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Przemysław Janas, Iwona Kucybała, Małgorzata Radoń-Pokracka, Hubert Huras
Telocytes are emerging cell population localized in the stroma of numerous organs, characterized by a distinctive morphology - small cell body with very long, slender prolongations, termed telopodes. Those cells can be found in the whole female reproductive system: in the vagina, uterus, oviducts and ovaries, mammary glands and also in the placenta. In our review, we aim at complete and transparent revision of the current knowledge of telocytes' localization and function, enriched by the analysis of the possible future direction of development of their clinical applications...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
M G Wagener, S Leonhard-Marek, J-D Häger, C Pfarrer
Mastitis is a common economically relevant problem in dairy farming. As the major entry for pathogens is the papillary duct, one of the first defence mechanisms is the teat sphincter. This sphincter shows a rhythmic contractility of yet unknown origin. Searching for possible modulatory pacemaker cells, teat sphincters of eight cows were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against CD117 and vimentin and evaluated microscopically for the presence of telocytes. CD117- and vimentin-positive telocytes with telopodes were found in close contact with smooth muscle cells...
March 5, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Paul N Manley, Suzan Abu-Abed, Richard Kirsch, Andrea Hawrysh, Nicole Perrier, Harriet Feilotter, Aaron Pollett, Robert Riddell, Lawrence Hookey, Jagdeep S Walia
Germline activating platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) mutations have been described in four families. All the index patients have presented with multiple mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. We identified a fifth family with four first-degree relatives that harbor a PDGFRA exon 18 (D846V) germline mutation. The affected kindred have a unique phenotype including coarse facies and skin, broad hands and feet, and previously undescribed premature tooth loss. While the index patient presented with multiple small bowel inflammatory fibroid polyps (IFPs) and has a gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), no tumors have yet been identified in other family members...
February 24, 2018: Human Pathology
Irene Rosa, Mirca Marini, Daniele Guasti, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
A new cell type named telocyte (i.e. cell with distinctive prolongations called telopodes) has recently been identified in the stroma of various organs in humans. However, no study has yet reported the existence of telocytes in the synovial membrane of diarthrodial joints. This work was therefore undertaken to search for telocytes in the normal human synovium using transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated the presence of numerous spindle-shaped telocytes in the whole synovial sublining layer...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Natalia V Nizyaeva, Tatiana V Sukhacheva, Roman A Serov, Galina V Kulikova, Marina N Nagovitsyna, Natalia E Kan, Victor L Tyutyunnik, Stanislav V Pavlovich, Rimma A Poltavtseva, Ekaterina L Yarotskaya, Aleksandr I Shchegolev, Gennadiy T Sukhikh
A new cell type, interstitial Cajal-like cell (ICLC), was recently described in different organs. The name was recently changed to telocytes (TCs), and their typical thin, long processes have been named telopodes (Tp). TCs regulate the contractile activity of smooth muscle cells and play a role in regulating vessel contractions. Although the placenta is not an innervated organ, we believe that TCs are present in the placenta. We studied placenta samples from physiological pregnancies and in different variants of preeclampsia (PE)...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ivan Varga, Martin Klein, Ladislav Urban, Ludovit Danihel, Stefan Polak, Ludovit Danihel
Uterine telocytes are interstitial cells characterized by a very long cytoplasmic prolongations, which form a 3D network, functionally integrating a wide variety of different cells. Leiomyomas (uterine fibroids) are benign tumors, which pose a huge threat concerning various health problems in women affected by this condition. The exact cause of leiomyomas development is, however, still largely unknown. Therefore, in an attempt to clarify their etiology, we performed an immunohistochemical characterization of telocytes in leiomyomas as well as in normal myometrium...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
T Vandecasteele, W Van Den Broeck, H Tay, L Couck, G van Loon, P Cornillie
The myocardial sleeve of the porcine and equine pulmonary veins were histologically investigated and reconstructed three dimensionally. Moreover, the localization of neuron cell bodies at the veno-atrial junction and alongside the myocardial sleeve was light microscopically visualized to depict the organization of nerve, myocardial and fat tissue. Finally, the presence of telocytes inside the equine pulmonary veins was demonstrated by use of transmission electron microscopy. These structures are thought to play a role in the induction of atrial fibrillation, which is frequently seen in horses, while pigs are often used as a cardiovascular model in this context...
January 3, 2018: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Alexandra Diana Vrapciu, Mugurel Constantin Rusu
Telocytes (TCs) are stromal cells with characteristic long, thin and moniliform prolongations termed telopodes. They were formerly termed interstitial Cajal-like cells. A characteristic set of markers to identify TCs in light microscopy has not been established until now. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a better tool for identifying TCs. Telocytes display caveolae and can express caveolin-1. On the other hand, endothelial cells (ECs) as well as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have caveolae. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of TCs are in fact EPCs...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Doaa M Mokhtar, Manal T Hussein, Ahmed H S Hassan
Endogenous melatonin is a hormone secreted by pineal gland; it has several roles in metabolism, reproduction, and remarkable antioxidant properties. Studies on the melatonin effect on the adrenal glands which are important endocrine organs, controlling essential physiological functions, are still deficient. In this study, we attempted to investigate the effect of exogenous melatonin treatment on the adrenal cortex and medulla using several approaches. Adrenal glands of 15 Soay ram were examined to detect the effect of melatonin treatment...
December 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Dongli Song, Dragos Cretoiu, Xiangdong Wang
Telocyte (TC) is a new identified interstitial cell type with a small nuclear and one or several long and thin prolongations with enlargements on them. They were found in many mammals including humans, mouse, rats, dogs, and monkeys and play vital roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. The ultrastructure of mitochondria was observed in TCs, and the alterations were found in TCs from inflammatory ureter tissue. MtDNA is associated with mitochondria normal functions and involved in physiological and pathological processes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
M A Dobra, A D Vrapciu, F Pop, N Petre, M C Rusu
Telocytes (TC) are the delicate interstitial (stromal) cells defined by their long, thin and moniliform processes termed telopodes. Numerous studies determined that different subsets of telocytes populate almost all tissues and attempted to relate these subsets to various functions, from cell signaling to tissue repair and regeneration. Extremely few studies addressed the urinary tract though few data on the molecular pattern of the urinary TCs actually exist. We therefore hypothesized that subsets of urinary TCs co-localize within the human ureter and we aimed at performing an immunohistochemical study to evaluate the tissue-specific molecular pattern of TCs...
November 16, 2017: Acta Histochemica
Lubov B Mitrofanova, Andrey N Gorshkov, Petr V Konovalov, Julia S Krylova
The sinoatrial node (SAN) is composed mostly of pacemaker, transitional and Purkinje-like cells. Pacemaker cells, especially in the centre of the SAN, are surrounded by dense fibrous tissue and do not have any contact with transitional cells. We hypothesize that the SAN contains telocytes that have contacts with pacemaker cells and contractile myocardium. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against HCN4 and antibody combinations against CD34 and HCN4 was carried out on 12 specimens. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with two mixtures of primary antibodies, namely CD34/S100 and vimentin/S100, was performed in three cases...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Deborah Rotoli, Mariana-Mayela Cejas, María-Del-Carmen Maeso, Natalia-Dolores Pérez-Rodríguez, Manuel Morales, Julio Ávila, Ali Mobasheri, Pablo Martín-Vasallo
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of malignant glioma. Recent studies point out that gliomas exploit ion channels and transporters, including Na, K-ATPase, to sustain their singular growth and invasion as they invade the brain parenchyma. Moreover, the different isoforms of the β-subunit of Na, K-ATPase have been implicated in regulating cellular dynamics, particularly during cancer progression. The aim of this study was to determine the Na, K-ATPase β subunit isoform subcellular expression patterns in all cell types responsible for microenvironment heterogeneity of GBM using immunohistochemical analysis...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laura Pulze, Nicolò Baranzini, Rossana Girardello, Annalisa Grimaldi, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Enzo Ottaviani, Marcella Reguzzoni, Gianluca Tettamanti, Magda de Eguileor
Telocytes, a peculiar cell type, were recently found in vertebrates. Hence this cell system has been reported as ubiquitous in the bodies of mammals and interpreted as an important player in innate immunity and tissue regeneration, it is reasonable to look for it also in invertebrates, that rely their integrity solely by innate immunity. Here we describe, at morphological and functional level, invertebrate telocytes from the body of leech Hirudo medicinalis (Annelida), suggesting how these cells, forming a resident stromal 3D network, can influence or participate in different events...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ivan Varga, Jan Kyselovič, Paulina Galfiova, Lubos Danisovic
The non-cardiomyocyte cellular microenvironment of the heart includes diverse types of cells of mesenchymal origin. During development, the majority of these cells derive from the epicardium, while a subset derives from the endothelium/endocardium and neural crest derived mesenchyme. This subset includes cardiac fibroblasts and telocytes, the latter of which are a controversial type of "connecting cell" that support resident cardiac progenitors in the postnatal heart. Smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and endothelial cells are also present, in addition to adipocytes, which accumulate as epicardial adipose connective tissue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mai Salah Nour, Nahla Reda Sarhan, Shireen A Mazroa, Salwa A Gawish
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac telocytes (TCs) represent a unique type of cells that make a supportive network for stem cells that contribute in cardiac renewal, but their role during myocardial infarction (MI) is not clear. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a powerful natural antioxidant. AIM OF THE WORK: Quantitative study of cardiac TCs in a rat model of Isoproterenol (ISO)-induced MI, and to evaluate the effect of GSE on TCs and MI progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy adult male albino rats were assigned into 4 groups; group I; control rats, group II received GSE (100mg/kg/day) dissolved in distilled water orally, group III received 2 intra-peritoneal injections of 85mg/kg ISO dissolved in saline on 14th and 15th day to induce MI, and group IV received GSE and ISO...
September 21, 2017: Acta Histochemica
Mirca Marini, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
Among cardiac interstitial cells, the recently described telocytes (TCs) display the unique ability to build a supportive three-dimensional network formed by their very long and thin prolongations named telopodes. Cardiac TCs are increasingly regarded as pivotal regulators in intercellular signaling with multiple cell types, such as cardiomyocytes, stem/progenitor cells, microvessels, nerve endings, fibroblasts and immune cells, thus converting the cardiac stromal compartment into an integrated system that may drive either heart development or maintenance of cardiac homeostasis in post-natal life...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
H Tay, T Vandecasteele, W Van den Broeck
Recently, a new interstitial cell type called telocyte has been identified. Telocytes are found in many organs including the heart, where they are especially well described. However, their presence in the porcine heart has not yet been proven. The pig is a valuable animal model in research because of its resemblance with man, making it interesting to determine whether telocytes can be found in pigs as well. The focus of this study is the identification and ultrastructural description of telocytes in the heart tissue of pig...
September 7, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Bruno D A Sanches, Juliana S Maldarine, Bruno C Zani, Guilherme H Tamarindo, Manoel F Biancardi, Fernanda C A Santos, Paula Rahal, Rejane M Góes, Sérgio L Felisbino, Patricia S L Vilamaior, Sebastião R Taboga
Telocytes are CD34-positive interstitial cells, known to exert several functions, one of which is a role in tissue organisation, previously demonstrated by telocytes in the myocardium. The existence of telocytes in the prostate has recently been reported, however, there is a lack of information regarding the function of these cells in prostate tissue, and information regarding the possible role of these cells in prostatic development. This study used immunofluorescence techniques in prostate tissue and prostatic telocytes in culture to determine the relationship between telocytes and prostate morphogenesis...
December 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Ruxandra Dragoi Galrinho, Catalin Gabriel Manole, Dragos Vinereanu
Cardiovascular diseases, particularly myocardial infarction, remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even though pharmacological and interventional therapies improved significantly in the last years. Moreover, despite encouraging results of cell - based therapies in experimental myocardial infarction models, clinical trials showed inconsistent and modest efficiency. Therefore the next step should be the revealing of a new cell type, capable of regenerating the damaged myocardium. Telocytes (TCs), a relatively new type of interstitial cells, were described few years ago and are credited with important roles in regenerative therapies...
December 2016: Mædica
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