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Compromised immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651181/antifouling-biocides-impairment-of-bivalve-immune-system-by-chlorothalonil
#1
Amanda da Silveira Guerreiro, Regina Coimbra Rola, Monique Tomazele Rovani, Simone Rutz da Costa, Juliana Zomer Sandrini
Marine ecosystems are subjected to a variety of contaminants. Antifouling paints, for example, have been extensively used to protect ship surfaces from marine biofouling, but their toxicity has generated great concern. Thus, we evaluated the effect of the biocide chlorothalonil on the immune system of Perna perna mussels. The mussels were exposed to 0 (control), 0.1μg/L and 10μg/L of chlorothalonil for up to 96h. After 24h and 96h of exposure, the following immune-related parameters were analyzed in the hemolymph of mussels: total hemocyte count, cell adhesion, phagocytic activity, level of reactive oxygen species, cell viability and comet assay...
June 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649630/towards-human-exploration-of-space-the-theseus-review-series-on-muscle-and-bone-research-priorities
#2
Thomas Lang, Jack J W A Van Loon, Susan Bloomfield, Laurence Vico, Angele Chopard, Joern Rittweger, Antonios Kyparos, Dieter Blottner, Ilkka Vuori, Rupert Gerzer, Peter R Cavanagh
Without effective countermeasures, the musculoskeletal system is altered by the microgravity environment of long-duration spaceflight, resulting in atrophy of bone and muscle tissue, as well as in deficits in the function of cartilage, tendons, and vertebral disks. While inflight countermeasures implemented on the International Space Station have evidenced reduction of bone and muscle loss on low-Earth orbit missions of several months in length, important knowledge gaps must be addressed in order to develop effective strategies for managing human musculoskeletal health on exploration class missions well beyond Earth orbit...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647908/cmv-immune-evasion-and-manipulation-of-the-immune-system-with-aging
#3
REVIEW
Sarah E Jackson, Anke Redeker, Ramon Arens, Debbie van Baarle, Sara P H van den Berg, Chris A Benedict, Luka Čičin-Šain, Ann B Hill, Mark R Wills
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes numerous proteins and microRNAs that function to evade the immune response and allow the virus to replicate and disseminate in the face of a competent innate and acquired immune system. The establishment of a latent infection by CMV, which if completely quiescent at the level of viral gene expression would represent an ultimate in immune evasion strategies, is not sufficient for lifelong persistence and dissemination of the virus. CMV needs to reactivate and replicate in a lytic cycle of infection in order to disseminate further, which occurs in the face of a fully primed secondary immune response...
June 24, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646912/influences-of-age-related-changes-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-macrophages-during-in-vitro-culture
#4
Yuan Yin, Rui-Xin Wu, Xiao-Tao He, Xin-Yue Xu, Jia Wang, Fa-Ming Chen
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in cytotherapy and tissue engineering due to their immunosuppressive ability and regenerative potential. Recently, the immunomodulatory influence of MSCs has been gaining increasing attention because their functional roles in modulating immune responses likely have high clinical significance. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the influence of MSCs on macrophages (Mφs) in in-vitro cell culture systems...
June 24, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629922/vaccination-with-a-codon-optimized-a27l-containing-plasmid-decreases-virus-replication-and-dissemination-after-vaccinia-virus-challenge
#5
Osmarie Martínez, Ariana Bravo Cruz, Saritza Santos, Maite Ramírez, Eric Miranda, Joanna Shisler, Miguel Otero
Smallpox is a disease caused by Variola virus (VARV). Although eradicated by WHO in 1980, the threat of using VARV on a bioterror attack has increased. The current smallpox vaccine ACAM2000, which consists of live vaccinia virus (VACV), causes complications in individuals with a compromised immune system or with previously reported skin diseases. Thus, a safer and efficacious vaccine needs to be developed. Previously, we reported that our virus-free DNA vaccine formulation, a pVAX1 plasmid encoding codon-optimized VACV A27L gene (pA27LOPT) with and without Imiquimod adjuvant, stimulates A27L-specific production of IFN-γ and increases humoral immunity 7days post-vaccination...
June 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627729/the-immune-deficiency-of-chromosome-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#6
Megan Morsheimer, Terri F Brown Whitehorn, Jennifer Heimall, Kathleen E Sullivan
The syndrome originally described by Dr. Angelo DiGeorge had immunodeficiency as a central component. When a 22q11.2 deletion was identified as the cause in the majority of patients with DiGeorge syndrome, the clinical features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome became so expansive that the immunodeficiency became less prominent in our thinking about the syndrome. This review will focus on the immune system and the changes in our understanding over the past 50 years. Initially characterized as a pure defect in T cell development, we now appreciate that many of the clinical features related to the immunodeficiency are well downstream of the limitation imposed by a small thymus...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625873/an-approach-to-the-study-of-the-immunity-functions-of-bivalve-haemocytes-physiology-and-molecular-aspects
#7
REVIEW
Mario Alberto Burgos-Aceves, Caterina Faggio
The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is an ecologically and economically important species. It has been used in programs of monitoring of pollution, since it is sessile organism that is capable of accumulating pollutants in tissues through filter feeding. Due to an increase of pollutants in the environment, marine mussels present physiological alterations that compromise their innate immune system, which can latter lead to opportunistic diseases. The haemocytes are the cells in charge of the immune response in the Mediterranean mussel and in other mollusks...
June 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621429/the-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligase-dgrn-is-essential-for-drosophila-innate-immunity
#8
Bella Koltun, Eliza Shackelford, François Bonnay, Nicolas Matt, Jean Marc Reichhart, Amir Orian
The ability of metazoans to combat pathogenic infection involves both systemic and local responses to the invading pathogens. Ubiquitin and SUMO pathways molecularly regulate the response to infection, immune signaling and gene expression. Here, we report that Degringolade (Dgrn, CG10981), a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase connecting the two pathways, is essential for the innate immunity response in Drosophila. dgrn(DK) null and heterozygous mutant adult flies are severely immune-compromised and succumb rapidly to both pathogenic bacteria and fungi infections...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617750/skin-and-wound-care-in-lymphedema-patients-a-taxonomy-primer-and-literature-review
#9
Caroline E Fife, Wade Farrow, Adelaide A Hebert, Nathan C Armer, Bob R Stewart, Janice N Cormier, Jane M Armer
BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a condition of localized protein-rich swelling from damaged or malfunctioning lymphatics. Because the immune system is compromised, there is a high risk of infection. Infection in patients with lymphedema may present in a variety of ways. OBJECTIVE: The goals of this review were to standardize the terminology of skin breakdown in the context of lymphedema, synthesize the available information to create best practice recommendations in support of the American Lymphedema Framework Project update to its Best Practices document, and create recommendations for further research...
July 2017: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599652/regulatory-t-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-myasthenia-gravis
#10
REVIEW
K M Danikowski, S Jayaraman, B S Prabhakar
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating disease of the central nervous system primarily mediated by T lymphocytes with specificity to neuronal antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, myasthenia gravis (MG) primarily involves destruction of the neuromuscular junction by antibodies specific to the acetylcholine receptor. Both autoimmune diseases are thought to result from loss of self-tolerance, which allows for the development and function of autoreactive lymphocytes. Although the mechanisms underlying compromised self-tolerance in these and other autoimmune diseases have not been fully elucidated, one possibility is numerical, functional, and/or migratory deficits in T regulatory cells (Tregs)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584993/vaccination-with-phage-displayed-antigenic-epitope
#11
Yicun Wang, Li Wang
Phage-displayed antigenic epitope is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which could be used as an delivery system to design vaccines without compromising safety and tolerability. Here, we describe the vaccination with phage-displayed antigenic epitope (M13 phage-displayed SLAQVKYTSASSI) against Candida albicans infection in BALB/c mice by this method.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584988/methodology-for-anti-cryptococcal-vaccine-development
#12
Ashok K Chaturvedi, Floyd L Wormley
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, the predominant etiological agents of cryptococcosis, are fungal pathogens that cause disease ranging from a mild pneumonia to life-threatening infections of the central nervous system (CNS). C. neoformans is widely considered an opportunistic fungal pathogen which targets individuals with impaired immune systems, while C. gattii is predominantly associated with fungal infections in immunocompetent individuals. However, C. neoformans and C. gattii have certainly been identified as the causative agent of cryptococcosis in both immune compromised and immune competent individuals...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583445/novel-concepts-of-prevention-and-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis-through-barrier-and-immune-manipulations-with-implications-for-the-atopic-march
#13
REVIEW
Tali Czarnowicki, James G Krueger, Emma Guttman-Yassky
Skin barrier abnormalities have been suggested to play an essential role in initiation of early atopic dermatitis (AD). Antigen penetration through a compromised barrier likely leads to increased innate immune responses, antigen-presenting cell stimulation, and priming of overt cutaneous disease. In a TH2-promoting environment, T-cell/B-cell interactions occurring in regional lymph nodes lead to excessive IgE switch. Concurrent redistribution of memory T cells into the circulation not only leads to exacerbation of AD through T-cell skin infiltration but also spreads beyond the skin to initiate the atopic march, which includes food allergy, asthma, and allergic rhinitis...
June 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583160/differential-expression-of-cathepsin-e-in-transthyretin-amyloidosis-from-neuropathology-to-the-immune-system
#14
Nádia Pereira Gonçalves, João Moreira, Diana Martins, Paulo Vieira, Laura Obici, Giampaolo Merlini, Margarida Saraiva, Maria João Saraiva
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports a key role for inflammation in the neurodegenerative process of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). While there seems to be an overactivation of the neuronal interleukin-1 signaling pathway, the immune response is apparently compromised in FAP. Accordingly, little immune cell infiltration is observed around pre-fibrillar or fibrillar amyloid deposits, with the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon remaining poorly understood. Cathepsin E (CtsE) is an important intermediate for antigen presentation and chemotaxis, but its role in the pathogenesis of FAP disease remains unknown...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581441/nk-cell-heparanase-controls-tumor-invasion-and-immune-surveillance
#15
Eva M Putz, Alyce J Mayfosh, Kevin Kos, Deborah S Barkauskas, Kyohei Nakamura, Liam Town, Katharine J Goodall, Dean Y Yee, Ivan Kh Poon, Nikola Baschuk, Fernando Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, Mark D Hulett, Mark J Smyth
NK cells are highly efficient at preventing cancer metastasis but are infrequently found in the core of primary tumors. Here, have we demonstrated that freshly isolated mouse and human NK cells express low levels of the endo-β-D-glucuronidase heparanase that increase upon NK cell activation. Heparanase deficiency did not affect development, differentiation, or tissue localization of NK cells under steady-state conditions. However, mice lacking heparanase specifically in NK cells (Hpsefl/fl NKp46-iCre mice) were highly tumor prone when challenged with the carcinogen methylcholanthrene (MCA)...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575045/the-effect-of-alcohol-on-the-differential-expression-of-cluster-of-differentiation-14-gene-associated-pathways-and-genetic-network
#16
Diana X Zhou, Yinghong Zhao, Jessica A Baker, Qingqing Gu, Kristin M Hamre, Junming Yue, Byron C Jones, Melloni N Cook, Lu Lu
Alcohol consumption affects human health in part by compromising the immune system. In this study, we examined the expression of the Cd14 (cluster of differentiation 14) gene, which is involved in the immune system through a proinflammatory cascade. Expression was evaluated in BXD mice treated with saline or acute 1.8 g/kg i.p. ethanol (12.5% v/v). Hippocampal gene expression data were generated to examine differential expression and to perform systems genetics analyses. The Cd14 gene expression showed significant changes among the BXD strains after ethanol treatment, and eQTL mapping revealed that Cd14 is a cis-regulated gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570545/transplantation-of-zebrafish-pediatric-brain-tumors-into-immune-competent-hosts-for-long-term-study-of-tumor-cell-behavior-and-drug-response
#17
Mattie J Casey, Katarzyna Modzelewska, Daniela Anderson, James Goodman, Elena F Boer, Laura Jimenez, Douglas Grossman, Rodney A Stewart
Tumor cell transplantation is an important technique to define the mechanisms controlling cancer cell growth, migration, and host response, as well as to assess potential patient response to therapy. Current methods largely depend on using syngeneic or immune-compromised animals to avoid rejection of the tumor graft. Such methods require the use of specific genetic strains that often prevent the analysis of immune-tumor cell interactions and/or are limited to specific genetic backgrounds. An alternative method in zebrafish takes advantage of an incompletely developed immune system in the embryonic brain before 3 days, where tumor cells are transplanted for use in short-term assays (i...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567591/ribosomal-pcr-assay-of-excised-intervertebral-discs-from-patients-undergoing-single-level-primary-lumbar-microdiscectomy
#18
Todd F Alamin, Marcus Munoz, Alicia Zagel, Agnes Ith, Eugene Carragee, Ivan Cheng, Gaetano Scuderi, Indre Budvytiene, Niaz Banei
PURPOSE: To determine the presence of infectious microorganisms in the herniated discs of immunocompetent patients, using methodology that we hoped would be of higher sensitivity and specificity than has been reported in the past. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant rate of positive cultures for low virulent organisms in excised HNP samples (range 19-53%). These studies have served as the theoretical basis for a pilot trial, and then, a well done prospective randomized trial that demonstrated that systemic treatment with antibiotics may yield lasting improvements in a subset of patients with axial back pain...
May 31, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566663/promising-therapies-for-fungal-infection-based-on-the-study-to-elucidate-mechanisms-to-cope-with-stress-in-candida-species-translated-article
#19
Kazuyuki Hirai, Tatsuya Inukai, Hironobu Nakayama
In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections has been increasing, particularly among patients with immune systems compromised by human immunodeficiency virus infection, organ transplantation, and/or chemotherapy for cancer. Current therapies for treating systemic fungal infection have limited effectiveness and have created problems of adverse reactions and drug resistance. These issues therefore motivate us to develop novel antifungals. Elucidation of stress response mechanisms and virulence factors in pathogenic fungi is required in developing an effective antifungal strategy...
2017: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558016/high-mortality-due-to-sepsis-in-native-hawaiians-and-african-americans-the-multiethnic-cohort
#20
Michelle L Matter, Yurii B Shvetsov, Chase Dugay, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand, Lynne R Wilkens, Gertraud Maskarinec
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is a severe systemic response to infection with a high mortality rate. A higher incidence has been reported for older people, in persons with a compromised immune system including cancer patients, and in ethnic minorities. We analyzed sepsis mortality and its predictors by ethnicity in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among 191,561 white, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, and Latino cohort members, 49,347 deaths due to all causes and 345 deaths due to sepsis were recorded during follow-up from 1993-96 until 2010...
2017: PloS One
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