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Compromised immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326085/dectin-1-compromises-innate-responses-and-host-resistance-against-neospora-caninum-infection
#1
Murilo Vieira da Silva, Flávia Batista Ferreira França, Caroline Martins Mota, Arlindo Gomes de Macedo Júnior, Eliézer Lucas Pires Ramos, Fernanda Maria Santiago, José Roberto Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca Mineo
Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that has drawn increasing interest due to its association with worldwide repetitive bovine abortions, which cause billionaire losses to the meat and dairy industries annually. Innate immunity plays an important role in infection control, and N. caninum activates the production of inflammatory mediators through toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Advances in the knowledge of initial host-parasite interactions are desirable for the design of control measures against the infection, obliterating its pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319612/colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-is-a-central-component-of-the-foreign-body-response-to-biomaterial-implants-in-rodents-and-non-human%C3%A2-primates
#3
Joshua C Doloff, Omid Veiseh, Arturo J Vegas, Hok Hei Tam, Shady Farah, Minglin Ma, Jie Li, Andrew Bader, Alan Chiu, Atieh Sadraei, Stephanie Aresta-Dasilva, Marissa Griffin, Siddharth Jhunjhunwala, Matthew Webber, Sean Siebert, Katherine Tang, Michael Chen, Erin Langan, Nimit Dholokia, Raj Thakrar, Meirigeng Qi, Jose Oberholzer, Dale L Greiner, Robert Langer, Daniel G Anderson
Host recognition and immune-mediated foreign body response to biomaterials can compromise the performance of implanted medical devices. To identify key cell and cytokine targets, here we perform in-depth systems analysis of innate and adaptive immune system responses to implanted biomaterials in rodents and non-human primates. While macrophages are indispensable to the fibrotic cascade, surprisingly neutrophils and complement are not. Macrophages, via CXCL13, lead to downstream B cell recruitment, which further potentiated fibrosis, as confirmed by B cell knockout and CXCL13 neutralization...
March 20, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318408/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-immune-mediated-liver-injury-and-compromise-virus-control-during-acute-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-mice
#4
Mengmeng Qu, Xu Yuan, Dan Liu, Yuhong Ma, Jun Zhu, Jun Cui, Mengxue Yu, Changyong Li, Deyin Guo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as therapeutic tools not only for their ability to differentiate toward different cells, but also for their unique immunomodulatory properties. However, it is still unknown how MSCs may affect immunity during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study was designed to explore the effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in a mouse model of acute HBV infection. Mice were injected with 1 × 10(6) BM-MSCs, which stained with chloromethyl derivatives of fluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, 24 h before hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA (pHBV1...
February 2, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315744/cardiac-implantable-electronic-device-infections-who-is-at-greatest-risk
#5
Parijat Saurav Joy, Gagan Kumar, Jeanne E Poole, Barry London, Brian Olshansky
BACKGROUND: Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device (CIED) infections are associated with hospitalization, mortality, increased costs and adverse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Determine the burden of infections for CIEDs based on device type, associated comorbidities and clinical characteristics over a 12-year period. METHODS: Utilizing the National Inpatient Sample database from 2000-2012, procedures for device related infection (DRI) were identified using ICD-9-CM code for CIED removal with diagnosis codes for device-related infection or systemic infection...
March 15, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314594/brain-ischemia-suppresses-immunity-in-the-periphery-and-brain-via-different-neurogenic-innervations
#6
Qiang Liu, Wei-Na Jin, Yaou Liu, Kaibin Shi, Haoran Sun, Fang Zhang, Chao Zhang, Rayna J Gonzales, Kevin N Sheth, Antonio La Cava, Fu-Dong Shi
Brain ischemia inhibits immune function systemically, with resulting infectious complications. Whether in stroke different immune alterations occur in brain and periphery and whether analogous mechanisms operate in these compartments remains unclear. Here we show that in patients with ischemic stroke and in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, natural killer (NK) cells display remarkably distinct temporal and transcriptome profiles in the brain as compared to the periphery. The activation of catecholaminergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to splenic atrophy and contraction of NK cell numbers in the periphery through a modulated expression of SOCS3, whereas cholinergic innervation-mediated suppression of NK cell responses in the brain involves RUNX3...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301312/identification-of-two-meloidogyne-hapla-genes-and-an-investigation-of-their-roles-in-the-plant-nematode-interaction
#7
Cynthia Gleason, Frederik Polzin, Samer S Habash, Lei Zhang, Jan Utermark, Florian M W Grundler, Abdelnaser Elashry
Root-knot nematodes are soil-borne pathogens that invade and establish feeding sites in plant roots. They have an extremely broad host range, including most vascular plants. During infection of a susceptible host, root-knot nematodes secrete molecules called effectors that help them establish an intimate interaction with the plant and, at the same time, allow them to evade or suppress plant immune responses. Despite the fact that Meloidogyne hapla is a significant pest on several food crops, no effectors have been characterized from this root-knot nematode species thus far...
February 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300322/astroglia-as-a-cellular-target-for-neuroprotection-and-treatment-of-neuro-psychiatric-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Beihui Liu, Anja G Teschemacher, Sergey Kasparov
Astrocytes are key homeostatic cells of the central nervous system. They cooperate with neurons at several levels, including ion and water homeostasis, chemical signal transmission, blood flow regulation, immune and oxidative stress defense, supply of metabolites and neurogenesis. Astroglia is also important for viability and maturation of stem-cell derived neurons. Neurons critically depend on intrinsic protective and supportive properties of astrocytes. Conversely, all forms of pathogenic stimuli which disturb astrocytic functions compromise neuronal functionality and viability...
March 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298276/early-life-nutritional-programming-of-cognition-the-fundamental-role-of-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-mediating-the-relation-between-early-life-environment-and-learning-and-memory-process
#9
REVIEW
Laura Moody, Hong Chen, Yuan-Xiang Pan
The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281321/basis-of-bone-metabolism-around-dental-implants-during-osseointegration-and-peri-implant-bone-loss
#10
REVIEW
Angel Insua, Alberto Monje, Hom-Lay Wang, Richard J Miron
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of publications in the field of implant dentistry, there are limited studies to date investigating the biology and metabolism of bone healing around dental implants and their implications in peri-implant marginal bone loss. PURPOSE: The aim of this review article is to provide a thorough understanding of the biological events taking place during osseointegration and the subsequent early and late phases of bone remodeling around dental implants...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277904/genome-wide-functional-analysis-in-candida-albicans
#11
Thabiso E Motaung, Ruan Ells, Carolina H Pohl, Jacobus Albertyn, Toi J Tsilo
Candida albicans is an important etiological agent of superficial and life-threatening infections in individuals with compromised immune systems. To date, we know of several overlapping genetic networks that govern virulence attributes in this fungal pathogen. Classical use of deletion mutants has led to the discovery of numerous virulence factors over the years, and genome-wide functional analysis has propelled gene discovery at an even faster pace. Indeed, a number of recent studies using large-scale genetic screens followed by genome-wide functional analysis has allowed for the unbiased discovery of many new genes involved in C...
February 8, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275375/a-comparative-phase-i-study-of-combination-homologous-subtype-c-dna-mva-and-env-gp140-protein-adjuvant-hiv-vaccines-in-two-immunization-regimes
#12
Sarah Joseph, Killian Quinn, Aldona Greenwood, Alethea V Cope, Paul F McKay, Peter J Hayes, Jakub T Kopycinski, Jill Gilmour, Aleisha N Miller, Christof Geldmacher, Yuka Nadai, Mohamed I M Ahmed, David C Montefiori, Len Dally, George Bouliotis, David J M Lewis, Roger Tatoud, Ralf Wagner, Mariano Esteban, Robin J Shattock, Sheena McCormack, Jonathan Weber
There remains an urgent need for a prophylactic HIV vaccine. We compared combined MVA and adjuvanted gp140 to sequential MVA/gp140 after DNA priming. We expected Env-specific CD4+ T-cells after DNA and MVA priming, and Env-binding antibodies in 100% individuals after boosting with gp140 and that combined vaccines would not compromise safety and might augment immunogenicity. Forty volunteers were primed three times with DNA plasmids encoding (CN54) env and (ZM96) gag-pol-nef at 0, 4 and 8 weeks then boosted with MVA-C (CN54 env and gag-pol-nef) and glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-aqueous formulation (GLA-AF) adjuvanted CN54gp140...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275140/antibody-independent-function-of-human-b-cells-contributes-to-antifungal-t-cell-responses
#13
Rui Li, Ayman Rezk, Hulun Li, Jennifer L Gommerman, Alexandre Prat, Amit Bar-Or
Fungal infections (e.g., Candida albicans) can manifest as serious medical illnesses, especially in the elderly and immune-compromised hosts. T cells are important for Candida control. Whether and how B cells are involved in antifungal immunity has been less clear. Although patients with agammaglobulinemia exhibit normal antifungal immunity, increased fungal infections are reported following B cell-depleting therapy, together pointing to Ab-independent roles of B cells in controlling such infections. To test how human B cells may contribute to fungal-associated human T cell responses, we developed a novel Ag-specific human T cell/B cell in vitro coculture system and found that human B cells could induce C...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270626/rxlr-effector-avr2-up-regulates-a-brassinosteroid-responsive-bhlh-transcription-factor-to-suppress-immunity
#14
Dionne Turnbull, Lina Yang, Shaista Naqvi, Susan Breen, Lydia Welsh, Jennifer Stephens, Jennifer Morris, Petra C Boevink, Peter E Hedley, Jiasui Zhan, Paul R J Birch, Eleanor M Gilroy
An emerging area in plant research focuses on antagonism between regulatory systems governing growth and immunity. Such crosstalk represents a point of vulnerability for pathogens to exploit. AVR2, an RXLR effector secreted by the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans, interacts with potato BSL1, a putative phosphatase implicated in growth-promoting brassinosteroid (BR) hormone signalling. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants expressing the effector exhibit transcriptional and phenotypic hallmarks of over-active BR signalling, and show enhanced susceptibility to P...
March 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267635/associations-between-fetal-hla-g-genotype-and-birth-weight-and-placental-weight-in-a-large-cohort-of-pregnant-women-possible-implications-for-hla-diversity
#15
Johanne Emmery, Ole B Christiansen, Line Lynge Nilsson, Mette Dahl, Peter Skovbo, Anna Margrethe Møller, Rudi Steffensen, Thomas Vauvert F Hviid
Birth weight and placental weight are crucial parameters for the survival of fetuses and newborns in mammals. High variation in the MHC is important for an effective adaptive immune response. The maternal immune system must be controlled in relation to the semi-allogenic fetus. The immunoregulatory HLA/MHC class Ib gene, HLA-G, is strongly expressed on extravillous trophoblast cells. We investigated birth weight and placental weight of the newborns in mothers heterozygous for an HLA-G 14bp insertion (Ins)/deletion (Del) gene polymorphism...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266114/interaction-of-lifestyle-behaviour-or-systemic-diseases-with-dental-caries-and-periodontal-diseases-consensus-report-of-group-2-of-the-joint-efp-orca-workshop-on-the-boundaries-between-caries-and-periodontal-diseases
#16
Iain L C Chapple, Philippe Bouchard, Maria Grazia Cagetti, Guglielmo Campus, Maria-Clotilde Carra, Fabio Cocco, Luigi Nibali, Philippe Hujoel, Marja L Laine, Peter Lingstrom, David J Manton, Eduardo Montero, Nigel Pitts, Hélène Rangé, Nadine Schlueter, Wim Teughels, Svante Twetman, Cor Van Loveren, Fridus Van der Weijden, Alexandre R Vieira, Andreas G Schulte
Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors, such as a requirement for a pathogenic plaque biofilm, yet they exhibit distinct pathophysiologies. Multiple exposures contribute to their causal pathways, and susceptibility involves risk factors that are inherited (e.g. genetic variants), and those that are acquired (e...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259992/ebv%C3%A2-bart%C3%A2-6%C3%A2-3p-and-cellular-microrna%C3%A2-197-compromise-the-immune-defense-of-host-cells-in-ebv%C3%A2-positive-burkitt-lymphoma
#17
Yang-Min Zhang, Yan Yu, He-Ping Zhao
The present study aimed to identify the association between Epstein‑Barr virus (EBV) microRNA (miRNA) and cellular miRNA in compromising the immune system, which contributes to the development of Burkitt lymphoma (BL). The present study selected cellular miR‑197 as the focus of the experiments due to the previous report that it is differentially expressed and the observation that interleukin‑6 receptor (IL‑6R) is a virtual target of miR‑197 and EBV‑BamHI A region rightward transcript (BART)‑6‑3p...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258056/novel-immunodeficient-pde6b-rd1-mouse-model-of-retinitis-pigmentosa-to-investigate-potential-therapeutics-and-pathogenesis-of-retinal-degeneration
#18
Alaknanda Mishra, Barun Das, Madhu Nath, Srikanth Iyer, Ashwani Kesarwani, Jashdeep Bhattacharjee, Shailendra Arindkar, Preeti Sahay, Kshama Jain, Parul Sahu, Prakriti Sinha, Thirumurthy Velpandian, Perumal Nagarajan, Pramod Upadhyay
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a common retinal degeneration disease caused by mutation in any gene of the photo transduction cascade and results in photoreceptor dystrophy. Over decades, several animal models have been used to address the need for elucidation of effective therapeutics and factors regulating retinal degeneration to prohibit or renew the damaged retina. However, controversies over immune privilege of retina during cell transplantation and role of immune modulation during RP still remain largely uninvestigated due to lack of proper animal models...
March 3, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249796/biological-determinants-of-radioresistance-and-their-remediation-in-pancreatic-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Parthasarathy Seshacharyulu, Michael J Baine, Joshua J Souchek, Melanie Menning, Sukhwinder Kaur, Ying Yan, Michel M Ouellette, Maneesh Jain, Chi Lin, Surinder K Batra
Despite recent advances in radiotherapy, a majority of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer (PC) do not achieve objective responses due to the existence of intrinsic and acquired radioresistance. Identification of molecular mechanisms that compromise the efficacy of radiation therapy and targeting these pathways is paramount for improving radiation response in PC patients. In this review, we have summarized molecular mechanisms associated with the radio-resistant phenotype of PC. Briefly, we discuss the reversible and irreversible biological consequences of radiotherapy, such as DNA damage and DNA repair, mechanisms of cancer cell survival and radiation-induced apoptosis following radiotherapy...
February 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245456/role-of-cortistatin-in-the-stressed-immune-system
#20
Mario Delgado, Elena Gonzalez-Rey
The immune system is faced with the daunting job of defending the organism against invading pathogens, while at the same time preserving the body integrity and maintaining tolerance to its own tissues. Loss of self-tolerance compromises immune homeostasis and leads to the onset of autoimmune disorders. The identification of endogenous factors that control immune tolerance and inflammation is a key goal for immunologists. Evidences from the last decade indicate that the neuropeptide cortistatin is one of the endogenous factors...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
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