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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922023/fatty-acid-synthase-fasn-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-breast-cancer
#1
Javier A Menendez, Ruth Lupu
Ten years ago, we put forward the metabolo-oncogenic nature of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in breast cancer. Since the conception of this hypothesis, which provided a model to explain how FASN is intertwined with various signaling networks to cell-autonomously regulate breast cancer initiation and progression, FASN has received considerable attention as a therapeutic target. However, despite the ever-growing evidence demonstrating the involvement of FASN as part of the cancer-associated metabolic reprogramming, translation of the basic science-discovery aspects of FASN blockade to the clinical arena remains a challenge...
September 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920489/primer-in-genetics-and-genomics-article-5-further-defining-the-concepts-of-genotype-and-phenotype-and-exploring-genotype-phenotype-associations
#2
Fay Wright, Kristen Fessele
As nurses begin to incorporate genetic and genomic sciences into clinical practice, education, and research, it is essential that they have a working knowledge of the terms foundational to the science. The first article in this primer series provided brief definitions of the basic terms (e.g., genetics and genomics) and introduced the concept of phenotype during the discussion of Mendelian inheritance. These terms, however, are inconsistently used in publications and conversations, and the linkage between genotype and phenotype requires clarification...
October 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919378/sudden-death-mechanisms-in-non-ischemic-cardiomyopathies-insights-gleaned-from-clinical-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-trials
#3
Benjamin A Steinberg, Siva K Mulpuru, James C Fang, Bernard J Gersh
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) represents a major cause of death among patients with heart failure. While scar-based, macro-reentrant ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) is the primary etiology for SCD among patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, a more diverse set of mechanisms and substrates are likely at play for the diverse group of patients characterized by non-ischemic, dilated cardiomyopathy (NICM). These causes may include scar-based re-entry, but also neurohormonal stimulation (sympathetic, parasympathetic, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone), inflammation, and non-arrhythmic processes occurring in the context of a genetic predisposition...
September 14, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919174/new-nih-regulations-say-most-basic-human-brain-research-is-a-clinical-trial
#4
Adina L Roskies
New NIH definitions classify virtually all human brain and behavioral research as clinical trials. The new definitions will change regulatory, reporting, and funding schemes for noninvasive studies such as neuroimaging. Resulting burdens threaten the viability of basic biobehavioral science research.
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919132/the-east-the-west-and-the-universal-machine
#5
REVIEW
Bruno Marchal
After reviewing the basic of theology of Universal Numbers/Machines, as detailed in (Marchal, 2007), I illustrate how that body of thought might be used to shed some light upon the apparent dichotomy in Eastern/Western spirituality. This paper relies entirely on my previous inter-disciplinary work in mathematical logic, computer science and machine's theology, where "theology" is used here in the sense of Plato: it is the truth, or the "truth-theory" (in the sense of logicians) about a machine that the machine can either deduce from some of its primitive beliefs, or can be intuited in some sense that eventually is made clear through the modal logic of machine self-reference...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916555/first-person-seth-zimmerman
#6
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Seth Zimmerman is the first author on 'Cells lay their own tracks - optogenetic Cdc42 activation stimulates fibronectin deposition supporting directed migration', published in Journal of Cell Science. Seth completed the work in this article as a PhD student under the supervision of Jim Bear and Brian Kuhlman at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916019/the-basic-science-of-behavior-change-and-its-application-to-pediatric-providers
#7
REVIEW
Allison R Love, Peter S Jensen, Lisa Khan, Tiffany West Brandt, James Jaccard
Pediatric primary care providers (PPCPs) are increasingly expected to know how to assess, diagnose, and treat a wide range of mental health problems in children and adolescents. For many PPCPs, this means learning and performing new practice behaviors that were not taught in their residency training. Typical continuing education approaches to engage PPCPs in new practices have not yielded the desired changes in provider behavior. This article summarizes behavior change principles identified through basic behavior science, adult education, and communication research, and discusses their application to a patient-centered pediatric primary care mental health curriculum...
October 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915887/professional-fulfillment-and-parenting-work-life-balance-in-female-physicians-in-basic-sciences-and-medical-research-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-survey-of-all-80-medical-schools-in-japan
#8
Yuka Yamazaki, Takanori Uka, Eiji Marui
BACKGROUND: In Japan, the field of Basic Sciences encompasses clinical, academic, and translational research, as well as the teaching of medical sciences, with both an MD and PhD typically required. In this study, it was hypothesized that the characteristics of a Basic Sciences career path could offer the professional advancement and personal fulfillment that many female medical doctors would find advantageous. Moreover, encouraging interest in Basic Sciences could help stem shortages that Japan is experiencing in medical fields, as noted in the three principal contributing factors: premature resignation of female clinicians, an imbalance of female physicians engaged in research, and a shortage of medical doctors in the Basic Sciences...
September 15, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915441/femtosecond-mega-electron-volt-electron-microdiffraction
#9
X Shen, R K Li, U Lundström, T J Lane, A H Reid, S P Weathersby, X J Wang
To understand and control the basic functions of physical, chemical and biological processes from micron to nano-meter scale, an instrument capable of visualizing transient structural changes of inhomogeneous materials with atomic spatial and temporal resolutions, is required. One such technique is femtosecond electron microdiffraction, in which a short electron pulse with femtosecond-scale duration is focused into a micron-scale spot and used to obtain diffraction images to resolve ultrafast structural dynamics over a localized crystalline domain...
September 1, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915300/inflammation-in-osteoarthritis
#10
Salvador Vilá
Advances in the understanding of chondrocytes and the synovial membrane as targets of and participants in the inflammatory process in articular joints have provided insights into the role of inflammation in cartilage and subchondral bone injury in rheumatic diseases. Reports that describe the inflammatory cellular infiltration of synovial membranes in patients with osteoarthritis, studies that associate cartilage structural injury with synovial membrane inflammatory status, the development of new imaging modalities that quantitatively measure synovial membrane inflammation and basic science advances that explore inflammatory pathways in the synovial cavity all suggest that inflammation plays an important role in cartilage injury in osteoarthritis...
September 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915215/mechanisms-involved-in-secondary-cardiac-dysfunction-in-animal-models-of-trauma-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#11
Nick M Wilson, Johanna Wall, Veena Naganathar, Karim Brohi, Henry D De'Ath
Clinical evidence reveals the existence of a trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) that is associated with poor patient outcomes. The mechanisms leading to TISCI in injured patients are uncertain. Conversely, animal models of trauma hemorrhage have repeatedly demonstrated significant cardiac dysfunction following injury, and highlighted mechanisms through which this might occur. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the animal studies describing TISCI and its pathophysiology.Basic science models of trauma show evidence of innate immune system activation via Toll-like receptors, the exact protagonists of which remain unclear...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914557/an-analysis-of-the-types-of-recently-published-research-in-the-field-of-cachexia
#12
Louise G Shewan
Introduction Cachexia is a common complication of many and varied chronic disease processes, yet it has received very little attention as an area of clinical research effort until recently. We sought to survey the contemporary literature on published research into cachexia to define where it is being published and the proportion of output classified into the main types of research output. Methods I searched the PubMed listings under the topic research term "cachexia" and related terms for articles published in the calendar years of 2015 and 2016, regardless of language...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914473/ethers-on-si-001-a-prime-example-for-the-common-ground-between-surface-science-and-molecular-organic-chemistry
#13
Lisa Pecher, Slimane Laref, Marc Raupach, Ralf Ewald Tonner
Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle...
September 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913971/chemical-functionalization-strategies-and-intracellular-applications-of-nanobodies
#14
Dominik Schumacher, Jonas Helma, Anselm F L Schneider, Heinrich Leonhardt, Christian Hackenberger
Nanobodies can be considered as next-generation life science tools for the recognition and modulation of antigens that are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. Due to their compact structure and high stability, nanobodies see frequent usage in basic research. Their chemical functionalization facilitates powerful diagnostic tools and opens the way towards promising therapeutic applications. In this review, central aspects of nanobody functionalization are given together with selected applications in molecular cell biology...
September 15, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912615/why-the-moratorium-on-human-animal-chimera-research-should-not-be-lifted
#15
Alan Moy
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced its plans to lift its moratorium on funding research that involves injecting human embryonic stem cells into animal embryos, which would allow for the creation of part-human and part-animal organisms known as chimeras. The NIH allowed only one month to receive public comments in the midst of a presidential election campaign. Lifting the moratorium means that, for the first time, the federal government will begin spending taxpayer dollars on the creation and manipulation of new organisms that would blur the line between humans and animals...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910715/intercomparison-of-in-situ-crds-and-ceas-for-measurements-of-atmospheric-n2o5-in-beijing-china
#16
Zhiyan Li, Renzhi Hu, Pinhua Xie, Haichao Wang, Keding Lu, Dan Wang
Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) is one of the basic trace gases which plays a key role in nighttime atmosphere. An intercomparison and validation of different N2O5 measurement methods is important for determining the true accuracy of these methods. Cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) and cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer (CEAS) were used to measure N2O5 at the campus of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS) from February 21, 2016 to March 4, 2016. The detection limits were 1.6ppt (1σ) at 30s intervals for the CEAS instrument and 3...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910334/academic-career-intentions-in-the-life-sciences-can-research-self-efficacy-beliefs-explain-low-numbers-of-aspiring-physician-and-female-scientists
#17
Nurith Epstein, Martin R Fischer
A lack of physician scientists as well as a high female dropout rate from academic medicine and basic life sciences is a concern in many countries. The current study analyzes academic career intentions within a sample of recent doctoral graduates from medicine and basic life sciences (N = 1109), focusing on research self-efficacy beliefs as explanatory variable of gender and disciplinary differences. To ensure that differences in research self-efficacy could not be attributed solely to objective scientific performance, we controlled for number of publications and dissertation grade...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906350/the-hundred-most-cited-publications-in-microbiota-of-diabetes-research-a-bibliometric-analysis
#18
Jiaxing Tian, Min Li, Fengmei Lian, Xiaolin Tong
BACKGROUND: Bibliometric analysis is an approach to evaluate the circumstances and trends in specific research field over time and to provide inspiration in future research and policy. Researches have a tremendous increase focus on the role of the microbiota in the development of diabetes in recent years; however, there is no published literature conducting a bibliometric analysis to explore the tendency. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed evaluation of the hundred most cited articles in microbiota of diabetes research...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905504/is-essential-tremor-a-single-entity
#19
Franziska Hopfner, Günther Deuschl
Essential tremor (ET) is a frequent movement disorder. A new tremor classification has subdivided ET, into the classical form with bilateral action tremor of the hands with or without involvement of further tremor locations and without any other explaining signs or symptoms for the tremor and into 'ET plus' which comes additionally with further neurologic signs of unknown origin. This will provide a better foundation for subclassifying the condition. The immediate cause of ET is a preformed oscillating network within the central nervous system as revealed with electrophysiologic methods...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905441/the-vasopressin-system-new-insights-for-patients-with-kidney-diseases-epidemiological-evidence-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#20
W F Clark, O Devuyst, R Roussel
People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk of severe outcomes, such as end-stage renal disease or cardiovascular disease, and CKD is a globally increasing health burden with a high personal and economic cost. Despite major progresses in prevention and therapeutics in last decades, research is still needed to reverse this epidemic trend. The regulation of water balance and the state of activation of the vasopressin system have emerged as factors tightly associated with kidney health, in the general population but also in specific conditions; among them, various stages of CKD, diabetes and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
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