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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214099/lymph-node-stroma-dynamics-and-approaches-for-their-visualization
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca Gentek, Marc Bajénoff
Lymphoid stromal cells are best known as the architectural cells of lymphoid organs. For decades, they have been considered as inert elements of the immune system but this view has changed dramatically in recent years, when it was discovered that they are endowed with critical immunoregulatory functions. It is now accepted that without them, the adaptive immune response would be compromised, if not abrogated entirely. Here, we review the function of the major lymphoid stromal cell types; the way they remodel upon inflammation; discuss the available tools to track their behavior; and introduce several methodological approaches that we believe will help improving our knowledge of these pivotal cell types...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211579/impact-of-treatment-variability-on-survival-in-immuno-competent-and-immuno-compromised-patients-with-primary-central-nervous-lymphoma
#2
Reem Karmali, Chadi Nabhan, Adam M Petrich, Jeffrey Raizer, David Peace, Rimas Lukas, Leo I Gordon, Sanjib Basu, Vineela Chukkapalli, Parameswaran Venugopal
Patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) treated in the 'real-world' setting do not represent those treated on clinical trials and might not be treated similarly. We studied characteristics and variability in care for 113 newly diagnosed PCNSL patients treated at 5 institutions in the Chicago area between 2000 and 2012. In 111 patients, single modality therapy with a high dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) regimen +/- rituximab, was most commonly employed (n = 65), and 34 underwent radiotherapy (+/- systemic therapy)...
February 17, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211138/nocturnal-autonomic-nervous-system-activity-and-morning-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-young-adult-african-americans
#3
Kimberly A Bell, Ihori Kobayashi, Yuanxiu Chen, Thomas A Mellman
Compromised sleep and increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity are implicated in the pathogenesis of, and disparities in, cardiovascular disease. Parasympathetic dominance during sleep may be important for cardiovascular health. Sleep and autonomic balance influence immune activity, which impacts atherogenesis. We evaluated relationships between autonomic balance during sleep and morning levels of the immune activating cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6. Ninety-four (59 female) young adult African Americans without medical conditions and substance use disorders spent 2 consecutive nights in a clinical research unit for sleep recordings and blood drawing on awakening...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209479/subacute-immunotoxicity-of-the-marine-phycotoxin-yessotoxin-in-rats
#4
Sara F Ferreiro, Natalia Vilariño, Cristina Carrera, M Carmen Louzao, Germán Santamarina, Antonio G Cantalapiedra, J Manuel Cifuentes, Andrés C Vieira, Luis M Botana
Yessotoxin (YTX) is a marine phycotoxin produced by dinoflagellates and accumulated in filter feeding shellfish. YTX content in shellfish is regulated by many food safety authorities to protect human health, although currently no human intoxication episodes have been unequivocally related to YTX presence in food. The immune system has been proposed as one of the target organs of YTX due to alterations of lymphoid tissues and cellular and humoral components. The aim of the present study was to explore subacute immunotoxicity of YTX in rats by evaluating the hematological response, inflammatory cytokine biomarkers and the presence of YTX-induced structural alterations in the spleen and thymus...
February 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207945/cd4-cd25-garp-tregs-display-a-compromised-suppressive-function-in-patients-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#5
Yuzhen Wei, Kunwu Yu, Hui Wei, Xin Su, Ruirui Zhu, Huairui Shi, Haitao Sun, Quan Luo, Wenbin Xu, Junhui Xiao, Yucheng Zhong, Qiutang Zeng
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a lethal inflammatory heart disease and closely connected with dysfunction of the immune system. Glycoprotein -A repetitions predominant (GARP) expressed on activated CD4(+) T cells with suppressive activity has been established. This study aimed to investigate the frequency and function of circulating CD4(+) CD25(+) GARP(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in DCM. 45 DCM patients and 46 controls were enrolled in this study. There was a significant increase in peripheral Th1 and Th17 number and their related cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17), and an obvious decrease in Treg number, TGF-β1 levels and the expression of FOXP3 and GARP in patients with DCM as compared with controls...
February 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199361/bombyx-mori-and-aedes-aegypti-form-multi-functional-immune-complexes-that-integrate-pattern-recognition-melanization-coagulants-and-hemocyte-recruitment
#6
Dennis R Phillips, Kevin D Clark
The innate immune system of insects responds to wounding and pathogens by mobilizing multiple pathways that provide both systemic and localized protection. Key localized responses in hemolymph include melanization, coagulation, and hemocyte encapsulation, which synergistically seal wounds and envelop and destroy pathogens. To be effective, these pathways require a targeted deposition of their components to provide protection without compromising the host. Extensive research has identified a large number of the effectors that comprise these responses, but questions remain regarding their post-translational processing, function, and targeting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192515/salmonella-typhimurium-disrupts-sirt1-ampk-checkpoint-control-of-mtor-to-impair-autophagy
#7
Raja Ganesan, Nina Judith Hos, Saray Gutierrez, Julia Fischer, Joanna Magdalena Stepek, Evmorphia Daglidu, Martin Krönke, Nirmal Robinson
During intracellular infections, autophagy significantly contributes to the elimination of pathogens, regulation of pro-inflammatory signaling, secretion of immune mediators and in coordinating the adaptive immune system. Intracellular pathogens such as S. Typhimurium have evolved mechanisms to circumvent autophagy. However, the regulatory mechanisms targeted by S. Typhimurium to modulate autophagy have not been fully resolved. Here we report that cytosolic energy loss during S. Typhimurium infection triggers transient activation of AMPK, an important checkpoint of mTOR activity and autophagy...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191782/preventing-pluripotent-cell-teratoma-in-regenerative-medicine-applied-to-hematology-disorders
#8
Aurelie Bedel, François Beliveau, Isabelle Lamrissi-Garcia, Benoit Rousseau, Isabelle Moranvillier, Benoit Rucheton, Veronique Guyonnet-Dupérat, Bruno Cardinaud, Hubert de Verneuil, François Moreau-Gaudry, Sandrine Dabernat
Iatrogenic tumorigenesis is a major limitation for the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in hematology. The teratoma risk comes from the persistence of hiPSCs in differentiated cell populations. Our goal was to evaluate the best system to purge residual hiPSCs before graft without compromising hematopoietic repopulation capability. Teratoma risk after systemic injection of hiPSCs expressing the reporter gene luciferase was assessed for the first time. Teratoma formation in immune-deficient mice was tracked by in vivo bioimaging...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185865/cutaneous-squamous-cell-cancer-cscc-risk-and-the-human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-system
#9
REVIEW
Pooja Yesantharao, Wei Wang, Nilah M Ioannidis, Shadmehr Demehri, Alice S Whitemore, Maryam M Asgari
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common cancer among Caucasians in the United States, with rising incidence over the past decade. Treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer, including cSCC, in the United States was estimated to cost $4.8 billion in 2014. Thus, an understanding of cSCC pathogenesis could have important public health implications. Immune function impacts cSCC risk, given that cSCC incidence rates are substantially higher in patients with compromised immune systems. We report a systematic review of published associations between cSCC risk and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system...
February 6, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185595/exploring-pathways-for-building-trust-in-vaccination-and-strengthening-health-system-resilience
#10
Sachiko Ozawa, Ligia Paina, Mary Qiu
BACKGROUND: Trust is critical to generate and maintain demand for vaccines in low and middle income countries. However, there is little documentation on how health system insufficiencies affect trust in vaccination and the process of re-building trust once it has been compromised. We reflect on how disruptions to immunizations systems can affect trust in vaccination and can compromise vaccine utilization. We then explore key pathways for overcoming system vulnerabilities in order to restore trust, to strengthen the resilience of health systems and communities, and to promote vaccine utilization...
November 15, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183530/tnf%C3%AE-are-mice-display-abnormal-lymphatics-and-develop-tertiary-lymphoid-organs-in-the-mesentery
#11
Sonia Rehal, Pierre-Yves von der Weid
Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with a persistent and enhanced response to environmental antigens. As an adaptive response to this exaggerated immune state, affected tissue typically develops tertiary lymphoid organs. Studies of Crohn disease (CD), a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestinal tract, report tertiary lymphoid organs present within the mucosal wall, along with other lymphatic diseases, such as lymphangiogenesis and obstructed lymphatic vessels. These observations suggest that downstream mesenteric lymphatic vessels and lymph drainage into mesenteric lymph nodes may be compromised...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177046/stable-expression-of-mycobacterium-bovis-antigen-85b-in-auxotrophic-m-bovis-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#12
Caroline Rizzi, Ana Carolina Peiter, Thaís Larré Oliveira, Amilton Clair Pinto Seixas, Karen Silva Leal, Daiane Drawanz Hartwig, Fabiana Kommling Seixas, Sibele Borsuk, Odir Antônio Dellagostin
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, responsible for causing major losses in livestock. A cost effective alternative to control the disease could be herd vaccination. The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has a limited efficacy against bovine TB, but can improved by over-expression of protective antigens. The M. bovis antigen 85B demonstrates ability to induce protective immune response against bovine TB in animal models. However, current systems for the construction of recombinant BCG expressing multiple copies of the gene result in strains of low genetic stability that rapidly lose the plasmid in vivo...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156004/comparative-analysis-of-crispr-cas-systems-in-klebsiella-genomes
#13
Juntao Shen, Li Lv, Xudong Wang, Zhilong Xiu, Guoqiang Chen
Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system provides adaptive immunity against invasive genetic elements. Bacteria of the genus Klebsiella are important nosocomial opportunistic pathogens. However, information of CRISPR-Cas system in Klebsiella remains largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the CRISPR-Cas systems of 68 complete genomes of Klebsiella representing four species. All the elements for CRISPR-Cas system (cas genes, repeats, leader sequences, and PAMs) were characterized. Besides the typical Type I-E and I-F CRISPR-Cas systems, a new Subtype I system located in the ABC transport system-glyoxalase region was found...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154552/chemokines-associated-with-pathologic-responses-to-orthopedic-implant-debris
#14
REVIEW
Nadim J Hallab, Joshua J Jacobs
Despite the success in returning people to health saving mobility and high quality of life, the over 1 million total joint replacements implanted in the US each year are expected to eventually fail after approximately 15-25 years of use, due to slow progressive subtle inflammation to implant debris compromising the bone implant interface. This local inflammatory pseudo disease state is primarily caused by implant debris interaction with innate immune cells, i.e., macrophages. This implant debris can also activate an adaptive immune reaction giving rise to the concept of implant-related metal sensitivity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149647/hepatitis-c-and-kidney-disease-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Rashad S Barsoum, Emad A William, Soha S Khalil
Hepatitis-C (HCV) infection can induce kidney injury, mostly due to formation of immune-complexes and cryoglobulins, and possibly to a direct cytopathic effect. It may cause acute kidney injury (AKI) as a part of systemic vasculitis, and augments the risk of AKI due to other etiologies. It is responsible for mesangiocapillary or membranous glomerulonephritis, and accelerates the progression of chronic kidney disease due to other causes. HCV infection increases cardiovascular and liver-related mortality in patients on regular dialysis...
March 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148794/hiv-1-vpu-downmodulates-icam-1-expression-resulting-in-decreased-killing-of-infected-cd4-t-cells-by-nk-cells
#16
Scott M Sugden, Tram N Q Pham, Éric A Cohen
: HIV-1 Vpu is known to alter the expression of numerous cell surface molecules. Given the ever-increasing list of Vpu targets identified to date, we undertook a proteomic screen to discover novel cell membrane proteins modulated by this viral protein. Plasma membrane proteome isolates from Vpu-inducible T cells were subjected to SILAC-based mass spectrometry analysis and putative targets were validated by infection of primary CD4(+) T cells. We report here that while Intercellular Adhesion Molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-3 are upregulated by HIV-1 infection, expression of Vpu offsets this increase by downregulating these molecules from the cell surface...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131595/short-day-length-enhances-physiological-resilience-of-the-immune-system-against-2-deoxy-d-glucose-induced-metabolic-stress-in-a-tropical-seasonal-breeder-funambulus-pennanti
#17
Sameer Gupta, Chandana Haldar
Studies demonstrate the importance of metabolic resources in the regulation of reproduction and immune functions in seasonal breeders. In this regard, the restricted energy availability can be considered as an environmental variable that may act as a seasonal stressor and can lead to compromised immune functions. The present study explored the effect of photoperiodic variation in the regulation of immune function under metabolic stress condition. The T-cell-dependent immune response in a tropical seasonal breeder Funambulus pennanti was studied following the inhibition of cellular glucose utilization with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG)...
January 26, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120842/gut-permeability-and-mucosal-inflammation-bad-good-or-context-dependent
#18
REVIEW
R Ahmad, M F Sorrell, S K Batra, P Dhawan, A B Singh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease. A breach in the mucosal barrier, otherwise known as "leaky gut," is alleged to promote mucosal inflammation by intensifying immune activation. However, interaction between the luminal antigen and mucosal immune system is necessary to maintain mucosal homeostasis. Furthermore, manipulations leading to deregulated gut permeability have resulted in susceptibility in mice to colitis as well as to creating adaptive immunity. These findings implicate a complex but dynamic association between mucosal permeability and immune homeostasis; however, they also emphasize that compromised gut permeability alone may not be sufficient to induce colitis...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120841/intestinal-helminth-infection-impacts-the-systemic-distribution-and-function-of-the-naive-lymphocyte-pool
#19
I L King, K Mohrs, A P Meli, J Downey, P Lanthier, F Tzelepis, J H Fritz, A V Tumanov, M Divangahi, E A Leadbetter, M Mohrs
Homeostasis is a fundamental principle of biological systems. A paradigm of immune homeostasis is the remarkably constant number of naive T and B lymphocytes in the body that continuously circulate through the secondary lymphoid organs to maximize immune surveillance. Whether the dynamics and distribution of the systemic naive lymphocyte pool is affected following organ-specific infection is not known. Here we show that, following infection of mice with an enteric helminth, naive T and B lymphocytes accumulate in the T helper type 2-reactive mesenteric lymph node while they are concurrently depleted from non-draining peripheral lymph nodes...
January 25, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119474/negative-autogenous-control-of-the-master-type-iii-secretion-system-regulator-hrpl-in-pseudomonas-syringae
#20
Christopher Waite, Jörg Schumacher, Milija Jovanovic, Mark Bennett, Martin Buck
: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a principal virulence determinant of the model bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae T3SS effector proteins inhibit plant defense signaling pathways in susceptible hosts and elicit evolved immunity in resistant plants. The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor HrpL coordinates the expression of most T3SS genes. Transcription of hrpL is dependent on sigma-54 and the codependent enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS for hrpL promoter activation...
January 24, 2017: MBio
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