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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820131/norovirus-in-bottled-water-associated-with-gastroenteritis-outbreak-spain-2016
#1
Albert Blanco, Susana Guix, Noemí Fuster, Cristina Fuentes, Rosa Bartolomé, Thais Cornejo, Rosa Maria Pintó, Albert Bosch
In April 2016, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness (4,136 cases) occurred in Catalonia, Spain. We detected high levels of norovirus genotypes I and II in office water coolers associated with the outbreak. Infectious viral titer estimates were 33-49 genome copies/L for genotype I and 327-660 genome copies/L for genotype II.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818893/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-hobi-like-virus-isolated-from-a-nelore-cow-with-gastroenteric-disease-in-the-state-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#2
Adriana Cortez, João Pessoa Araújo, Eduardo Furtado Flores, Márcio Garcia Ribeiro, Jane Megid, Antonio Carlos Paes, José Paes de Oliveira Filho, Leila Sabrina Ullmann, Camila Dantas Malossi, Marcos Bryan Heinemann
The Hobi-like virus presents antigenic and molecular differences in relation to bovine virus diarrhea virus 1 and 2. The description of the complete genome of the Hobi-like virus SV757/15, isolated from a Nelore cow with gastroenteric disease in Brazil, will help in understanding the evolution and diversity of pestiviruses.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818469/vaccine-epidemiology-its-role-in-promoting-sound-immunization-programs-in-japan
#3
Yoshio Hirota, Kotaro Ozasa, Takashi Nakano
In Japan, the Vaccine Epidemiology Research Group created by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has played an important role in demonstrating the solid scientific basis for vaccine efficacy and safety since 2002. Members of the group, including epidemiologists, clinicians and microbiologists, have been conducting collaborative studies on vaccines for influenza, pertussis, rotavirus gastroenteritis, polio and pneumonia. So far, the group has achieved several works and contributed to the national vaccination program, including research on the immunogenicity of low doses of influenza vaccine among young children, the immunogenicity and effectiveness of the 2009 influenza pandemic vaccine among various risk groups, the interchangeability of live/inactivated polio vaccines, the health impact of influenza on pregnant women, and the monitoring of influenza vaccine effectiveness using case-control studies with a test-negative design...
August 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818267/is-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-functional-dyspepsia
#4
Georgios Tziatzios, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Ioannis S Papanikolaou, Mark Pimentel, George D Dimitriadis, Konstantinos Triantafyllou
Functional dyspepsia is a highly prevalent disease, with significant impacts on patients' quality of life and economic robustness of health care systems worldwide. It constitutes a constellation of symptoms located in the gastro duodenal region while its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Accumulating evidence suggest that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is associated with the etiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. We herein present the hypothesis that a causal link between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and functional dyspepsia might exist...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817554/occupational-distribution-of-campylobacteriosis-and-salmonellosis-cases-maryland-ohio-and-virginia-2014
#5
Chia-Ping Su, Marie A de Perio, Kathleen Fagan, Meghan L Smith, Ellen Salehi, Seth Levine, Karen Gruszynski, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814340/detection-and-genetic-characterization-of-canine-astroviruses-in-pet-dogs-in-guangxi-china
#6
Huabo Zhou, Lin Liu, Ruikai Li, Yifeng Qin, Qingli Fang, Vinod Rmt Balasubramaniam, Guojun Wang, Zuzhang Wei, Kang Ouyang, Weijian Huang, Ying Chen
BACKGROUND: Astroviruses (AstVs) have been reported to infect and cause gastroenteritis in most animal species. Human AstVs were regarded the causative agent of viral diarrhea in children. In dogs, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical significance of AstV infection. FINDINGS: In this study, we collected and tested 253 rectal swabs from pet dogs; of which 64 samples (25.3%) tested positive for AstVs with diarrhea and 15 more samples (5.9%) also was identified as AstVs, however without any clinical signs...
August 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813644/rotavirus-disease-course-among-immunocompromised-patients-5-year-observations-from-a-tertiary-care-medical-centre
#7
P Bruijning-Verhagen, M D Nipshagen, H de Graaf, M J M Bonten
Rotavirus (RV) is highly endemic inside and outside hospital-settings. Immunocompromised children and adults are at risk of complicated rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), but general rotavirus disease severity in this group remains poorly described and rotavirus testing is not routinely performed beyond infancy. We assessed rotavirus disease among immunocompromised hospitalized patients. METHODS: Rotavirus infections at a Dutch tertiary-care centre were identified from 5-year laboratory records...
August 13, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813186/multi-normalization-and-interpolation-protocol-to-improve-norovirus-immunoagglutination-assay-from-paper-microfluidics-with-smartphone-detection
#8
Soohee Cho, Tu San Park, Kelly A Reynolds, Jeong-Yeol Yoon
Norovirus (NoV) is one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis, affecting 685 million people per year around the world. The best preventive measure is to screen water for possible NoV contamination, not from infected humans, preferably using rapid and field-deployable diagnostic methods. While enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) can be used for such detection, the low infectious dose as well as the generally inferior sensitivity and low titer of available NoV antibodies render critical challenges in using EIAs toward NoV detection...
August 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810833/population-effectiveness-of-the-pentavalent-and-monovalent-rotavirus-vaccines-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#9
Daniel Hungerford, Katie Smith, Angela Tucker, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Roberto Vivancos, Catherine McLeonard, Nigel A Cunliffe, Neil French
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus was the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in infants and young children prior to the introduction of routine vaccination. Since 2006 there have been two licensed vaccines available; with successful clinical trials leading the World Health Organization to recommend rotavirus vaccination for all children worldwide. In order to inform immunisation policy we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observation studies to assess population effectiveness against acute gastroenteritis...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807916/inhibition-of-calcineurin-or-impdh-exerts-moderate-to-potent-antiviral-activity-against-norovirus-replication
#10
Wen Dang, Yuebang Yin, Yijin Wang, Wenshi Wang, Junhong Su, Dave Sprengers, Luc J W van der Laan, Krzysztof Felczak, Krzysztof W Pankiewicz, Kyeong-Ok Chang, Marion P G Koopmans, Herold J Metselaar, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and has emerged as an important issue of chronic infection in transplantation patients. Since no approved antiviral is available, we evaluated the effects of different immunosuppressants and ribavirin on norovirus and explored their mechanism-of-actions by using a human norovirus (HuNV) replicon-harboring model and a surrogate murine norovirus (MNV) infectious model. Roles of corresponding drug targets were investigated by gain- or loss-of-function approaches...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807813/norovirus-loads-in-stool-specimens-of-cancer-patients-with-norovirus-gastroenteritis
#11
Taojun He, Tracy A McMillen, Yuanyuan Qiu, Liang Hua Chen, Xuedong Lu, Xiao-Li Pang, Mini Kamboj, Yi-Wei Tang
In immunocompromised patients with norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis, the relationship between fecal NoV load and clinical complications has not been examined. In this study, a validated real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was used to determine viral loads NoV genogroup I and II (GI and GII) in NoV positive stool specimens of cancer patients. A total of 234 specimens from 152 patients were positive for NoV, including 201 of GII and 33 of GI. Geometric mean of logarithmic copies (GMLC) per gram of stool (w/w) of NoV-GII were 9...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805733/first-detection-of-rotavirus-group-c-in-asymptomatic-pigs-of-smallholder-farms-in-east-africa
#12
Joshua Oluoch Amimo, Eunice Magoma Machuka, Edward Okoth
Abstract: Group C rotavirus (RVC) has been described to be a causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans and animals including pigs, cows, and dogs. Fecal samples collected from asymptomatic pigs in smallholder swine farms in Kenya and Uganda were screened for the presence of group C rotaviruses (RVC) using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. A total of 446 samples were tested and 37 were positive (8.3%). A significantly larger (p < 0.05) number of RVC-positive samples was detected in groups of older pigs (5-6 months) than in younger piglets (1-2 months)...
August 14, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802994/expression-and-purification-of-norovirus-virus-like-particles-in-escherichia-coli-and-their-immunogenicity-in-mice
#13
Yuqi Huo, Xin Wan, Tong Ling, Jie Wu, Wenhui Wang, Shuo Shen
Norovirus (NoV) virus like particles (VLPs) produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been tested in human volunteers as vaccine candidate and were shown to be protective against NoV induced acute gastroenteritis. In this study, prevailing Sydney-2012-like NoV major capsid protein gene with or without N-terminal deletions (N26 and N38, 26 and 38 amino acids deleted from N terminus,respectively) were sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector, pCold III and pCold IV. Soluble and insoluble proteins were detected for both vectors after induction and higher levels of protein expression were observed for constructs pCold III-N26 and pCold III-N38...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794420/interrelationship-of-rotavirus-infection-and-creatine-kinase-mb-isoenzyme-levels-in-children-hospitalized-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-guangzhou-china-2012-2015
#14
Jianbin Zheng, Haiqing Zheng, Ramit Kumar Gupta, Huixian Li, Hui Shi, Liyan Pan, Sitang Gong, Huiying Liang
Elevated levels of Creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB) Isoenzyme are a common phenomenon among rotavirus (RV) diarrhea. However, few studies have addressed this issue using large sample size. In current study, 1,118 children (age <5 years) hospitalized with diarrhea in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from 2012 to 2015 were finally included. Changing pattern of CK-MB and its relationship with RV-infection were analyzed and characterized. Multivariate linear regression models showed that RV-positive cases had a 28% rise in CK-MB compared to RV-negative cases (OR = 1...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794036/persistent-tgev-infection-enhances-etec-k88-adhesion-by-promoting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#15
Lu Xia, Lei Dai, Qinghua Yu, Qian Yang
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus, characterized by diarrhea, high morbidity, and the mortality is 100% in piglets less than 2 weeks old. Pigs infected with TGEV are often suffer secondary infection with other pathogens, which aggravates the severity of diarrhea, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that persistent TGEV infection stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), thereby generating cells that more easily adhere to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792716/a-3-month-old-child-with-acute-gastroenteritis-with-enterovirus-d68-detected-from-stool-specimen
#16
Ngan T K Pham, Aksara Thongprachum, Tsuneyoshi Baba, Shoko Okitsu, Quang D Trinh, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is known to be causative agent of mild to severe upper and lower respiratory illnesses in sporadic cases and outbreaks. We present a case report of a 3-month-old child with acute gastroenteritis who visited a pediatric clinic in Kyushu area in Japan in 2015. A stool sample collected from the patient was screened for diarrheal viruses by multiplex RT-PCR. The result showed that the sample was positive only for enterovirus, and EV-D68 clade B3 was identified by sequence analysis of the viral protein 1 gene...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790133/detection-of-acute-gastroenteritis-etiology-in-hospitalized-young-children-associated-factors-and-outcomes
#17
Jamie M Pinto, Anna Petrova
BACKGROUND: The decision to test for the etiology of diarrhea is a challenging question for practicing pediatricians. METHODS: The main goal of this retrospective cohort study was to identify factors associated with testing for and diagnosis of rotavirus, Clostridium difficile, or other bacterial infections, as well as the length of stay (LOS) for children with acute gastroenteritis who were hospitalized at a single institution. Patients aged 6 to 60 months with acute diarrhea (<14 days) and no underlying gastrointestinal conditions were included...
August 8, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790023/identifying-potential-norovirus-epidemics-in-china-via-internet-surveillance
#18
Kui Liu, Sichao Huang, Zi-Ping Miao, Bin Chen, Tao Jiang, Gaofeng Cai, Zhenggang Jiang, Yongdi Chen, Zhengting Wang, Hua Gu, Chengliang Chai, Jianmin Jiang
BACKGROUND: Norovirus is a common virus that causes acute gastroenteritis worldwide, but a monitoring system for norovirus is unavailable in China. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify norovirus epidemics through Internet surveillance and construct an appropriate model to predict potential norovirus infections. METHODS: The norovirus-related data of a selected outbreak in Jiaxing Municipality, Zhejiang Province of China, in 2014 were collected from immediate epidemiological investigation, and the Internet search volume, as indicated by the Baidu Index, was acquired from the Baidu search engine...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783750/virulence-of-invasive-salmonella-typhimurium-st313-in-animal-models-of-infection
#19
Girish Ramachandran, Aruna Panda, Ellen E Higginson, Eugene Ateh, Michael M Lipsky, Sunil Sen, Courtney A Matson, Jasnehta Permala-Booth, Louis J DeTolla, Sharon M Tennant
Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 produces septicemia in infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there are known genetic and phenotypic differences between ST313 strains and gastroenteritis-associated ST19 strains, conflicting data about the in vivo virulence of ST313 strains have been reported. To resolve these differences, we tested clinical Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and ST19 strains in murine and rhesus macaque infection models. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) was determined for three Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 strains in mice...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783578/genetic-characterisation-of-norovirus-strains-in-outpatient-children-from-rural-communities-of-vhembe-district-south-africa-2014-2015
#20
Jean Pierre Kabue, Emma Meader, Paul R Hunter, Natasha Potgieter
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is now the most common cause of both outbreaks and sporadic non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. However, data supporting the role of NoV in diarrheal disease are limited in the African continent. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the distribution of NoV genotypes circulating in outpatient children from rural communities of Vhembe district/South Africa. STUDY DESIGN: Stool specimens were collected from children under five years of age with diarrhea, and controls without diarrhea, between July 2014 and April 2015...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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