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Bichao Zhang, Ciqing Yang, Liang Qiao, Qiuling Li, Congrui Wang, Xin Yan, Juntang Lin
Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (Npc1), is an atypical lysosomal storage disorder caused by autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in Npc1 gene. In the Npc1 mutant mice (Npc1(-/-) ), the initial manifestation is enlarged spleen, concomitant with free cholesterol accumulation. Telocytes (TCs), a novel type of interstitial cell, exist in a variety of tissues including spleen, presumably thought to be involved in many biological processes such as nursing stem cells and recruiting inflammatory cells. In this study, we found that the spleen is significantly enlarged in Npc1(-/-) mice, and the results from transmission electron microscopy examination and immunostaining using three different TCs markers, c-Kit, CD34 and Vimentin revealed significantly increased splenic TCs in Npc1(-/-) mice...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Florentina Grigoriu, Sorin Hostiuc, Alexandra Diana Vrapciu, Mugurel Constantin Rusu
: Telocytes (TCs) are cells defined by their long and moniliform processes termed telopodes. They were previously identified in the endocardium and express neural markers, such as nestin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Previous studies found a positive expression of neuro-filaments in endocardial endothelial cells, and a positive expression of nestin in cardiac side population (CSP) progenitor cells, which allowed us to hypothesize that TCs in the endocardial stem niche could be in fact progenitors that express nestin...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Hanan H Abd-Elhafeez, Doaa M Mokhtar, Ahmed H S Hassan
Telocytes (TCs) are a special type of interstitial cell with characteristic cellular processes that are described in many organs. The current study aimed to investigate TCs in seminal vesicles of the Soay ram responding to melatonin treatment during the nonbreeding season by conventional immunohistochemical stains, and to detect the ultrastructural and morphometrical changes of TCs. TCs in the control group showed a broad range of staining affinity and also reacted positively to CD117/c-kit, CD34, desmin, S-100 protein, and progesterone and estrogen receptors alpha, while after melatonin treatment a strong reaction against these 6 antibodies was recorded...
November 2, 2016: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Yingying Zhao, Xiaoyu Chen, Fei Wang, Changqing Yang
Telocytes (TCs), a novel peculiar interstitial cell found in many tissues and organs, play pivotal roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis and regulating tissue and organ development and immune surveillance. In recent years, the existence of TCs in liver has been confirmed. In this chapter, we evaluate the role of TCs on promoting liver regeneration and the therapeutic effects on liver fibrosis.
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Joanna Dawidowicz, Natalia Matysiak, Sylwia Szotek, Krzysztof Maksymowicz
Currently, the exact role of telocytes within fascial structures is unknown. The morphology, distribution and behaviour of fascial telocytes as well as the mutual relationship between telocytes and other cellular fascia constituents should be definitely a subject of further studies. It will contribute to better understanding of the role of the fascial system in health and diseases, may shed light on the regeneration potential of these tissues and may help to find targets for future treatments for locomotor disorders, including fascial diseases...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Laura Cristina Ceafalan, Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu
It is well proved already that neurogenesis does take place in mammals' brain, including human brain. However, neurogenesis by itself is not able to compensate for brain tissue loss in serious neurological diseases, such as stroke, brain trauma or neurodegenerative disorders. Recent evidences show that neural stem cell niches are present not only in classical locations, such as subventricularor subgranular zones, but in other areas as well, including tissues contiguous to the brain (meninges and choroid plexus)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Hongqi Zhang
Telocyte, different to fibroblast and dendritic cell, is a novel type of interstitial cell, whose key features are their smaller cell body with very long prolongations of uneven caliber, termed telopodes. The telocytes have been continuously discovered to be present in many tissues and organs. Whether telocytes exist in the blood and vascular wall is not clear. Our research group, for the first time, testified that telocytes also exist in the blood and large sized arterial and venous wall under scanning and transmission electron microscope...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zeinab M El Maadawi
Telocytes have been identified as a distinctive type of interstitial cells and have been recognized in most tissues and organs. Telocytes are characterized by having extraordinary long cytoplasmic processes, telopodes, that extend to form three-dimensional networks and commonly constitute specialized forms of cell-to-cell junctions with other neighboring cells. Telocytes have been localized in the stem cell niche of different organs such as the heart, lung, skeletal muscle, and skin. Electron microscopy and electron tomography revealed a specialized link between telocytes and stem cells that postulates a potential role for telocytes during tissue regeneration and repair...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sanda Maria Cretoiu
The seminal work of Popescu and colleagues first demonstrated the existence of a new cell type - the telocytes. We were among the first who reported the presence of such cells in the female genital tract and performed TEM examinations, as well as immunohistochemical staining in the attempt to find a specific marker. Telocytes from rat and from the human uterus and from human fallopian tube were extensively investigated initially by comparison with interstitial cells of Cajal. Progress in telocyte research led to the identification of different subtypes suggestive for a heterogeneous telocyte population which can even coexist in the same location...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Dragos Cretoiu
Lately, spatial three-dimensional (3D) identity of cells and their interrelations with the environment that surrounds it represent a challenging trend with the purpose to achieve a holistic view over the functions. Combining data from different imaging of cells in the third dimension can offer insight into behavior modalities making a world of difference. This chapter outlines a breakthrough in telocyte research by volume electron microscopy with the aid of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Catalin G Manole, Olga Simionescu
Telocytes (TCs) are interstitial cells found in stroma of many organs, including the skin dermis. Ultrastructurally, normal skin TCs recapitulates all the previously documented features in interstitum of other organs. Their (ultra)structural hallmark is the presence of particular shaped cellular prolongations (termed telopodes), along other features as cellular organelles representation and their distribution within cell body and its prolongations. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or high magnification light microscopy indicated that the particular shape of telopodes alternate characteristically thin segments (termed podomeres) and dilated segments (called podoms)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Daniel Dumitru Banciu, Adela Banciu, Beatrice Mihaela Radu
Telocytes (TCs) are interstitial cells described in multiple structures, including the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, urinary tract, uterus, and heart. Several studies have indicated the possibility that TCs are involved in the pacemaker potential in these organs. It is supposed that TCs are interacting with the neighboring muscular cells and their network contributes to the initiation and propagation of the electrical potentials. In order to understand the contribution of TCs to various excitability mechanisms, it is necessary to analyze the plasma membrane proteins (e...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xiao-Jun Yang
Women suffered with inflammatory gynecologic diseases, such as endometriosis (EMs) and acute salpingitis (AS) often complained of sub- or infertility, even in those women without obvious macroscopic anatomical pelvic abnormalities also have unexplained infertility. Generally, besides the well-known impairment of classically described oviduct cells caused by inflammatory diseases, such as the ciliated cells, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, the involvement of the newly identified telocytes (TCs) in disease-affected oviduct tissues and potential pathophysiological roles in fertility problems remain unknown...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yonghua Zheng, Xiangdong Wang
Telocytes are cells with telopodes, which distinguish them from other interstitial cells. According to the study of lung, it was confirmed that telocytes were mainly distributed in the alveolar interstitial tissues connected tightly with alveolar epithelia cells and participated in the structure of air-blood barrier, in the small vein and bronchioles and in the interstitial space of smooth muscle participated in the frame structure of the blood and bronchioles. Telocytes are positive to CD34 and C-kit which expressed on the surface of hemopoietic stem cells, and are proposed to participate in the angiogenesis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Winston Shim
The heart is an electrically conducting organ with networked bioelectric currents that transverse a large segment of interstitial space interspersed with the muscular parenchyma. Non-excitable connective cells in the interstitial space contributed importantly to many structural, biochemical, and physiological activities of cardiac homeostasis. However, contribution of interstitial cells in the cardiac niche has long been neglected. Telocyte is recently recognized as a distinct class of interstitial cell that resides in a wide array of tissues including in the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium of the heart...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Liao Zhaofu, Cai Dongqing
Recent research progress has revealed that a novel type of interstitial cells termed cardiac telocytes (CTs) is found in the interstitium of the heart. We demonstrated that CTs are distributed both longitudinally and within the cross network in the myocardium and that the density of CTs in the atrium-atria and base of the myocardium is higher than that in the middle of the myocardium, while the density of CTs in the epicardium is higher than that in the endocardium. In addition, we documented, for the first time, that the network of CTs in the infarct zone of the myocardium is destroyed during myocardial infarction (MI)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Somanath Padhi, Hemanta Kumar Nayak
The first decade of the twenty-first century witnessed the presence and light microscopic, immunophenotypic, and ultrastructural characterization of interstitial Cajal-like cells (coined as 'telocytes') in virtually every extragastrointestinal site of the human body by Laurentiu M. Popescu and his co-workers. Not surprisingly, stromal tumours, immunophenotypically similar to that of telocytes [CD117 (c-KIT) +/CD34 +], have also been sporadically reported outside the tubular gut (so-called extragastrointestinal stromal tumours, EGISTs), including the gall bladder, liver, and pancreas...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Bruno D A Sanches, Lara S Corradi, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
The telocytes have recently been described in the prostate gland. In mature gland, they exist in close association with the acini and their telopodes form networks whose functions remain unclear. In this chapter, our group gives a brief introduction to telocytes and explores the history that led to such a concept and then discusses hypotheses and presents new evidences about the roles exerted by telocytes in the prostate. First is given emphasis on the role that these cells possibly play in paracrine signaling employed in the differentiation of smooth muscle periacinar are then discussed other roles potentially performed by telocytes in the prostate, such as the organizational, where these cells would act in order to delimit stromal microenvironments, thereby assisting the differentiation of the prostatic anatomical components...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
L Díaz-Flores, R Gutiérrez, M González-Gómez, L Díaz-Flores, F Valladares, N Rancel, F J Sáez, J F Madrid
In this chapter, we outline the role of human CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes (CD34+ SC/TCs) as progenitor cells during repair. The in vivo activation phenomena of CD34+ SC/TCs in this process include increased size; separation from the neighbouring structures (mainly of the vascular walls); association with inflammatory cells, predominantly macrophages; development of the organelles of synthesis (rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus); cell proliferation with presence of mitosis and high proliferative index (transit-amplifying cells); and fibroblastic and myofibroblastic differentiation...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mihnea Ioan Nicolescu
Stroma is viewed as the supportive framework of a predominant epithelial organ, comprising mostly of connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves. Since the discovery of telocytes one decade ago (Popescu and Faussone-Pellegrini J Cell Mol Med 2010;14(4):729-40), their presence was proven in several exocrine gland stromata, including major and minor salivary glands, mammary glands as well as exocrine pancreas.Telocytes have been found in a close connection with acinar and ductal structures but also with their stromal neighbours - nerves, blood vessels or other connective elements, either cells or collagen fibres...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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