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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667161/diversity-of-neuropeptide-cell-cell-signaling-molecules-generated-by-proteolytic-processing-revealed-by-neuropeptidomics-mass-spectrometry
#1
Vivian Hook, Christopher B Lietz, Sonia Podvin, Tomas Cajka, Oliver Fiehn
Neuropeptides are short peptides in the range of 3-40 residues that are secreted for cell-cell communication in neuroendocrine systems. In the nervous system, neuropeptides comprise the largest group of neurotransmitters. In the endocrine system, neuropeptides function as peptide hormones to coordinate intercellular signaling among target physiological systems. The diversity of neuropeptide functions is defined by their distinct primary sequences, peptide lengths, proteolytic processing of pro-neuropeptide precursors, and covalent modifications...
April 17, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666888/precise-determination-of-protein-extinction-coefficients-under-native-and-denaturing-conditions-using-sv-auc
#2
Andreas Hoffmann, Kerstin Grassl, Janine Gommert, Christian Schlesak, Alexander Bepperling
The accurate determination of protein concentration is an important though non-trivial task during the development of a biopharmaceutical. The fundamental prerequisite for this is the availability of an accurate extinction coefficient. Common approaches for the determination of an extinction coefficient for a given protein are either based on the theoretical prediction utilizing the amino acid sequence or the photometric determination combined with a measurement of absolute protein concentration. Here, we report on an improved SV-AUC based method utilizing an analytical ultracentrifuge equipped with absorbance and Rayleigh interference optics...
April 17, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666753/effect-of-metformin-monotherapy-on-serum-lipid-profile-in-statin-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-cohort-study
#3
Szu Han Lin, Po Chung Cheng, Shih Te Tu, Shang Ren Hsu, Yun Chung Cheng, Yu Hsiu Liu
Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies have consistently identified dyslipidemia as an important risk factor for the development of macrovascular disease. The landmark United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study has shown that metformin therapy reduces cardiovascular events in overweight people with T2DM. This study investigates the effect of metformin monotherapy on serum lipid profile in statin-naïve individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM, and whether the effect, if any, is dosage-related...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666630/the-interactomic-analysis-reveals-pathogenic-protein-networks-in-phomopsis-longicolla-underlying-seed-decay-of-soybean
#4
Shuxian Li, Bryan Musungu, David Lightfoot, Pingsheng Ji
Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla ) is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. This disease results in poor seed quality and is one of the most economically important seed diseases in soybean. The objectives of this study were to infer protein-protein interactions (PPI) and to identify conserved global networks and pathogenicity subnetworks in P. longicolla including orthologous pathways for cell signaling and pathogenesis. The interlog method used in the study identified 215,255 unique PPIs among 3,868 proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665737/increased-synthesis-of-a-new-oleanane-type-saponin-in-hairy-roots-of-marigold-calendula-officinalis-after-treatment-with-jasmonic-acid
#5
Michał Markowski, Marek Długosz, Anna Szakiel, Mathieu Durli, Sophie Poinsignon, Sabine Bouguet-Bonnet, Lionel Vernex-Loset, Gabriel Krier, Max Henry
Native plant of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) synthesizes oleanolic acid saponins classified as glucosides or glucuronides according to the first residue in sugar chain bound to C-3 hydroxyl group. Hairy root culture, obtained by transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834, exhibit a potent ability of synthesis of oleanolic acid glycosides. The HPLC profile of saponin fraction obtained from C. officinalis hairy roots treated with plant stress hormone, jasmonic acid, showed the 10-times increase of the content of one particular compound, determined by NMR and MALDI TOF as a new bisdesmoside saponin, 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-oleanolic acid...
April 18, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665418/a-continuous-genome-assembly-of-the-corkwing-wrasse-symphodus-melops
#6
Morten Mattingsdal, Sissel Jentoft, Ole K Tørresen, Halvor Knutsen, Michael M Hansen, Joana I Robalo, Zuzanna Zagrodzka, Carl André, Enrique Blanco Gonzalez
The wrasses (Labridae) are one of the most successful and species-rich families of the Perciformes order of teleost fish. Its members display great morphological diversity, and occupy distinct trophic levels in coastal waters and coral reefs. The cleaning behaviour displayed by some wrasses, such as corkwing wrasse (Symphodus melops), is of particular interest for the salmon aquaculture industry to combat and control sea lice infestation as an alternative to chemicals and pharmaceuticals. There are still few genome assemblies available within this fish family for comparative and functional studies, despite the rapid increase in genome resources generated during the past years...
April 14, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665315/convergent-synthesis-of-a-bisecting-glcnac-containing-n-glycan
#7
Yoshiyuki Manabe, Hiroki Shomura, Naoya Minamoto, Masahiro Nagasaki, Yohei Takakura, Katsunori Tanaka, Alba Silipo, Antonio Molinaro, Koichi Fukase
The chemical synthesis of a bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-containing N-glycan was achieved by a convergent synthetic route via [4+2] and [6+2] glycosylations. This synthetic route reduced the number of reaction steps, although the key glycosylations were challenging in terms of yields and selectivities due to steric hindrance at the glycosylation site and a lack of neighboring group participation. The yields of these glycosylations were enhanced by stabilizing the oxocarbenium ion intermediate through ether coordination...
April 17, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665221/a-full-qm-computational-study-of-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-%C3%AE-1-4-glucan-lyases
#8
Lara Campesato, Tainah Dorina Marforio, Pietro Giacinto, Matteo Calvaresi, Andrea Bottoni
We investigated the catalytic mechanism of α-1,4-glucan lyases using a full QM DFT approach based on the M06-2X functional. The reaction profile of the whole catalytic process can be divided into three phases: glycosylation, deglycosylation-elimination and tautomerization. Glycosylation is a highly asynchronous SN 1-like process with an energy barrier of 10.2 kcal mol-1 . A proton moves from the Asp665 residue to the glycosidic oxygen. Asp553 acts as a nucleophile and attacks the anomeric carbon causing the cleavage of the glycosidic bond...
April 17, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665136/application-of-lectin-microarrays-for-the-analysis-of-seminal-plasma-glycome
#9
J Kołodziejczyk, O Blixt, B Olejnik, M Zimmer, M Ferens-Sieczkowska
We report application of lectin microarrays, exploiting simultaneous interaction of seminal plasma samples with multiple lectins of different sugar specificities to compare the glycomes of fertile and infertile men. The results indicate reduced lectin reactivity associated with decreased fertility, especially affecting oligozoospermic subjects and probably O-glycosylation. Lectin microarrays may become a potent tool for semen analysis in search of the association of glycosylation and male fertility.
April 17, 2018: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665036/stable-mirna-overexpression-in-human-cap-cells-engineering-alternative-production-systems-for-advanced-manufacturing-of-biologics-using-mir-136-and-mir-3074
#10
Benjamin L Weis, Nadine Guth, Simon Fischer, Silke Wissing, Simon Fradin, Karl-Heinz Holzmann, René Handrick, Kerstin Otte
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells still represent the major production host for therapeutic proteins. However, multiple limitations have been acknowledged leading to the search for alternative expression systems. CEVEC's amniocyte production (CAP) cells are human production cells demonstrated to enable efficient overexpression of recombinant proteins with human glycosylation pattern. However, CAP cells have not yet undergone any engineering approaches to optimize process parameters for a cheaper and more sustainable production of biopharmaceuticals...
April 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663699/ruminal-metagenomic-libraries-as-a-source-of-relevant-hemicellulolytic-enzymes-for-biofuel-production
#11
Estrella Duque, Abdelali Daddaoua, Baldo F Cordero, Zulema Udaondo, Carlos Molina-Santiago, Amalia Roca, Jennifer Solano, Eduarda Molina-Alcaide, Ana Segura, Juan-Luis Ramos
The success of second-generation (2G) ethanol technology relies on the efficient transformation of hemicellulose into monosaccharides and, particularly, on the full conversion of xylans into xylose for over 18% of fermentable sugars. We sought new hemicellulases using ruminal liquid, after enrichment of microbes with industrial lignocellulosic substrates and preparation of metagenomic libraries. Among 150 000 fosmid clones tested, we identified 22 clones with endoxylanase activity and 125 with β-xylosidase activity...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663501/the-effect-of-plant-lectins-on-the-survival-and-malignant-behaviors-of-thyroid-cancer-cells
#12
Engin Kaptan, Serap Sancar-Bas, Aylin Sancakli, Suna Bektas, Sehnaz Bolkent
Altered or aberrant glycosylation is a common phenomenon in cancer cells and it originates from changes in the expression of the enzymes, glycosyltransferase, and glycosidase which up-regulate in response to some oncogenes in the glycan synthesis pathway. In this present study, it has been aimed to determine the alteration of sialic acid and fucose expressions in the cell surface of human thyroid carcinoma cells and investigate the changes in tumorigenic and malignant characters after treating them with specific plant lectins...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663256/comparison-of-collisional-and-electron-based-dissociation-modes-for-middle-down-analysis-of-multiply-glycosylated-peptides
#13
Kshitij Khatri, Yi Pu, Joshua A Klein, Juan Wei, Catherine E Costello, Cheng Lin, Joseph Zaia
Analysis of singly glycosylated peptides has evolved to a point where large-scale LC-MS analyses can be performed at almost the same scale as proteomics experiments. While collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) remains the mainstay of bottom-up analyses, it performs poorly for the middle-down analysis of multiply glycosylated peptides. With improvements in instrumentation, electron-activated dissociation (ExD) modes are becoming increasingly prevalent for proteomics experiments and for the analysis of fragile modifications such as glycosylation...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662851/anti-colitic-effect-of-purple-carrot-on-dextran-sulfate-sodium-dss-induced-colitis-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#14
Yeung-Ju Kim, Jaehyun Ju, Jia-Le Song, Suk-Geun Yang, Kun-Young Park
The anti-colitic effect of purple carrot (PC) on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in C57BL6/J mice was compared with those of yellow carrot (YC), beet (BT), and red cabbage (RC). Component analysis showed that PC contained cyanidin-3-xyloglucoside, cyanidin-3-xylosyl(sinapoly-glucosyl)galactoside, cyanidin-3-xylosyl(feruloylglucosyl) galactoside, and cyanidin-3- O -(6- O -glycosyl-2- O -xylosylgalactoside). PC diet (5% in AIN 93G diet) strongly reduced DSS-induced colon shortening and inflammatory cell infiltration in mice, followed by RC, BT, and YC diets...
March 2018: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662661/targeting-oncogenic-ras-by-the-clostridium-perfringens-toxin-tpel
#15
Björn Schorch, Hannah Heni, Nour-Imene Zahaf, Tilman Brummer, Marina Mione, Gudula Schmidt, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Klaus Aktories
Clostridium perfringens toxin TpeL belongs to the family of large clostridial glycosylating toxins. The toxin causes N-acetylglucosaminylation of Ras proteins at threonine35 thereby inactivating the small GTPases. Here, we show that all main types of oncogenic Ras proteins (H-Ras, K-Ras and N-Ras) are modified by the toxin in vitro and in vivo . Toxin-catalyzed modification of Ras was accompanied by inhibition of the MAP kinase pathway. Importantly, TpeL inhibited the paradoxical activation of the MAP kinase pathway induced by the BRAF inhibitor Vemurafenib in the human melanoma cell line SBCL2...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662487/acquisition-of-n-glycosylation-sites-in-immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-genes-during-local-expansion-in-parotid-salivary-glands-of-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-patients
#16
Annie Visser, Marieke E Doorenspleet, Niek de Vries, Fred K L Spijkervet, Arjan Vissink, Richard J Bende, Hendrika Bootsma, Frans G M Kroese, Nicolaas A Bos
Previous studies revealed high incidence of acquired N-glycosylation sites acquired N-glycosylation sites in RNA transcripts encoding immunoglobulin heavy variable region (IGHV) 3 genes from parotid glands of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients. In this study, next generation sequencing was used to study the extent of ac-Nglycs among clonally expanded cells from all IGVH families in the salivary glands of pSS patients. RNA was isolated from parotid gland biopsies of five pSS patients and five non-pSS sicca controls...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662308/hypoglycemic-and-antioxidant-effect-of-tai-chi-exercise-training-in-older-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome
#17
Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez, Taide Laurita Arista-Ugalde, Juana Rosado-Pérez, Mirna Ruiz-Ramos, Edelmiro Santiago-Osorio
Introduction: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tai chi (TC) exercise training in healthy older adults has been demonstrated. However, there are no studies on this effect in older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TC exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in older adults with MetS. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was carried out with a sample of 110 older sedentary volunteers with clinical diagnoses of MetS: (i) a control group, n = 50, of individuals who do not participate in physical exercise, of which 37 fulfilled the entire study protocol, and (ii) an experimental group, n = 60, of subjects enrolled in a TC exercise training program (eight-form easy), 5 days a week for 6 months, in sessions of 50 min, under the supervision of a qualified instructor, of which 48 fulfilled the entire study protocol...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661697/cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-sexual-minority-women-18-59-years-old-findings-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2001-2012
#18
Billy A Caceres, Abraham A Brody, Perry N Halkitis, Caroline Dorsen, Gary Yu, Deborah A Chyun
OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority women (lesbian and bisexual) experience significant stigma, which may increase their cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for CVD (including mental distress, health behaviors, blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and total cholesterol) and CVD in sexual minority women compared with their heterosexual peers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2012) was conducted...
April 13, 2018: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661438/clinical-profile-of-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-liver-transplantation-results-after-a-multidisciplinary-team-intervention
#19
A Moura Neto, T G Bovi, C M Righetto, A R Fiore, L T Lot, S R Perales, E C de Ataide, I F S F Boin
BACKGROUND: Over the years, survival after liver transplantation has increased and metabolic complications are becoming more common, contributing to patients' morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to describe a population of patients with hepatic transplantation and diabetes mellitus (DM), evaluate the frequency of metabolic complications, and assess the impact of a multidisciplinary team on DM management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving interview and medical record analysis of 46 consecutive patients followed at the diabetes mellitus and liver transplantation unit of a tertiary university hospital, all evaluated by a multidisciplinary team...
April 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660509/glycosylation-enhanced-biocompatibility-of-the-supramolecular-hydrogel-of-an-anti-inflammatory-drug-for-topical-suppression-of-inflammation
#20
Taotao Xiong, Xianglian Li, Yanfang Zhou, Qianqian Song, Renshu Zhang, Lei Lei, Xingyi Li
Intravitreal/periocular injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) suspension is a common uveitis treatment, but it displays a high risk for serious side effects (e.g., high intraocular pressure, retinal toxicity). We report here an intravitreally injectable thermosensitive glycosylated TA (TA-SA-Glu) hydrogel, formed by covalently conjugating glucosamine (Glu) with succinate TA (TA-SA), for treating uveitis. The TA-SA-Glu hydrogelator forms a supramolecular hydrogel spontaneously in aqueous solution with a minimal gelation concentration of 0...
April 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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