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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655198/glycosylation-of-igg-fc-a-molecular-perspective
#1
Masato Kiyoshi, Kouhei Tsumoto, Akiko Ishii-Watabe, Jose M M Caaveiro
Antibodies of the IgG class carry a pair of oligosaccharides (N-glycans) in the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region. The importance of the N-glycan is clearly demonstrated by the profound effect it has in the physicochemical and biological properties of antibodies. The term "glycoengineering" has been coined to describe contemporary strategies to improve the performance of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies on the basis of modifications in the structure and composition of the N-glycan. These methodologies have resulted in the approval and commercialization of a new generation of antibodies with improved therapeutic efficacy...
June 26, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654657/hek293t-cell-lines-defective-for-o-linked-glycosylation
#2
James M Termini, Zachary A Silver, Bryony Connor, Aristotelis Antonopoulos, Stuart M Haslam, Anne Dell, Ronald C Desrosiers
Here we describe derivatives of the HEK293T cell line that are defective in their ability to generate mucin-type O-linked glycosylation. Using CRISPR/Cas9 and a single-cell GFP-sorting procedure, the UDP-galactose-4-epimerase (GALE), galactokinase 1 (GALK1), and galactokinase 2 (GALK2) genes were knocked out individually and in combinations with greater than 90% of recovered clones having the desired mutations. Although HEK293T cells are tetraploid, we found this approach to be an efficient method to target and disrupt all 4 copies of the target gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653977/exploitation-of-spr-to-investigate-the-importance-of-glycan-chains-in-the-interaction-between-lactoferrin-and-bacteria
#3
Noelle O'Riordan, Michelle Kilcoyne, Lokesh Joshi, Rita M Hickey
Bovine lactoferrin (LF) has been shown to prevent adhesion to and invasion of mammalian cell lines by pathogenic bacteria, with evidence for direct bacterial binding by the milk glycoprotein. However, the glycosylation pattern of LF changes over the lactation cycle. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect that this variation has on the milk glycoprotein's ability to interact with pathogens. Surface plasmon resonance technology was employed to compare the binding of LF from colostrum (early lactation) and mature milk (late lactation) to a panel of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Cronobacter sakazakii, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium)...
June 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653245/muscadinia-rotundifolia-noble-defense-response-to-plasmopara-viticola-inoculation-by-inducing-phytohormone-mediated-stilbene-accumulation
#4
Chaoxia Wang, Jiao Wu, Yali Zhang, Jiang Lu
Downy mildew (DM), one of the most devastating grape diseases worldwide, is caused by the biotrophic oomycete Plasmopara viticola (Pv). In general, grapevine responds to Pv infection with the accumulation of phytoalexins as part of the innate immune system, and diverse phytoalexins are induced on grapevines with different DM-resistance levels in response to Pv invasion. However, the regulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis during grapevine against Pv is still unclear. Herein, we detected stilbenes by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and found that resveratrol was accumulated to higher level and earlier in the DM-immune Muscadinia rotundifolia 'Noble' than that in the DM-susceptible Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' after Pv inoculation...
June 26, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653181/laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-for-the-management-of-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Salman Al Sabah, Eliana Al Haddad, Talal H Muzaffar, Ahmad Almulla
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is on a continuous rise worldwide, with major studies clearly correlating obesity with the development of chronic metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery has proven to be beneficial in the management of this condition; however, a limited number of studies exist on its effect on type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for the management of patients with type 1 diabetes (DM1)...
June 26, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651914/phenylsulfonylfuroxan-no-donor-phenols-synthesis-and-multifunctional-activities-evaluation
#6
Yundong Xie, Yaping Yang, Sen Li, Yanhong Xu, Wenfang Lu, Zizhang Chen, Guangde Yang, Yiping Li, Yongxiao Cao, Xiaoli Bian
Phenylsulfonyfuroxan nitric oxide (NO)-donor phenols were designed, synthesized and evaluated. The compounds were designed through a symbiotic approach using selected phenols and phenylsulfonylfuroxan NO-donor. The antioxidant activities of the hybrid compounds T2-T6 showed to be good in vivo. Compounds T4 and T6 revealed excellent yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and anti-glycosylation activity. All of the compounds exhibited strong NO releasing activity and significant anti-platelet aggregation activity...
June 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651174/label-free-chronopotentiometric-glycoprofiling-of-prostate-specific-antigen-using-sialic-acid-recognizing-lectins
#7
Stefan Belicky, Hana Černocká, Tomas Bertok, Alena Holazova, Kamila Réblová, Emil Paleček, Jan Tkac, Veronika Ostatná
In recent decades, it has become clear that most of human proteins are glycosylated and that protein glycosylation plays an important role in health and diseases. At present, simple, fast and inexpensive methods are sought for clinical applications and particularly for improved diagnostics of various diseases, including cancer. We propose a label- and reagent-free electrochemical method based on chronopotentiometric stripping (CPS) analysis and a hanging mercury drop electrode for the detection of interaction of sialylated protein biomarker a prostate specific antigen (PSA) with two important lectins: Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA)...
June 19, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650534/hyperosmolality-on-protein-glycosylation-in-cho-cells
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649776/improving-the-baculovirus-expression-vector-system-with-vankyrin-enhanced-technology
#9
Kendra H Steele, Barbara J Stone, Kathleen M Franklin, Xiufeng Zhang, Haobo Jiang, Bruce A Webb, Christoph Geisler, Angelika Fath-Goodin
The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is a widely used platform for the production of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. However, the BEVS has limitations in comparison to other higher eukaryotic expression systems. First, the insect cell lines used in the BEVS cannot produce glycoproteins with complex-type N-glycosylation patterns. Second, protein production is limited as cells die and lyse in response to baculovirus infection. To delay cell death and lysis, we transformed several insect cell lines with an expression plasmid harboring a vankyrin gene (P-vank-1), which encodes an anti-apoptotic protein...
June 26, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649731/protein-glycan-quinary-interactions-in-crowding-environment-unveiled-by-nmr-spectroscopy
#10
Ana Diniz, Jorge S Dias, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero, Filipa Marcelo, Eurico J Cabrita
Protein-glycan interactions as modulators for quinary structure in crowding environments were explored. The interaction between human galectin 3 (Gal-3) and distinct macromolecular crowders, such as bovine and human serum albumin (BSA and HSA), Ficoll 70 and PEG3350, was scrutinized. The molecular recognition event of the specific ligand, lactose, by Gal-3 in crowding conditions was evaluated. Gal-3 interactions were monitored by NMR analysing chemical shift perturbation (CSP) and line broadening of 1H15N-HSQC signals...
June 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649280/differential-%C3%AE-glucosidase-expression-as-a-function-of-carbon-source-availability-in-talaromyces-amestolkiae-a-genomic-and-proteomic-approach
#11
Laura I de Eugenio, Juan A Méndez-Líter, Manuel Nieto-Domínguez, Lola Alonso, Jesús Gil-Muñoz, Jorge Barriuso, Alicia Prieto, María Jesús Martínez
BACKGROUND: Genomic and proteomic analysis are potent tools for metabolic characterization of microorganisms. Although cellulose usually triggers cellulase production in cellulolytic fungi, the secretion of the different enzymes involved in polymer conversion is subjected to different factors, depending on growth conditions. These enzymes are key factors in biomass exploitation for second generation bioethanol production. Although highly effective commercial cocktails are available, they are usually deficient for β-glucosidase activity, and genera like Penicillium and Talaromyces are being explored for its production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649260/tomato-udp-glucose-sterol-glycosyltransferases-a-family-of-developmental-and-stress-regulated-genes-that-encode-cytosolic-and-membrane-associated-forms-of-the-enzyme
#12
Karla Ramirez-Estrada, Nídia Castillo, Juan A Lara, Monserrat Arró, Albert Boronat, Albert Ferrer, Teresa Altabella
Sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs) catalyze the glycosylation of the free hydroxyl group at C-3 position of sterols to produce sterol glycosides. Glycosylated sterols and free sterols are primarily located in cell membranes where in combination with other membrane-bound lipids play a key role in modulating their properties and functioning. In contrast to most plant species, those of the genus Solanum contain very high levels of glycosylated sterols, which in the case of tomato may account for more than 85% of the total sterol content...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648617/a-perspective-on-the-structural-and-functional-constraints-for-immune-evasion-insights-from-the-influenza-virus
#13
REVIEW
Nicholas C Wu, Ian A Wilson
Influenza virus evolves rapidly to constantly escape from natural immunity. Most humoral immune responses to influenza virus target the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA), which is the major antigen on the surface of the virus. The HA is comprised of a globular head domain for receptor binding and a stem domain for membrane fusion. The major antigenic sites of HA are located in the globular head subdomain, which is highly tolerant of amino-acid substitutions and continual addition of glycosylation sites. Nonetheless, the evolution of the receptor-binding site (RBS) and the stem region on HA is severely constrained by their functional roles in engaging the host receptor and in mediating membrane fusion, respectively...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648011/-relationship-between-carotid-plaque-and-diabetic-retinopathy-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients
#14
Y Y Xiao, M K Yuan, P Xi, B Gao
Objective: To analyze the relevant factors for diabetic retinopathy. Methods: The data of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients undergoing general examination and ophthalmology specialist consultation were collected from the inpatients of Department of Endocrinology in Beijing Airport Hospital between 2013 and 2016, and the relevant factors of diabetic retinopathy were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 432 cases were analyzed, including 168 cases of non-diabetic retinopathy and 264 cases of diabetic retinopathy...
June 27, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647192/genetic-diversity-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-eg95-sequences-of-echinococcus-granulosus-implications-for-eg95-vaccine-application
#15
Wei Pan, De-Sheng Chen, Yun-Juan Lu, Hui-Wen Xu, Wen-Ting Hao, Ya-Wen Zhang, Su-Ping Qin, Kui-Yang Zheng, Ren-Xian Tang
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the genetic variability of EG95 sequences and provide guidance for EG95 vaccine application against Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). METHODS: We analysed EG95 polymorphism by collecting total 97 different E. granulosus isolates from 12 different host species that originated from 10 different countries. Multiple sequence alignments and the homology were performed by Lasergene 1 (DNASTAR Inc., Madison, WI), and the phylogenetic analysis was performed by using MEGA5...
May 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646214/structural-and-biochemical-studies-of-sulphotransferase-18-from-arabidopsis-thaliana-explain-its-substrate-specificity-and-reaction-mechanism
#16
Felix Hirschmann, Florian Krause, Petra Baruch, Igor Chizhov, Jonathan Wolf Mueller, Dietmar J Manstein, Jutta Papenbrock, Roman Fedorov
Sulphotransferases are a diverse group of enzymes catalysing the transfer of a sulfuryl group from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) to a broad range of secondary metabolites. They exist in all kingdoms of life. In Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. twenty-two sulphotransferase (SOT) isoforms were identified. Three of those are involved in glucosinolate (Gl) biosynthesis, glycosylated sulphur-containing aldoximes containing chemically different side chains, whose break-down products are involved in stress response against herbivores, pathogens, and abiotic stress...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645725/cell-surface-n-glycan-alteration-in-hepad38-cell-lines-expressing-hepatitis-b-virus
#17
Surya Agung Priyambada, Ryo Misaki, Toru Okamoto, Yuta Okamoto, Takao Ohashi, Keiji Ueda, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Kazuhito Fujiyama
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the smallest partially double-stranded DNA virus known to infect humans. Worldwide, more than 50% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases are related to chronic Hepatitis B. Development of HCC from normal liver cells is characterized by changes in cell surface N-glycans, which can promote the invasive behavior of tumor cells, leading ultimately to the progression of cancer. However, little is understood about the cell surface N-glycans of HBV-infected liver cells. We try to address this by taking advantage of the HepAD38 cell line, which can replicate HBV in the absence of tetracycline [tet(-)] in growth medium...
June 20, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645261/genome-wide-analysis-of-udp-glycosyltransferase-super-family-in-brassica-rapa-and-brassica-oleracea-reveals-its-evolutionary-history-and-functional-characterization
#18
Jingyin Yu, Fan Hu, Komivi Dossa, Zhaokai Wang, Tao Ke
BACKGROUND: Glycosyltransferases comprise a highly divergent and polyphyletic multigene family that is involved in widespread modification of plant secondary metabolites in a process called glycosylation. According to conserved domains identified in their amino acid sequences, these glycosyltransferases can be classified into a single UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) 1 superfamily. RESULTS: We performed genome-wide comparative analysis of UGT genes to trace evolutionary history in algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, and angiosperms; then, we further investigated the expansion mechanisms and function characterization of UGT gene families in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea...
June 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645002/synthesis-of-s-linked-trisaccharide-glycal-of-derhodinosylurdamycin-a-discovery-of-alkyl-thiocyanate-as-an-efficient-electrophile-for-stereoselective-sulfenylation-of-2-deoxy-glycosyl-lithium
#19
Padam P Acharya, Kedar N Baryal, Cristin E Reno, Jianglong Zhu
Stereoselective synthesis of S-linked trisaccharide glycal of angucycline antitumor antibiotic derhodinosylurdamycin A is described. The synthesis has been accomplished employing our previously reported umpolung S-glycosylation strategy - stereoselective sulfenylation of 2-deoxy glycosyl lithium. It was found that sugar-derived thiocyanate was a better electrophile than corresponding asymmetric disulfide in this type of stereoselective sulfenylation.
June 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644880/o-glcnacylation-mediates-the-control-of-cytosolic-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-activity-via-pgc1%C3%AE
#20
Pedro Latorre, Luis Varona, Carmen Burgos, José A Carrodeguas, Pascual López-Buesa
PGC1α is a coactivator of many transcription factors and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) is a key enzyme for gluconeogenesis. PGC1α interacts with the transcription factor PPARγ to stimulate PCK1 expression and thus de novo glucose synthesis. These proteins are not only important for central energy metabolism but also for supplying intermediates for other metabolic pathways, including lipidogenesis and protein synthesis and might therefore be important factors in the ethiopathogenesis of metabolic disorders like diabetes but also in other pathologies like cancer...
2017: PloS One
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