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J M Shiguetomi-Medina, J L Ramirez-Gl, H Stødkilde-Jørgensen, B Møller-Madsen
BACKGROUND: Up to 80 % of cartilage is water; the rest is collagen fibers and proteoglycans. Magnetic resonance (MR) T1-weighted measurements can be employed to calculate the water content of a tissue using T1 mapping. In this study, a method that translates T1 values into water content data was tested statistically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To develop a predictive equation, T1 values were obtained for tissue-mimicking gelatin samples. 1.5 T MRI was performed using inverse angle phase and an inverse sequence at 37 (±0...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Rita Langasco, Barbara Cadeddu, Marilena Formato, Antonio Junior Lepedda, Massimo Cossu, Paolo Giunchedi, Roberto Pronzato, Giovanna Rassu, Renata Manconi, Elisabetta Gavini
The growing interest in the use of recyclable and biodegradable natural materials has become a relevant topic in pharmaceutics. In this work, we suggest the use and valorization of natural horny skeleton of marine sponges (Porifera, Dictyoceratida) as bio-based dressing for topical drug delivery. Biomaterial characterization focusing on morpho-functional traits, swelling behavior, fluid uptake performances, glycosaminoglycans content and composition and microbiological quality assessment was carried out to investigate the collagenic skeleton properties...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Zhigang Sui, Yejing Weng, Qun Zhao, Nan Deng, Fei Fang, Xudong Zhu, Yichu Shan, Lihua Zhang, Yukui Zhang
The cartilage zone of the velvet antler is richly vascularized, this being a major difference to the classical cartilage, in which there are no blood vessels. Angiogenesis and rapid growth of vasculature in velvet antler cartilage (VAC) make it an ideal model for discovering the novel angiogenic regulatory factors. However, the proteomic analysis of VAC is challenging due to the serious interference of proteoglycans (PGs) and collagens. To achieve a comprehensive proteome characterization of VAC, herein, we developed an ionic liquid-based method using 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C12-mim]Cl) for selective extraction of cellular proteins from VAC...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Andrea B Agarwal, Cheng-Yuan Feng, Amy L Altick, David R Quilici, Dan Wen, L Alan Johnson, Christopher S von Bartheld
Purpose: To determine whether structural protein composition and expression of key regulatory genes are altered in strabismic human extraocular muscles. Methods: Samples from strabismic horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with normal muscles from organ donors. We used proteomics, standard and customized PCR arrays, and microarrays to identify changes in major structural proteins and changes in gene expression. We focused on muscle and connective tissue and its control by enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Arne O Melleby, Mari E Strand, Andreas Romaine, Kate M Herum, Biljana Skrbic, Christen P Dahl, Ivar Sjaastad, Arnt E Fiane, Jorge Filmus, Geir Christensen, Ida G Lunde
Pressure overload is a frequent cause of heart failure. Heart failure affects millions of patients worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Cell surface proteoglycans are emerging as molecular players in cardiac remodeling, and increased knowledge about their regulation and function is needed for improved understanding of cardiac pathogenesis. Here we investigated glypicans (GPC1-6), a family of evolutionary conserved heparan sulfate proteoglycans anchored to the extracellular leaflet of the cell membrane, in experimental and clinical heart failure, and explored the function of glypican-6 in cardiac cells in vitro...
2016: PloS One
Mamdooh Abdullah Gari, Mohammed AlKaff, Haneen S Alsehli, Ashraf Dallol, Abdullah Gari, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Roaa Kadam, Mohammed F Abuzinadah, Mazin Gari, Adel M Abuzenadah, Kalamegam Gauthaman, Heba Alkhatabi, Mohammed M Abbas
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease characterized by gradual degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the cartilage and bone. The ECM of cartilage is a highly specified structure that is mainly composed of type II collagen and provides tensile strength to the tissue via aggrecan and proteoglycans. However, changes in the ECM composition and structure can lead to loss of collagen type II and network integrity. Several risk factors have been correlated with OA including age, genetic predisposition, hereditary factors, obesity, mechanical injuries, and joint trauma...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Genetics
Lauren Brasile, Nicholas Henry, Bart Stubenitsky
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported on a novel organ-specific immunomodifying therapy that provides protection from early allograft rejection in the absence of systemic immunosuppressive drugs. This novel therapy is a nano-barrier membrane called ImmunoCloak, consisting of a matrix of laminin, proteoglycans, fibronectin and collagens. The membrane "immunocloaks" the luminal surfaces within the renal vasculature by covering the point of contact between donor vascular endothelial cells and the recipient's immune cells; without adversely affecting renal function...
October 19, 2016: Transplantation
Addolorata Pisconti, Glen B Banks, Farshad Babaeijandaghi, Nicole Dalla Betta, Fabio M V Rossi, Jeffrey S Chamberlain, Bradley B Olwin
BACKGROUND: The skeletal muscle stem cell niche provides an environment that maintains quiescent satellite cells, required for skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Syndecan-3, a transmembrane proteoglycan expressed in satellite cells, supports communication with the niche, providing cell interactions and signals to maintain quiescent satellite cells. RESULTS: Syndecan-3 ablation unexpectedly improves regeneration in repeatedly injured muscle and in dystrophic mice, accompanied by the persistence of sublaminar and interstitial, proliferating myoblasts...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
Mehmet Ali Cikrikcioglu, Zeynep Erturk, Elif Kilic, Kenan Celik, Iskender Ekinci, Ayse Irem Yasin Cetin, Tuba Ozkan, Guven Cetin, Shute Ailia Dae, Rumeyza Kazancioglu, Reha Erkoc
BACKGROUND: Endocan is a newly identified proteoglycan released from endothelium, stimulating angiogenesis and when increased, indicates endothelial activation (inflammation). Our aim was to examine the association between serum endocan levels and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR). METHOD: One hundred and thirty-seven patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal serum creatinine who had no co-morbidities other than hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, or neuropathy were divided into normoalbuminuria (G1), microalbuminuria (G2), and macroalbuminuria (G3) groups and compared cross-sectionally regarding serum endocan levels...
October 18, 2016: Renal Failure
Jonathan T Kaplan, Corey P Neu, Hicham Drissi, Nancy C Emery, David M Pierce
Osteoarthritis and articular cartilage injuries are common conditions in human joints and a frequent cause of pain and disability. Unfortunately, cartilage is avascular and has limited capabilities for self-repair. Despite the societal impact, there is little information on the dynamic process of cartilage degeneration. We performed a series of cyclic unconfined compression tests motivated by in vivo loading conditions and designed to generate mechanical fatigue. We examined the functional (both stress-stretch and creep) responses of the tissue after recovery from a specified number of loading cycles, as well as histology and second harmonic generation microscopy images...
October 1, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Stefanie Albrecht, Karin Hagemeier, Marc Ehrlich, Claudia Kemming, Jacqueline Trotter, Tanja Kuhlmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: PloS One
Priyanka Srivastava, Himani Pandey, Divya Agarwal, Kausik Mandal, Shubha R Phadke
We describe three consanguineous Indian families with a distinct form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED Omani type). It is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutation in CHST3 gene. CHST3 gene encodes the enzyme chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase-1 (C6ST-1) which mediates the sulfation of proteoglycans, (chondroitin sulfate), in the extracellular matrix of cartilage. CHST3 gene was sequenced in probands from three different families with SED. In two families missense mutations (c.904G>C predicting the substitution D302H) and c...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Sandeep Gopal, Hinke A B Multhaupt, Roger Pocock, John R Couchman
Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell junctions that employ microfilaments are sites of tension. They are important for tissue repair, morphogenetic movements and can be emblematic of matrix contraction in fibrotic disease and the stroma of solid tumors. One cell surface receptor, syndecan-4, has been shown to regulate focal adhesions, junctions that form at the ends of microfilament bundles in response to matrix components such as fibronectin. Recently it has been shown that signaling emanating from this proteoglycan receptor includes regulation of Rho family GTPases and cytosolic calcium...
October 14, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Satomi Nadanaka, Hiroki Kinouchi, Hiroshi Kitagawa
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans are abundant extracellular and cell surface molecules that consist of a protein core to which highly sulfated CS chains are covalently attached. The CS backbone is composed of repeating disaccharide units [-GlcA-GalNAc-]n, and during synthesis the CS chains acquire structural variability due to the action of sulfotransferases. Specific sulfation patterns are recognized by a large variety of proteins, including growth factors, morphogens, and extracellular matrix proteins, and these interactions regulate key events in development and normal physiology...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xiao-Jun Chen, Hong Zhang, Zhi-Ping Tan, Wen Hu, Yi-Feng Yang
Multiple osteochondromas (MO), also known as hereditary multiple exostoses, is an autosomal dominant bone disorder. Mutations in exostosin glycosyl transferase‑1 (EXT1) and exostosin glycosyl transferase‑2 (EXT2), including missense, nonsense, frameshift and splice‑site mutations, account for up to 80% of reported cases. The proteins EXT1 and EXT2 form a hetero‑oligomeric complex that functions in heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis. A heterozygous EXT2 mutation, c.939+1G>T, was identified in a five‑generation 33‑member MO family, and was present in all 13 affected members...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Limin Liu, Lin Chen, Zhihui Mai, Zhuli Peng, Kafung Yu, Guanqi Liu, Hong Ai
The role of myosin light chain II (MLC‑II) in cellular differentiation of rat mandibular condylar chondrocytes (MCCs) induced by cyclical uniaxial compressive stress (CUCS) remains unclear. In the current study, a four‑point bending system was used to apply CUCS to primary cultured MCCs from rats. It was identified that CUCS stimulated features of cellular differentiation including morphological alterations, cytoskeleton rearrangement and overproduction of proteoglycans. Furthermore, CUCS promoted runt‑related transcription factor‑2 (RUNX2) expression at mRNA (P<0...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
R D Chavez, G Coricor, J Perez, H-S Seo, R Serra
OBJECTIVE: We previously identified PAPSS2 as a transcriptional target of TGF-β in chondrocytes. PAPSS2 is required for proper sulfation of proteoglycans in cartilage. Defective sulfation in the matrix results in alterations in mechanical properties of the cartilage that would be expected to result in degeneration. The objective of this study was to identify factors that regulate PAPSS2 expression and compare to a known TGF-β responsive gene, PRG4. In this study, TGF-β-mediated regulation of SOX9 was characterized, and the involvement of SOX9 in regulation of PAPSS2 mRNA was investigated...
October 13, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Claire-Anne Gutekunst, Jack K Tung, Margaret E McDougal, Robert E Gross
Regrowth inhibitory molecules prevent axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). RhoA, a small GTPase in the Rho family, is a key intracellular switch that mediates the effects of these extracellular regrowth inhibitors. The bacterial enzyme C3-ADP ribosyltransferase (C3) selectively and irreversibly inhibits the activation of RhoA and stimulates axon outgrowth and regeneration. However, effective intracellular delivery of the C3 protein in vivo is limited by poor cell permeability and a short duration of action...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Ritva Heljasvaara, Mari Aikio, Heli Ruotsalainen, Taina Pihlajaniemi
Collagen XVIII is a ubiquitous basement membrane (BM) proteoglycan produced in three tissue-specific isoforms that differ in their N-terminal non-collagenous sequences, but share collagenous and C-terminal non-collagenous domains. The collagenous domain provides flexibility to the large collagen XVIII molecules on account of multiple interruptions in collagenous sequences. Each isoform has a complex multi-domain structure that endows it with an ability to perform various biological functions. The long isoform contains a frizzled-like (Fz) domain with Wnt-inhibiting activity and a unique domain of unknown function (DUF959), which is also present in the medium isoform...
October 13, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
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