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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641110/sox11-expression-promotes-regeneration-of-some-retinal-ganglion-cell-types-but-kills-others
#1
Michael W Norsworthy, Fengfeng Bei, Riki Kawaguchi, Qing Wang, Nicholas M Tran, Yi Li, Benedikt Brommer, Yiming Zhang, Chen Wang, Joshua R Sanes, Giovanni Coppola, Zhigang He
At least 30 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send distinct messages through the optic nerve to the brain. Available strategies of promoting axon regeneration act on only some of these types. Here we tested the hypothesis that overexpressing developmentally important transcription factors in adult RGCs could reprogram them to a "youthful" growth-competent state and promote regeneration of other types. From a screen of transcription factors, we identified Sox11 as one that could induce substantial axon regeneration...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640700/cns-tumors-in-neurofibromatosis
#2
Jian Campian, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis (NF) encompasses a group of distinct genetic disorders in which affected children and adults are prone to the development of benign and malignant tumors of the nervous system. The purpose of this review is to discuss the spectrum of CNS tumors arising in individuals with NF type 1 (NF1) and NF type 2 (NF2), their pathogenic etiologies, and the rational treatment options for people with these neoplasms. This article is a review of preclinical and clinical data focused on the treatment of the most common CNS tumors encountered in children and adults with NF1 and NF2...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637031/association-between-metabolic-syndrome-and-serum-nerve-growth-factor-levels-in-women-with-overactive-bladder
#3
Hediye Dagdeviren, Huseyin Cengiz
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association between overactive bladder (OAB), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and serum nerve growth factors (NGF). STUDY DESIGN: Serum samples from a group of 90 women that included patients with OAB (group 1), patients with both OAB and MetS (group 2) and healthy women without OAB and MetS (group 3). Each group included 30 patients. Serum levels of NGF were compared among the groups. RESULTS: When the groups were compared with respect to NGF levels, group 2 was found to have significantly higher NGF levels (p = 0...
June 22, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636741/adenoid-cystic-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-area-oncologic-treatment-and-plastic-reconstructive-options
#4
Johannes A Veit, Julia Thierauf, Thomas K Hoffmann, Jens Greve, Nicole Rotter, Patrick J Schuler, Marc O Scheithauer
Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck area is a rare malignant tumor with acceptable short-term but mediocre long-term prognosis. Radical tumor excision with clear resection margins, and sometimes resection of the facial nerve due to perineural growth, remains the fundamental therapy. We present 3 distinct clinical cases and discuss the current therapeutic options with special focus on plastic-reconstructive techniques. For reconstruction, the full armament of local and free flaps, as well as prosthetics, may be necessary...
June 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636612/laminin-211-inhibits-protein-kinase-a-in-schwann-cells-to-modulate-neuregulin-1-type-iii-driven-myelination
#5
Monica Ghidinelli, Yannick Poitelon, Yoon Kyoung Shin, Dominique Ameroso, Courtney Williamson, Cinzia Ferri, Marta Pellegatta, Kevin Espino, Amit Mogha, Kelly Monk, Paola Podini, Carla Taveggia, Klaus-Armin Nave, Lawrence Wrabetz, Hwan Tae Park, Maria Laura Feltri
Myelin is required for proper nervous system function. Schwann cells in developing nerves depend on extrinsic signals from the axon and from the extracellular matrix to first sort and ensheathe a single axon and then myelinate it. Neuregulin 1 type III (Nrg1III) and laminin α2β1γ1 (Lm211) are the key axonal and matrix signals, respectively, but how their signaling is integrated and if each molecule controls both axonal sorting and myelination is unclear. Here, we use a series of epistasis experiments to show that Lm211 modulates neuregulin signaling to ensure the correct timing and amount of myelination...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633971/manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-depicts-brain-activity-in-models-of-acute-and-chronic-pain-a-new-window-to-study-experimental-spontaneous-pain
#6
I M Devonshire, J J Burston, L Xu, A Lillywhite, M J Prior, D J G Watson, C M Greenspon, S J Iwabuchi, D P Auer, V Chapman
Application of functional imaging techniques to animal models is vital to understand pain mechanisms, but is often confounded by the need to limit movement artefacts with anaesthesia, and a focus on evoked responses rather than clinically relevant spontaneous pain and related hyperalgesia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to measure neural responses during on-going pain that underpins hyperalgesia in pre-clinical models of nociception...
June 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633655/inhibition-of-mmp-2-and-mmp-9-decreases-cellular-migration-and-angiogenesis-in-in-vitro-models-of-retinoblastoma
#7
Anderson H Webb, Bradley T Gao, Zachary K Goldsmith, Andrew S Irvine, Nabil Saleh, Ryan P Lee, Justin B Lendermon, Rajini Bheemreddy, Qiuhua Zhang, Rachel C Brennan, Dianna Johnson, Jena J Steinle, Matthew W Wilson, Vanessa M Morales-Tirado
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most common primary intraocular tumor in children. Local treatment of the intraocular disease is usually effective if diagnosed early; however advanced Rb can metastasize through routes that involve invasion of the choroid, sclera and optic nerve or more broadly via the ocular vasculature. Metastatic Rb patients have very high mortality rates. While current therapy for Rb is directed toward blocking tumor cell division and tumor growth, there are no specific treatments targeted to block Rb metastasis...
June 20, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632904/ngf-and-fgf-2-promote-reinnervation-by-nerve-muscle-endplate-grafting
#8
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to test whether exogenous application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) to muscles reinnervated with nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) could promote specific outcomes. METHODS: The right sternomastoid muscle in adult rats was experimentally denervated and immediately reinnervated by implanting a NMEG pedicle from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle. A fibrin sealant containing NGF and FGF-2 was focally applied to the implantation site...
June 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632565/neuroforaminal-bone-growth-following-minimally-invasive-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-with-bmp-a-computed-tomographic-analysis
#9
Junyoung Ahn, Anton Y Jorgensen, Daniel D Bohl, Ehsan Tabaraee, Vincent J Rossi, Khaled Aboushaala, Kern Singh
STUDY DESIGN: Computed tomographic analysis. OBJECTIVE: To identify radiographic patterns of symptomatic neuroforaminal bone growth (NFB) in patients who have undergone a single-level minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) augmented with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) utilizing computed tomography (CT). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: BMP induces osteoblast differentiation leading to new bone formation. The association of BMP utilization and heterotopic bone formation after an MIS-TLIF has been described...
July 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632177/the-intersection-of-ngf-trka-signaling-and-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-in-alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathology
#10
REVIEW
Nadia Canu, Giuseppina Amadoro, Viviana Triaca, Valentina Latina, Valentina Sposato, Veronica Corsetti, Cinzia Severini, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Pietro Calissano
Dysfunction of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its high-affinity Tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) receptor has been suggested to contribute to the selective degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) associated with the progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this review is to describe our progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic interplay between NGF/TrkA signaling and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism within the context of AD neuropathology...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632137/electrospun-silk-polyaniline-conduits-for-functional-nerve-regeneration-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#11
Suradip Das, Manav Sharma, Dhiren Saharia, Kushal Sarma, Elizabeth Muir, Utpal Bora
The present study describes the fabrication of polyaniline-silk fibroin nanocomposite based nerve conduits and its subsequent implantation in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for peripheral nerve regeneration. This is the first in vivo study of polyaniline based nerve conduit describing the safety and efficacy of the conduits in treating peripheral nerve injuries. The nanocomposite was synthesised by electrospinning a mixture of silk fibroin protein and polyaniline wherein the silk nanofibers were observed to be uniformly coated with polyaniline nanoparticles...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632034/recombinant-human-nerve-growth-factor-treatment-promotes-photoreceptor-survival-in-the-retinas-of-rats-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#12
Marta Sacchetti, Flavio Mantelli, Maria Luisa Rocco, Alessandra Micera, Laura Brandolini, Laura Focareta, Claudio Pisano, Luigi Aloe, Alessandro Lambiase
PURPOSE: Increasing evidence suggests that nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts protective effects against retinal degeneration in animal models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). This study aims at investigating the effects of intravitreal injection of recombinant human NGF (rhNGF) on retinal photoreceptors apoptosis in an animal model of RP, the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. METHODS: Thirty-six RCS rats were treated with intravitreal injection of rhNGF or murine NGF (mNGF) or vehicle at 20 postnatal days (pd) and sacrificed at 40 pd...
March 1, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631007/how-schwann-cells-facilitate-cancer-progression-in-nerves
#13
REVIEW
Sylvie Deborde, Richard J Wong
Recent studies have demonstrated a critical role for nerves in enabling tumor progression. The association of nerves with cancer cells is well established for a variety of malignant tumors, including pancreatic, prostate and the head and neck cancers. This association is often correlated with poor prognosis. A strong partnership between cancer cells and nerve cells leads to both cancer progression and expansion of the nerve network. This relationship is supported by molecular pathways related to nerve growth and repair...
June 19, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630356/developmental-downregulation-of-lis1-expression-limits-axonal-extension-and-allows-axon-pruning
#14
Kanako Kumamoto, Tokuichi Iguchi, Ryuichi Ishida, Takuya Uemura, Makoto Sato, Shinji Hirotsune
The robust axonal growth and regenerative capacities of young neurons decrease substantially with age. This developmental downregulation of axonal growth may facilitate axonal pruning and neural circuit formation but limits functional recovery following nerve damage. While external factors influencing axonal growth have been extensively investigated, relatively little is known about the intrinsic molecular changes underlying the age-dependent reduction in regeneration capacity. We report that developmental downregulation of LIS1 is responsible for the decreased axonal extension capacity of mature dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
June 19, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630333/boosting-cns-axon-regeneration-by-harnessing-antagonistic-effects-of-gsk3-activity
#15
Marco Leibinger, Anastasia Andreadaki, Renate Golla, Evgeny Levin, Alexander M Hilla, Heike Diekmann, Dietmar Fischer
Implications of GSK3 activity for axon regeneration are often inconsistent, if not controversial. Sustained GSK3 activity in GSK3(S/A) knock-in mice reportedly accelerates peripheral nerve regeneration via increased MAP1B phosphorylation and concomitantly reduces microtubule detyrosination. In contrast, the current study shows that lens injury-stimulated optic nerve regeneration was significantly compromised in these knock-in mice. Phosphorylation of MAP1B and CRMP2 was expectedly increased in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons upon enhanced GSK3 activity, but, surprisingly, no GSK3-mediated CRMP2 inhibition was detected in sciatic nerves, thus revealing a fundamental difference between central and peripheral axons...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629826/silencing-of-fkbp51-alleviates-the-mechanical-pain-threshold-inhibits-drg-inflammatory-factors-and-pain-mediators-through-the-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#16
Hong-Mei Yu, Qi Wang, Wen-Bo Sun
Neuropathic pain is chronic pain caused by lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system, currently available analgesics provide only temporal relief. The precise role of FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) is not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of FKBP51 in neuropathic pain in the rat model of CCI. Our results showed that FKBP51 was obviously upregulated in a time-dependent manner in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in CCI rats...
June 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629798/proteomic-analysis-of-mesenchymal-to-schwann-cell-transdifferentiation
#17
Anup D Sharma, Jayme Wiederin, Metin Uz, Pawel Ciborowski, Surya K Mallapragada, Howard E Gendelman, Donald S Sakaguchi
While transplantation of Schwann cells facilitates axon regeneration, remyelination and repair after peripheral nerve injury clinical use is limited by cell bioavailability. We posit that such limitation in cell access can be overcome by the use of autologous bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). As MSCs can transdifferentiate to Schwann cell-phenotypes and accelerate nerve regeneration we undertook proteomic evaluation of the cells to uncover the protein contents that affects Schwann cell formulation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627700/isolation-of-rat-schwann-cells-based-on-cell-sorting
#18
Mi Shen, Wei Tang, Zheng Cao, Xuemin Cao, Fei Ding
The present study presented a protocol that can be used to obtain rapidly a high purity of proliferating rat Schwann cells from freshly dissociated rat peripheral nerves. The sciatic nerves of newborn rats (1‑3 day old) were dissociated, and the Schwann cells (SCs) were purified using fluorescence‑activated cell sorting (FACS) based on the SC membrane‑specific expression of the low‑affinity nerve growth factor receptor, p75NGFR and oligodendrocyte marker 4. Following sorting, the cells were plated on poly‑l‑lysine‑coated dishes in SC culture medium containing DMEM with 10% FBS, 1% penicillin/streptomycin, 2 µM forskolin and 10 ng/ml HRG...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627670/intermedin-improves-cardiac-function-and-sympathetic-neural-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-post-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure
#19
Bin Xu, Hao Xu, Heng Cao, Xiaoxiao Liu, Chunhuan Qin, Yanzhou Zhao, Xiaolin Han, Hongli Li
Emerging evidence has suggested that intermedin (IMD), a novel member of the calcitonin gene‑related peptide (CGRP) family, has a wide range of cardioprotective effects. The present study investigated the effects of long‑term administration of IMD on cardiac function and sympathetic neural remodeling in heart failure (HF) rats, and studied potential underlying mechanism. HF was induced in rats by myocardial infarction (MI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either saline or IMD (0.6 µg/kg/h) treatment groups for 4 weeks post‑MI...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626808/attenuation-of-opioid-tolerance-by-etb-receptor-agonist-irl-1620-is-independent-of-an-accompanied-decrease-in-nerve-growth-factor-in-mice
#20
Shruti Gulati, Seema Briyal, Shantel Jones, Shaifali Bhalla, Anil Gulati
AIM: ETA receptor antagonists reverse opioid tolerance but the involvement of ETB receptors is unknown. In morphine or oxycodone tolerant mice we investigated (1) the effect of ETB receptor agonist, IRL-1620, on analgesic tolerance; (2) changes in expression of the brain ETA and ETB receptors; and (3) alterations in the brain VEGF, NGF, PI3K and notch-1 expression. MAIN METHODS: Body weight, body temperature, and tail-flick latency were assessed before and after a challenge dose of morphine or oxycodone in vehicle or IRL-1620 treated mice...
June 2017: Heliyon
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