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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150772/norovirus-gii-17-associated-with-a-foodborne-acute-gastroenteritis-outbreak-in-brazil-2016
#1
Juliana da Silva Ribeiro de Andrade, Tulio Machado Fumian, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Matheus Ribeiro de Assis, Alexandre Madi Fialho, Sergio Mouta, Cristiane Mendes Pereira Santiago, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
Foodborne transmission gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreak occurred during a celebration lunch in July, 2016, Brazil. All stool samples tested were positive for noroviruses (NoV) and phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains were genetically close to GII.17 Kawasaki_2014. These findings indicated circulation of NoV GII.17 Kawasaki_2014 in the Brazilian population, associated with AGE outbreak.
November 17, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149805/observational-cohort-study-safety-outcomes-in-children-using-proton-pump-inhibitors-or-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists
#2
Eline Houben, Saga Johansson, Péter Nagy, Fernie J A Penning-van Beest, Ernst J Kuipers, Ron M C Herings
OBJECTIVE: Acid suppression with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is recommended for children with persistent gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms. In this retrospective, observational postauthorization study, we aimed to assess and compare safety outcomes in pediatric first-time users of esomeprazole, other PPIs, or H2RAs. METHODS: Data on children (aged 0-18 years) first dispensed esomeprazole, other PPIs, or H2RAs between September 2008 and August 2011 were obtained from the Dutch PHARMO Database Network...
November 17, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149283/multivalent-rotavirus-vaccine-and-wild-type-rotavirus-strain-shedding-in-australian-infants-a-birth-cohort-study
#3
Suifang Ye, David M Whiley, Robert S Ware, Carl D Kirkwood, Stephen B Lambert, Keith Grimwood
Background: Rotavirus vaccines have reduced moderate-to-severe gastroenteritis episodes in infants and young children. Nevertheless, knowledge gaps exist concerning rotavirus vaccine shedding and vaccine impact upon mild and asymptomatic wild-type infections. Our primary objective was to investigate vaccine shedding in Australian infants where the multivalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq®, was part of the routine vaccination schedule. Methods: The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) birth cohort study was conducted in Brisbane, Australia, from September 2010 to October 2014...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149199/epidemiology-and-clinical-profile-of-pathogens-responsible-for-the-hospitalization-of-children-in-sousse-area-tunisia
#4
Ines Brini, Aida Guerrero, Naila Hannachi, Jihene Bouguila, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Amira Bouhlel, Lamia Boughamoura, Benjamin Hetzer, Wegene Borena, Britta Schiela, Dorothee Von Laer, Jalel Boukadida, Heribert Stoiber
This study aimed to identify a broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens from hospitalized and not-preselected children with acute respiratory tract infections in the Farhat Hached University-hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Between September 2013 and December 2014, samples from 372 children aged between 1 month and 5 years were collected, and tested using multiplex real-time RT-PCR by a commercial assay for 21 respiratory pathogens. In addition, samples were screened for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae 16S rDNA using real-time PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149170/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-vtra-is-a-membrane-bound-regulator-and-is-activated-via-oligomerization
#5
Ryu Okada, Shigeaki Matsuda, Tetsuya Iida
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis. A major virulence determinant of the organism is a type III secretion system (T3SS2) encoded on a pathogenicity island, Vp-PAI. Vp-PAI gene expression is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB, whose N-terminal regions share homology with an OmpR-family DNA-binding domain. VtrA activates the gene expression of VtrB, which in turn activates Vp-PAI gene expression; however, the mechanism of this transcriptional activation by VtrA is not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143685/available-studies-fail-to-provide-strong-evidence-of-increased-risk-of-diarrhea-mortality-due-to-measles-in-the-period-4-26%C3%A2-weeks-after-measles-rash-onset
#6
Bianca D Jackson, Robert E Black
BACKGROUND: Measles vaccination effectiveness studies showed dramatic decreases in all-cause mortality in excess of what would be expected from the prevention of measles disease alone. This invited speculation that measles infection may increase the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality subsequent to the acute phase of the disease. The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing evidence in the publically available literature pertaining to the putative causal link between measles and diarrhea in the period 4-26 weeks following measles rash onset...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142132/identification-of-a-small-molecule-that-compromises-the-structural-integrity-of-viroplasms-and-rotavirus-double-layered-particles
#7
Catherine Eichwald, Giuditta De Lorenzo, Elisabeth M Schraner, Guido Papa, Michela Bollati, Paolo Swuec, Matteo de Rosa, Mario Milani, Eloise Mastrangelo, Mathias Ackermann, Oscar R Burrone, Francesca Arnoldi
Despite the availability of two attenuated vaccines, rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis remains an important cause of mortality among children in developing countries causing about 215,000 infant deaths annually. Currently, there are no specific antiviral therapies available. RV is a non-enveloped virus with a segmented double-stranded RNA genome. Viral genome replication and assembly of transcriptionally active double-layered particles (DLPs) take place in cytoplasmic viral structures called viroplasms. In this study, we describe strong impairment of the early stages of RV replication induced by a small molecule known as RNA polymerase III inhibitor, ML-60218 (ML)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142125/emergence-of-double-and-triple-gene-reassortant-g1p-8-rotaviruses-possessing-a-ds-1-like-backbone-post-rotavirus-vaccine-introduction-in-malawi
#8
Khuzwayo C Jere, Chrispin Chaguza, Naor Bar-Zeev, Jenna Lowe, Chikondi Peno, Benjamin Kumwenda, Osamu Nakagomi, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French, Nigel A Cunliffe, Iturriza-Gomara Miren
To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunisation programmes. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix™) into its immunisation schedule in 2012. Utilising a surveillance platform of hospitalised rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 - 2012) and after (2013 - 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next generation sequencing revealed that all randomly-selected pre-vaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced (n=32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas post-vaccine G1P[8] strains (n=18) had a DS-1-like constellation...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140937/sapovirus-in-fecal-and-nasopharyngeal-swab-samples-of-children-with-symptoms-of-acute-gastroenteritis
#9
Thairiny Neres Silva, Nathânia Dábilla, Fabíola Souza Fiaccadori, Divina das Dôres de Paula Cardoso, Teresinha Teixeira de Sousa, Tâmera Nunes Vieira Almeida, Menira Souza
The study included 102 hospitalized children aged 0 to 72 months, with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. One fecal and one nasopharyngeal swab sample were obtained from each child. Samples were screened for sapovirus and viral loads were determined. Sapovirus was detected in 18.6% of fecal samples and in 36.3% of nasopharyngeal swab samples. High viral loads were detected.
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138382/-a-case-of-retroperitoneal-abscess-due-to-acute-appendicitis-during-neo-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-breast-cancer
#10
Takaaki Oba, Kazuma Maeno, Kenichi Ito, Satoshi Ishizone, Takaomi Hanaoka
When acute appendicitis occurs in patients treated with chemotherapy, neutropenia and abdominal complaints caused by chemotherapy can contribute to the diagnostic difficulty, masking the increase in white blood cell(WBC)counts and physical findings of acute appendicitis. A 43-year-old premenopausal woman who was diagnosed with stage IIIA left breast cancer was scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy includingfluorouracil plus epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide(FEC), followed by docetaxel and trastuzumab(DOC plus HER)...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137606/outbreak-of-caliciviruses-in-the-singapore-military-2015
#11
Freddy Jun Xian Neo, Jimmy Jin Phang Loh, Peijun Ting, Wei Xin Yeo, Christine Qiu Han Gao, Vernon Jian Ming Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Ching Ging Ng
BACKGROUND: From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. METHODS: After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135900/ondansetron-prescription-for-home-use-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#12
James M Gray, Jaya D Maewal, Scott A Lunos, Ronald A Furnival, Marissa A Hendrickson
OBJECTIVES: Ondansetron has been shown to decrease admission rates and the need for intravenous fluids among pediatric emergency department (ED) patients with acute gastroenteritis, but there is limited evidence regarding its use after ED discharge. This study describes prescribing patterns for ondansetron and assesses the effects of ondansetron home prescription on rate of return. METHODS: Data were gathered from the electronic health record on 2 separate but overlapping groups of patients seen in a pediatric ED from 2012 to 2014...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135827/norovirus-and-rotavirus-disease-severity-in-children-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Margarita Riera-Montes, Miguel O'Ryan, Thomas Verstraeten
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses (RV) and Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common causes of severe acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children. It is generally accepted that RV causes severe AGE in a higher proportion of cases compared with NoV. To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews and meta-analyses comparing the severity of NoV and RV disease. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE for studies reporting data for NoV and RV medically-attended disease severity in children. We included studies where all children had been tested for both NoV (RT-PCR) and RV (ELISA or RT-PCR) and that reported disease severity using the Vesikari or modified Vesikari score, or provided clinical information on severity...
November 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134762/introduction-of-asian-canine-parvovirus-in-europe-through-dog-importation
#14
F Mira, G Purpari, E Lorusso, S Di Bella, F Gucciardi, C Desario, G Macaluso, N Decaro, A Guercio
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important infectious agent of domestic and wild carnivores, responsible for severe and often fatal haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and leukopenia. This paper reports the genomic characterization of a CPV strain collected from a dog recently imported to Italy from Thailand. The virus was detected in all tissue samples collected. The whole genome encompassing the two open reading frames encoding for non-structural (NS1/NS2) and structural (VP1/VP2) proteins was amplified and sequenced...
November 13, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132468/-benign-infantile-convulsions-associated-with-mild-gastroenteritis-a-clinical-analysis-and-follow-up-study
#15
Chao-Chao Xue, Ya-Feng Liang, Guo-Quan Pan, Chang-Chong Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features and prognosis of benign infantile convulsions associated with mild gastroenteritis (BICE). METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 436 children with BICE, and among these children, 206 were followed up for 1.5 to 7 years. Some parents were invited to complete the Weiss Functional Defect Scale to evaluate the long-term social function. RESULTS: The peak age of onset of BICE was 13-24 months, and BICE had a higher prevalence rate in September to February of the following year...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130016/incidental-eosinophilic-chromophobe-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-renal-allograft
#16
Abdullah Alharbi, Maram S Al Turki, Noura Aloudah, Khaled O Alsaad
The incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in renal allograft in transplant recipients is 0.22-0.25%. De novo clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCCs and RCCs with sarcomatoid differentiation originating in renal allograft have been reported. Routine surveillance for graft tumours is not routinely practiced and these tumours are commonly asymptomatic and incidentally discovered. We describe a case of incidental, eosinophilic chromophobe RCC in a 31-year-old, long-term renal transplant male recipient, who presented with acute gastroenteritis 11 years after transplantation...
2017: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128345/infectious-gastroenteritis-and-the-need-for-strict-contact-precaution-procedures-in-adults-presenting-in-the-emergency-department-a-danish-register-based-study
#17
Florence Skyum, Vibeke Andersen, Ming Chen, Court Pedersen, Christian Backer Mogensen
BACKGROUND: Acute infectious gastroenteritis requires contact precautions to prevent spreading. On acute admission the cause of diarrhoea is unknown, so the decision of whom to isolate has to be made on clinical information with a risk of inexpedient use of contact precautions. AIM: The aims of the study were to investigate how often gastroenteritis occurs, and thus the isolation indication has to be assessed, in Danish emergency departments, and how often patients have to remain on contact precaution according to the results of the faecal samples...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127496/classification-of-eosinophilic-disorders-of-the-small-and-large-intestine
#18
Aoife J McCarthy, Kieran Sheahan
Eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases (EGIDs), including eosinophilic gastroenteritis and eosinophilic colitis, have been increasing in prevalence in Western countries in recent years. Eosinophils are normally scanty in the gastrointestinal tract, and increased numbers of eosinophils can denote pathology. Normal values for tissue eosinophils vary widely between different segments of the colon, thus location of the biopsy is critically important for the interpretation of findings. However, no standard diagnostic criteria have been proposed for the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis or eosinophilic colitis...
November 10, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127489/genetic-characterization-of-the-complete-genome-of-a-mutant-canine-parvovirus-isolated-in-china
#19
Chuanfeng Li, Jingyu Tang, Zongyan Chen, Qi Li, Zhenhua Huang, Quan Wang, Chunchun Meng, Yong Wang, Guangqing Liu
A field canine parvovirus (CPV) strain, CPV-SH14, was previously isolated from an outbreak of severe gastroenteritis in Shanghai in 2014. The complete genome of CPV-SH14 was determined by using PCR with modified primers. When compared to other CPV-2 strains, several insertions, deletions, and point mutations were identified in the 5' and 3' UTR, with key amino acid (aa) mutations (K19R, E572K in NS1 and F267Y, Y324I and T440A in VP2) also being observed in the coding regions of CPV-SH14. These results indicated that significant and unique genetic variations have occurred at key sites or residues in the genome of CPV-SH14, suggesting the presence of a novel genetic variant of new CPV-2a...
November 10, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126448/the-epidemiology-of-norovirus-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-mena-region-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Khalil Kreidieh, Rana Charide, Ghassan Dbaibo, Nada M Melhem
Norovirus (NoV) is considered the second leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE). To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews assessing the role of NoV in AGE in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Consequently, we conducted an extensive systematic literature review on articles studying NoV in the 24 countries of the MENA region during the past 15 years (2000-2015). The methods and reporting were set according to the 2015 PRISMA-P and based on the elements from the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO)...
November 10, 2017: Virology Journal
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