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Yeqing Li, Fang Yan, Tao Li, Ying Zhou, Hao Jiang, Mingyu Qian, Quan Xu
In this study, an integrated process was developed to produce methane and high-quality bio-briquette (BB) using corn straw (CS) through high-solid anaerobic digestion (HS-AD). CS was anaerobic digested by using a leach bed reactor at four leachate recirculation strategies. After digesting for 28 days, highest methane yield of 179.6 mL/g-VS, which was corresponded to energy production of 5.55 MJ/kg-CS, was obtained at a higher initial recirculation rate of 32 L-leachate per day. Compared with bio-briquette manufactured from raw CS and lignite, the compressive, immersion and falling strength properties of bio-briquette made from AD-treated CS (solid digestate) and lignite were significantly improved...
November 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Elena Netchiporouk, Jennifer Gantchev, Matthew Tsang, Philippe Thibault, Andrew K Watters, John-Douglas Matthew Hughes, Feras M Ghazawi, Anders Woetmann, Niels Ødum, Denis Sasseville, Ivan V Litvinov
HTLV-1 is estimated to affect ~20 million people worldwide and in ~5% of carriers it produces Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), which can often masquerade and present with classic erythematous pruritic patches and plaques that are typically seen in Mycosis Fungoides (MF) and Sézary Syndrome (SS), the most recognized variants of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL). For many years the role of HTLV-1 in the pathogenesis of MF/SS has been hotly debated. In this study we analyzed CTCL vs. HTLV-1+ leukemic cells...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
László Pálfalvi, György Tóth, Levente Tokodi, Zsuzsanna Márton, József András Fülöp, Gábor Almási, János Hebling
A hybrid-type terahertz pulse source is proposed for high energy terahertz pulse generation. It is the combination of the conventional tilted-pulse-front setup and a transmission stair-step echelon-faced nonlinear crystal with a period falling in the hundred-micrometer range. The most important advantage of the setup is the possibility of using plane parallel nonlinear optical crystal for producing good-quality, symmetric terahertz beam. Another advantage of the proposed setup is the significant reduction of imaging errors, which is important in the case of wide pump beams that are used in high energy experiments...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
L Schmitt, S Huth, P M Amann, Y Marquardt, R Heise, K Fietkau, L Huth, T Steiner, F Hölzle, J M Baron
Molecular effects of various ablative and non-ablative laser treatments on human skin cells-especially primary effects on epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts-are not yet fully understood. We present the first study addressing molecular effects of fractional non-sequential ultrapulsed CO2 laser treatment using a 3D skin model that allows standardized investigations of time-dependent molecular changes ex vivo. While histological examination was performed to assess morphological changes, we utilized gene expression profiling using microarray and qRT-PCR analyses to identify molecular effects of laser treatment...
December 7, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Jeffrey Chi Wang Chan, Bonnie Nga Kwan Choy, Orlando Chia Chieh Chan, Kenneth Kai Wang Li
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess the early intraocular pressure (IOP) changes of ultralow fluence laser iridotomy using pattern scanning laser followed by neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-gamet (Nd:YAG) laser. METHODS: This is a prospective interventional study. Thirty-three eyes of 33 adult Chinese primary angle-closure suspect subjects were recruited for prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy. Sequential laser peripheral iridotomy was performed using pattern scanning laser followed by Nd:YAG laser...
December 7, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Han-Tan Chai, Kuan-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Chih-Hung Chen, Pei-Hsun Sung, Yung-Lung Chen, Chun-Man Yuen, Pei-Lin Shao, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Ching-Jen Wang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip, Sheung-Fat Ko
This study tested the hypothesis that extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW) therapy could protect mouse brain from chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CHP)-induced neuropathological changes in a bilateral carotid arterial stenosis (CAS) model. Adult-male C57BL/6 (B6) mice (n=36) were randomized into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (CHP) and group 3 [CHP+ECSW (100 impulses at 0.15 mJ/mm2) on day 5, 10 and 15 after CHP induction]. By day 60 after CHP induction, the white matter lesion, protein expressions of inflammatory (TNF-α/NF-κB/iNOS), oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/NOX-4/nitrotyrosine), angiogenesis (eNOS/CD31), apoptotic (Bax/caspase-3/PARP), fibrotic (Smad3/TGF-ß) and mitochondrial-damaged (cytosolic cytochrome-C) biomarkers were significantly higher in group 2 than in groups 1 and 3, and significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1, whereas the protein expressions of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2), anti-fibrotic (BMP-2/Smad1/5), and mitochondrial-integrity (mitochondrial cytochrome-C) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern to inflammation among the three groups (all P<0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Yu-Chung Chiu, Tsong-Dong Wang, Gang Zhao, Yen-Chieh Huang
Lithium niobate is the most popular material for terahertz wave generation via stimulated polariton scattering (SPS), previously known to have a gain peak near 2 THz. Here we report the discovery of another phase-matched gain peak near 4 THz in lithium niobate, which greatly extends the useful gain spectrum of lithium niobate. Despite the relatively high 4 THz absorption in lithium niobate, the 4 THz SPS becomes dominant over the 2 THz one in an intensely pumped short lithium niobate crystal due to less diffraction-induced absorption and mode-area mismatch...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Ghaneshwar Gautam, Christian G Parigger, Christopher M Helstern, Kyle A Drake
Microplasma is generated in an ultra-high-pure H2 and N2 gas mixture with a Nd:YAG laser device that is operated at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The gas mixture ratio of H2 and N2 is 9 to 1 at a pressure of 1.21 ± 0.03 105 Pa inside a chamber. A Czerny-Turner-type spectrometer and an intensified charge-coupled device are utilized for the recording of plasma emission spectra. The line-of-sight measurements are Abel inverted to determine the radial distributions of electron number density and temperature...
November 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Yixuan Zhang, Chunqing Gao, Qing Wang, QuanXin Na, Mingwei Gao, Meng Zhang, Qing Ye, YuJia Wang, Jian Zhang
We demonstrate a 2090 nm single-frequency, high-energy, Q-switched Ho:YAG ceramic master oscillator and power amplifier system that contains two-stage amplifiers. The maximum single-frequency pulse energy is 55.64 mJ at a pulse repetition frequency of 200 Hz. The half-width of the pulse spectrum is measured to be 3.96 MHz by a heterodyne technique. To the best of our knowledge, 55.64 mJ is the highest single-frequency output energy obtained from the Ho:YAG laser.
December 1, 2017: Applied Optics
George Wilson, Daloni Lucas, Catherine Hambly, John R Speakman, James P Morton, Graeme L Close
To formulate individualized dietary strategies for jockeys, it is vital that energy requirements are quantified. We measured total energy expenditure (TEE) over two separate weeks in spring and summer using doubly labelled water in a group of male flat jockeys (n = 8, 36.9 ± 5.7 years, 164 ± 8 cm, 54.6 ± 2.5 kg). Total energy intake (TEI) was self-recorded, as were all riding and structured exercise activity. Mean daily TEE was 10.83 (±2.3) and 10.66 (±1.76) MJ, (p = .61) respectively...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
Sandeep K Gupta, Thayalan Rajeshkumar, Gopalan Rajaraman, Ramaswamy Murugavel
A monometallic non-Kramers Ho(iii) complex with a strong uniaxial ligand field displays a record high energy barrier of 355 K with hysteresis opening up to 4 K at a sweep rate of 0.027 T s-1, while the isomorphous, more anisotropic non-Kramers Tb(iii) complex displays strong quantum tunnelling between the ground states. Ab initio calculations reveal that the presence of strong axial ligands and moderately weaker equatorial ligands is sufficient to quench the QTM between the ground pseudo doublets (mJ = ±8) in the case of Ho(iii) complex, where the relaxation is found to proceed via the first excited state...
December 7, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Zohra M Kakall, Paul M Pilowsky, Melissa Mj Farnham
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intermittent hypoxia causes a persistent increase in sympathetic activity, which progresses to hypertension in chronic conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an excitatory neurotransmitter that causes long-lasting sympathetic excitation. We aimed to determine if intermittent activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) causes PACAP-mediated elevation of sympathetic nerve activity (sSNA), termed sympathetic long-term facilitation (sLTF)...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Manuel Mchalwat, Henning Ulrichs, Jakob Walowski, Camillo Ballani, Oleg Shapoval, Vasily Moshnyaga, Markus Muenzenberg, Konrad Samwer
We report photoinduced effects in the nonlinear third harmonic ac electric transport-which is a measure for the density of correlated polarons-in thin films of La<sub>0.75</sub>Ba<sub>0.25</sub>MnO<sub>3</sub> (LBMO) and (La<sub>0.6</sub>Pr<sub>0.4</sub>)<sub>0.67</sub>Ca<sub>0.33</sub>MnO<sub>3</sub> (LPCMO) manganites. Both materials show an enhancement of the third harmonic voltage in the vicinity of the metal-to-insulator transition, indicating strong electron-lattice correlations within a phase-separated state...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Victor Hugo Grisales Diaz, Gerard Olivar Tost
Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) is an alternative biofuel. However, the energy requirement of ABE recovery by distillation is considered elevated (> 15.2 MJ fuel/Kg-ABE), due to the low concentration of ABE from fermentation broths (between 15 and 30 g/l). In this work, to reduce the energy requirements of ABE recovery, four processes of heat-integrated distillation were proposed. The energy requirements and economic evaluations were performed using the fermentation broths of several biocatalysts...
December 5, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Anine C Medin, Monica H Carlsen, Catherine Hambly, John R Speakman, Susanne Strohmaier, Lene F Andersen
The aim of this study was to validate the estimated habitual dietary intake from a newly developed web-based FFQ (WebFFQ), for use in an adult population in Norway. In total, ninety-two individuals were recruited. Total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labelled water was used as the reference method for energy intake (EI) in a subsample of twenty-nine women, and multiple 24-h recalls (24HR) were used as the reference method for the relative validation of macronutrients and food groups in the entire sample...
December 5, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
June-Kyung Lee, Bong-Yeon Lee, Woo-Yong Shin, Min-Ji An, Kwang-Ik Jung, Seo-Ra Yoon
Objective: To evaluate and compare the effects and outcomes of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Of the 78 patients recruited for the study, 61 patients met the inclusion criteria. The enrolled patients were randomly divided into two groups: the ESWT group and the HA group. The ESWT group underwent 3 sessions of 1,000 shockwave pulses performed on the affected knee with the dosage adjusted to 0...
October 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Markus Hiller, Saskia Krieg, Naoto Ishikawa, Markus Enders
A method for the experimental determination of ligand-field (LF) energy splitting in mononuclear lanthanide complexes, based purely on variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy, was developed. The application of this method in an isostructural series of anionic lanthanide bis(cyclooctatetraenide) double-decker compounds bearing large rigid substituents is demonstrated. Using the three-nuclei plot approach devised by Reilley, the isostructurality of the compound series and the identical orientation of the magnetic main axis of all Ln3+ ions in the series Tb3+ to Tm3+ are demonstrated...
December 4, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Ravneet Kaur, Poonam Gera, Mithilesh Kumar Jha, Thallada Bhaskar
Castor plant is a fast-growing, perennial shrub from Euphorbiaceae family. More than 50% of the residue is generated from its stems and leaves. The main aim of this work is to study the pyrolytic characteristics, kinetics and thermodynamic properties of castor residue. The TGA experiments were carried out from room temperature to 900 °C under an inert atmosphere at different heating rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 °C/min. The kinetic analysis was carried using different models namely Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS)...
November 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Michael D Rizzo, Robert B Crawford, Joseph E Henriquez, Yasser Aldhamen, Peter Gulick, Andrea Amalfitano, Norbert E Kaminski
OBJECTIVE: Chronic immune activation and elevated numbers of circulating activated monocytes (CD16) are implicated in HIV-associated neuroinflammation. The objective was to compare the level of circulating CD16 monocytes and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) between HIV-infected cannabis users (HIV+MJ+) and non-cannabis users (HIV+MJ-), and determine whether in vitro Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a constituent of cannabis, affected CD16 expression as well as IP-10 production by monocytes...
November 30, 2017: AIDS
Christina A Banzhaf, Lynlee L Lin, Nhung Dang, Michael Freeman, Merete Haedersdal, Tarl W Prow
BACKGROUND: Ablative fractional laser (AFXL) is an acknowledged technique to increase uptake of topical agents in skin. Micro thermal ablation zones (MAZs) consist of ablated vertical channels surrounded by a coagulation zone (CZ). Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) images individual MAZs at 733 nm (reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM)). Further, LSCM can image sodium fluorescein (NaF) fluorescence with 488 nm excitation (fluorescence confocal microcopy (FCM)), a small hydrophilic test molecule (370 MW, log P -1...
November 29, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
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