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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352036/multiple-memory-systems-multiple-time-points-how-science-can-inform-treatment-to-control-the-expression-of-unwanted-emotional-memories
#1
REVIEW
Renée M Visser, Alex Lau-Zhu, Richard N Henson, Emily A Holmes
Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352032/the-surprising-subtleties-of-changing-fear-memory-a-challenge-for-translational-science
#2
REVIEW
Merel Kindt
Current pharmacological and psychological treatments for disorders of emotional memory only dampen the affective response while leaving the original fear memory intact. Under adverse circumstances, these original memories regain prominence, causing relapses in many patients. The (re)discovery in neuroscience that after reactivation consolidated fear memories may return to a transient labile state, requiring a process of restabilization in order to persist, offers a window of opportunity for modifying fear memories with amnestic agents...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352022/of-mice-and-mental-health-facilitating-dialogue-and-seeing-further
#3
Amy L Milton, Emily A Holmes
The science of mental life is critical for understanding both how we function, and impairments in our functioning. However, understanding the causal mechanisms underlying mental health disorders and developing new treatments are challenges too great to be solved by any individual approach. There is a growing awareness that translational research-from laboratory to patient and back again to animal models-will be critical for the improved understanding and treatment of mental health disorders. The motivation and intention to pursue translational approaches is therefore strong in mental health research, but critically, opportunities for interaction between basic scientists and clinicians are relatively limited, and vary depending on the institution in which researchers are working...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351438/systematic-reviews-of-the-literature-a-better-way-of-addressing-basic-science-controversies
#4
Emma C O'Hagan, Sadis Matalon, Lee Ann Riesenberg
Systematic reviews have long been an important part of the clinical literature; however, they have been slower to take hold among basic scientists. In this editorial, we outline a number of reasons why systematic reviews should be used more widely in the basic sciences: as a means to more quickly and accurately identify success and failures, to understand how variations in methodology and models may affect research, to identify and mitigate bias, and to inform future research directions. The process of conducting a systematic review is briefly described and finally, recent examples of systematic reviews in the basic sciences are acknowledged...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350562/enzymes-in-lipid-modification
#5
Uwe T Bornscheuer
This article reviews the application of enzymes in lipid modification. Lipases are the most established biocatalysts used for the synthesis of structured triacylglycerols, fats, and margarine for the release of flavoring fatty acids for food applications. In addition, the various enzymes, such as P450 monooxygenases, hydratases, lipoxygenases, and certain lyases, used for oxyfunctionalization and the phospholipases used for degumming are covered. Basic aspects of enzyme catalysis and the modern tools used for their discovery and improvement by protein engineering provide insight into how suitable biocatalysts can be identified and optimized for an application...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350559/visualizing-3d-food-microstructure-using-tomographic-methods-advantages-and-disadvantages
#6
Zi Wang, Els Herremans, Siem Janssen, Dennis Cantre, Pieter Verboven, Bart Nicolaï
X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) provides the unique ability to capture intact internal microstructure data without significant preparation of the sample. The fundamentals of micro-CT technology are briefly described along with a short introduction to basic image processing, quantitative analysis, and derivative computational modeling. The applications and limitations of micro-CT in industries such as meat, dairy, postharvest, and bread/confectionary are discussed to serve as a guideline to the plausibility of utilizing the technique for detecting features of interest...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349590/law-as-clinical-evidence-a-new-constitutivemodel-of-medical-education-and-decision-making
#7
Malcolm Parker, Lindy Willmott, Ben White, Gail Williams, Colleen Cartwright
Over several decades, ethics and law have been applied to medical education and practice in a way that reflects the continuation during the twentieth century of the strong distinction between facts and values. We explain the development of applied ethics and applied medical law and report selected results that reflect this applied model from an empirical project examining doctors' decisions on withdrawing/withholding treatment from patients who lack decision-making capacity. The model is critiqued, and an alternative "constitutive" model is supported on the basis that medicine, medical law, and medical ethics exemplify the inevitable entanglement of facts and values...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349551/medical-marijuana-current-concepts-pharmacological-actions-of-cannabinoid-receptor-mediated-activation-and-societal-implications
#8
REVIEW
Nalini Vadivelu, Alice M Kai, Gopal Kodumudi, Julie Sramcik, Alan D Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the following review is to summarize the history and current policies related to marijuana use and prevalence, basic and clinical science pharmacological literature regarding efficacy, subpopulations of concern, and varying policies regarding its use at present. RECENT FINDINGS: With the increasingly widespread utilization of marijuana, there is also a growing complexity of public health policy, regulation, and necessity to further assess the medical indications and adverse long-term effects of marijuana use...
January 18, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346956/pseudoinverse-of-the-laplacian-and-best-spreader-node-in-a-network
#9
P Van Mieghem, K Devriendt, H Cetinay
Determining a set of "important" nodes in a network constitutes a basic endeavor in network science. Inspired by electrical flows in a resistor network, we propose the best conducting node j in a graph G as the minimizer of the diagonal element Q_{jj}^{†} of the pseudoinverse matrix Q^{†} of the weighted Laplacian matrix of the graph G. We propose a new graph metric that complements the effective graph resistance R_{G} and that specifies the heterogeneity of the nodal spreading capacity in a graph. Various formulas and bounds for the diagonal element Q_{jj}^{†} are presented...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345514/design-and-validation-of-an-instrumented-uneven-terrain-treadmill
#10
Alexandra S Voloshina, Daniel P Ferris
Studying human and animal locomotion on uneven terrain can be beneficial to basic science and applied studies for clinical and robotic applications. Traditional biomechanical analysis of human locomotion has often been limited to laboratory environments with flat, smooth runways and treadmills. We modified a regular exercise treadmill by attaching wooden blocks to the treadmill belt to yield an uneven locomotion surface. To ensure that these treadmill modifications facilitated biomechanical measurements, we compared ground reaction force data collected during running on the modified instrumented treadmill with a smooth surface to data collected using a conventional instrumented treadmill...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344460/impact-of-integrated-teaching-sessions-for-comprehensive-learning-and-rational-pharmacotherapeutics-for-medical-undergraduates
#11
Sneha Ambwani, Bhavisha Vegada, Rimple Sidhu, Jaykaran Charan
Background: It is postulated that integrated teaching method may enhance retention of the knowledge and clinical applicability of the basic sciences as compared to the didactic method. Aim: The present study was undertaken to compare the integrated teaching method with the didactic method for the learning ability and clinical applicability of the basic sciences. Materials and Methods: The 2nd year MBBS students were divided into two groups randomly...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344458/case-based-learning-in-microbiology-observations-from-a-north-west-indian-medical-college
#12
Anita Singhal
Background: Microbiology is usually taught by conventional lectures, and its retention and application is observed to be poor among medical graduates/practitioners. Aim and Objectives: Introduction of case-based learning (CBL) in microbiology for second-year professional MBBS students. Materials and Methods: Students were divided into two groups of fifty each. Four clinical cases were used for CBL. One group had two CBL sessions whereas the other had didactic lectures (DLs) and then the groups were crossed over...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344456/early-clinical-exposure-as-a-learning-tool-to-teach-neuroanatomy-for-first-year-mbbs-students
#13
Maitreyee Kar, Chinmaya Kar, Hironmoy Roy, Parmod Goyal
Context: Early clinical exposure (ECE) is one of the important tools to teach basic science to the MBBS students. It is one form of vertical integration between basic science and clinical subjects. This study is an effort at exploring the use of ECE as a motivational tool toward better learning in neuroanatomy for first year MBBS students. Aim: This study aims to make the students interested and motivated to study neuroanatomy by using ECE as learning tool in neuroanatomy and to make the students enable to retain the knowledge of neuroanatomy more efficiently and correlate the knowledge of neuroanatomy with neuromedicine...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344408/differential-research-impact-in-cancer-practice-guidelines-evidence-base-lessons-from-esmo-nice-and-sign
#14
Elena Pallari, Anthony W Fox, Grant Lewison
Background: This is an appraisal of the impact of cited research evidence underpinning the development of cancer clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) by the professional bodies of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Methods: A total of 101 CPGs were identified from ESMO, NICE and SIGN websites across 13 cancer sites. Their 9486 cited references were downloaded from the Web of Science Clarivate Group database, analysed on Excel (2016) using Visual Basic Application macros and imported onto SPSS (V...
2018: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342071/why-we-should-care-about-the-sex-of-specimens-in-cadaveric-animal-and-cell-based-orthopaedic-research-commentary-on-an-article-by-jessica-bryant-md-et-al-potential-sex-bias-exists-in-orthopaedic-basic-science-and-translational-research
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342062/potential-sex-bias-exists-in-orthopaedic-basic-science-and-translational-research
#16
Jessica Bryant, Paul Yi, Liane Miller, Kacy Peek, Daniel Lee
BACKGROUND: Potential sex bias has been shown in general surgery basic science and translational research, with unequal representation of male and female specimens. Because basic science research forms the foundation for clinical studies on which patient care is based, it is important that this research equally consider both sexes. The purpose of this study was to determine if potential sex bias exists in the basic science and translational orthopaedic literature. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of all articles published in 2014 in The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, The Bone & Joint Journal, and the Journal of Orthopaedic Research (JOR)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341265/cicatricial-alopecia-research-foundation-meeting-may-2016-progress-towards-the-diagnosis-treatment-and-cure-of-primary-cicatricial-alopecias
#17
John P Sundberg, Maria K Hordinsky, Wilma Bergfeld, Yolanda M Lenzy, Amy J McMichael, Angela M Christiano, Tracy McGregor, Kurt S Stenn, Raja K Sivamani, C Herbert Pratt, Lloyd E King
Primary Cicatricial Alopecias (PCAs) are a group of skin diseases in which there is progressive and permanent destruction of hair follicles followed by replacement with fibrous tissue. Unfortunately, by the time patients seek clinical evaluation of their hair loss, the skin is already inflamed and/or scarred, so there is little hope for a return to their normal hair growth pattern. Clinical and basic science investigations are now focusing on three forms of human PCA, lichen planopilaris (LPP), frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA)...
January 16, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340803/robust-exponential-memory-in-hopfield-networks
#18
Christopher J Hillar, Ngoc M Tran
The Hopfield recurrent neural network is a classical auto-associative model of memory, in which collections of symmetrically coupled McCulloch-Pitts binary neurons interact to perform emergent computation. Although previous researchers have explored the potential of this network to solve combinatorial optimization problems or store reoccurring activity patterns as attractors of its deterministic dynamics, a basic open problem is to design a family of Hopfield networks with a number of noise-tolerant memories that grows exponentially with neural population size...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339111/stem-cells-for-urinary-incontinence-functional-differentiation-or-cytokine-effects
#19
REVIEW
Bradley C Gill, Daniel Z Sun, Margot S Damaser
Minimally-invasive stem cell therapy for stress urinary incontinence may provide an effective nonsurgical treatment for this common condition. Clinical trials of periurethral stem cell injection have been underway and basic science research has demonstrated the efficacy of both local and systemic stem cell therapies. Results differ as to whether stem cells have a therapeutic effect by differentiating into permanent, functional tissues, or whether they exert benefits through a transient presence and the secretion of regenerative factors...
January 12, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338536/p2y12-receptor-inhibitors-an-evolution-in-drug-design-to-prevent-arterial-thrombosis
#20
Danny Kupka, Dirk Sibbing
P2Y12 inhibitors are a critical component of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) - a combination of a P2Y12 receptor inhibitor and aspirin - which is the superior strategy to prevent arterial thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and undergoing stent implantation. Areas covered: Basic science articles, clinical studies, and reviews from 1992-2017 were searched using Pubmed library to collet impactful literature. After an introduction to the purinergic receptor biology, this review summarizes current knowledge on P2Y12 receptor inhibitors including their specific pharmacodynamic as well as pharmacokinetic and drug interaction features...
January 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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