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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441094/background-rates-of-disease-in-latin-american-children-from-a-rotavirus-vaccine-study
#1
Marc Baay, Kaatje Bollaerts, Claudio Struchiner, Thomas Verstraeten
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of background rates of adverse events is crucial to assess vaccine safety concerns. We used data from a rotavirus vaccine study (Ruiz-Palacios et al., NEJM, 2006) including 63,225 infants from 11 Latin American countries to investigate reporting rates of serious adverse events (SAEs) among these infants, and describe rates by country, gender, age, and season. METHODS: For this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, investigators from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela recruited 6-to-13-week-old healthy infants...
April 25, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440714/hypereosinophilic-syndrome-endomyocardial-biopsy-versus-echocardiography-to-diagnose-cardiac-involvement
#2
Joseph H Butterfield, Garvan C Kane, Catherine R Weiler
OBJECTIVE: To compare echocardiograms and endomyocardial biopsies to diagnose cardiac involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome. METHODS: We examined the agreement between echocardiography and endomyocardial biopsies to detect cardiac involvement in hypereosinophilic syndrome by reviewing cases identified as hypereosinophilia or hypereosinophilic syndrome in Mayo Clinic databases from January 1978 through June 2009. Single-organ cases of eosinophilia such as eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis were excluded...
April 25, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440688/simultaneous-identification-of-campylobacter-jejuni-campylobacter-coli-and-campylobacter-lari-with-smartcycler-based-multiplex-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction
#3
Kun C Liu, Karen C Jinneman, Jason Neal-McKinney, Wen-Hsin Wu, Daniel H Rice
BACKGROUND: Consumption of Campylobacter contaminated food or water is a leading cause of human acute gastroenteritis. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari account for over 95% of total Campylobacter infections. A multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for simultaneous identification of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari was developed for use with the SmartCycler II system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated and combined previously described primers and probes for Campylobacter detection, designed a new internal amplification control, and optimized the multiplex qPCR for the detection of C...
April 25, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438670/epidemiological-features-and-genetic-characterization-of-virus-strains-in-rotavirus-associated-gastroenteritis-in-children-of-odisha-in-eastern-india
#4
Eileena Mohanty, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, S K Kar, A S Acharya
We have studied the clinical characteristics, severity and seasonality of rotavirus infection and prevalent genotypes in 652 non-rota vaccinated children in Odisha in eastern India. P genotypes were analysed for their association with host blood group antigens. P type of the virus is determined by the VP8* gene, and specific recognition of A - type of Histo - blood group antigen by P[14]VP8* has been reported. VP4, VP7 and VP6 genes of commonly identified G1P[8] strain were compared with genes of the same strain isolated from other parts of India, elsewhere and strains used for Rotarix and Rotateq vaccines...
April 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438630/identification-of-anti-viral-activity-of-the-cardenolides-na-k-atpase-inhibitors-against-porcine-transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus
#5
Cheng-Wei Yang, Hsin-Yu Chang, Hsing-Yu Hsu, Yue-Zhi Lee, Hsun-Shuo Chang, Ih-Sheng Chen, Shiow-Ju Lee
A series of naturally occurring cardenolides that exhibit potent anti-transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) activity in swine testicular (ST) cells has been identified. In an immunofluorescence assay, these cardenolides were found to diminish the expressions of TGEV nucleocapsid and spike protein, which was used as an indication for viral replication; block TGEV infection induced apoptosis and cytopathic effects; and impart the same trend of inhibitory activity against Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase as for anti-TGEV activity...
April 21, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438623/ezh2-overexpression-in-primary-gastrointestinal-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-its-association-with-the-clinicopathological-features
#6
Yang Liu, Kangjie Yu, Mingyang Li, Kaixuan Zeng, Jie Wei, Xia Li, Yixiong Liu, Danhui Zhao, Linni Fan, Zhou Yu, Yingmei Wang, Zengshan Li, Wei Zhang, Qingxian Bai, Qingguo Yan, Ying Guo, Zhe Wang, Shuangping Guo
Gastrointestinal diffuse large B cell lymphoma (GI DLBCL) is the most common gastrointestinal lymphoma, Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cancers. However, EZH2 has not been studied in GI DLBCL. Thus, we investigated EZH2 expression and EZH2 Y641 mutation in 100 GI DLBCL specimens by immunohistochemistry and sequencing. In addition, trimethylated H3K27 (H3K27me3), BCL2, c-MYC, and Ki-67 expression and Helicobacter pylori infection were detected, and BCL2 and c-MYC gene translocation were assessed...
April 21, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433796/genetic-diversity-and-virulence-genes-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-enterica-serotype-enteritidis-isolated-from-meats-and-eggs
#7
Fatemeh Fardsanei, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Masoumeh Douraghi, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Hamed Memariani, Farhad Nikkhahi
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated food products of animal origin. Little is known about the genetic diversity and virulence content of S. Enteritidis isolated from poultry meats and eggs in Iran. A total of 34 S. Enteritidis strains were collected from different food sources of animal origin in Tehran from May 2015 to July 2016. All of the S. Enteritidis strains were serotyped, antimicrobial susceptibility tested, and characterized for virulence genes...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432676/bifidobacterium-adolescentis-dsm-20083-and-lactobacillus-casei-lafti-l26-dsl-probiotics-able-to-block-the-in-vitro-adherence-of-rotavirus-in-ma104-cells
#8
Karem Prunella Fernandez-Duarte, Nury Nathalia Olaya-Galán, Sandra Patricia Salas-Cárdenas, Jazmin Lopez-Rozo, Maria Fernanda Gutierrez-Fernandez
Rotavirus is the leading worldwide cause of gastroenteritis in children under five years of age. Even though there are some available vaccines to prevent the disease, there are limited strategies for challenging diarrhea induced by rotavirus infection. For this reason, researchers are constantly searching for other approaches to control diarrhea by means of probiotics. In order to demonstrate the ability of some probiotic bacteria to interfere with the in vitro rotavirus infection in MA104 cells, strains of Lactobacillus sp...
April 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430997/global-impact-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-childhood-hospitalizations-and-mortality-from-diarrhea
#9
Eleanor Burnett, Christine L Jonesteller, Jacqueline E Tate, Catherine Yen, Umesh D Parashar
In 2006, two rotavirus vaccines were licensed. We summarize the impact of rotavirus vaccination on hospitalizations and deaths from rotavirus and all-cause acute gastroenteritis (AGE) during the first 10 years since vaccine licensure, including recent evidence from high child mortality countries. We used standardized guidelines (PRISMA) guidelines to identify observational evaluations of rotavirus vaccine impact among children <5 years of age that presented at least 12 months of pre- and post-vaccine introduction surveillance data...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430563/norovirus-gii-p16-gii-2-associated-gastroenteritis-china-2016
#10
Yuanyun Ao, Jinjin Wang, Hua Ling, Yaqing He, Xiaogeng Dong, Xuan Wang, Jingyao Peng, Hailong Zhang, Miao Jin, Zhaojun Duan
During October-December 2016, the number of norovirus outbreaks in China increased sharply from the same period during the previous 4 years. We identified a recombinant norovirus strain, GII.P16-GII.2, as the cause of 44 (79%) of the 56 outbreaks, signaling that this strain could replace the predominant GII.4 viruses.
July 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430561/association-of-gii-p16-gii-2-recombinant-norovirus-strain-with-increased-norovirus-outbreaks-guangdong-china-2016
#11
Jing Lu, Ling Fang, Limei Sun, Hanri Zeng, Yanling Li, Huanying Zheng, Siwei Wu, Feng Yang, Tie Song, Jinyan Lin, Changwen Ke, Yonghui Zhang, Jan Vinjé, Hui Li
An unusual prevalence of recombinant GII.2 noroviruses (GII.P16-GII.2) in Guangdong, China, at the end of 2016 caused a sharp increase in outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. This event was another non-GII.4 epidemic that emerged after the GII.17 viruses in 2014 and 2015 and warrants global surveillance.
July 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428779/application-of-%C3%AE-resorcylic-acid-as-potential-antimicrobial-feed-additive-to-reduce-campylobacter-colonization-in-broiler-chickens
#12
Basanta R Wagle, Abhinav Upadhyay, Komala Arsi, Sandip Shrestha, Kumar Venkitanarayanan, Annie M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue
Campylobacter is one of the major foodborne pathogens that result in severe gastroenteritis in humans, primarily through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Chickens are the reservoir host of Campylobacter, where the pathogen colonizes the ceca, thereby leading to contamination of carcass during slaughter. A reduction in cecal colonization by Campylobacter would directly translate into reduced product contamination and risk of human infections. With increasing consumer demand for antibiotic free chickens, significant research is being conducted to discover natural, safe and economical antimicrobials that can effectively control Campylobacter colonization in birds...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425908/rotavirus-vaccine-breastfeeding-and-other-factors-that-could-affect-susceptibility-to-gastroenteritis-in-young-children
#13
Amy Elizabeth Murphy
No abstract available.
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422995/characterization-of-rotavirus-infection-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-bengo-province-northwestern-angola-prior-to-vaccine-introduction
#14
Carolina Gasparinho, João Piedade, Maria Clara Mirante, Cristina Mendes, Carlos Mayer, Susana Vaz Nery, Miguel Brito, Claudia Istrate
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus group A (RVA) is considered the leading cause of pediatric diarrhea, responsible for the high burden of diarrheal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite recent studies, the existent data are scarce for some African countries like Angola, a country with one of the highest RVA-related death estimates. The aim of this study was to determine the RVA detection rate and circulating genotypes in children less than five years of age with acute gastroenteritis attended at the Bengo General Hospital in Caxito, Bengo province, Angola, before vaccine introduction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421051/in-situ-capture-rt-qpcr-a-new-simple-and-sensitive-method-to-detect-human-norovirus-in-oysters
#15
Zhenhuan Zhou, Zhengan Tian, Qianqian Li, Peng Tian, Qingping Wu, Dapeng Wang, Xianming Shi
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause worldwide for non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. In this study, we applied a novel viral receptor mediated in situ capture RT-qPCR (ISC-RT-qPCR) to detect HuNoVs in oysters and compared with the traditional RT-qPCR method. Ten HuNoVs RT-PCR positive and 5 negative clinical samples from gastroenteritis patients were used to compare specificity and sensitivity of ISC-RT-qPCR against that of the RT-qPCR assay. ISC-RT-qPCR had at a one-log and a two-log increase in sensitivity over that of the RT-qPCR assay for genotype I (GI) and GII, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419538/receiving-early-information-and-trusting-swedish-child-health-centre-nurses-increased-parents-willingness-to-vaccinate-against-rotavirus-infections
#16
Lina Schollin Ask, Anders Hjern, Ann Lindstrand, Ola Olen, Eva Sjögren, Margareta Blennow, Åke Örtqvist
AIM: Rotavirus vaccines are effective against severe infections, but have a modest impact on mortality in high-income countries. Parental knowledge and attitudes towards vaccines are crucial for high vaccination coverage. This study aimed to identify why parents refused to let their infant have the vaccination or were unsure. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on 1,063 questionnaires completed by the parents of newborn children in 2014. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify the main predictors...
April 17, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419020/education-in-the-waiting-room-description-of-a-pediatric-emergency-department-educational-initiative
#17
Sarah Reid, Gina Neto, Sandy Tse, Ken J Farion, Ariyan Marvizi, Lauren Smith, Chantalle Clarkin, Kristina Rohde, Katherine Moreau
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand parents' awareness of and reactions to a slide presentation based waiting-room educational initiative. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study at a Canadian tertiary-care pediatric emergency department (ED) with an annual census of 68,000 visits. An anonymous parental survey was developed de novo, and parents were asked to complete the survey during their low-acuity ED visit over a 2-week study period...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416428/-nasogastric-rehydration-for-treating-children-with-gastroenteritis
#18
B Rébeillé-Borgella, C Barbier, R Moussaoui, A Faisant, A-P Michard-Lenoir, A Rubio
INTRODUCTION: When oral rehydration is not feasible, enteral rehydration via the nasogastric route has been the ESPGHAN recommended method of rehydration since 2008, rather than intravenous rehydration (IVR), for children with acute gastroenteritis. However, these recommendations are rarely followed in France. Since 2011, in case of failure of oral rehydration, enteral rehydration has been used as a first-line therapy in the Children's Emergency Department at the Grenoble-Alpes University Hospital...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416195/pitavastatin-versus-pravastatin-in-adults-with-hiv-1-infection-and-dyslipidaemia-intrepid-12-week-and-52-week-results-of-a-phase-4-multicentre-randomised-double-blind-superiority-trial
#19
Judith A Aberg, Craig A Sponseller, Douglas J Ward, Vladimir A Kryzhanovski, Stuart E Campbell, Melanie A Thompson
BACKGROUND: People living with HIV-1 infection are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease than seronegative adults. Treatment of dyslipidaemia with statins has been challenging in people with HIV because of an increased potential for drug interactions due to competing cytochrome P450 metabolism between statins and commonly used antiretroviral agents. Neither pitavastatin nor pravastatin depend on cytochrome P450 for primary metabolism. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV and dyslipidaemia...
April 13, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414969/cytokines-in-the-management-of-rotavirus-infection-a-systematic-review-of-in-vivo-studies
#20
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Victor Santana Santos, Marina Denadai, Valdete Kaliane da Silva Calisto, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Ana Mara de Oliveira E Silva, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Luis Eduardo Cuevas, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
OBJECTIVE: Rotavirus is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea. Rotavirus vaccines are effective against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, but have lower efficacy in low income countries in Africa. Anti-rotavirus treatment is not available. This study reviews the literature of animal studies evaluating whether cytokine mediated pathways of immune activation could improve rotavirus therapy. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles in English published from 2010 to 2016 reporting agents with in vivo antirotavirus activity for the management of rotavirus infection...
April 14, 2017: Cytokine
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