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R Muns, E Magowan
Diets offered to lactating and weaned piglets are the most expensive diets within pig production; however, the effect of these diets on lifetime pig performance is inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of creep feed consumption during lactation and different starter diet allowances on piglets' gut structure and lifetime growth performance. In total, 320 pigs and 80 pigs (Landrace × Large white) were used after weaning in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement to study growth performance and gut structure, respectively...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Joshua Shubert, Muyinatu A Lediju Bell
It is well known that there are structural differences between cortical and cancellous bone. However, spinal surgeons currently have no reliable method to non-invasively determine these differences in real-time when choosing the optimal starting point and trajectory to insert pedicle screws and avoid surgical complications associated with breached or weakened bone. This paper explores 3D photoacoustic imaging of a human vertebra to noninvasively differentiate cortical from cancellous bone for this surgical task...
June 20, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Amit Chakraborty, Joydeb Goura, Pankaj Kalita, Abinash Swain, Gopalan Rajaraman, Vadapalli Chandrasekhar
Molecular nano magnets such as single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are a class of coordination complexes with numerous potential applications such as information storage devices, Q-bits in quantum computing and spintronics materials. One of the greatest challenges in taking these molecules to end-user applications lies in devising strategies to control and predict their magnetic properties. In this regard, lanthanide-based compounds are very attractive as they possess appealing magnetic properties such as very high barriers for magnetization reversal, very large blocking temperatures etc...
June 20, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Barbara Grajewski, Lee C Yong, Stephen J Bertke, Parveen Bhatti, Mark P Little, Marilyn J Ramsey, James D Tucker, Elizabeth M Ward, Elizabeth A Whelan, Alice J Sigurdson, Martha A Waters
BACKGROUND: Chromosome translocations are a biomarker of cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation. We examined the relation between the frequency of translocations and cosmic radiation dose in 83 male airline pilots. METHODS: Translocations were scored using fluorescence in situ hybridization chromosome painting. Cumulative radiation doses were estimated from individual flight records. Excess rate and log-linear Poisson regression models were evaluated. RESULTS: Pilots' estimated median cumulative absorbed dose was 15 mGy (range 4...
July 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Mirko Mikolasek, Maria D Manrique-Juarez, Helena J Shepherd, Karl Ridier, Sylvain Rat, Victoria Shalabaeva, Alin-Ciprian Bas, Ines E Collings, Fabrice Mathieu, Jean Cacheux, Thierry Leichlé, Liviu Nicu, William Nicolazzi, Lionel Salmon, Gabor Molnár, Azzedine Bousseksou
Molecular spin crossover complexes are promising candidates for mechanical actuation purposes. The relationships between their crystal structure and mechanical properties remain, however, not well understood. In this study, combining high pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction, nuclear inelastic scattering and micromechanical measurements we assessed the effective macroscopic bulk modulus (B = 11.5 ± 1.5 GPa), Young's modulus (Y = 10.9 ± 1.0 GPa) and Poisson's ratio (ν = 0.34 ± 0.04) of the spin crossover complex [FeII(HB(tz)3)2] (tz = 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xiaodi Duan, Toby Sanan, Armah A de la Cruz, Xuexiang He, Minghao Kong, Dionysios D Dionysiou
Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), an algal toxin (cyanotoxin) common in sources of drinking water, poses a major human health hazard due to its high toxicity. In this study, UV/chlorine was evaluated as a potentially practical and effective process for the degradation of MC-LR. Via mass spectrometry analysis, fewer chlorinated-MC-LR products were detected with UV/chlorine treatment than with chlorination, and a transformation pathway for MC-LR by UV/chlorine was proposed. Rapid degradation of MC-LR was observed, to different extents, with varying pH (6-10...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Anthony Mj Sanchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Jinbo Chen
Hyper-accumulator biomass, Pteris vittata L., was hydrothermally converted into bio-oils via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in sub-supercritical water. The distributions and characterizations of various products as well as energy recovery under different temperatures (250-390 °C) were investigated. The highest bio-oil yield of 16.88% was obtained at 350 °C with the hydrothermal conversion of 61.79%, where the bio-oil was dominated by alcohols, esters, phenols, ketones and acidic compounds. The higher heating values of bio-oil were in the range of 19...
June 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Tarcisio F de Campos, Chris G Maher, Daniel Steffens, Joel T Fuller, Mark J Hancock
QUESTION: What is the effectiveness of interventions that aim to prevent a new episode of neck pain? DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, controlled trials. PARTICIPANTS: People without neck pain at study entry. INTERVENTION: Any intervention aiming to prevent a future episode of neck pain. OUTCOME MEASURES: New episode of neck pain. RESULTS: Five trials including a total of 3852 individuals met the inclusion criteria...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
R J Shalloo, C Arran, L Corner, J Holloway, J Jonnerby, R Walczak, H M Milchberg, S M Hooker
We present experiments and numerical simulations which demonstrate that fully ionized, low-density plasma channels could be formed by hydrodynamic expansion of plasma columns produced by optical field ionization. Simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion of plasma columns formed in hydrogen by an axicon lens show the generation of 200 mm long plasma channels with axial densities of order n_{e}(0)=1×10^{17}cm^{-3} and lowest-order modes of spot size W_{M}≈40μm. These simulations show that the laser energy required to generate the channels is modest: of order 1 mJ per centimeter of channel...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Rachel A Ross, Silvia Leon, Joseph C Madara, Danielle Schafer, Chrysanthi Fergani, Caroline A Maguire, Anne Mj Verstegen, Emily Brengle, Dong Kong, Allan E Herbison, Ursula B Kaiser, Bradford B Lowell, Victor M Navarro
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, Adcyap1 ) is a neuromodulator implicated in anxiety, metabolism and reproductive behavior. PACAP global knockout mice have decreased fertility and PACAP modulates LH release. However, its source and role at the hypothalamic level remain unknown. We demonstrate that PACAP-expressing neurons of the ventral premamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus (PMVPACAP ) project to, and make direct contact with, kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate and AVPV/PeN nuclei and a subset of these neurons respond to PACAP exposure...
June 15, 2018: ELife
Kinga Grzech-Leśniak, Jacek Matys, Dorota Żmuda-Stawowiak, Krzysztof Mroczka, Marzena Dominiak, Aldo Brugnera Junior, Reinhard Gruber, Georgios E Romanos, Anton Sculean
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of bracket removal using an erbium laser on the pulp temperature and enamel surface. BACKGROUND: Removal of orthodontic brackets with conventional debonding pliers may result in enamel cracks. To avoid damage to the enamel surface and effectively remove metal or ceramic brackets, different types of lasers, such as Nd:YAG, CO2 , TM:YAP, diode laser, or Er:YAG, have been introduced for debonding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 55 brackets (n = 55; 20 metal and 35 ceramic ones) were bonded to 55 caries-free premolars extracted for orthodontic indications...
June 15, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Aswin Sriram, Ganapathiraman Swaminathan
In the present study, thermogravimetric analysis of Musa balbisiana flower petal was carried out to study the degradation behaviour and the kinetics in the pyrolytic reaction. The pyrolysis was carried out in the temperature range of 35-900 °C at different heating rates of 5, 10 and 20 °C/min. The kinetics was investigated using different models like Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Flynn-Ozawa-Wall (FOW), Friedman and Broido's plot. The average Ea values determined by KAS, FOW and Friedman methods were 137...
May 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xuan Zhang, Jiahao Yao, Bin Liu, Jun Yan, Lei Lu, Yi Li, Huajian Gao, Xiaoyan Li
Mechanical metamaterials with three-dimensional micro- and nano-architectures exhibit unique mechanical properties, such as high specific modulus, specific strength and energy absorption. However, a conflict exists between strength and recoverability in nearly all the mechanical metamaterials reported recently, in particular the architected micro-/nanolattices, which restricts the applications of these materials in energy storage/absorption and mechanical actuation. Here, we demonstrated the fabrication of three-dimensional architected composite nanolattices that overcome the strength-recoverability trade-off...
June 14, 2018: Nano Letters
Xiao-Qing Li, Li-Min Cai, Jing Liu, Yan-Li Ma, Ying-Hui Kong, He Li, Ming Jiang
Solar ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is known to trigger inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptotic responses through various signaling pathways, which eventually lead to skin cancer. The present study investigated whether liquiritin suppresses UVB‑induced skin injury in vivo and in vitro using SKH‑1 hairless mice and HACAT cells, respectively. The animals were exposed to UVB irradiation (180 mJ/cm2) for 20 min, followed by liquiritin treatment. The findings indicated that UVB exposure resulted in the excessive release of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‑1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, IL‑18, IL‑6 and cyclooxygenase (COX)2, which were dependent on the toll‑like receptor (TLR)4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) signaling pathway...
June 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Qiyong Yu, Yan Zhao, Anqi Dong, Ye Li
The present study focuses on the preparation and characterization of lab-scale aluminum syntactic foams (ASFs) filled with hollow carbon spheres (HCSs). A new and original process for the fabrication of HCSs was explored. Firstly, expanded polystyrene beads with an average diameter of 6 mm and coated with carbon fibers/thermoset phenolic resin were produced by the “rolling ball” method. In the next step, the spheres were cured and post-cured, and then carbonized at 1050 °C under vacuum to form the HCSs...
June 12, 2018: Materials
Laura Arjona, Hugo Landaluce Simon, Asier Perallos Ruiz
The growing interest in mobile devices is transforming wireless identification technologies. Mobile and battery-powered Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) readers, such as hand readers and smart phones, are are becoming increasingly attractive. These RFID readers require energy-efficient anti-collision protocols to minimize the tag collisions and to expand the reader's battery life. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in RFID sensor networks with a growing number of RFID sensor tags. Thus, RFID application developers must be mindful of tag anti-collision protocols...
June 11, 2018: Sensors
Yang Wang, Ting Li, Piming Ma, Shengwen Zhang, Hongji Zhang, Mingliang Du, Yi Xie, Mingqing Chen, Weifu Dong, Weihua Ming
Inspired by the "brick-and-mortar" structure and remarkable mechanical performance of nacre, many efforts have been devoted to fabricating nacre-mimicking materials. Herein a class of graphene oxide (GO) based artificial nacre material with quadruple hydrogen bonding interactions was fabricated by functionalization of polydopamine-capped graphene oxide (PDG) with 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone (UPy) self-complementary quadruple hydrogen bonding units, followed by supramolecular assembly process. The artificial nacre displays a strict "brick-and-mortar" structure, with PDG nanosheets as the brick and UPy units as the mortar...
June 11, 2018: ACS Nano
Martin R Williams, Dustin S Hendricks, Michael J Dannen, Andrea M Arnold, Michael A Lawrence
Williams, MR Jr, Hendricks, DS, Dannen, MJ, Arnold, AM, and Lawrence, MA. Activity of shoulder stabilizers and prime movers during an unstable overhead press. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Overhead reaching is a common movement that relies heavily on muscles for dynamic stability. Stabilizer muscle activation increased during squatting and bench pressing with an unstable load, but the overhead press (OHP) has yet to be examined. The purpose of this study is to compare muscle activity of the shoulder stabilizers and prime movers and excursions of the center of pressure (CoP) during the OHP in 2 unstable and one stable conditions...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Suena H Massey, Daniel K Mroczek, Jessica A Jakubowski, Shannon M Shisler, Marilyn A Huestis, Daniel S Shaw, Rina D Eiden, David Reiss, Emily S Miller, Eileen K Graham, Meaghan McCallum, Jody M Ganiban, Leslie D Leve, Laura R Stroud, Jenae M Neiderhiser
BACKGROUND: Methodologic challenges related to the concomitant use (co-use) of substances and changes in policy and potency of marijuana contribute to ongoing uncertainty about risks to fetal neurodevelopment associated with prenatal marijuana use. In this study, we examined two biomarkers of fetal neurodevelopmental risk-birth weight and length of gestation-associated with prenatal marijuana use, independent of tobacco (TOB), alcohol (ALC), other drug use (OTH), and socioeconomic risk (SES), in a pooled sample (N = 1191) derived from 3 recent developmental cohorts (2003-2015) with state-of-the-art substance use measures...
June 7, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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