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Applied behavior analysys, behavior analysys

Joan Dallinga, Mark Janssen, Jet van der Werf, Ruben Walravens, Steven Vos, Marije Deutekom
BACKGROUND: A large number of people participate in individual or unorganized sports on a recreational level. Furthermore, many participants drop out because of injury or lowered motivation. Potentially, physical activity-related apps could motivate people during sport participation and help them to follow and maintain a healthy active lifestyle. It remains unclear what the quality of running, cycling, and walking apps is and how it can be assessed. Quality of these apps was defined as having a positive influence on participation in recreational sports...
June 18, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Fatemeh Bakouei, Seyed Jalil Seyedi-Andi, Afsaneh Bakhtiari, Soraya Khafri
The health-promoting behaviors form typically during adolescence and youth. This study was conducted to determine the status of the health-promoting behaviors in the students of Babol University of Medical Sciences and its predictors. This cross-sectional study was done on 350 students from April 2016 to July 2016. The applied questionnaires were health-promoting lifestyle profile II, general self-efficacy scale, and sociodemographic variables. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software by descriptive tests, one-way analysis of variance, and multivariable linear regression...
July 2018: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
James E Pustejovsky
A wide variety of effect size indices have been proposed for quantifying the magnitude of treatment effects in single-case designs. Commonly used measures include parametric indices such as the standardized mean difference as well as nonoverlap measures such as the percentage of nonoverlapping data, improvement rate difference, and nonoverlap of all pairs. Currently, little is known about the properties of these indices when applied to behavioral data collected by systematic direct observation, even though systematic direct observation is the most common method for outcome measurement in single-case research...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Methods
Nuria Rosique-Esteban, Nancy Babio, Andrés Díaz-López, Dora Romaguera, J Alfredo Martínez, Vicente Martin Sanchez, Helmut Schröder, Ramón Estruch, Josep Vidal, Pilar Buil-Cosiales, Jadwiga Konieczna, Itziar Abete, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
AIMS: We aimed to examine the associations of leisure-time physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with the prevalence of sarcopenia, body composition and muscle strength among older adults having overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome, from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. METHODS: Cross-sectional baseline analysis including 1539 men and women (65 ± 5 y). Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass (according to FNIH cut-offs) plus low muscle strength (lowest sex-specific tertile for 30-s chair-stand test)...
June 6, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
A Böbel, C A Knapek, C Räth
Experiments of the recrystallization processes in two-dimensional complex plasmas are analyzed to rigorously test a recently developed scale-free phase transition theory. The "fractal-domain-structure" (FDS) theory is based on the kinetic theory of Frenkel. It assumes the formation of homogeneous domains, separated by defect lines, during crystallization and a fractal relationship between domain area and boundary length. For the defect number fraction and system energy a scale-free power-law relation is predicted...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
J M Adams, D Corbett
In the shear flow of liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) the nematic director orientation can align with the flow direction for some materials but continuously tumble in others. The nematic dumbbell (ND) model was originally developed to describe the rheology of flow-aligning semiflexible LCPs, and flow-aligning LCPs are the focus in this paper. In the shear flow of monodomain LCPs, it is usually assumed that the spatial distribution of the velocity is uniform. This is in contrast to polymer solutions, where highly nonuniform spatial velocity profiles have been observed in experiments...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Viktor Stojkoski, Zoran Utkovski, Lasko Basnarkov, Ljupco Kocarev
We introduce a framework for studying social dilemmas in networked societies where individuals follow a simple state-based behavioral mechanism based on generalized reciprocity, which is rooted in the principle "help anyone if helped by someone." Within this general framework, which applies to a wide range of social dilemmas including, among others, public goods, donation, and snowdrift games, we study the cooperation dynamics on a variety of complex network examples. By interpreting the studied model through the lenses of nonlinear dynamical systems, we show that cooperation through generalized reciprocity always emerges as the unique attractor in which the overall level of cooperation is maximized, while simultaneously exploitation of the participating individuals is prevented...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Helen Rodger, Junpeng Lao, Roberto Caldara
Behavioral studies investigating facial expression recognition during development have applied various methods to establish by which age emotional expressions can be recognized. Most commonly, these methods employ static images of expressions at their highest intensity (apex) or morphed expressions of different intensities, but they have not previously been compared. Our aim was to (a) quantify the intensity and signal use for recognition of six emotional expressions from early childhood to adulthood and (b) compare both measures and assess their functional relationship to better understand the use of different measures across development...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Adrian Derungs, Corina Schuster-Amft, Oliver Amft
Background: Longitudinal movement parameter analysis of hemiparetic patients over several months could reveal potential recovery trends and help clinicians adapting therapy strategies to maximize recovery outcome. Wearable sensors offer potential for day-long movement recordings in realistic rehabilitation settings including activities of daily living, e.g., walking. The measurement of walking-related movement parameters of affected and non-affected body sides are of interest to determine mobility and investigate recovery trends...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Nidhi Gupta, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Glòria Mateu-Figueras, Marina Heiden, David M Hallman, Marie Birk Jørgensen, Andreas Holtermann
BACKGROUND: Data on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep during a day is compositional in nature, i.e. they add up to a constant value. Compositional data have fundamentally different properties from unconstrained data in real space, and require other analytical procedures, referred to as compositional data analysis (CoDA). Most physical activity and sedentary behavior studies, however, still apply analytical procedures adapted to data in real space, which can lead to misleading results...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
D B Torres, A Lopes, A J Rodrigues, J J Cerqueira, N Sousa, J A R Gontijo, P A Boer
Animal evidence has suggested that maternal emotional and nutritional stress during pregnancy is associated with behavioral outcomes in offspring. The nature of the stresses applied may differ, but it is often assumed that the mother's hippocampus-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HHPA) axis response releases higher levels of glucocorticoid hormones. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is in a pivotal position to regulate the HHPA axis and the stress response, and it has been implicated in anxiety behavior...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Gillian Warner-Søderholm, Andy Bertsch, Annika Søderholm
This article contains data collected from self-report surveys of respondents to measure 1) social media usage, 2) age, 3) gender and 4) trust, measured within five major trust constructs of a) Integrity, b) Competence, c) Concern, d) Benevolence and e) Identification. The data includes all instruments used, SPSS syntax, the raw survey data and descriptive statistics from the analyses. Raw data was entered into SPSS software and scrubbed using appropriate techniques in order to prepare the data for analysis...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Mengmeng Wang, Lee-Ling Sharon Ong, Justin Dauwels, H Harry Asada
Cell migration is a key feature for living organisms. Image analysis tools are useful in studying cell migration in three-dimensional (3-D) in vitro environments. We consider angiogenic vessels formed in 3-D microfluidic devices (MFDs) and develop an image analysis system to extract cell behaviors from experimental phase-contrast microscopy image sequences. The proposed system initializes tracks with the end-point confocal nuclei coordinates. We apply convolutional neural networks to detect cell candidates and combine backward Kalman filtering with multiple hypothesis tracking to link the cell candidates at each time step...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Edgar Galindo, Adelinda A Candeias, Heldemerina S Pires, Luísa Grácio, Marcus Stück
This paper postulates that psychology can make an important contribution at an individual level to help children with school failure problems in a context where too little applied research has been conducted on the instructional needs of these children. Some data are analyzed, revealing that, despite some progress, school failure is still a main educational problem in many countries. In this study, Behavioral Skills Training (BST) was applied in Portugal to train children with school failure difficulties. BST is a method based on Applied Behavior Analysis, a teaching package consisting of a combination of behavioral techniques: instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Weilin Xu, Liansheng Gao, Tao Li, Jingwei Zheng, Anwen Shao, Jianmin Zhang
Neuronal apoptosis plays key roles in secondary brain injury caused by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study first reported the role of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) in alleviating secondary brain injury through anti-apoptosis in rat model of ICH. The recombinant human-MANF (rh-MANF) and selective Akt inhibitor MK2206 was administrated intracerebroventricularly 1 h after ICH. Brain water content, behavioral assessment, BBB (blood brain barrier) leakage was evaluated 24 h after the induction of ICH...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Zaigham Shahzad, Fabian Kellermeier, Emily M Armstrong, Simon Rogers, Guillaume Lobet, Anna Amtmann, Adrian Hills
If we want to understand how the environment has shaped the appearance and behavior of living creatures we need to compare groups of individuals that differ in genetic make-up and environment experience. For complex phenotypic features, such as body posture or facial expression in humans, comparison is not straightforward because some of the contributing factors cannot easily be quantified or averaged across individuals. Therefore, computational methods are used to reconstruct representative prototypes using a range of algorithms for filling in missing information and calculating means...
June 12, 2018: Plant Physiology
Leyi Zheng, Si Chen, Yan Cao, Liang Zhao, Yue Gao, Xuan Ding, Xiaoyu Wang, Yanqiu Gu, Shaozhan Wang, Zhenyu Zhu, Yongfang Yuan, Xiaofei Chen, Yifeng Chai
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common and fatal cancer for men and effective treatment options are still not enough for patients. Radix et Rhizoma Rhei had been applied to treat PCa long-termly and effectively when combined with surgical treatment and chemotherapy. However, its active components and target proteins are still not quite clear. As membrane receptors play a vital role in PCa, in this study, a novel strategy that combines comprehensive 2D 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-decorated prostate cancer cell (DU145) membrane chromatographic (CMC) system with network pharmacology approach was developed to characterize membrane binding active components proteins from Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and their targets...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
G Manasa, Ronald J Mascarenhas, Ashis K Satpati, Basavanakote M Basavaraja, Sriram Kumar
Due to the enforcement of regulatory restrictions to prevent risk to human health from Bisphenol A (BPA), its structural analogue Bisphenol F (BPF) has been introduced into the market as an alternative. But however recent studies describe BPF as an effectual endocrine disruptor. Hence, there is an indispensible need for research concerning BPF human and environmental exposure level. In this work, we have elicited the development of an economical electrochemical sensor, to quantify and investigate in detail the electrochemical behavior of BPF using carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with zinc oxide reduced graphene nanocomposite (ZnO/G) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)...
June 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yuval Shapira, Vanessa Sammons, Joanne Forden, Gui Fang Guo, Alexander Kipp, Jill Girgulis, Tanmay Mishra, Jacob Daniel de Villers Alant, Rajiv Midha
BACKGROUND: Brief electrical stimulation (ES) therapy to the nerve may improve outcome in lacerated, repaired nerves. However, most human nerve injuries leave the nerve in continuity with variable and often poor functional recovery from incomplete axon regeneration and reinnervation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of brief ES in an experimental model for neuroma-in-continuity (NIC) injuries in rodents. METHODS: Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: NIC injury immediately followed by brief (1 h) ES; NIC injury without ES; sham-operated controls; sciatic nerve transection without repair...
June 11, 2018: Neurosurgery
Zohreh Fattahi, Taimoor I Sheikh, Luciana Musante, Memoona Rasheed, Ibrahim Ihsan Taskiran, Ricardo Harripaul, Hao Hu, Somayeh Kazeminasab, Muhammad Rizwan Alam, Masoumeh Hosseini, Farzaneh Larti, Zhila Ghaderi, Arzu Celik, Muhammad Ayub, Muhammad Ansar, Mohammad Haddadi, Thomas F Wienker, Hans Hilger Ropers, Kimia Kahrizi, John B Vincent, H Najmabadi
Exploring genes and pathways underlying Intellectual Disability (ID) provides insight into brain development and function, clarifying the complex puzzle of how cognition develops. As part of ongoing systematic studies to identify candidate ID genes, linkage analysis and next generation sequencing revealed ZBTB11, as a novel candidate ID gene. ZBTB11 encodes a less-studied transcription regulator and the two identified missense variants in this study may disrupt canonical Zn2+-binding residues of its C2H2 zinc finger domain, leading to possible altered DNA binding...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
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