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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088183/incidence-aetiology-and-outcome-of-community-acquired-acute-kidney-injury-in-medical-admissions-in-malawi
#1
Rhys D R Evans, Ulla Hemmilä, Alison Craik, Mwayi Mtekateka, Fergus Hamilton, Zuze Kawale, Christopher J Kirwan, Hamish Dobbie, Gavin Dreyer
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) from low-income countries is sparse. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence, severity, aetiology, and outcomes of community-acquired AKI in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of general medical admissions to a tertiary hospital in Blantyre between 27(th) April and 17(th) July 2015. All patients were screened on admission with a serum creatinine; those with creatinine above laboratory reference range were managed by the nephrology team...
January 14, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086924/treating-infants-with-frigg-linking-disease-aetiologies-medicinal-plant-use-and-care-seeking-behaviour-in-southern-morocco
#2
Irene Teixidor-Toneu, Gary J Martin, Rajindra K Puri, Ahmed Ouhammou, Julie A Hawkins
BACKGROUND: Although most Moroccans rely to some extent on traditional medicine, the practice of frigg to treat paediatric ailments by elderly women traditional healers known as ferraggat, has not yet been documented. We describe the role of these specialist healers, document the medicinal plants they use, and evaluate how and why their practice is changing. METHODS: Ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews and observations of medical encounters...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086819/efficacy-safety-and-effectiveness-of-licensed-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#3
Raúl F Velázquez, Alexandre C Linhares, Sergio Muñoz, Pamela Seron, Pedro Lorca, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Eduardo Ortega-Barria
BACKGROUND: RotaTeq™ (RV5; Merck & Co. Inc., USA) and Rotarix™ (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) vaccines, developed to prevent rotavirus diarrhea in children under five years old, were both introduced into national immunization programs in 2006. As many countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have included either RV5 or RV1 in their routine childhood vaccination programs, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze efficacy, safety and effectiveness data from the region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077655/expression-of-ifnlr1-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells-is-critical-to-the-antiviral-effects-of-ifn-lambda-against-norovirus-and-reovirus
#4
Megan T Baldridge, Sanghyun Lee, Judy J Brown, Nicole McAllister, Kelly Urbanek, Terence S Dermody, Timothy J Nice, Herbert W Virgin
: Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) has potent antiviral effects against multiple enteric viral pathogens, including norovirus and rotavirus, in both preventing and curing infection. Because the intestine includes a diverse array of cell types, however, the cell(s) upon which IFN-λ acts to exert its antiviral effects are unclear. Here, we sought to identify IFN-λ responsive cells by generation of mice with lineage-specific deletion of the receptor for IFN-λ, Ifnlr1 We found that expression of IFNLR1 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the small intestine and colon is required for enteric IFN-λ antiviral activity...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075671/hospitalization-rates-for-intussusception-in-children-aged-0-59%C3%A2-months-from-2009-to-2014-in-italy
#5
Vincenzo Restivo, Claudio Costantino, Fabio Tramuto, Francesco Vitale
The real cause of intussusception is not fully understood and a variety of conditions have been associated with it (Meckel diverticulum, polyps, duplication cysts, parasites, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, cystic fibrosis, hemolytic-uremic syndrome and infectious gastroenteritis). Furthermore few European countries, following WHO recommendation to monitor baseline incidence of intussusception before implementation of immunization program for rotavirus, used intussusception rate as a baseline value to compare the same figures in the period before and after introduction of vaccination...
January 11, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071000/chemical-composition-and-antioxidant-activities-of-essential-oils-from-different-parts-of-the-oregano
#6
Fei Han, Guang-Qiang Ma, Ming Yang, Li Yan, Wei Xiong, Ji-Cheng Shu, Zhi-Dong Zhao, Han-Lin Xu
This research was undertaken in order to characterize the chemical compositions and evaluate the antioxidant activities of essential oils obtained from different parts of the Origanum vulgare L. It is a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of heat stroke, fever, vomiting, acute gastroenteritis, and respiratory disorders. The chemical compositions of the three essential oils from different parts of the oregano (leaves-flowers, stems, and roots) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067936/unparalleled-patterns-of-intussusception-and-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-hospitalization-rates-among-children-younger-than-six-years-in-italy
#7
A Mattei, F Fiasca, M Mazzei, M Sbarbati
BACKGROUND: No nationwide studies are available so far in Italy to analyze the annual trend of hospitalizations for intussusception (IS) comparing it with that of rotavirus gastroenteritis (GARV), therefore a survey was undertaken to assess the incidence rates of IS and GARV in children hospitalized between 2005 and 2014 in Italy. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective observational study was conducted analyzing the Italian Hospital Discharge Database (HDD), including a study on all hospitalizations bearing a primary or secondary diagnoses coded as 560...
January 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067278/development-of-a-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-detection-of-epidemic-human-noroviruses
#8
Matthew D Moore, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human norovirus is a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Rapid detection could facilitate control, however widespread point-of-care testing is infrequently done due to the lack of robust and portable methods. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal method which rapidly amplifies and detects nucleic acids using a simple device in near real-time. An RT-RPA assay targeting a recent epidemic human norovirus strain (GII.4 New Orleans) was developed and evaluated in this study...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067093/rotavirus-epidemiology-5-6-years-after-universal-rotavirus-vaccination-persistent-rotavirus-activity-in-older-children-and-elderly
#9
Jukka Markkula, Maria Hemming-Harlo, Marjo T Salminen, Carita Savolainen-Kopra, Jaana Pirhonen, Haider Al-Hello, Timo Vesikari
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) vaccination using RotaTeq(®) vaccine exclusively was introduced into Finnish National Immunization Program (NIP) in 2009, and soon reached high (≥90%) coverage. Since mid-2013, all stool samples from laboratory diagnosed cases of RV gastroenteritis in the entire country have been typed. METHODS: 364 RV positive stool samples collected from clinical laboratories over a 2-year period were G- and P-typed using RT-PCR, and the results were confirmed by sequencing...
January 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056379/capturing-norovirus-transmission
#10
REVIEW
M de Graaf, Nele Villabruna, Marion Pg Koopmans
Human norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and is efficiently transmitted between humans and around the globe. The burden of norovirus infections in the global community and in health-care settings warrant the availability of outbreak prevention strategies and control measures that are tailored to the pathogen, outbreak setting and population at risk. A better understanding of viral and host determinants of transmission would aid in developing and fine-tuning such efforts. Here, we describe mechanisms of transmission, available model systems for studying norovirus transmission and their strengths and weaknesses as well as future research strategies...
January 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054368/acid-suppression-medications-and-bacterial-gastroenteritis-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Li Wei, Lasantha Ratnayake, Gabby Phillips, Chris C McGuigan, Steve V Morant, Robert W Flynn, Isla S Mackenzie, Thomas M MacDonald
AIMS: To investigate whether acid suppression medicines (ASMs) increase the risk of bacterial gastroenteritis. METHODS: A population-based, propensity-score matched cohort study using a record-linkage database in Tayside, Scotland. The study consisted of 188,323 exposed to ASMs [proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA)] and 376,646 controls (a propensity-score matched cohort from the rest of population who were not exposed to ASMs) between 1999 and 2013...
January 5, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053874/long-term-outcome-of-isobutyryl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency-diagnosed-following-an-episode-of-ketotic-hypoglycaemia
#12
S Santra, A Macdonald, M A Preece, R K Olsen, B S Andresen
Isobutyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (IBDD) is an inherited disorder of valine metabolism caused by mutations in ACAD8. Most reported patients have been diagnosed through newborn screening programmes due to elevated C4-carnitine levels and appear clinically asymptomatic. One reported non-screened patient had dilated cardiomyopathy and anaemia at the age of two years. We report a 13 month old girl diagnosed with IBDD after developing hypoglycaemic encephalopathy (blood glucose 1.9 mmol/l) during an episode of rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052549/adsorption-of-norovirus-and-ostreid-herpesvirus-type-1-to-polymer-membranes-for-the-development-of-passive-samplers
#13
Françoise Vincent-Hubert, Benjamin Morga, Tristan Renault, Françoise S Le Guyader
AIMS: This study was performed to develop passive sampling methodology for the detection of two viruses in seawater in the area of shellfish production, The Norovirus (NoV), a human pathogen implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks linked to oyster consumption and the ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) a virus associated with mass mortalities of Pacific oysters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Commercially membranes were tested for their capacity to adsorb virus: Zetapor, gauze, nylon, low density polyethylene (LDPE) and Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051950/phylogenetic-analysis-of-partial-vp7-gene-of-the-emerging-human-group-a-rotavirus-g12-strains-circulating-in-tunisia
#14
Amal Moussa, Mouna Ben Hadj Fredj, Meriam BenHamida-Rebaï, Imene Fodha, Noureddine Boujaafar, Abdelhalim Trabelsi
Group A rotavirus (RVA) is the leading etiological agent of severe gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years of age. The most common G types in humans are G1-4 and G9. G12 genotype is currently emerging worldwide, becoming the sixth most prevalent RVA VP7 genotype causing severe childhood diarrhea. A total of 1127 fecal samples were collected from Tunisian children under 5 years of age consulting for gastroenteritis between 2009 and 2014. All samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of RVA antigen...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050385/congenital-acute-myeloid-leukaemia-with-pseudo-chediak-higashi-like-granules-a-case-report
#15
Vandana Puri, Sandip Barman, Pooja Sharma, Meera Sikka
Congenital leukaemia is a very rare entity comprising 0.8% of all childhood leukaemias. Pseudo-Chediak-Higashi Anomaly (PCHA) in acute leukaemia is a rarely described entity. However, co-existence of congenital myeloid leukaemia with PCHA is a very rare entity and to the best of our knowledge has not been described in literature till date. A full term new-born presented on the 27(th) day of life with severe gastroenteritis. Complete blood counts and peripheral smear examination revealed leucocytosis with presence of 76% blast cells...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046108/norovirus-and-sapovirus-epidemiology-and-strain-characteristics-among-navajo-and-apache-infants
#16
Lindsay R Grant, Katherine L O'Brien, Robert C Weatherholtz, Raymond Reid, Novalene Goklish, Mathuram Santosham, Umesh Parashar, Jan Vinjé
Norovirus and sapovirus are important causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among American Indian infants. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of norovirus and sapovirus in American Indian infants who have historically experienced a high burden of AGE compared to other US populations. Stool samples were collected from 241 children with AGE (cases) and from 343 infants without AGE (controls) ≤9 months of age from 2002-2004. Cases experienced forceful vomiting and/or 3 or more watery or looser-than-normal stools in 24 hours...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045552/factors-influencing-knowledge-food-safety-practices-and-food-preferences-during-warm-weather-of-salmonella-and-campylobacter-cases-in-south-australia
#17
Adriana Milazzo, Lynne C Giles, Ying Zhang, Ann P Koehler, Janet E Hiller, Peng Bi
OBJECTIVE: To assess food safety practices, food shopping preferences, and eating behaviors of people diagnosed with Salmonella or Campylobacter infection in the warm seasons, and to identify socioeconomic factors associated with behavior and practices. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Salmonella and Campylobacter cases with onset of illness from January 1 to March 31, 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined relationships between socioeconomic position and food safety knowledge and practices, shopping and food preferences, and preferences, perceptions, and knowledge about food safety information on warm days...
January 3, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043228/australian-rotavirus-surveillance-program-annual-report-2015
#18
Susie Roczo-Farkas, Carl D Kirkwood, Julie E Bines
The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2015. During the survey period, 1,383 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these, 1,031 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 634 specimens had been collected from children under 5 years of age, while 397 were from older children and adults...
December 24, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043220/epidemiology-of-bacterial-toxin-mediated-foodborne-gastroenteritis-outbreaks-in-australia-2001-to-2013
#19
Fiona J May, Benjamin G Polkinghorne, Emily J Fearnley
Bacterial toxin-mediated foodborne outbreaks, such as those caused by Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, are an important and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Due to the short incubation period and duration of illness, these outbreaks are often under-reported. This is the first study to describe the epidemiology of bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks in Australia. Using data collected between 2001 and 2013, we identify high risk groups and risk factors to inform prevention measures...
December 24, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042824/the-immune-response-to-astrovirus-infection
#20
REVIEW
Shauna A Marvin
Astroviruses are one of the leading causes of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide and are clinically importantly pathogens in the elderly and immunocompromised populations. Although the use of cell culture systems and small animal models have enhanced our understanding of astrovirus infection and pathogenesis, little is known about the immune response to astrovirus infection. Studies from humans and animals suggest that adaptive immunity is important in restricting classic and novel astrovirus infections, while studies from animal models and cell culture systems suggest that an innate immune system plays a role in limiting astrovirus replication...
December 30, 2016: Viruses
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