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Jingni Wu, Yiming Wang, Sook-Young Park, Sang Gon Kim, Ju Soon Yoo, Sangryeol Park, Ravi Gupta, Kyu Young Kang, Sun Tae Kim
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating fungal diseases of rice and results in a huge loss of rice productivity worldwide. During the infection process, M. oryzae secretes a large number of glycosyl hydrolase proteins into the host apoplast to digest the cell wall and facilitate fungal ingression into host tissues. In this study, we identified a novel arabinofuranosidase-B (MoAbfB) protein that is secreted by M. oryzae during fungal infection. Deletion of MoAbfB from M...
2016: PloS One
Lisai Zhu, Haibing Lu, Yufeng Cao, Xiaochun Gai, Changming Guo, Yajing Liu, Jiaxu Liu, Xinping Wang
As one of the major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus caused a significant economic loss to the livestock industry worldwide. Although BVDV infections have increasingly been reported in China in recent years, the molecular aspects of those BVDV strains were barely characterized. In this study, we reported the identification and characterization of a novel BVDV isolate designated as SD-15 from cattle, which is associated with an outbreak characterized by severe hemorrhagic and mucous diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality in Shandong, China...
2016: PloS One
Ying Zhang, Xi Wang, Dan Cui, Jun Zhu
The human whole saliva is a vital body fluid to study the physiology and pathology of oral cavity. As a powerful technique for biomarker discovery, mass spectrometry-based proteomic strategy has been introduced to saliva analysis and identified hundreds of proteins and N-glycosylation sites. However, there still lacks of quantitative analysis, which is necessary for biomarker screening and biological researches. In this study, we established an integrated workflow by the combination of stable isotope dimethyl labeling, HILIC enrichment and high resolution mass spectrometry for both quantification of global proteome and N-glycoproteome of human saliva from oral ulcer patients...
October 20, 2016: Proteomics
Lucia Pavlikova, Mario Seres, Denisa Imrichova, Milan Hano, Andrej Rusnak, Martina Zamorova, Jaroslav Katrlik, Albert Breier, Zdena Sulova
In P-gp-positive cell variants obtained from L1210 cells either by selection with vincristine (L1210/R) or by transfection with the human gene encoding P-gp (L1210/T), we have previously described cross-resistance to tunicamycin (TNM), a protein N-glycosylation inhibitor. Here we studied whether this cross-resistance also underlies P-gp-positive variants of human acute myeloid leukemia cells (AML) derived from SKM-1 and MOLM-13 cells (SKM-1/VCR, SKM-1/LEN, MOLM-13/VCR) by selection with vincristine (VCR) and lenalidomide (LEN)...
October 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
Takeshi Harada, Hideki Yamamoto, Shosei Kishida, Michiko Kishida, Chihiro Awada, Toshifumi Takao, Akira Kikuchi
Wnt5b, a member of the same family of proteins as Wnt5a of which overexpression is associated with cancer aggressiveness, is suggested to be involved in cancer progression, however details remain unclarified. We analyzed biochemical properties of purified Wnt5b and the mode of secretion of Wnt5b by cancer cells. Wnt5b was glycosylated at three asparagine residues and lipidated at one serine residue, and these post-translational modifications of Wnt5b are essential for secretion. Purified Wnt5b showed Dvl2 phosphorylation and Rac activation abilities to a similar extent as Wnt5a...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Science
Emily C Lumley, Acadia R Osborn, Jessica E Scott, Amanda G Scholl, Vicki Mercado, Young T McMahan, Zachary G Coffman, Jay L Brewster
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has the ability to signal organelle dysfunction via a complex signaling network known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). In this work, hamster fibroblast cells exhibiting moderate levels of ER stress were compared to those exhibiting severe ER stress. Inhibition of N-linked glycosylation was accomplished via a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Dad1 subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex or by direct inhibition with tunicamycin (Tm). Temperature shift (TS) treatment generated weak activation of ER stress signaling when compared to doses of Tm that are typically used in ER stress studies (500-1000 nM)...
October 20, 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Suprithi Choudhary, Ashish Mourya, Swati Ahuja, Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, Anil Kumar
Stress is associated with many diseases and dysfunctions, such as depression, cardiovascular alterations, immunological function disorder, inflammation, obesity, and insulin resistance. Stress-induced inflammation is associated with the genesis of insulin resistance. Stress activates hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, Renin Angiotensin System pathway, and sympatho-adrenal system, all of which are involved in the production of cytokines, causing the negative downregulation of insulin signaling either by phosphorylating serine residues of IRS or by inhibiting the activity of Akt leading to insulin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Vahid Davoudi, Kiandokht Keyhanian, Riley M Bove, Tanuja Chitnis
Anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibody plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Studies have shown increased relapse rates in patients with NMO during pregnancy and postpartum. High estrogen levels during pregnancy can increase activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression, which is responsible for immunoglobulin production. Additionally, sex hormones may influence antibody glycosylation, with effects on antibody function. Estrogen decreases apoptosis of self-reactive B cells, through upregulation of antiapoptotic molecules...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Irma Elizabeth Huayanay-Espinoza, Felix Guerra-Castañon, María Lazo-Porras, Ana Castaneda-Guarderas, Nimmy Josephine Thomas, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Augusto A Valdivia-Bustamante, Germán Málaga
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess patients' achievement of ADA (American Diabetes Association) guideline recommendations for glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, and blood pressure in a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatient clinic in a low-middle income country (LMIC) setting. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with 123 ambulatory T2DM patients who are being treated at a public hospital in Lima, Peru. Data was gathered via standardized interviews, clinical surveys, and anthropomorphic measurements for each patient...
2016: PeerJ
Sedighe Moradi, Mohammad Javad Haji Ghanbari, Hedyeh Ebrahimi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Moreover, CVD accounts for primary cause of death among diabetic patients. Physicians, especially in the primary care setting, have effective role in the management of cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we aimed to compare the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in Type 2 diabetic patients attending to an urban health center as a primary care center with Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism Diabetes Clinic (IEMDC) as a tertiary center...
2016: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Ying Yang, Min Chen, Zongwei Li, Abdullah M S Al-Hatmi, Sybren de Hoog, Weihua Pan, Qiang Ye, Xiaochen Bo, Zhen Li, Shengqi Wang, Junzhi Wang, Huipeng Chen, Wanqing Liao
Penicillium capsulatum is a rare Penicillium species used in paper manufacturing, but recently it has been reported to cause invasive infection. To research the pathogenicity of the clinical Penicillium strain, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of the clinical and environmental strains of P. capsulatum. Comparative analyses of these two P. capsulatum strains and close related strains belonging to Eurotiales were performed. The assembled genome sizes of P. capsulatum are approximately 34.4 Mbp in length and encode 11,080 predicted genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rudrashish Haldar, Ankur Khandelwal, Devendra Gupta, Shashi Srivastava, Prabhat K Singh
Hyperglycaemia following surgical and anaesthetic stress is a well-established entity which might have undesirable clinical consequences in known diabetics. We encountered a rare event where an undiagnosed diabetic patient developed ketoacidosis in the immediate post-operative period which was her initial presenting symptom of deranged glucoregulation. Presumably, the stress induced by surgery and anaesthesia lead to the genesis of this event. We discuss the management of this case. In addition, we highlight the importance of glycosylated haemoglobin as a subject of future research in identifying such "at risk" patients and for stratifying the risk of hyperglycaemic complications in perioperative settings...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Ju Yeon Lee, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Gun Wook Park, Heeyoun Hwang, Hoi Keun Jeong, Ki Na Yun, Eun Sun Ji, Kwang Hoe Kim, Jun Seok Kim, Jong Won Kim, Sung Ho Yun, Chi-Won Choi, Seung Il Kim, Jong-Sun Lim, Seul-Ki Jeong, Young-Ki Paik, Soo-Youn Lee, Jisook Park, Su Yeon Kim, Young-Jin Choi, Yong-In Kim, Jawon Seo, Je-Yoel Cho, Myoung Jin Oh, Nari Seo, Hyun Joo An, Jin Young Kim, Jong Shin Yoo
Glycoprotein conformations are complex and heterogeneous. Currently, site-specific characterization of glycopeptides is a challenge. Herein, we sought to establish an efficient method of N-glycoprotein characterization using mass spectrometry. Using alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) as a model N-glycoprotein, its tryptic N-glycopeptides were identified, and the reproducibility of the data was examined in seven laboratories running different liquid chromatography-mass tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) platforms. We used three test samples and one blind sample to evaluate instrument performance with entire sample preparation workflow...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Nathan J Hare, Ling Y Lee, Ian Loke, Warwick J Britton, Bernadette M Saunders, Morten Thaysen-Andersen
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a prevalent and lethal infectious disease. The glycobiology associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of front-line alveolar macrophages is still unresolved. Herein, we investigated the regulation of protein N-glycosylation in human macrophages and their secreted microparticles (MPs) used for intercellular communication upon M. tb infection. LC-MS/MS-based proteomics and glycomics were performed to monitor the regulation of glycosylation enzymes and receptors and the N-glycome in in vitro-differentiated macrophages and in isolated MPs upon M...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Yoshiyuki Goto, Satoshi Uematsu, Hiroshi Kiyono
Intestinal epithelial cells apically express glycans, especially α1,2-fucosyl linkages, which work as a biological interface for the host-microbe interaction. Emerging studies have shown that epithelial α1,2-fucosylation is regulated by microbes and by group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s). Dysregulation of the gene (FUT2) encoding fucosyltransferase 2, an enzyme governing epithelial α1,2-fucosylation, is associated with various human disorders, including infection and chronic inflammatory diseases. This suggests a critical role for an interaction between microbes, epithelial cells and ILC3s mediated via glycan residues...
October 19, 2016: Nature Immunology
Laura Bouché, Maria Panico, Paul Hitchen, Daniel Binet, Federico Sastre, Alexandra Faulds-Pain, Esmeralda Valiente, Evgeny Vinogradov, Annie Aubry, Kelly Fulton, Susan Twine, Susan M Logan, Brendan W Wren, Anne Dell, Howard R Morris
Glycosylation of flagellins is a well recognized property of many bacterial species. In this study we describe the structural characterization of novel flagellar glycans from a number of hypervirulent strains of C. difficile. We used mass spectrometry (nano LC- MS and MS/MS analysis) to identify a number of putative glycopeptides which carried a variety of glycoform substitutions each of which was linked through an initial HexNAc residue to Ser or Thr. Detailed analysis of a LLDGSSTEIR glycopeptide released by tryptic digestion, which carried two variant structures, revealed that the glycopeptide contained, in addition to carbohydrate moieties, a novel structural entity...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Alireza Banazadeh, Lucas Veillon, Kerry M Wooding, Masoud Zabet, Yehia Mechref
Glycosylation is one of the most common post-translational modifications of proteins and plays essential roles in various biological processes, including protein folding, host-pathogen interaction, immune response, and inflammation and aberrant protein glycosylation is a well-known event in various disease states including cancer. As a result, it is critical to develop rapid and sensitive methods for the analysis of abnormal glycoproteins associated with diseases. Mass spectrometry in conjugation with different separation methods, such as capillary electrophoresis, ion mobility, and high performance liquid chromatography, has become a popular tool for glycoprotein analysis, providing highly informative fragments for structural identification of glycoproteins...
October 18, 2016: Electrophoresis
Peter L Stern, Richard Harrop
The natural history of a patient's cancer is often characterised by genetic diversity and sequential sweeps of clonal dominance. It is therefore not surprising that identifying the most appropriate tumour-associated antigen for targeted intervention is challenging. The 5T4 oncofoetal antigen was identified by searching for surface molecules shared between human trophoblast and cancer cells with the rationale that they may function to allow survival of the foetus as a semi-allograft in the mother or a tumour in its host...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Leena Liljedahl, Maiken Højgaard Pedersen, Jenny Norlin, James N McGuire, Peter James
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a late complication in both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and T2DM. Already at an early stage of DN morphological changes occur at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix where the majority of the proteins carry N-linked glycosylations. These glycosylated proteins are highly important in cell adhesion and cell-matrix processes but not much is known about how they change in DN or whether the distinct etiology of T1DM and T2DM could have an effect on their abundances...
2016: Clinical Proteomics
A Andrade, J Hope, A Allen, V Yorgan, D Lipscombe, J Q Pan
CACNA1I is a candidate schizophrenia risk gene. It encodes the pore-forming human CaV3.3 α1 subunit, a subtype of voltage-gated calcium channel that contributes to T-type currents. Recently, two de novo missense variations, T797M and R1346H, of hCaV3.3 were identified in individuals with schizophrenia. Here we show that R1346H, but not T797M, is associated with lower hCaV3.3 protein levels, reduced glycosylation, and lower membrane surface levels of hCaV3.3 when expressed in human cell lines compared to wild-type...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
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