombination (HR) proteins RAD51, BRCA1 and BRCA2 to the stability of nascent DNA. This function appears to be distinct from Double Strand Break (DSB) repair and is in part due to the prevention of MRE11-mediated degradation of nascent DNA at stalled forks. The role of RAD51 in fork protection resembles the activity described for its prokaryotic ortholog RecA, which prevents nuclease-mediated degradation of DNA and promotes replication fork restart in cells challenged by DNA damaging agents...
January 12, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076794/brca1-directs-the-repair-pathway-to-homologous-recombination-by-promoting-53bp1-dephosphorylation
#2
Mayu Isono, Atsuko Niimi, Takahiro Oike, Yoshihiko Hagiwara, Hiro Sato, Ryota Sekine, Yukari Yoshida, Shin-Ya Isobe, Chikashi Obuse, Ryotaro Nishi, Elena Petricci, Shinichiro Nakada, Takashi Nakano, Atsushi Shibata
BRCA1 promotes homologous recombination (HR) by activating DNA-end resection. By contrast, 53BP1 forms a barrier that inhibits DNA-end resection. Here, we show that BRCA1 promotes DNA-end resection by relieving the 53BP1-dependent barrier. We show that 53BP1 is phosphorylated by ATM in S/G2 phase, promoting RIF1 recruitment, which inhibits resection. 53BP1 is promptly dephosphorylated and RIF1 released, despite remaining unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). When resection is impaired by CtIP/MRE11 endonuclease inhibition, 53BP1 phosphorylation and RIF1 are sustained due to ongoing ATM signaling...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076792/the-mre11-nbs1-interface-is-essential-for-viability-and-tumor-suppression
#3
Jun Hyun Kim, Malgorzata Grosbart, Roopesh Anand, Claire Wyman, Petr Cejka, John H J Petrini
The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) is integral to both DNA repair and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage signaling. All three Mre11 complex components are essential for viability at the cellular and organismal levels. To delineate essential and non-essential Mre11 complex functions that are mediated by Nbs1, we used TALEN-based genome editing to derive Nbs1 mutant mice (Nbs1(mid) mice), which harbor mutations in the Mre11 interaction domain of Nbs1. Nbs1(mid) alleles that abolished interaction were incompatible with viability...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073364/lack-of-mre11-rad50-nbs1-mrn-complex-detection-occurs-frequently-in-low-grade-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#4
Simone Brandt, Eleftherios P Samartzis, Anne-Katrin Zimmermann, Daniel Fink, Holger Moch, Aurelia Noske, Konstantin J Dedes
BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2-deficient ovarian carcinomas are recognized as target for Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are involved in homologous recombination repair of double-strand DNA breaks. The relevance of other homologous recombination repair proteins, e.g. MRE11, RAD50, NBS1 (MRN complex) in ovarian carcinomas is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of lack of MRE11, RAD50, NBS1 protein detection in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052067/the-paradoxical-effects-of-different-hepatitis-c-viral-loads-on-host-dna-damage-and-repair-abilities
#5
Shu-Chi Wang, Kuan-Ru Lai, Chia-Yang Li, Chi-Shiun Chiang, Guann-Yi Yu, Naoya Sakamoto, Wen-Yu Tu, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Chia-Yen Dai, Ming-Lung Yu
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced hepatic stress is associated with increased oxidative DNA damage and has been implicated in hepatic inflammation. However, HCV infection and replication are uneven and vary among individual hepatocytes. To investigate the effect of the viral load on host DNA damage, we used an Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein gene (EYFP)-tagged HCV virus to distinguish between HCV intracellular high viral load (HVL) cells and low viral load (LVL) cells. The cell sorting efficiency was confirmed by the high expression of the HCV polyprotein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031358/association-of-human-papillomavirus-type-16-e2-with-rad50-interacting-protein-1-enhances-viral-dna-replication
#6
Karen Campos León, Kalpanee Wijendra, Abida Siddiqa, Ieisha Pentland, Katherine M Feeney, Alison Knapman, Rachel Davies, Elliot J Androphy, Joanna L Parish
: Rad50-interacting protein 1 (Rint1) associates with the DNA damage response protein Rad50 during the S phase to G2/M transition and functions in radiation-induced G2 checkpoint control. It has also been demonstrated that Rint1 is essential in vesicle trafficking from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through interaction with Zeste-White 10 (ZW10). We have isolated a novel interaction between Rint1 and the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) transcription and replication factor E2...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002809/preclinical-evaluation-of-the-parp-inhibitor-bmn-673-for-the-treatment-of-ovarian-clear-cell-cancer
#7
Paul M Wilkerson, Konstantin J Dedes, Eleftherios Pierre Samartzis, Ioannis Dedes, Maryou B Lambros, Rachael Natrajan, Arnaud Gauthier, Salvatore Piscuoglio, Chantal Töpfer, Vesna Vukovic, Frances Daley, Britta Weigelt, Jorge S Reis-Filho
PURPOSE: To determine if models of ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCCs) harbouring defects in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) are sensitive to cisplatin and/or PARP inhibition. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The HR status of 12 OCCC cell lines was determined using RAD51/γH2AX foci formation assays. Sensitivity to cisplatin and the PARP inhibitor BMN-673 was correlated with HR status. BRCA1, BRCA2, MRE11 and PTEN loss of expression was investigated as a potential determinant of BMN-673 sensitivity...
December 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994036/microhomology-mediated-end-joining-is-activated-in-irradiated-human-cells-due-to-phosphorylation-dependent-formation-of-the-xrcc1-repair-complex
#8
Arijit Dutta, Bradley Eckelmann, Sanjay Adhikari, Kazi Mokim Ahmed, Shiladitya Sengupta, Arvind Pandey, Pavana M Hegde, Miaw-Sheue Tsai, John A Tainer, Michael Weinfeld, Muralidhar L Hegde, Sankar Mitra
Microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ), an error-prone pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is implicated in genomic rearrangement and oncogenic transformation; however, its contribution to repair of radiation-induced DSBs has not been characterized. We used recircularization of a linearized plasmid with 3'-P-blocked termini, mimicking those at X-ray-induced strand breaks, to recapitulate DSB repair via MMEJ or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Sequence analysis of the circularized plasmids allowed measurement of relative activity of MMEJ versus NHEJ...
December 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966484/genetic-and-biochemical-evidences-reveal-novel-insights-into-the-mechanism-underlying-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-sae2-mediated-abrogation-of-dna-replication-stress
#9
Indrajeet Ghodke, K Muniyappa
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) protein complex plays pivotal roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, replication stress and telomere length maintenance. Another protein linked to DSB repair is Sae2, which regulates MRX persistence at DSBs. However, very little is known about its role in DNA replication stress and repair. Here, we reveal a crucial role for Sae2 in DNA replication stress. We show that different mutant alleles of SAE2 cause hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents, and when combined with Δmre11 or nuclease-defective mre11 mutant alleles, the double mutants are considerably more sensitive suggesting that the sae2 mutations synergize with mre11 mutations...
December 2016: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932484/role-of-mdm2-and-mdmx-in-dna-repair
#10
REVIEW
Christine M Eischen
Mdm2 and Mdmx are critical regulators of the p53 tumour suppressor and are overexpressed in many human malignancies. However, in recent years, their impact on genome instability was shown to be at least, in part, independent of p53. Both Mdm2 and Mdmx inhibit DNA break repair through their association with the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 DNA repair complex. Recent evidence indicates that harnessing Mdm2 and/or Mdmx-mediated inhibition of DNA break repair in cancer cells could provide a therapeutic opportunity, particularly for those malignancies that have lost functional p53...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930716/mre11-and-atm-expression-levels-predict-rectal-cancer-survival-and-their-association-with-radiotherapy-response
#11
Vincent Ho, Liping Chung, Maxine Revoltar, Stephanie H Lim, Thein-Ga Tut, Askar Abubakar, Chris J Henderson, Wei Chua, Weng Ng, Mark Lee, Paul De Souza, Matthew Morgan, C Soon Lee, Joo-Shik Shin
BACKGROUND: Aberrant expression of DNA repair proteins is associated with poor survival in cancer patients. We investigated the combined expression of MRE11 and ATM as a predictive marker of response to radiotherapy in rectal cancer. METHODS: MRE11 and ATM expression were examined in tumor samples from 262 rectal cancer patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer, including a sub-cohort of 54 patients who were treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy. The relationship between expression of the two-protein panel and tumor regression grade (TRG) was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test and receiver operating characteristics area under curve (ROC-AUC) analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922005/wrn-regulates-pathway-choice-between-classical-and-alternative-non-homologous-end-joining
#12
Raghavendra A Shamanna, Huiming Lu, Jessica K de Freitas, Jane Tian, Deborah L Croteau, Vilhelm A Bohr
Werner syndrome (WS) is an accelerated ageing disorder with genomic instability caused by WRN protein deficiency. Many features seen in WS can be explained by the diverse functions of WRN in DNA metabolism. However, the origin of the large genomic deletions and telomere fusions are not yet understood. Here, we report that WRN regulates the pathway choice between classical (c)- and alternative (alt)-nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) during DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. It promotes c-NHEJ via helicase and exonuclease activities and inhibits alt-NHEJ using non-enzymatic functions...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918542/the-role-of-break-induced-replication-in-large-scale-expansions-of-cag-n-ctg-n-repeats
#13
Jane C Kim, Samantha T Harris, Teresa Dinter, Kartik A Shah, Sergei M Mirkin
Expansions of (CAG)n/(CTG)n trinucleotide repeats are responsible for over a dozen neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disorders. Large-scale expansions are commonly observed in human pedigrees and may be explained by iterative small-scale events such as strand slippage during replication or repair DNA synthesis. Alternatively, a distinct mechanism may lead to a large-scale repeat expansion as a single step. To distinguish between these possibilities, we developed a novel experimental system specifically tuned to analyze large-scale expansions of (CAG)n/(CTG)n repeats in Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
January 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915381/regulation-of-non-homologous-end-joining-via-post-translational-modifications-of-components-of-the-ligation-step
#14
REVIEW
Kristína Durdíková, Miroslav Chovanec
DNA double-strand breaks are the most serious type of DNA damage and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is an important pathway for their repair. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three complexes mediate the canonical NHEJ pathway, Ku (Ku70/Ku80), MRX (Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2) and DNA ligase IV (Dnl4/Lif1). Mammalian NHEJ is more complex, primarily as a consequence of the fact that more factors are involved in the process, and also because higher chromatin organization and more complex regulatory networks exist in mammals...
December 3, 2016: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912094/mre11-is-essential-for-the-removal-of-lethal-topoisomerase-2-covalent-cleavage-complexes
#15
Nguyen Ngoc Hoa, Tsubasa Shimizu, Zhong Wei Zhou, Zhao-Qi Wang, Rajashree A Deshpande, Tanya T Paull, Salma Akter, Masataka Tsuda, Ryohei Furuta, Ken Tsutsui, Shunichi Takeda, Hiroyuki Sasanuma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889450/rpa-mediates-recruitment-of-mrx-to-forks-and-double-strand-breaks-to-hold-sister-chromatids-together
#16
Andrew Seeber, Anna Maria Hegnauer, Nicole Hustedt, Ishan Deshpande, Jérôme Poli, Jan Eglinger, Philippe Pasero, Heinz Gut, Miki Shinohara, Karl-Peter Hopfner, Kenji Shimada, Susan M Gasser
The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex is related to SMC complexes that form rings capable of holding two distinct DNA strands together. MRX functions at stalled replication forks and double-strand breaks (DSBs). A mutation in the N-terminal OB fold of the 70 kDa subunit of yeast replication protein A, rfa1-t11, abrogates MRX recruitment to both types of DNA damage. The rfa1 mutation is functionally epistatic with loss of any of the MRX subunits for survival of replication fork stress or DSB recovery, although it does not compromise end-resection...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889449/phosphorylated-ctip-functions-as-a-co-factor-of-the-mre11-rad50-nbs1-endonuclease-in-dna-end-resection
#17
Roopesh Anand, Lepakshi Ranjha, Elda Cannavo, Petr Cejka
To repair a DNA double-strand break (DSB) by homologous recombination (HR), the 5'-terminated strand of the DSB must be resected. The human MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) and CtIP proteins were implicated in the initiation of DNA end resection, but the underlying mechanism remained undefined. Here, we show that CtIP is a co-factor of the MRE11 endonuclease activity within the MRN complex. This function is absolutely dependent on CtIP phosphorylation that includes the key cyclin-dependent kinase target motif at Thr-847...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814491/nbs1-converts-the-human-mre11-rad50-nuclease-complex-into-an-endo-exonuclease-machine-specific-for-protein-dna-adducts
#18
Rajashree A Deshpande, Ji-Hoon Lee, Sucheta Arora, Tanya T Paull
The human Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (hMRN) complex is critical for the sensing, processing, and signaling of DNA double-strand breaks. The nuclease activity of Mre11 is essential for mammalian development and cell viability, although the regulation and substrate specificity of Mre11 have been difficult to define. Here we show that hMRN catalyzes sequential endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic activities on both 5' and 3' strands of DNA ends containing protein adducts, and that Nbs1, ATP, and adducts are essential for this function...
November 3, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814490/mre11-is-essential-for-the-removal-of-lethal-topoisomerase-2-covalent-cleavage-complexes
#19
Nguyen Ngoc Hoa, Tsubasa Shimizu, Zhong Wei Zhou, Zhao-Qi Wang, Rajashree A Deshpande, Tanya T Paull, Salma Akter, Masataka Tsuda, Ryohei Furuta, Ken Tsusui, Shunichi Takeda, Hiroyuki Sasanuma
The Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex initiates double-strand break repair by homologous recombination (HR). Loss of Mre11 or its nuclease activity in mouse cells is known to cause genome aberrations and cellular senescence, although the molecular basis for this phenotype is not clear. To identify the origin of these defects, we characterized Mre11-deficient (MRE11(-/-)) and nuclease-deficient Mre11 (MRE11(-/H129N)) chicken DT40 and human lymphoblast cell lines. These cells exhibit increased spontaneous chromosomal DSBs and extreme sensitivity to topoisomerase 2 poisons...
November 3, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807099/cyclin-a2-has-a-cdk-independent-role-as-an-rna-binding-protein
#20
(no author information available yet)
Cyclin A2 binds to Mre11 mRNA to promote Mre11 translation and repair of replication errors.
November 2016: Cancer Discovery
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