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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334984/interdisciplinary-working-in-public-health-research-a-proposed-good-practice-checklist
#1
L Gavens, J Holmes, G Bühringer, J McLeod, M Neumann, A Lingford-Hughes, E S Hock, P S Meier
Background: Guidance on how different disciplines from the natural, behavioural and social sciences can collaborate to resolve complex public health problems is lacking. This article presents a checklist to support researchers and principle investigators to develop and implement interdisciplinary collaborations. Methods: Fourteen individuals, representing 10 disciplines, participated in in-depth interviews to explore the strengths and challenges of working together on an interdisciplinary project to identify the determinants of substance use and gambling disorders, and to make recommendations for future interdisciplinary teams...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334310/different-from-trees-more-than-metaphors-branching-silhouettes-corals-cacti-and-the-oaks
#2
János Podani
There has long been ambiguity in the use of the term tree in phylogenetic systematics, which is a continuous source of misinterpretation of evolutionary relationships. The basic problem is that while many trees with phylogenetic or evolutionary relevance, such as cladograms, are consistent with graph theory, tree-like visualization of phylogeny may also be done via other types of graphics, especially botanical (or literal) tree drawings. As a consequence, the meaning of such diagrams is not always clear: a given picture may have multiple interpretations in its different parts and two figures that look similar may actually carry quite different information...
March 11, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334196/the-effectiveness-of-prolotherapy-in-treating-knee-osteoarthritis-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#3
Fadi Hassan, Suad Trebinjac, William D Murrell, Nicola Maffulli
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) often leads to symptoms such as pain, stiffness and decreased function. OA is treated with a wide range of modalities, both conservatively and surgically. Prolotherapy has been used to treat various musculoskeletal problems and has shown some promise. Sources of data: Searches of the electronic databases, PubMed, ISI web of science, PEDro and SPORTDiscus, were conducted for all Level 1-4 studies published from inception through to December 2016...
March 4, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333195/genome-wide-genetic-analyses-highlight-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-mapk-signaling-in-the-pathogenesis-of-endometriosis
#4
Outi Uimari, Nilufer Rahmioglu, Dale R Nyholt, Katy Vincent, Stacey A Missmer, Christian Becker, Andrew P Morris, Grant W Montgomery, Krina T Zondervan
STUDY QUESTION: Do genome-wide association study (GWAS) data for endometriosis provide insight into novel biological pathways associated with its pathogenesis? SUMMARY ANSWER: GWAS analysis uncovered multiple pathways that are statistically enriched for genetic association signals, analysis of Stage A disease highlighted a novel variant in MAP3K4, while top pathways significantly associated with all endometriosis and Stage A disease included several mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related pathways...
February 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331363/recent-insights-into-cigarette-smoking-as-a-lifestyle-risk-factor-for-breast-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Shannon Kispert, Jane McHowat
There have been many cohort studies published reviewing the epidemiological evidence that links breast cancer to cigarette smoking, yet the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown and research studies are few and incomplete. Although cohort studies are important in establishing a connection between breast cancer and cigarette smoking, basic science research is necessary to prove the relationship and to highlight potential interventions and drug targets that can be used to manage the disease. This subject has been controversial for many decades; however, there has been a recent resurgence in interest because of the widespread acknowledgment of the role lifestyle choices play in cancer development and progression...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329653/introducing-public-health-themes-in-clinical-dermatology
#6
Scott A Norton
The ACGME's Core Competencies comprise six domains, which in turn contain dozens of often overlapping milestones. Several competencies explicitly invoke public health topics - but if one wears the right set of lenses, nearly every milestone, nearly every aspect of health and medicine, can be viewed from a public health perspective. Why then is Dermatology generally taught - and practiced - in an Intensive Care manner, where seemingly unlimited diagnostic & therapeutic efforts focus on single individuals, not the community?In this presentation, I argue that topics of public health concern should not be relegated to the minor leagues of GME...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328314/from-education-to-practice-addressing-opioid-misuse-through-healthcare-provider-training-a-special-issue-of-saj
#7
Adam J Gordon, John Daniel Harding
Opioid misuse may be ignored by providers who are unwilling or not confident in engaging the complex nature of substance use disorders among their patient populations. Addiction is a complex disease and although providers often are comfortable in identifying, assessing, and treating the complex diseases of their patients, basic knowledge and skills of identification, assessment, and treatment expertise involving opioids for pain, addressing opioid misuse, and treatment of opioid use disorder are lacking. Initiatives to improve knowledge of opioid use, misuse, and opioid use disorder among health care providers are emerging...
March 22, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328309/ibpro-a-novel-short-duration-teaching-course-in-advanced-physics-and-biology-underlying-cancer-radiotherapy
#8
Michael C Joiner, Monica W Tracey, Sara E Kacin, Jay W Burmeister
This article provides a summary and status report of the ongoing advanced education program IBPRO - Integrated course in Biology and Physics of Radiation Oncology. IBPRO is a five-year program funded by NCI. It addresses the recognized deficiency in the number of mentors available who have the required knowledge and skill to provide the teaching and training that is required for future radiation oncologists and researchers in radiation sciences. Each year, IBPRO brings together 50 attendees typically at assistant professor level and upwards, who are already qualified/certified radiation oncologists, medical physicists or biologists...
March 22, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327567/quantum-locality-in-game-strategy
#9
Carlos A Melo-Luna, Cristian E Susa, Andrés F Ducuara, Astrid Barreiro, John H Reina
Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players' input states...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327141/the-first-nationwide-survey-of-md-phds-in-the-social-sciences-and-humanities-training-patterns-and-career-choices
#10
Seth M Holmes, Jennifer Karlin, Scott D Stonington, Diane L Gottheil
BACKGROUND: While several articles on MD-PhD trainees in the basic sciences have been published in the past several years, very little research exists on physician-investigators in the social sciences and humanities. However, the numbers of MD-PhDs training in these fields and the number of programs offering training in these fields are increasing, particularly within the US. In addition, accountability for the public funding for MD-PhD programs requires knowledge about this growing population of trainees and their career trajectories...
March 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323912/sex-hormones-and-cardiometabolic-health-role-of-estrogen-and-estrogen-receptors
#11
Deborah Clegg, Andrea L Hevener, Kerrie L Moreau, Eugenia Morselli, Alfredo Criollo, Rachael E Van Pelt, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
With increased life expectancy, women will spend over three decades of life post-menopause. The menopausal transition increases susceptibility to metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Thus, it is more important than ever to develop effective hormonal treatment strategies to protect aging women. Understanding the role of estrogens, and their biological actions mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs), in the regulation of cardiometabolic health is of paramount importance to discover novel targeted therapeutics...
February 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322920/stem-cell-transplantation-therapy-for-multifaceted-therapeutic-benefits-after-stroke
#12
REVIEW
Ling Wei, Zheng Z Wei, Michael Qize Jiang, Osama Mohamad, Shan Ping Yu
One of the exciting advances in modern medicine and life science is cell-based neurovascular regeneration of damaged brain tissues and repair of neuronal structures. The progress in stem cell biology and creation of adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has significantly improved basic and pre-clinical research in disease mechanisms and generated enthusiasm for potential applications in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke. Endogenous neural stem cells and cultured stem cells are capable of self-renewal and give rise to virtually all types of cells essential for the makeup of neuronal structures...
March 16, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321632/metastatic-melanoma-moves-on-translational-science-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine
#13
Mitchell P Levesque, Phil F Cheng, Marieke I G Raaijmakers, Annalisa Saltari, Reinhard Dummer
Progress in understanding and treating metastatic melanoma is the result of decades of basic and translational research as well as the development of better in vitro tools for modeling the disease. Here, we review the latest therapeutic options for metastatic melanoma and the known genetic and non-genetic mechanisms of resistance to these therapies, as well as the in vitro toolbox that has provided the greatest insights into melanoma progression. These include next-generation sequencing technologies and more complex 2D and 3D cell culture models to functionally test the data generated by genomics approaches...
March 20, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319856/systems-biology-solutions-for-biochemical-production-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Anne Sofie Lærke Hansen, Rebecca M Lennen, Nikolaus Sonnenschein, Markus J Herrgård
There is an urgent need to significantly accelerate the development of microbial cell factories to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks in order to facilitate the transition to a biobased society. Methods commonly used within the field of systems biology including omics characterization, genome-scale metabolic modeling, and adaptive laboratory evolution can be readily deployed in metabolic engineering projects. However, high performance strains usually carry tens of genetic modifications and need to operate in challenging environmental conditions...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319540/the-continued-importance-of-basic-science-and-the-continued-challenges-of-translating-its-findings-into-clinical-practice
#15
Alexander Zarbock, Jean-Francois Pittet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317209/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-expression-of-canine-regulatory-t-cell-markers
#16
Noemi Tarpataki, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Cezmi A Akdis, Beate Rückert, Marina L Meli, Nina M Fischer, Claude Favrot, Ana Rostaher
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells have been described as key regulators in various immunological processes and are of growing interest in veterinary allergy. Cryopreservation of immune cells is performed routinely in human basic science research and in clinical studies. As such, it allows batch testing of collected samples at a single time point, resulting in a significant reduction in sample variability. Data which describe the effects of cryopreservation on Treg cell frequency and functionality in the canine species are important to inform future research...
March 19, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316226/-basic-characteristics-and-survival-analysis-of-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
C T Guan, H Zhao, X Q Li, C X Qu, J Q Cai, W W Wei, Y L Qiao
Objective: To analyze the basic characteristics of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and further explore the major factors affecting the prognosis of HCC patients. Methods: A total of 800 HCC patients were randomly selected from the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Their clinical and follow-up information was obtained from medical record. Univariate analysis of variance, Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the patients' age at diagnosis and survival time, etc...
March 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315030/endoscopic-management-of-pancreatic-cysts
#18
REVIEW
Michael J Bartel, Massimo Raimondo
Management of pancreatic cystic lesions relies on patients' clinical presentation, imaging, and endoscopic ultrasound. Current research in basic science, radiology, and endoscopy is evolving and making progress in this condition which is relatively common in the general population. This review focuses on the recent endoscopic ultrasound approaches to the diagnosis of these pancreatic disorders.
March 17, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314841/academic-cancer-center-phase-i-program-development
#19
Arthur E Frankel, Keith T Flaherty, George J Weiner, Robert Chen, Nilofer S Azad, Michael J Pishvaian, John A Thompson, Matthew H Taylor, Daruka Mahadevan, A Craig Lockhart, Ulka N Vaishampayan, Jordan D Berlin, David C Smith, John Sarantopoulos, Matthew Riese, Mansoor N Saleh, Chul Ahn, Eugene P Frenkel
Multiple factors critical to the effectiveness of academic phase I cancer programs were assessed among 16 academic centers in the U.S. Successful cancer centers were defined as having broad phase I and I/II clinical trial portfolios, multiple investigator-initiated studies, and correlative science. The most significant elements were institutional philanthropic support, experienced clinical research managers, robust institutional basic research, institutional administrative efforts to reduce bureaucratic regulatory delays, phase I navigators to inform patients and physicians of new studies, and a large cancer center patient base...
March 17, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303073/acute-kidney-injury-definition-pathophysiology-and-clinical-phenotypes
#20
REVIEW
Konstantinos Makris, Loukia Spanou
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome that complicates the course and worsens the outcome in a significant number of hospitalised patients. Recent advances in clinical and basic research will help with a more accurate definition of this syndrome and in the elucidation of its pathogenesis. With this knowledge we will be able to conduct more accurate epidemiologic studies in an effort to gain a better understanding of the impact of this syndrome. AKI is a syndrome that rarely has a sole and distinct pathophysiology...
May 2016: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
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