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J Déchard, A Debayle, X Davoine, L Gremillet, L Bergé
Terahertz to far-infrared emission by two-color, ultrashort optical pulses interacting with underdense helium gases at ultrahigh intensities (>10^{19}  W/cm^{2}) is investigated by means of 3D particle-in-cell simulations. The terahertz field is shown to be produced by two mechanisms occurring sequentially, namely, photoionization-induced radiation (PIR) by the two-color pulse, and coherent transition radiation (CTR) by the wakefield-accelerated electrons escaping the plasma. We exhibit laser-plasma parameters for which CTR proves to be the dominant process, providing terahertz bursts with field strength as high as 100  GV/m and energy in excess of 10 mJ...
April 6, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Kevin C Baldridge, Manasses Jora, Andre C Maranhao, Matthew M Quick, Balasubrahmanyam Addepalli, Jennifer S Brodbelt, Andrew D Ellington, Patrick A Limbach, Lydia M Contreras
Heterologous tRNA:aminoacyl tRNA synthetase pairs are often employed for noncanonical amino acid incorporation in the quest for an expanded genetic code. In this work, we investigated one possible mechanism by which directed evolution can improve orthogonal behavior for a suite of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii ( Mj) tRNATyr -derived amber suppressor tRNAs. Northern blotting demonstrated that reduced expression of heterologous tRNA variants correlated with improved orthogonality. We suspected that reduced expression likely minimized nonorthogonal interactions with host cell machinery...
April 25, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Petr Lazar, Eva Otyepková, Martin Pykal, Klára Čépe, Michal Otyepka
Nanomaterials have a high surface-to-mass ratio and their surface properties significantly affect their features and application potential. Phosphorene, a single layer of black phosphorus (BP), was the first homoatomic two-dimensional material to be prepared after the discovery of graphene. The structure of phosphorene resembles the honeycomb arrangement of graphene, but its layers are buckled and highly anisotropic. We studied how this difference affects the surface properties of BP, namely the free surface energy and adsorption affinity of various organic molecules...
April 25, 2018: Nanoscale
Ya Liang Wang, Yu Ping Zhang, Jing Xiang, Lei Wang, Hui Zhe Chen, Yi Kai Zhang, Wen Qian Zhang, De Feng Zhu
In this study, three rice varieties, including three-line hybrid indica rice Wuyou308 and Tianyouhuazhan, and inbred indica rice Huanghuazhan were used to investigate the effects of air temperature and solar radiation on rice growth duration and spikelet differentiation and degeneration. Ten sowing-date treatments were conducted in this field experiment. The results showed that the growth duration of three indica rice varieties were more sensitive to air temperature than to day-length. With average temperature increase of 1 ℃, panicle initiation advanced 1...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Sayed Sadra Ale Saheb Fosoul, Arash Azarfar, Abbasali Gheisari, Heshmatollah Khosravinia
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on productive performance, intestinal morphometric features, blood parameters and energy utilisation in broiler chickens. A total of 390 male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments based on a factorial arrangement (2×3) across 1-15 and 15-35-d periods. Experimental treatments consisted of two basal diets with standard (STD; starter: 12·56 MJ/kg and grower: 12·97 MJ/kg) and reduction (LME; starter: 11·93 MJ/kg and grower: 12·33 MJ/kg) of apparent metabolisable energy (AME) requirement of broiler chickens each supplemented with 0, 0·6 and 1·2 g/kg GAA...
April 25, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Bader AlQattan, Ali K Yetisen, Haider Butt
Contact lenses are ubiquitous biomedical devices used for vision correction and cosmetic purposes. Their application as quantitative analytical devices is highly promising for point-of-care diagnostics. However, it is a challenge to integrate nanoscale features into commercial contact lenses for application in low-cost biosensors. A neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1064 nm, 3 ns pulse, 240 mJ) in holographic interference patterning mode was utilized to produce optical nanostructures over the surface of a hydrogel contact lens...
April 24, 2018: ACS Nano
Céline Molinaro, Sylvie Marguet, Ludovic Douillard, Fabrice Charra, Céline Fiorini-Debuisschert
Two-photon luminescence (TPL) turn-off in small single gold nanorods (GNRs) exposed to increased resonant femtosecond laser excitation (800 nm wavelength, pulse energy density varying from 125 μJ cm-2 to 2.5 mJ cm-2) is investigated. The origin is shown to be a photo-induced decrease of the rod aspect ratio. This aspect ratio reduction could reasonably be assigned to gold atom diffusion away from the rod tips, where hot spots are localized. The two-photon luminescence signal can be recovered after a blue-shift of the incident excitation wavelength...
April 24, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Vladimir Popović, Nicholas Fairbanks, Jacob Pierscianowski, Michael Biancaniello, Ting Zhou, Tatiana Koutchma
Fungal disease of grain crops is a concern for the agricultural industry, resulting in economic losses. Aside from severe yield losses, mycotoxigenic fungi such as Penicillium and Fusarium can produce harmful mycotoxins, including deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and ochratoxin A (OTA). This proof-of-concept study explored the feasibility and effects of ultraviolet (UV) C light at 253.7 nm to reduce fungal and mycotoxin loads on model surfaces as well as on maize and wheat kernels using benchtop 2D and 3D illumination strategies...
April 24, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
Longqing Yi, Baifei Shen, Alexander Pukhov, Tünde Fülöp
Magnetic reconnection (MR) is a fundamental plasma process associated with conversion of the magnetic field energy into kinetic plasma energy, which is invoked to explain many non-thermal signatures in astrophysical events. Here we demonstrate that ultrafast relativistic MR in a magnetically dominated regime can be triggered by a readily available (TW-mJ-class) laser interacting with a micro-scale plasma slab. Three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that when the electrons beams excited on both sides of the slab approach the end of the plasma, MR occurs and it gives rise to efficient energy dissipation that leads to the emission of relativistic electron jets with cut-off energy ~12 MeV...
April 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Alonzo A Gabriel, Jeffrey M Ostonal, Jannelle O Cristobal, Gladess A Pagal, John Vincent E Armada
This study determined the inactivation kinetic parameters of selected pathogens in heat, ultraviolet-C and combined heat-UV-C treated coconut liquid endosperm. Separate cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovars, and Listeria monocytogenes strains were inoculated into coconut liquid endosperm (pH 5.15, TSS 4.4o Bx, TA 0.062% malic acid, extinction coefficient (ε) at 254 nm of 0.0154 cm-1 ) for inactivation studies. Result showed that all organisms generally exhibited a log-linear heat inactivation behavior (R2 0...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Marta Revilla-León, Mutlu Özcan
There are 7 categories of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, and a wide variety of materials can be used to build a CAD 3D object. The present article reviews the main AM processes for polymers for dental applications: stereolithography (SLA), digital light processing (DLP), material jetting (MJ), and material extrusion (ME). The manufacturing process, accuracy, and precision of these methods will be reviewed, as well as their prosthodontic applications.
April 22, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
E S Pereira, F W R Lima, A C N Campos, M S S Carneiro, L P Silva, M W F Pereira, A N Medeiros, L R Bezerra, R L Oliveira
Minerals are limiting factors in animal production, and the knowledge of mineral requirements for livestock is crucial to the success of a commercial enterprise. Hair sheep may have different mineral requirements than those presents by the international committees. A study was carried to evaluate the net calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) requirements for the growth and maintenance of Brazilian Somali lambs. A total of 48 hair lambs (13...
April 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Chanoong Lim, Sohee Park, Jinwoo Park, Jina Ko, Dong Woog Lee, Dong Soo Hwang
Various xenobiotics interact with biological membranes, and precise evaluations of the molecular interactions between them are essential to foresee the toxicity and bioavailability of existing or newly synthesized molecules. In this study, surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurement and Langmuir trough based tensiometry are performed to reveal nanomechanical interaction mechanisms between potential toxicants and biological membranes for ex vivo toxicity evaluation. As a toxicant, polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) was selected because PHMG containing humidifier disinfectant and Vodka caused lots of victims in both S...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Susanne Müller, Suzanne Ackloo, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Marcus Bauser, Jeremy L Baryza, Julian Blagg, Jark Böttcher, Chas Bountra, Peter J Brown, Mark E Bunnage, Adrian J Carter, David Damerell, Volker Dötsch, David H Drewry, Aled M Edwards, James Edwards, Jon M Elkins, Christian Fischer, Stephen V Frye, Andreas Gollner, Charles E Grimshaw, Adriaan IJzerman, Thomas Hanke, Ingo V Hartung, Steve Hitchcock, Trevor Howe, Terry V Hughes, Stefan Laufer, Volkhart Mj Li, Spiros Liras, Brian D Marsden, Hisanori Matsui, John Mathias, Ronan C O'Hagan, Dafydd R Owen, Vineet Pande, Daniel Rauh, Saul H Rosenberg, Bryan L Roth, Natalie S Schneider, Cora Scholten, Kumar Singh Saikatendu, Anton Simeonov, Masayuki Takizawa, Chris Tse, Paul R Thompson, Daniel K Treiber, Amélia Yi Viana, Carrow I Wells, Timothy M Willson, William J Zuercher, Stefan Knapp, Anke Mueller-Fahrnow
Potent, selective and broadly characterized small molecule modulators of protein function (chemical probes) are powerful research reagents. The pharmaceutical industry has generated many high-quality chemical probes and several of these have been made available to academia. However, probe-associated data and control compounds, such as inactive structurally related molecules and their associated data, are generally not accessible. The lack of data and guidance makes it difficult for researchers to decide which chemical tools to choose...
April 20, 2018: ELife
Chunhua Zhang, Liangjun Xia, Pei Lyu, Yun Wang, Chen Li, Xingfang Xiao, Fangyin Dai, Weilin Xu, Xin Liu, Bo Deng
Unmodified ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZDNP) are used for the enhancement of polyurethane (PU) films. Optimized strain and toughness of PU/ZDNP nanocomposite at a 9.09 wt.% ZDNPs are up to 2714.6 %, and 280.78 MJ·m-1, respectively. The unique bimodal ZDNP aggregates size distribution which exploit both interfacial positively and negatively toughening mechanisms accounts mainly for the excellent mechanical property of PU/ZDNP nanocomposite. The dependence of different toughening mechanisms on three sizes of ZDNP aggregates is summarized...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wuxiyar Otkur, Weiwei Liu, Jinda Wang, Xingfan Jia, Dianchao Huang, Fang Wang, Toshihiko Hayashi, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Satoshi Onodera, Takashi Ikejima
Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation exerts multiple effects on skin cells, inducing apoptosis, senescence and carcinogenesis. Toll-like receptor 3, a member of pattern recognition receptors, is reported to initiate inflammation by recognizing double-strand RNA (dsRNA) released from UVB-irradiated cells. It has not been studied, however, whether apoptosis induction in UVB irradiation is attributed to TLR3 activation. Here, we report on the pro-apoptotic role of TLR3 in UVB-irradiated epidermal cells. Poly I:C, an analogue of dsRNA that activates TLR3, was used in combination with sub-lethal UVB (4...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Sakthivel Rajamohan, Ramesh Kasimani
The highly unbalanced nature of bio-oil composition poses a serious threat in terms of storage and utilization of bio-oil as a viable fuel in engines. So it becomes inevitable to study the variations in physicochemical properties of the bio-oil during storage to value its chemical instability, for designing stabilization methodologies. The present study aims to investigate the effects of storage stability of bio-oil extracted from pyrolyzing Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) deoiled seed cake on the engine operating characteristics...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuta Sumitani, Hidenori Hamba, Keiki Nakamura, Alireza Sadr, Toru Nikaido, Junji Tagami
This study was performed to evaluate the comparative radiopacity of adhesive/resin composite materials in cylindrical cavities using micro-computed X-ray tomography (μCT). The two-step self-etch adhesive systems, Clearfil SE Bond (SE) and FL-Bond II (FL), and flowable resin composites, Beautifil Flow F10 (BF) and Clearfil Majesty ES Flow High (MJ), were used. The radiopacity of bovine tooth structures and restorative materials was measured by μCT. In addition, cylindrical cavities prepared in bovine teeth were restored with the following adhesive/composite combinations: SE-BF, SE-MJ, FL-BF, and FL-MJ...
April 17, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
E K Li, H Liu, Y K Li, L Liu, F L Wang, D F Li, S Zhang
The objective of this experiment was to determine the NE content of different dietary lipids fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry. Thirty-six growing (initial BW: 41.1 ± 3.1 kg) barrows were allotted to six diets based on completely randomized design with 6 replicate pigs per diet. Diets included a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 5 test diets each containing 10% palm oil, poultry fat, fish oil, corn oil or flaxseed oil at the expense of corn and soybean meal. During each period, pigs were individually housed in metabolism crates for 14 days, which included 7 days for adaptation to feed, metabolism crates and environmental conditions...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Matthew J Vergne, Ankit Patras, Manreet S Bhullar, Lincoln M Shade, Michael Sasges, Kanyasiri Rakariyatham, Che Pan, Hang Xiao
Short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiation is a nonthermal processing technique that is a possible alternative to the heat-pasteurization of tea beverages. This study investigated the effect of UV-C irradiation on the polyphenolic and total phenolic contents of a green tea beverage and analyzed cytotoxicity of irradiated green tea using a novel continuous flow-through UV system. UV-C fluence levels ranging from 0 to 240 mJ/cm2 were delivered to green tea, and polyphenols were chemically profiled. Continuous-flow UV-C irradiation of the green tea beverage at a fluence of 68 mJ/cm2  induced a minor reduction in the concentration of the most abundant catechin in green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), from 145 to 131...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
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