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High Altitude Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784570/research-gaps-in-wilderness-medicine
#1
Daniel Tritz, Kody Dormire, Travis Brachtenbach, Joshua Gordon, Donald Sanders, David Gearheart, Julia Crawford, Matt Vassar
INTRODUCTION: Wilderness medicine involves the treatment of individuals in remote, austere environments. Given the high potential for injuries as well as the unique treatment modalities required in wilderness medicine, evidence-based clinical practice guidelines are necessary to provide optimal care. In this study, we identify evidence gaps from low-quality recommendations in wilderness medicine clinical practice guidelines and identify new/ongoing research addressing them. METHODS: We included relevant clinical practice guidelines from the Wilderness Medical Society and obtained all 1C or 2C level recommendations...
May 18, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751123/high-altitude-species-high-profits-can-the-trade-in-wild-harvested-fritillaria-cirrhosa-liliaceae-be-sustained
#2
REVIEW
A B Cunningham, J A Brinckmann, S-J Pei, P Luo, U Schippmann, X Long, Y-F Bi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don bulbs contain alkaloids and are one of the most intensively exploited alpine Himalayan medicinal species. In terms of proprietary medicines, our study shows that 210 F. cirrhosa products are offered by 46 suppliers, most of which (44) are situated in China and two in Nepal. A widepread commercial use is as one of the main ingredients in cough syrups. A well known example is "Nin Jiom Pei Pa Koa Herbal Cough & Throat Syrup", which typically contains more F...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728134/ethnobotany-of-the-sierra-nevada-del-cocuy-g%C3%A3-ic%C3%A3-n-climate-change-and-conservation-strategies-in-the-colombian-andes
#3
Mireia Alcántara Rodríguez, Andrea Angueyra, Antoine M Cleef, Tinde Van Andel
BACKGROUND: The Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán in the Colombian Andes is protected as a National Natural Park since 1977 because of its fragile páramo ecosystems, extraordinary biodiversity, high plant endemism, and function as water reservoir. The vegetation on this mountain is threatened by expanding agriculture, deforestation, tourism, and climate change. We present an ethnobotanical inventory among local farmer communities and discuss the effects of vegetation change on the availability of useful plants...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701197/-role-of-drug-transporters-in-rational-use-of-drugs-at-high-altitude-area
#4
Wenbin Li, Baohua Yan, Rong Wang, Zhengping Jia
Pharmacokinetics plays a key role in rational use of medicines. Many factors can affect the drug's pharmacokinetics. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of hypoxia on hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme, but uncommon on drug transporters. Actually, drug transporter is a key factor for activation of the drugs transport across the cell membrane into the inside of cells, such as multidrug resistance protein (MDR), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), organic cation transporter (OCT), organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP), organic anion transporter (OAT), qligopeptide transporter (PEPT), etc...
March 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657371/comparison-of-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-between-both-eyes-a-bedside-ultrasonography-approach
#5
Uday Yanamandra, Amul Gupta, Srinivasa A Bhattachar, Sushma Yanamandra, Subrat K Das, Sagarika Patyal, Rajan Grewal, Velu Nair
Context: Optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) has long been accepted as a reliable proxy of intracranial pressure especially in critical care and bedside settings. The present consensus is to measure ONSD in both eyes and take average value, which is cumbersome and a potential cause of discomfort to the patient. Aim: We aim to compare the values of ONSD of the right and left eye in a random sample as measured by bedside ocular ultrasonography (USG) in Indian adults...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620950/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-reveals-altered-drug-pharmacokinetics-in-humans-during-acute-exposure-to-terrestrial-high-altitude-clinical-justification-for-dose-adjustment
#6
Damian Miles Bailey, Benjamin S Stacey, Mark Gumbleton
OBJECTIVE: While physiological responses during acute ascent to terrestrial high altitude (HA) have the potential to alter the pharmacokinetics (PKs) that define absorption and disposition of medicinal drugs, there have been no systematic reviews and meta-analyses performed to date. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in June 2017 using NCBI PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Ovid MEDLINE databases to identify relevant observational studies. Studies were deemed eligible based on the following criteria: (1) participants: healthy, nonacclimatized male or female lowlanders (born and bred at sea level) and (2) environment: exposure to low altitude (LA, ≤600 m), followed by terrestrial high altitude (HA, ≤24 hours to ≥2500 m), the time course specifically selected to avoid interpretive complications associated with erythrocytosis...
April 5, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596018/the-star-data-reporting-guidelines-for-clinical-high-altitude-research
#7
Monika Brodmann Maeder, Hermann Brugger, Matiram Pun, Giacomo Strapazzon, Tomas Dal Cappello, Marco Maggiorini, Peter Hackett, Peter Bärtsch, Erik R Swenson, Ken Zafren
Brodmann Maeder, Monika, Hermann Brugger, Matiram Pun, Giacomo Strapazzon, Tomas Dal Cappello, Marco Maggiorini, Peter Hackett, Peter Baärtsch, Erik R. Swenson, Ken Zafren (STAR Core Group), and the STAR Delphi Expert Group. The STARdata reporting guidelines for clinical high altitude research. High AltMedBiol. 19:7-14, 2018. AIMS: The goal of the STAR (STrengthening Altitude Research) initiative was to produce a uniform set of key elements for research and reporting in clinical high-altitude (HA) medicine...
March 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583031/the-2018-lake-louise-acute-mountain-sickness-score
#8
Robert C Roach, Peter H Hackett, Oswald Oelz, Peter Bärtsch, Andrew M Luks, Martin J MacInnis, J Kenneth Baillie
Roach, Robert C., Peter H. Hackett, Oswald Oelz, Peter Bärtsch, Andrew M. Luks, Martin J. MacInnis, J. Kenneth Baillie, and The Lake Louise AMS Score Consensus Committee. The 2018 Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Score. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2018.- The Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) scoring system has been a useful research tool since first published in 1991. Recent studies have shown that disturbed sleep at altitude, one of the five symptoms scored for AMS, is more likely due to altitude hypoxia per se, and is not closely related to AMS...
March 13, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581383/high-altitude-arterialised-capillary-earlobe-blood-gas-measurement-using-the-abbott-i-stat
#9
Christopher T Lewis, W L Malein, Ian Chesner, S Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Measurement of physiological parameters in extreme environments is essential to advancing knowledge, prophylaxis and treatment of altitude sickness. Point-of-care testing facilitates investigation in non-specialist and remote settings, as well as becoming increasingly popular at the bedside for real-time results in the clinical environment. Arterialised capillary earlobe blood gases are recommended as a valid alternative to arterial sampling in research. This study aimed to test the feasibility of obtaining and analysing daily earlobe samples at high altitude...
March 25, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545281/pulmonary-vascular-endothelium-the-orchestra-conductor-in-respiratory-diseases-highlights-from-basic-research-to-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Alice Huertas, Christophe Guignabert, Joan A Barberà, Peter Bärtsch, Jahar Bhattacharya, Sunita Bhattacharya, Maria R Bonsignore, Laurence Dewachter, Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan, Peter Dorfmüller, Mark T Gladwin, Marc Humbert, Tom Kotsimbos, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Olivier Sanchez, Laurent Savale, Ugo Testa, Martin R Wilkins
The European Respiratory Society (ERS) Research Seminar entitled "Pulmonary vascular endothelium: orchestra conductor in respiratory diseases - highlights from basic research to therapy" brought together international experts in dysfunctional pulmonary endothelium, from basic science to translational medicine, to discuss several important aspects in acute and chronic lung diseases. This review will briefly sum up the different topics of discussion from this meeting which was held in Paris, France on October 27-28, 2016...
April 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474899/high-altitude-organic-gold-the-production-network-for-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-from-far-western-nepal
#11
Mariève Pouliot, Dipesh Pyakurel, Carsten Smith-Hall
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H.Sung, J.M.Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora, a high altitude Himalayan fungus-caterpillar product found in alpine meadows in China, Bhutan, Nepal, and India, has been used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine system for over 2000 years. Heightened demand in China over the past 15 years, coupled with limited production, has led to a price hike and increased economic importance of harvests to rural households throughout the species' range...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430358/comparative-de-novo-transcriptome-analysis-of-male-and-female-sea-buckthorn
#12
Ankush Bansal, Mehul Salaria, Tashil Sharma, Tsering Stobdan, Anil Kant
Sea buckthorn is a dioecious medicinal plant found at high altitude. The plant has both male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals. In this article, whole transcriptome de novo assemblies of male and female flower bud samples were carried out using Illumina NextSeq 500 platform to determine the role of the genes involved in sex determination. Moreover, genes with differential expression in male and female transcriptomes were identified to understand the underlying sex determination mechanism...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333043/picroside-i-and-picroside-ii-from-tissue-cultures-of-picrorhiza-kurroa
#13
Yamjala Ganeshkumar, Ajmera Ramarao, Ciddi Veeresham
Background: Picrorhiza kurroa (PK) belongs to Scrophulariaceae family and is a representative endemic, medicinal herb, widely distributed throughout the higher altitudes of alpine Himalayas from west to east, between 3000 and 4500 m above mean sea level. Objective: The objective of the present study is to assess the production of picroside I and picroside II from tissue cultures of PK. Materials and Methods: Auxiliary shoot tips of PK were incubated in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid and kinetin phytohormones...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318839/-research-on-suitable-distribution-of-paris-yunnanensis-based-on-remote-sensing-and-gis
#14
Yao Luo, Yong-Bo Dong, Cong Zhu, Wen-Fu Peng, Qing-Mao Fang, Xin-Liang Xu
Paris yunnanensis is a kind of rare medicinal herb, having a very high medicinal value. Studying its suitable ecological condition can provide a basis for its rational exploitation, artificial cultivation, and sustainable utilization. A practicable method in this paper has been proposed to research the suitable regional distribution of P. yunnanensis in Sichuan province. By the case study of P. yunnanensis in Sichuan province, and according to related literatures, the suitable ecological condition of P. yunnanensis such as altitude, mean annual temperature (MAT), annual precipitation, regional slope, slope ranges, vegetative cover, and soil types was analyzed following remote sensing (RS) and GIS...
November 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186199/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-prunus-mira-koehne-from-the-tibet-plateau-in-china-and-recommended-conservation-strategies
#15
Wenquan Bao, Tana Wuyun, Tiezhu Li, Huimin Liu, Zhongmao Jiang, Xuchun Zhu, Hongyan Du, Yu-E Bai
Prunus mira Koehne, an important economic fruit crop with high breeding and medicinal values, and an ancestral species of many cultivated peach species, has recently been declared an endangered species. However, basic information about genetic diversity, population structure, and morphological variation is still limited for this species. In this study, we sampled 420 P. mira individuals from 21 wild populations in the Tibet plateau to conduct a comprehensive analysis of genetic and morphological characteristics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167679/effects-of-mountain-uplift-and-climatic-oscillations-on-phylogeography-and-species-divergence-in-four-endangered-notopterygium-herbs
#16
Khurram Shahzad, Yun Jia, Fu-Lin Chen, Umar Zeb, Zhong-Hu Li
Mountain uplift and climatic fluctuations are important driving forces that have affected the geographic distribution and population dynamics history of organisms. However, it is unclear how geological and climatic events might have affected the phylogeographic history and species divergence in high-alpine herbal plants. In this study, we analyzed the population demographic history and species differentiation of four endangered Notopterygium herbs on the high-altitude Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and adjacent areas...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165123/prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-hypertension-and-prehypertension-in-a-working-population-at-high-altitude-in-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Yang Shen, Chun Chang, Jingru Zhang, Ying Jiang, Bingying Ni, Yanling Wang
BACKGROUND: Little information is available on the epidemiology of hypertension and prehypertension at high altitude in China, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension, prehypertension and their risk factors among Chinese working population at high altitude regions. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in an occupational sample of 4198 employees aged 20-59 years on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau between May to July 2013. Information from a self-administered questionnaire, physical examinations and laboratory measurements were obtained from each participant...
April 4, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158642/insights-into-nuclear-dna-content-hydrogen-peroxide-and-antioxidative-enzyme-activities-during-transverse-thin-cell-layer-organogenesis-and-ex-vitro-acclimatization-of-malaxis-wallichii-a-threatened-medicinal-orchid
#18
Biswajit Bose, Suman Kumaria, Hiranjit Choudhury, Pramod Tandon
Malaxis wallichii (Lindl.) Deb, a small, perennial, monopodial, terrestrial orchid, is endemic to tropical Himalayas at an altitude of 1200-2000 m asl. The pseudobulbs are important ingredients of century old drug 'Ashtavarga' and a polyherbal energetic tonic 'Chyavanprash'. An efficient genetically stable in vitro propagation protocol using transverse thin cell layer culture system was established for M. wallichii . In the present report, meta-topolin alone proved to be three times more beneficial compared to other routinely used cytokinins in inducing highest number of shoot buds, plant height and growth of regenerated shoots...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131669/research-in-high-altitude-and-mountain-emergency-medicine-is-methodology-key
#19
Hermann Brugger, Matiram Pun, Erik R Swenson, Markus Falk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102462/altitudinal-variation-of-berberine-total-phenolics-and-flavonoid-content-in-thalictrum-foliolosum-and-their-correlation-with-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activities
#20
Garima Pandey, Sayyada Khatoon, M M Pandey, A K S Rawat
BACKGROUND: The quality of herbal medicine is determined by its secondary metabolites, which may vary according to growth, season and altitude etc. OBJECTIVE: We studied the variation in phytochemistry and biological activities of Thalictrum foliolosum (TF) roots collected from four sites at different altitudes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The berberine content in different extracts of T. foliolosum roots collected from various altitudes was estimated using HPTLC...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
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