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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645846/heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-in-drosophila-neuromuscular-development
#1
REVIEW
Keisuke Kamimura, Nobuaki Maeda
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are glycoconjugates bearing heparan sulfate (HS) chains covalently attached to core proteins, which are ubiquitously distributed on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. HSPGs interact with a number of molecules mainly through HS chains, which play critical roles in diverse physiological and disease processes. Among these, recent vertebrate studies showed that HSPGs are closely involved in synapse development and function. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645697/clinical-high-resolution-mapping-of-the-proteoglycan-bound-water-fraction-in-articular-cartilage-of-the-human-knee-joint
#2
Mustapha Bouhrara, David A Reiter, Kyle W Sexton, Christopher M Bergeron, Linda M Zukley, Richard G Spencer
PURPOSE: We applied a recently introduced method to achieve clinically-feasible in-vivo mapping of the proteoglycan water fraction (PgWF) of human knee cartilage with improved spatial resolution and stability as compared to existing methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multicomponent driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) datasets were acquired from the knees of two healthy young subjects and one older subject with previous knee injury. Each dataset was processed using Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) analysis incorporating a two-component tissue model...
June 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644393/mutations-in-the-genes-for-interphotoreceptor-matrix-proteoglycans-impg1-and-impg2-in-patients-with-vitelliform-macular-lesions
#3
Caroline Brandl, Heidi L Schulz, Peter Charbel Issa, Johannes Birtel, Richard Bergholz, Clemens Lange, Claudia Dahlke, Ditta Zobor, Bernhard H F Weber, Heidi Stöhr
A significant portion of patients diagnosed with vitelliform macular dystrophy (VMD) do not carry causative mutations in the classic VMD genes BEST1 or PRPH2. We therefore performed a mutational screen in a cohort of 106 BEST1/PRPH2-negative VMD patients in two genes encoding secreted interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycans-1 and -2 (IMPG1 and IMPG2). We identified two novel mutations in IMPG1 in two simplex VMD cases with disease onset in their early childhood, a heterozygous p.(Leu238Pro) missense mutation and a homozygous c...
June 23, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643904/pth-1-34-induced-alterations-predispose-the-mandibular-condylar-cartilage-to-mineralization
#4
E H Dutra, M H O'Brien, T Gutierrez, A Lima, R Nanda, S Yadav
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH [1-34]) on the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and subchondral bone in adult female mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two, 20-week-old female mice were used for in vivo experiments. The experimental mice (n=11) received daily intraperitoneal injections of PTH [1-34] for 3 weeks, while control mice (n=11) received intraperitoneal injections of 0.9% saline solution. Mice were euthanized and then micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); histology and immunostaining were carried out to assess the response...
June 2017: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643466/anemonin-attenuates-osteoarthritis-progression-through-inhibiting-the-activation-of-il-1%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#5
Zuqiang Wang, Junlan Huang, Siru Zhou, Fengtao Luo, Wei Xu, Quan Wang, Qiaoyan Tan, Liang Chen, Jun Wang, Hangang Chen, Lin Chen, Yangli Xie, Xiaolan Du
The osteoarthritis (OA) progression is now considered to be related to inflammation. Anemonin (ANE) is a small natural molecule extracted from various kinds of Chinese traditional herbs and has been shown to inhibiting inflammation response. In this study, we examined whether ANE could attenuate the progression of OA via suppression of IL-1β/NF-κB pathway activation. Destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) was performed in 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice. ANE was then intra-articularly injected into joint capsule for 8 and 12 weeks...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641140/effect-of-c1-inh-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-a-porcine-limb-ex-vivo-perfusion-model
#6
Mai M Abdelhafez, Jane Shaw, Damian Sutter, Jonas Schnider, Yara Banz, Hansjörg Jenni, Esther Voegelin, Mihai A Constantinescu, Robert Rieben
Revascularization of an amputated limb within 4-6h is essential to avoid extensive ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leading to vascular leakage, edema and tissue necrosis. I/R injury is a pathological inflammatory condition that occurs during reperfusion of an organ or tissue after prolonged ischemia. It is characterized by a complex crosstalk between endothelial cell activation and the activation of plasma cascades. Vasculoprotective pharmacological intervention to prevent I/R injury might be an option to prolong the time window between limb amputation and successful replantation...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638344/the-beneficial-effects-of-bisphosphonate-enoxacin-on-cortical-bone-mass-and-strength-in-ovariectomized-rats
#7
Xuqiang Liu, Xinhua Qu, Tao Nie, Zanjing Zhai, Haowei Li, Zhengxiao Ouyang, An Qin, Shuhong Zhang, Shuangyan Zhang, Qiming Fan, Tingting Tang, Zhifeng Yu, Min Dai
Osteoporosis is a major age-related bone disease characterized by low bone mineral density and a high risk of fractures. Bisphosphonates are considered as effective agents treating osteoporosis. However, long-term use of bisphosphonates is associated with some serious side effects, which limits the widespread clinical use of bisphosphonates. Here, we demonstrate a novel type of bone-targeting anti-resorptive agent, bisphosphonate-enoxacin (BE). In this study, ovariectomized rat model was established and treated with PBS, zoledronate (50 μg/kg) and different dose of BE (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638116/laser-ultrasonic-delivery-of-agents-into-articular-cartilage
#8
Heikki J Nieminen, Gonçalo Barreto, Mikko A Finnilä, Alejandro García-Pérez, Ari Salmi, Sanjeev Ranjan, Kari K Eklund, Kenneth P H Pritzker, Simo Saarakkala, Edward Hæggström
Research is ongoing to develop drug therapies to manage osteoarthritis (OA) and articular cartilage (AC) injuries. However, means to deliver drug to localized AC lesions are highly limited and not clinically available. This study investigates the capability of laser ultrasound (laser-induced plasma sound source) to deliver agents (methylene blue, MB, in PBS) into bovine AC. Treatment samples (n = 10) were immersed in MB solution simultaneously with LU exposure, while adjacent control 1 tissue (n = 10) was pre-treated with LU followed by immersion in MB and adjacent control 2 tissue (n = 10) was only immersed in MB...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626603/impact-of-isolation-method-on-doubling-time-and-the-quality-of-chondrocyte-and-osteoblast-differentiated-from-murine-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#9
Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Nur Akmal Mohamed Rozali, Sahidan Senafi, Intan Zarina Zainol Abidin, Zaidah Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin
BACKGROUND: Stem cells are normally isolated from dental pulps using the enzymatic digestion or the outgrowth method. However, the effects of the isolation method on the quality of the isolated stem cells are not studied in detail in murine models. The aim of this study was to compare the matrices secreted by osteoblast and chondrocytes differentiated from dental pulp stem cells isolated through different means. METHOD: DPSC from murine incisors were isolated through either the outgrowth (DPSC-OG) or the enzymatic digestion (DPSC-ED) method...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626164/diagnostic-significance-of-measuring-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-for-the-differentiation-between-malignant-and-tuberculous-pleural-effusion
#10
Hak-Ryul Kim, Byoung-Ryun Kim, Rae-Kil Park, Kwon-Ha Yoon, Eun-Taik Jeong, Ki-Eun Hwang
Malignancy and tuberculosis are common causes of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion. However, it is occasionally difficult to differentiate malignant pleural effusion from tuberculous pleural effusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical cytokine in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion. Endocan is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that is secreted by endothelial cells. Importantly, endocan mediates the vascular growth-promoting action of VEGF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of VEGF and endocan in pleural effusion...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624361/low-intensity-rtms-has-sex-dependent-effects-on-the-local-response-of-glia-following-a-penetrating-cortical-stab-injury
#11
Darren Clarke, Marissa A Penrose, Alan R Harvey, Jennifer Rodger, Kristyn A Bates
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive form of brain stimulation, has shown experimental and clinical efficacy in a range of neuromodulatory models, even when delivered at low intensity (i.e. subthreshold for action potential generation). After central nervous system (CNS) injury, studies suggest that reactive astrocytes and microglia can have detrimental but also beneficial effects; thus modulating glial activity, for example through application of rTMS, could potentially be a useful therapeutic tool following neurotrauma...
June 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622396/mutant-fibulin-3-causes-proteoglycan-accumulation-and-impaired-diffusion-across-bruch-s-membrane
#12
Astrid Zayas-Santiago, Samuel D Cross, James B Stanton, Alan D Marmorstein, Lihua Y Marmorstein
Purpose: The mutation R345W in EFEMP1 (fibulin-3) causes macular degeneration. This study sought to determine whether proteoglycan content and diffusion across Bruch's membrane are altered in Efemp1ki/ki mice carrying this mutation or in Efemp1-/- mice. Methods: Proteoglycans in mouse Bruch's membranes were stained with Cupromeronic Blue (CB). Heparan sulfated proteoglycan (HSPG) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan (C/DSPG) distributions were visualized following treatments with chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC) or nitrous acid...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621802/glypican-3-a-promising-biomarker-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Fubo Zhou, Wenting Shang, Xiaoling Yu, Jie Tian
Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type. Therefore, molecular targets are urgently required for the early detection of HCC and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Glypican-3 (GPC3), an oncofetal proteoglycan anchored to the cell membrane, is normally detected in the fetal liver but not in the healthy adult liver. However, in HCC patients, GPC3 is overexpressed at both the gene and protein levels, and its expression predicts a poor prognosis...
June 16, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620442/efficacy-of-nanoceria-for-periodontal-tissues-alteration-in-glutamate-induced-obese-rats-multidisciplinary-considerations-for-personalized-dentistry-and-prevention
#14
Tetyana V Beregova, Karine S Neporada, Maksym Skrypnyk, Tetyana M Falalyeyeva, Nadiya M Zholobak, Oleksandr B Shcherbakov, Mykola Ya Spivak, Rostyslav V Bubnov
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, we face the global epidemic of obesity, that is known to contribute to the development of many diseases, such as the oral cavity pathologies. Dental and oral pathologies are frequently caused by and overlapped with systemic multifactorial diseases such as obesity being its early indicators and risk factors. The aim was to study the influence of nanoceria on periodontal tissues alteration in glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. METHODS: We included 52 Wistar rats of both genders and divided into four groups: newborn rats in group 1 (control) received subcutaneously 8 μl/g saline...
March 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620131/exosomes-containing-differential-expression-of-microrna-and-mrna-in-osteosarcoma-that-can-predict-response-to-chemotherapy
#15
Ji-Feng Xu, Ya-Ping Wang, Shui-Jun Zhang, Yu Chen, Hai-Feng Gu, Xiao-Fan Dou, Bing Xia, Qing Bi, Shun-Wu Fan
A major challenge in osteosarcoma (OS) is the selection of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for individual patients, while the administration of ineffective chemotherapy increases mortality and decreases quality of life in patients. This emphasizes the need to evaluate every patient's probability of responding to each chemotherapeutic agent. We developed a profiling strategy for serum exosomal microRNAs and mRNAs in OS patients with differential chemotherapeutic responses. Twelve miRNAs were up regulated and 18 miRNAs were under regulated significantly in OS patient with poor chemotherapeutic response when compared with those in good chemotherapeutic response (p<0...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618866/characterization-of-articular-cartilage-recovery-and-its-correlation-with-optical-response-in-the-near-infrared-spectral-range
#16
Isaac Oluwaseun Afara, Sanjleena Singh, Hayley Moody, Lihai Zhang, Adekunle Oloyede
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examine the capacity of a new parameter, based on the recovery response of articular cartilage, to distinguish between healthy and damaged tissues. We also investigate whether or not this new parameter correlates with the near-infrared (NIR) optical response of articular cartilage. DESIGN: Normal and artificially degenerated (proteoglycan-depleted) bovine cartilage samples were nondestructively probed using NIR spectroscopy. Subsequently they were subjected to a load and unloading protocol, and the recovery response was logged during unloading...
July 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618228/mechanical-properties-and-cell-compatibility-of-agarose-hydrogels-containing-proteoglycan-mimetic-graft-copolymers
#17
Hannah M Pauly, Laura W Place, Tammy L Haut Donahue, Matt J Kipper
Proteoglycans have vital biochemical and biomechanical functions. Their proteolytic degradation results in loss of these functions. We have previously reported non-protein proteoglycan-mimetic graft copolymers that stabilize and deliver growth factors and are not subject to proteases. Here we expand our investigation of these proteoglycan mimics by also investigating their effects on hydrogel mechanical properties. Four polysaccharide side chains - chondroitin sulfate, heparin, dextran, and dextran sulfate - are each grafted to a hyaluronan backbone...
June 15, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617846/a-metabolite-of-leucine-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-given-to-sows-during-pregnancy-alters-bone-development-of-their-newborn-offspring-by-hormonal-modulation
#18
Tomasz Blicharski, Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Monika Hułas-Stasiak, Siemowit Muszyński
The effects of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during gestation on bone, growth plate, and articular cartilage in newborns were determined. Thermal analysis of articular cartilage was performed to examine the structural changes in collagen. At day 70 of gestation, a total of 12 sows (Large White Polish breed, at the second parity) were randomly assigned to two groups, with each group receiving either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.2 g/day HMB until the 90th day...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616406/new-endoscopic-approach-of-anti-fibrotic-therapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Kenji Suzuki, Hiroyuki Yoneyama
Fibrosis continues to be paid a great attention in not only basic research but also clinical practice, especially for the development of novel therapeutics in various fibrotic diseases. However, there remain several obstacles to translation in developing anti-fibrosis therapy. The present review documents our translational practice from target discovery to first-in-patient studies in the development of anti-fibrosis therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). First topic is a target selection. We have focused on the target that has an ability to regulate multifactorial cascades of fibrosis...
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616017/inhibition-and-enhancement-of-neural-regeneration-by-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans
#20
REVIEW
Heikki Rauvala, Mikhail Paveliev, Juha Kuja-Panula, Natalia Kulesskaya
The current dogma in neural regeneration research implies that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit plasticity and regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS). We argue that the role of the CSPGs can be reversed from inhibition to activation by developmentally expressed CSPG-binding factors. Heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM; also designated as pleiotrophin) has been studied as a candidate molecule that might modulate the role of CSPG matrices in plasticity and regeneration...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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