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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926479/decline-in-arylsulfatase-b-leads-to-increased-invasiveness-of-melanoma-cells
#1
Sumit Bhattacharyya, Leo Feferman, Kaoru Terai, Arkadiusz Z Dudek, Joanne K Tobacman
Arylsulfatase B (ARSB; N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase) is reduced in several malignancies, but levels in melanoma have not been investigated previously. Experiments were performed in melanoma cell lines to determine ARSB activity and impact on melanoma invasiveness. ARSB activity was reduced ~50% in melanoma cells compared to normal melanocytes. Silencing ARSB significantly increased the mRNA expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan(CSPG)4 and pro-matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-2, known mediators of melanoma progression...
December 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917821/optimizing-cell-sourcing-for-clinical-translation-of-tissue-engineered-ears
#2
Kerry A Morrison, Benjamin P Cohen, Ope Asanbe, Xue Dong, Alice Harper, Lawrence J Bonassar, Jason A Spector
: Background . Currently, the major impediment to clinical translation of our previously described platform for the fabrication of high fidelity, patient-specific tissue engineered ears is the development of a clinically optimal cell sourcing strategy. A limited autologous auricular chondrocyte (AuC) supply in conjunction with rapid chondrocyte de-differentiation during in vitro expansion currently makes clinical translation more challenging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer significant promise due to their inherent chondrogenic potential, and large availability through minimally invasive procedures...
December 5, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913258/an-experimental-study-on-the-effects-of-smoking-in-the-perinatal-period-and-during-lactation-on-the-intervertebral-discs-of-newborns
#3
Idiris Altun, Kasım Z Yuksel
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the histopathological effects of smoking before, during and after pregnancy on the intervertebral disc structure of the newborns in an experimental rat model. METHODS: Seven adult female Wistar Albino rats were randomly allocated into 7 groups. Nicotine (2 mg/kg/day) was intraperitoneally introduced to these rats in 6 groups before, during and after pregnancy, while the rat in the control group received isotonic saline intraperitoneally. Fourteen newborns delivered by each rat were sacrificed at the end of 9 weeks after being breastfed for 3 weeks after birth...
November 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913164/extraction-of-high-quality-rna-from-human-articular-cartilage
#4
Heather K Le Bleu, Fadia A Kamal, Meghan Kelly, John P Ketz, Michael J Zuscik, Reyad A Elbarbary
Extracting high-quality RNA from articular cartilage is challenging due to low cellularity and high proteoglycan content. This problem hinders efficient application of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis in studying cartilage homeostasis. Here we developed a method that purifies high-quality RNA directly from cartilage. Our method optimized the collection and homogenization steps so as to minimize RNA degradation, and modified the conventional TRIzol protocol to enhance RNA purity. Cartilage RNA purified using our method has appropriate quality for RNA-seq experiments including an RNA integrity number of ∼8...
November 29, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911782/egfr-signaling-is-critical-for-maintaining-the-superficial-layer-of-articular-cartilage-and-preventing-osteoarthritis-initiation
#5
Haoruo Jia, Xiaoyuan Ma, Wei Tong, Basak Doyran, Zeyang Sun, Luqiang Wang, Xianrong Zhang, Yilu Zhou, Farid Badar, Abhishek Chandra, X Lucas Lu, Yang Xia, Lin Han, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Ling Qin
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage. The surface of joint cartilage is the first defensive and affected site of OA, but our knowledge of genesis and homeostasis of this superficial zone is scarce. EGFR signaling is important for tissue homeostasis. Immunostaining revealed that its activity is mostly dominant in the superficial layer of healthy cartilage but greatly diminished when OA initiates. To evaluate the role of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage, we studied a cartilage-specific Egfr-deficient (CKO) mouse model (Col2-Cre EgfrWa5/flox)...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911749/casting-a-wide-net-role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-neural-plasticity
#6
Barbara A Sorg, Sabina Berretta, Jordan M Blacktop, James W Fawcett, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Jessica C F Kwok, Marta Miquel
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are unique extracellular matrix structures that wrap around certain neurons in the CNS during development and control plasticity in the adult CNS. They appear to contribute to a wide range of diseases/disorders of the brain, are involved in recovery from spinal cord injury, and are altered during aging, learning and memory, and after exposure to drugs of abuse. Here the focus is on how a major component of PNNs, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, control plasticity, and on the role of PNNs in memory in normal aging, in a tauopathy model of Alzheimer's disease, and in drug addiction...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911121/endocan-is-a-predictor-of-increased-cardiovascular-risk-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
Merve Bicer, Aslı Guler, Gokcen Unal Kocabas, Cetin Imamoglu, Ali Baloglu, Oktay Bilgir, Arif Yuksel, Giray Bozkaya, Mehmet Calan
PURPOSE: Endocan is a proteoglycan secreted mainly from endothelial cells. It has been implicated that there is a link between endocan and endothelial dysfunction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive and metabolic disease associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether circulating endocan levels are altered in women with PCOS, and whether there is an association between endocan and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT)...
December 2, 2016: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906106/loss-of-niche-satellite-cell-interactions-in-syndecan-3-null-mice-alters-muscle-progenitor-cell-homeostasis-improving-muscle-regeneration
#8
Addolorata Pisconti, Glen B Banks, Farshad Babaeijandaghi, Nicole Dalla Betta, Fabio M V Rossi, Jeffrey S Chamberlain, Bradley B Olwin
BACKGROUND: The skeletal muscle stem cell niche provides an environment that maintains quiescent satellite cells, required for skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Syndecan-3, a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed in satellite cells, supports communication with the niche, providing cell interactions and signals to maintain quiescent satellite cells. RESULTS: Syndecan-3 ablation unexpectedly improves regeneration in repeatedly injured muscle and in dystrophic mice, accompanied by the persistence of sublaminar and interstitial, proliferating myoblasts...
October 4, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904712/hyperbaric-oxygen-protects-mandibular-condylar-chondrocytes-from-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-via-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#9
Hang Chen, Gaoyi Wu, Qi Sun, Yabing Dong, Huaqiang Zhao
Objectives: Mandibular condylar chondrocyte apoptosis is mainly responsible for the development and progression of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) generally serves an agent that induces chondrocyte apoptosis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment increases proteoglycan synthesis in vivo. We explore the protective effect of HBO on IL-1β-induced mandibular condylar chondrocyte apoptosis in rats and the potential molecular mechanisms. Methods: Chondrocytes were isolated from the TMJ of 3-4-week old Sprague-Dawley rats...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900891/chondrogenesis-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-for-future-microtia-repair-using-co-culture-technique
#10
Bee See Goh, Siti Nurhadis Che Omar, Muhammad Azhan Ubaidah, Lokman Saim, Shamsul Sulaiman, Kien Hui Chua
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these result showed HADSCs could differentiate into chondrocytes-like cells, dependent on signaling induced by TGF-β3 and chondrocytes. This is a promising result and showed that HADSCs is a potential source for future microtia repair. The technique of co-culture is a positive way forward to assist the microtia tissue. OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery for the repair of microtia still remains the greatest challenge among the surgeons...
November 30, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900574/mast-cell-glycosaminoglycans
#11
REVIEW
B Mulloy, R Lever, C P Page
Mast cells contain granules packed with a mixture of proteins that are released on degranulation. The proteoglycan serglycin carries an array of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains, sometimes heparin, sometimes chondroitin or dermatan sulphate. Tight packing of granule proteins is dependent on the presence of serglycin carrying these GAGs. The GAGs of mast cells were most intensively studied in the 1970s and 1980s, and though something is known about the fine structure of chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate in mast cells, little is understood about the composition of the heparin/heparan sulphate chains...
November 30, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899822/mir-150-exerts-antileukemia-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-through-regulating-genes-in-multiple-pathways
#12
Zhi Hong Fang, Si Li Wang, Jin Tao Zhao, Zhi Juan Lin, Lin Yan Chen, Rui Su, Si Ting Xie, Bing Z Carter, Bing Xu
MicroRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs, have been implicated to regulate gene expression in virtually all important biological processes. Although accumulating evidence demonstrates that miR-150, an important regulator in hematopoiesis, is deregulated in various types of hematopoietic malignancies, the precise mechanisms of miR-150 action are largely unknown. In this study, we found that miR-150 is downregulated in samples from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia, and normalized after patients achieved complete remission...
September 22, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899064/gdf5-mediated-enhancement-of-chondrocyte-phenotype-is-inhibited-by-heparin-implication-for-the-use-of-heparin-in-the-clinic-and-in-tissue-engineering-applications
#13
Bethanie Imogen Ayerst, Raymond A A Smith, Victor Nurcombe, Anthony J Day, Catherine L R Merry, Simon Cool
The highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparin is widely used in the clinic as an anticoagulant, and researchers are now using it to enhance stem cell expansion/ differentiation protocols, as well as to improve the delivery of growth factors for tissue engineering strategies. Growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) belongs to the bone morphogenetic protein family of proteins and is vital for skeletal formation, however, its interaction with heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) has not been studied. We identify GDF5 as a novel heparin/ HS-binding protein, and show that HS proteoglycans are vital in localizing GDF5 to the cell surface...
November 29, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895617/understanding-the-ng2-glial-scar-after-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Amber R Hackett, Jae K Lee
NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury (SCI), NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895417/glycoproteins-and-glycoproteomics-in-pancreatic-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Sheng Pan, Teresa A Brentnall, Ru Chen
Aberrations in protein glycosylation and polysaccharides play a pivotal role in pancreatic tumorigenesis, influencing cancer progression, metastasis, immuno-response and chemoresistance. Abnormal expression in sugar moieties can impact the function of various glycoproteins, including mucins, surface receptors, adhesive proteins, proteoglycans, as well as their effectors and binding ligands, resulting in an increase in pancreatic cancer invasiveness and a cancer-favored microenvironment. Recent advance in glycoproteomics, glycomics and other chemical biology techniques have been employed to better understand the complex mechanism of glycosylation events and how they orchestrate molecular activities in genomics, proteomics and metabolomics implicated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890825/the-expression-of-chemorepulsive-guidance-receptors-and-the-regenerative-abilities-of-spinal-projecting-neurons-after-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Jie Chen, Cindy Laramore, Michael I Shifman
Spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals leads to permanent loss of function because axons do not regenerate in the central nervous system (CNS). To date, treatments based on neutralizing inhibitory environmental cues, such as the myelin-associated growth inhibitors and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, or on adding neurotrophic factors, have had limited success in enhancing regeneration. Published studies suggested that multiple axon guidance cues (repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, semaphorins, ephrins, and netrins) persist in adult animals, and that their expression is upregulated after CNS injury...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890389/heparanase-confers-a-growth-advantage-to-differentiating-murine-embryonic-stem-cells-and-enhances-oligodendrocyte-formation
#17
Anqi Xiong, Soumi Kundu, Maud Forsberg, Yuyuan Xiong, Tobias Bergström, Tanja Paavilainen, Lena Kjellén, Jin-Ping Li, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), ubiquitous components of mammalian cells, play important roles in development and homeostasis. These molecules are located primarily on the cell surface and in the pericellular matrix, where they interact with a multitude of macromolecules, including many growth factors. Manipulation of the enzymes involved in biosynthesis and modification of HSPG structures alters the properties of stem cells. Here, we focus on the involvement of heparanase (HPSE), the sole endo-glucuronidase capable of cleaving of HS, in differentiation of embryonic stem cells into the cells of the neural lineage...
November 23, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889345/histopathological-differential-diagnosis-of-optical-coherence-tomographic-image-interpretation-after-stenting
#18
Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Kazuyuki Yahagi, Elena Ladich, Michael Joner, Robert Kutys, David Fowler, Maria Romero, Jagat Narula, Renu Virmani, Aloke V Finn
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify histological features that correlate with terms commonly used to describe optical coherence tomographic (OCT) and optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI) images of stented vessels, by means of a histopathological validation study using stented human coronary arteries. BACKGROUND: OCT imaging and OFDI are used to evaluate vascular responses to stent implantation. Descriptive terms such as "peristrut low attenuation" and "heterogeneous" have been used to describe neointimal characteristics that may have clinical relevance...
November 19, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888452/the-influence-of-the-dietary-cu-glycine-complex-on-the-histomorphology-of-cancellous-bone-articular-cartilage-and-growth-plate-as-well-as-bone-mechanical-and-geometric-parameters-is-dose-dependent
#19
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Agnieszka Tomczyk, Siemowit Muszyński
Copper (Cu) is required for all basic biochemical and physiological processes. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of two different chemical forms (sulfates and glycinate chelates also below the recommended dose) of Cu administered to adult rats on the biomechanical and morphometric properties of femur. Male rats at the age of 12 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate (S-Cu), and the other diets were supplemented with Cu-glycine complex...
November 26, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884087/a-protease-peptidase-from-culture-medium-of-flammulina-velutipes-that-acts-on-arabinogalactan-protein
#20
Yoshihisa Yoshimi, Yumi Sugawara, Chiaki Hori, Kiyohiko Igarashi, Satoshi Kaneko, Yoichi Tsumuraya, Toshihisa Kotake
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are highly diverse plant proteoglycans found on the plant cell surface. AGPs have large arabinogalactan (AG) moieties attached to a core-protein rich in hydroxyproline (Hyp). The AG undergoes hydrolysis by various glycoside hydrolases, most of which have been identified, whereas the core-proteins is presumably degraded by unknown proteases/peptidases secreted from fungi and bacteria in nature. Although several enzymes hydrolyzing other Hyp-rich proteins are known, the enzymes acting on the core-proteins of AGPs remain to be identified...
November 25, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
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