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Applied behavior analysys, behavior analysys

André Aleman, Stefanie Enriquez-Geppert, Henderikus Knegtering, Jozarni J Dlabac-de Lange
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms in schizophrenia concern a clinically relevant reduction of goal-directed behavior that strongly and negatively impacts daily functioning. Existing treatments are of marginal effect and novel approaches are needed. Noninvasive neurostimulation by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are novel approaches that may hold promise. OBJECTIVES: To provide a quantitative integration of the published evidence regarding effects of rTMS and tDCS over the frontal cortex on negative symptoms, including an analysis of effects of sham stimulation...
February 19, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Junqiang Sun, Mike Chu, Menghua Wang
A new variant to the standard on-orbit calibration of the reflective solar bands (RSBs) using a solar diffuser (SD) is formulated. Instead of direct solar exposure through the SD port in the front of the instrument as originally designed, the variant method uses light reflecting off Earth's surface coming through the nadir port as the light source to illuminate the built-in onboard SD. The methodology is applied to the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite, and is shown to be viable and useful...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Timothy D Hackenberg
The present paper provides an integrative review of research on token reinforcement systems, organized in relation to basic behavioral functions and economic variables. This type of functional taxonomy provides a useful way to organize the literature, bringing order to a wide range of findings across species and settings, and revealing gaps in the research and areas especially ripe for analysis and application. Unlike standard translational research, based on a unidirectional model in which the analysis moves from laboratory to the applied realm, work in the area of token systems is best served by a bidirectional interplay between laboratory and applied research, where applied questions inspire research on basic mechanisms...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Sara A Vasilenko, Cara E Rice, Joshua G Rosenberger
PURPOSE: Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at an increased risk for sexually transmitted infections. Recent research has documented the importance of understanding the multidimensional nature of sexual risk behavior; however, little is known about how multidimensional patterns of sexual behavior among MSM may be associated with STIs. METHOD: This study applies latent class analysis to data from a large, HIV- sample of 18-25 year old MSM recruited from social and sexual networking websites (N = 5,965; 76% white, 11% Latino, 5% Black, 4% Asian, 4% other; 74% homosexual, 21% bisexual, 1% heterosexual, 3%, unsure/questioning 1% other) to uncover multidimensional patterns of past-year sexual behaviors, partner factors, and protective behavior and their associations with self-reported STI diagnosis...
November 21, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Claudia M Carlini, Zila M Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Nightclubs are venues in which excessive alcohol use and illegal drug consumption occur in addition to other high-risk behaviors, such as violence and sexual risk behaviors. Environmental factors common in nightclubs and the personal characteristics of patrons might increase the risk of these events. To better understand the relationship between these factors, typologies were formulated that clustered nightclubs according to definite profiles to identify differences to be taken into consideration in preventive interventions...
February 21, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Patricia Thille
In many wealthy countries, fatness is stigmatized as a sign of personal failure. Health care interactions can enact fat-related stigmatization, which can worsen health outcomes. The present analysis highlights how stigmatizing discourses about fat bodies emerge in primary care appointments, and examines immediate conversational effects. METHODS: Observational study in three primary care clinics in Canada, using conversation and discourse analytic methods on transcripts of 29 audio-recorded appointments with adults...
February 21, 2018: Health Communication
Krzysztof Nowosielski, Konrad S Jankowski, Robert Kowalczyk, Jacek Kurpisz, Małgorzata Normantowicz-Zakrzewska, Aleksandra Krasowska
INTRODUCTION: The sexual self-schema is a part of a broader concept of the self that is believed to be crucial for intrapersonal and interpersonal sexual relationships. AIM: To develop and perform psychometric validation of the Polish version of the Sexual Self-Schema Scale for Women (SSSS-W-PL). METHODS: 561 women 18 to 55 years old were included in the final analysis. Linguistic validation was performed in 4 steps in line with the MAPI Institute guidelines...
February 17, 2018: Sexual Medicine
Satoko Hayashi, Yutaka Tsubomoto, Waro Nakanishi
The nature of the E-E' bonds (E, E' = S and Se) in glutathione disulfide ( 1 ) and derivatives 2 - 3 , respectively, was elucidated by applying quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules (QTAIM) dual functional analysis (QTAIM-DFA), to clarify the basic contribution of E-E' in the biological redox process, such as the glutathione peroxidase process. Five most stable conformers a - e were obtained, after applying the Monte-Carlo method then structural optimizations. In QTAIM-DFA, total electron energy densities H b ( r c ) are plotted versus H b ( r c ) - V b ( r c )/2 at bond critical points (BCPs), where V b ( r c ) are potential energy densities at BCPs...
February 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sakthivel Manikandan Sundharam, Nicolas Navet, Sebastian Altmeyer, Lionel Havet
Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) is widely applied in the industry to develop new software functions and integrate them into the existing run-time environment of a Cyber-Physical System (CPS). The design of a software component involves designers from various viewpoints such as control theory, software engineering, safety, etc. In practice, while a designer from one discipline focuses on the core aspects of his field (for instance, a control engineer concentrates on designing a stable controller), he neglects or considers less importantly the other engineering aspects (for instance, real-time software engineering or energy efficiency)...
February 20, 2018: Sensors
Cheng Zhan, Michael Naguib, Maria Lukatskaya, Paul R C Kent, Yury Gogotsi, De-En Jiang
MXenes have attracted great attention as next-generation capacitive energy-storage materials, but the mechanisms underlying their pseudocapacitive behavior are not well understood. Here we provide a theoretical description of the surface redox process of Ti3C2Tx (T=O, OH), a prototypical MXene, in 1M H2SO4 electrolyte, based on joint density functional theory with an implicit solvation model and the analysis of Gibbs free energy under a constant-electrode potential. From the dependence of the O/OH ratio (or the surface H coverage) and the surface charge on the applied potential, we obtain a complete picture of the capacitive energy-storage mechanism of Ti3C2Tx that shows good agreement with previous experimental findings in terms of the integral capacitance and Ti valence change...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Hirohisa Nagatani, Masataka Fujisawa, Hisanori Imura
Molecular association between biocompatible dendritic polymers, dendrigraft poly-L-lysines (DGLs), and an anionic fluorescent probe, 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS- ), was studied at the polarized water|1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) interface. The fluorescence intensity of ANS measured in aqueous solution was enhanced by the coexistence of DGL over a wide pH range (2 < pH < 10), where ANS and DGL exist as a monoanionic form and polycation, respectively. The voltammetric responses indicated that the positively charged DGL was adsorbed at the water|DCE interface, while ANS- was transferred across the interface accompanied by the adsorption process...
February 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Y Wan, C Hansen
Research on microscopy data from developing biological samples usually requires tracking individual cells over time. When cells are three-dimensionally and densely packed in a time-dependent scan of volumes, tracking results can become unreliable and uncertain. Not only are cell segmentation results often inaccurate to start with, but it also lacks a simple method to evaluate the tracking outcome. Previous cell tracking methods have been validated against benchmark data from real scans or artificial data, whose ground truth results are established by manual work or simulation...
June 2017: Computer Graphics Forum: Journal of the European Association for Computer Graphics
Ícaro J S Ribeiro, Jefferson P Cardoso, Ivna V Freire, Mailson F Carvalho, Rafael Pereira
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between biological-health, socioeconomics, and behavioral determinants and stroke by evaluating the risk of stroke in the presence of each or all determinants grouped in a multivariate model. METHODS: This study is a transversal secondary data analysis of the Brazilian National Health Survey, released by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The prevalence, prevalence ratios, and confidence intervals were calculated for the main outcome...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
M E T Silva, M P L Parente, S Brandão, T Mascarenhas, R M Natal Jorge
The mechanical characteristics of the female pelvic floor are relevant to understand pelvic floor dysfunctions (PFD), and how they are related with changes in their biomechanical behavior. Urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are the most common pathologies, which can be associated with changes in the mechanical properties of the supportive structures in the female pelvic cavity. PFD have been studied through different methods, from experimental tensile tests using tissues from fresh female cadavers or tissues collected at the time of a transvaginal hysterectomy procedure, or by applying imaging techniques...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Melissa Lehan Mackin, Nicole Loew, Lioness Ayres
The concept of responsible sexual behavior is not clearly defined as it applies to adult women who have sex with men. Responsible sexual behavior is a socially desirable and deliberate pattern of behaviors used to promote sexual health, manage risk, and foster respect for sexual partners within the context of community influences. A purposeful redefinition may be necessary to maintain a concept that is useful and effective for evaluating sexual behavior.
February 14, 2018: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
Qianli D Y Ma, Changjuan Ji, Huanhuan Xie, Kai Yin, Zhen Ma, Chunhua Bian
The aim of this study is to investigate the coupling behavior between heartbeat and pulse of blood flow at different sleep stages, and to explore the feasibility of using this coupling strength for automatic sleep staging.&#13; Approach: The electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals are recorded during sleep, and R-wave-to-R-wave intervals (RRI) and Pulse-to-Pulse intervals (PPI) are extracted respectively. The detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) is applied to quantify long-range cross correlations between the RRIs and PPIs across sleep stages...
February 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Chih-Wen Yang, Kwan-Tai Leung, Ren-Feng Ding, Hsien-Chen Ko, Yi-Hsien Lu, Chung-Kai Fang, Ing-Shouh Hwang
Atomic force microscopy is used to conduct single-asperity friction measurements at a water-graphite interface. Local mapping of the frictional force, which is based on the degree of the cantilever twisting, shows nearly friction-free when a tip scans over a nanobubble. Surprisingly, apart from being gapless, the associated friction loop exhibits a tilt in the cantilever twisting versus the tip's lateral displacement with the slope depending on the loading force. The sign of the slope reverses at around zero loading force...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qinghui Ge, Yuezhi Mao, Martin Head-Gordon
An energy decomposition analysis (EDA) scheme is developed for understanding the intermolecular interaction involving molecules in their excited states. The EDA utilizes absolutely localized molecular orbitals to define intermediate states and is compatible with excited state methods based on linear response theory such as configuration interaction singles and time-dependent density functional theory. The shift in excitation energy when an excited molecule interacts with the environment is decomposed into frozen, polarization, and charge transfer contributions, and the frozen term can be further separated into Pauli repulsion and electrostatics...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Abhendra K Singh, Heath E Misak, Shankar Mall
The effects of ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure on the tensile behavior of CNT sheet was investigated in this study. Two types of CNT sheet, one acid treated and one un-treated, were directly exposed to UVB light for 500 hours. The exposure was done using a UVB lamp inside a dark chamber under room temperature ambient condition. The microstructure of the CNT sheets were studied both prior to and after UVB exposure using a scanning electron microscope. Upon completion of the exposure duration, the CNT sheet test coupons were tested mechanically in tension using a microtester to evaluate the tensile strength and behavior...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Brandon E Morgan, Oleg Schilling, Tucker A Hartland
The three-equation k-L-a turbulence model [B. Morgan and M. Wickett, Three-equation model for the self-similar growth of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities, Phys. Rev. E 91, 043002 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.043002] is extended by the addition of a second length scale equation. It is shown that the separation of turbulence transport and turbulence destruction length scales is necessary for simultaneous prediction of the growth parameter and turbulence intensity of a Kelvin-Helmholtz shear layer when model coefficients are constrained by similarity analysis...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
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