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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101405/deep-tissue-photoacoustic-computed-tomography-with-a-fast-and-compact-laser-system
#1
Depeng Wang, Yuehang Wang, Weiran Wang, Dandan Luo, Upendra Chitgupi, Jumin Geng, Yang Zhou, Lidai Wang, Jonathan F Lovell, Jun Xia
Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) holds great promise for biomedical imaging, but wide-spread implementation is impeded by the bulkiness of flash-lamp-pumped laser systems, which typically weigh between 50 - 200 kg, require continuous water cooling, and operate at a low repetition rate. Here, we demonstrate that compact lasers based on emerging diode technologies are well-suited for preclinical and clinical PACT. The diode-pumped laser used in this study had a miniature footprint (13 × 14 × 7 cm(3)), weighed only 1...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098755/exopolysaccharides-isolated-from-milk-fermented-with-lactic-acid-bacteria-prevent-ultraviolet-induced-skin-damage-in-hairless-mice
#2
Masashi Morifuji, Masami Kitade, Tomoyuki Fukasawa, Taketo Yamaji, Masamitsu Ichihashi
BACKGROUND: We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. METHODS: Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098249/enhancing-dielectric-permittivity-for-energy-storage-devices-through-tricritical-phenomenon
#3
Jinghui Gao, Yan Wang, Yongbin Liu, Xinghao Hu, Xiaoqin Ke, Lisheng Zhong, Yuting He, Xiaobing Ren
Although dielectric energy-storing devices are frequently used in high voltage level, the fast growing on the portable and wearable electronics have been increasing the demand on the energy-storing devices at finite electric field strength. This paper proposes an approach on enhancing energy density under low electric field through compositionally inducing tricriticality in Ba(Ti,Sn)O3 ferroelectric material system with enlarged dielectric response. The optimal dielectric permittivity at tricritical point can reach to εr = 5...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098147/nanoparticle-induced-unusual-melting-and-solidification-behaviours-of-metals
#4
Chao Ma, Lianyi Chen, Chezheng Cao, Xiaochun Li
Effective control of melting and solidification behaviours of materials is significant for numerous applications. It has been a long-standing challenge to increase the melted zone (MZ) depth while shrinking the heat-affected zone (HAZ) size during local melting and solidification of materials. In this paper, nanoparticle-induced unusual melting and solidification behaviours of metals are reported that effectively solve this long-time dilemma. By introduction of Al2O3 nanoparticles, the MZ depth of Ni is increased by 68%, while the corresponding HAZ size is decreased by 67% in laser melting at a pulse energy of 0...
January 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097923/co-processing-of-olive-bagasse-with-crude-rapeseed-oil-via-pyrolysis
#5
Suat Uçar, Selhan Karagöz
The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52...
January 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097869/a-solvent-free-processable-and-photo-patternable-hybrid-gate-dielectric-for-flexible-top-gate-organic-field-effect-transistors
#6
Jun Seon Kwon, Han-Wool Park, Do Hwan Kim, Young-Je Kwark
We report a novel solvent-free and direct photo-patternable poly[(mercaptopropyl)methyl-siloxane] (PMMS) hybrid dielectric for flexible top-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), utilizing a photo-activated thiol-ene reaction under UV irradiation of 254 nm to induce cross-linking, even in air and at low temperature. In particular, a solvent-free PMMS-f dielectric film, for which an optimal cross-linking density is shown by a well-organized molar ratio between thiol and vinyl in the thiol-ene reaction, exhibited a high dielectric constant (5...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095952/neck-and-shoulder-muscle-activation-among-experienced-and-inexperienced-pilots-in-gz-exposure
#7
Tuomas Honkanen, Juha Oksa, Matti J Mäntysaari, Heikki Kyröläinen, Janne Avela
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to compare differences in electromyography (EMG) activation of the neck and shoulder muscles between groups of inexperienced and experienced pilots during controlled +Gz exposure in a centrifuge. METHODS: The subjects were volunteer cadets (inexperienced group) and lieutenants (experienced group) undergoing their first centrifuge training. The first group did not have any high performance aircraft (HPA) experience, while the latter one had a 1-yr experience of intense flying of HPA...
February 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095548/integrated-cooling-vacuum-assisted-non-fractional-1540-nm-erbium-glass-laser-is-effective-in-treating-acne-scars
#8
Yael Politi, Assi Levi, Moshe Lapidoth
INTRODUCTION: Acne scars are a common result of in ammatory acne, affecting many patients worldwide. Among which, atrophic scars are the most prevalent form, presenting as dermal depressions caused by inflammatory degeneration of dermal collagen. Mid-infrared laser skin interaction is characterized by its modest absorption in water and nite penetration to the mid-dermis. Since collagen is a desirable laser target, 1540-nm wavelength is amenable for collagen remodeling within the depressed area of atrophic scars...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092937/updating-the-u-s-life-cycle-ghg-petroleum-baseline-to-2014-with-projections-to-2040-using-open-source-engineering-based-models
#9
Gregory Cooney, Matthew Jamieson, Joe Marriott, Joule Bergerson, Adam Brandt, Timothy J Skone
The National Energy Technology Laboratory produced a well-to-wheels (WTW) life cycle greenhouse gas analysis of petroleum-based fuels consumed in the U.S. in 2005, known as the NETL 2005 Petroleum Baseline. This study uses a set of engineering-based, open-source models combined with publicly available data to calculate baseline results for 2014. An increase between the 2005 baseline and the 2014 results presented here (e.g., 92.4 vs 96.2 g CO2e/MJ gasoline, + 4.1%) are due to changes both in modeling platform and in the U...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092172/analysis-of-indium-tin-oxide-film-using-argon-fluroide-arf-laser-excited-atomic-fluorescence-of-ablated-plumes
#10
Sut Kam Ho, Dario Machado Garcia
A two-pulse laser-excited atomic fluorescence (LEAF) technique at 193 nm wavelength was applied to the analysis of indium tin oxide (ITO) layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Fluorescence emissions from analytes were induced from plumes generated by first laser pulse. Using this approach, non-selective LEAF can be accomplished for simultaneous multi-element analysis and it overcomes the handicap of strict requirement for laser excitation wavelength. In this study, experimental conditions including laser fluences, times for gating and time delay between pulses were optimized to reveal high sensitivity with minimal sample destruction and penetration...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091679/sustainability-of-renewable-fuel-infrastructure-a-screening-lca-case-study-of-anticorrosive-graphene-oxide-epoxy-liners-in-steel-tanks-for-the-storage-of-biodiesel-and-its-blends
#11
Govinda Chilkoor, Venkata K K Upadhyayula, Venkataramana Gadhamshetty, Nikhil Koratkar, Mats Tysklind
Biodiesel is a widely used fuel that meets the renewable fuel standards developed under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. However, biodiesel is known to pose a series of abiotic and biotic corrosion risks to storage tanks. A typical practice (incumbent system) used to protect the tanks from these risks include (i) coating the interior surface of the tank with a solvent-free epoxy (SFE) liner, and (ii) adding a biocide to the tank. Herein, we present a screening-level life-cycle assessment study to compare the environmental performance of a graphene oxide (GO)-epoxy (GOE) liner with the incumbent system...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087994/commentary-on-mauf-s-jentzsch-t-laberke-pj-thali-mj-bartsch-c-why-we-need-postmortem-analysis-of-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices-j-forensic-sci-2016-61-4-988-92
#12
Ellen Moffatt, Zian H Tseng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081199/mesons-from-laser-induced-processes-in-ultra-dense-hydrogen-h-0
#13
Leif Holmlid
Large signals of charged light mesons are observed in the laser-induced particle flux from ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) layers. The mesons are formed in such layers on metal surfaces using < 200 mJ laser pulse-energy. The time variation of the signal to metal foil collectors and the magnetic deflection to a movable pin collector are now studied. Relativistic charged particles with velocity up to 500 MeV u-1 thus 0.75 c are observed. Characteristic decay time constants for meson decay are observed, for charged and neutral kaons and also for charged pions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081077/mev-electron-acceleration-at-1%C3%A2-%C3%A2-khz-with-10%C3%A2-%C3%A2-mj-laser-pulses
#14
F Salehi, A J Goers, G A Hine, L Feder, D Kuk, B Miao, D Woodbury, K Y Kim, H M Milchberg
We demonstrate laser-driven acceleration of electrons to MeV-scale energies at 1 kHz repetition rate using <10  mJ pulses focused on near-critical density He and H<sub>2</sub> gas jets. Using the H<sub>2</sub> gas jet, electron acceleration to ∼0.5  MeV in ∼10  fC bunches was observed with laser pulse energy as low as 1.3 mJ. Increasing the pulse energy to 10 mJ, we measure ∼1  pC charge bunches with >1  MeV energy for both He and H<sub>2</sub> gas jets...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078751/cardiac-remodelling-during-normotensive-and-hypertensive-complicated-pregnancies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Sander de Haas, Chahinda Ghossein-Doha, Lauren Geerts, Sander Mj van Kuijk, Joris van Drongelen, Marc Ea Spaanderman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analyses was to comprehensively describe the normotensive pattern of cardiac remodelling during human singleton pregnancies and compared to that during hypertensive complicated pregnancies. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of the current literature on cardiac remodelling during normotensive and complicated pregnancies. Literature was retrieved from PubMed (NCBI) and Embase (Ovid) databases. Included studies needed to report a reference measurement (matched non-pregnant control group, pre-pregnancy, or post-partum) and measurements during a predetermined gestational interval...
January 12, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076457/removal-of-calcium-hydroxide-from-weine-type-ii-systems-using-photon-induced-photoacoustic-streaming-passive-ultrasonic-and-needle-irrigation-a-microcomputed-tomography-study
#16
Adam Lloyd, Geraldine Navarrete, Melissa Andreia Marchesan, David Clement
Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of Er:YAG laser-activated irrigation (PIPS), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) with EndoUltra and standard needle irrigation (SNI) in the removal of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] from the mesial roots of Weine Type II mandibular molars. Material and Methods: Thirty mandibular molars were screened by µCT for the presence of mesial roots with complex intra-canal anatomy and a common apical foramen. The teeth were enlarged to a standardized 25/...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074839/high-precision-non-invasive-anti-microvascular-approach-via-concurrent-ultrasound-and-laser-irradiation
#17
Zizhong Hu, Haonan Zhang, Aghapi Mordovanakis, Yannis M Paulus, Qinghuai Liu, Xueding Wang, Xinmai Yang
Antivascular therapy represents a proven strategy to treat angiogenesis. By applying synchronized ultrasound bursts and nanosecond laser irradiation, we developed a novel, selective, non-invasive, localized antivascular method, termed photo-mediated ultrasound therapy (PUT). PUT takes advantage of the high native optical contrast among biological tissues and can treat microvessels without causing collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. In a chicken yolk sac membrane model, under the same ultrasound parameters (1 MHz at 0...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071749/tomato-progeny-inherit-resistance-to-the-nematode-meloidogyne-javanica-linked-to-plant-growth-induced-by-the-biocontrol-fungus-trichoderma-atroviride
#18
Hugo Agripino de Medeiros, Jerônimo Vieira de Araújo Filho, Leandro Grassi de Freitas, Pablo Castillo, María Belén Rubio, Rosa Hermosa, Enrique Monte
Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are major crop pathogens worldwide. Trichoderma genus fungi are recognized biocontrol agents and a direct activity of Trichoderma atroviride (Ta) against the RKN Meloidogyne javanica (Mj), in terms of 42% reduction of number of galls (NG), 60% of number of egg masses and 90% of number of adult nematodes inside the roots, has been observed in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. An in vivo split-root designed experiment served to demonstrate that Ta induces systemic resistance towards Mj, without the need for the organisms to be in direct contact, and significantly reduces NG (20%) and adult nematodes inside tomato roots (87%)...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069086/fluctuations-in-money-availability-within-an-income-cycle-impacts-diet-quality-of-remote-indigenous-australians
#19
Thomas P Wycherley, Brita Ak Pekarsky, Megan M Ferguson, Kerin O'Dea, Julie K Brimblecombe
OBJECTIVE: To consider the plausible nutritional impacts of fluctuations in money availability within an income cycle for remote Indigenous Australians. DESIGN: Community-level dietary intake (energy, micro/macronutrients) and expenditure on foods and beverages (F&B) were estimated over one year for three remote Indigenous Australian communities (Northern Territory, Australia) using monthly F&B transaction data. F&B that were likely to be consumed during a period within an income cycle when money was relatively limited (low money period (LMP) foods) were identified by panel consensus and scenario modelling was conducted to simulate the nutritional outcomes of a range of F&B selection responses to having an LMP...
January 10, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068189/intrapulpal-temperature-increase-during-er-yag-laser-aided-debonding-of-ceramic-brackets
#20
Hilal Yilanci, Zeynep Beyza Yildirim, Sabri Ilhan Ramoglu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber while using a newly introduced application of Er:YAG laser to debond ceramic brackets in a study model with a pulpal circulation with and without thermocycled samples. BACKGROUND DATA: An esthetic alternative to stainless steel brackets, ceramic brackets have been proposed. However, because of their low fracture resistance and high bond strengths, ceramic brackets can cause a problem when they are being removed using conventional techniques...
January 9, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
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