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Compromised immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107039/future-directions-in-the-study-of-early-life-stress-and-physical-and-emotional-health-implications-of-the-neuroimmune-network-hypothesis
#1
Camelia E Hostinar, Robin Nusslock, Gregory E Miller
Early-life stress is associated with increased vulnerability to physical and emotional health problems across the lifespan. The recently developed neuroimmune network hypothesis proposes that one of the underlying mechanisms for these associations is that early-life stress amplifies bidirectional crosstalk between the brain and the immune system, contributing to several mental and physical health conditions that have inflammatory underpinnings, such as depression and coronary heart disease. Neuroimmune crosstalk is thought to perpetuate inflammation and neural alterations linked to early-life stress exposure, and also foster behaviors that can further compromise health, such as smoking, drug abuse and consumption of high-fat diets...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096124/nutritional-considerations-for-healthy-aging-and-reduction-in-age-related-chronic-disease
#2
REVIEW
Julie Shlisky, David E Bloom, Amy R Beaudreault, Katherine L Tucker, Heather H Keller, Yvonne Freund-Levi, Roger A Fielding, Feon W Cheng, Gordon L Jensen, Dayong Wu, Simin N Meydani
A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet. However, as adults age they become at risk of "nutritional frailty," which can compromise their ability to meet nutritional requirements at a time when specific nutrient needs may be high...
January 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093893/arabidopsis-thaliana-glutathione-s-transferase-theta-2-interacts-with-rsi1-fld-to-activate-systemic-acquired-resistance
#3
Zeeshan Zahoor Banday, Ashis Kumar Nandi
A partly infected plant develops systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and shows heightened resistance during subsequent infections. The infected parts generate certain mobile signals that travel to the distal tissues and help in activation of SAR. SAR is associated with epigenetic modifications of several defense-related genes. However, the mechanisms by which mobile signals contribute to epigenetic changes are little known. Previously we had shown that the Arabidopsis REDUCED SYSTEMIC IMMUNITY 1 (RSI1, alias FLOWERING LOCUS D; FLD), which codes for a putative histone demethylase is required for the activation of SAR...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093424/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-and-vre-pneumonia
#4
Mohannad Abu Omar, Mouhanna Abu Ghanimeh, Sola Kim, Gregory Howell
Immunocompromised patients have high risk of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. One of these infections is those caused by Strongyloides stercoralis Immunocompromised patients are at risk of hyperinfection syndrome which is characterised with more systemic manifestation and a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. This can be complicated by coinfection with enteric organisms, specifically Gram-negative. Enterococci are Gram-positive cocci which are inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088983/the-epigenetic-basis-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-aging
#5
REVIEW
Ashley Kramer, Grant A Challen
Highly proliferative tissues such as the gut, skin, and bone marrow lose millions of cells each day to normal attrition and challenge from different biological adversities. To achieve a lifespan beyond the longevity of individual cell types, tissue-specific stem cells sustain these tissues throughout the life of a human. For example, the lifespan of erythrocytes is about 100 days and adults make about two million new erythrocytes every second. A small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow is responsible for the lifetime maintenance of these populations...
January 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088407/far-off-and-close-up-dry-matter-intake-modulate-indicators-of-immunometabolic-adaptations-to-lactation-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-pasture-based-transition-dairy-cows
#6
M Vailati-Riboni, G Farina, F Batistel, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, S Meier, J R Roche, J J Loor
The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081143/engineered-aedes-aegypti-jak-stat-pathway-mediated-immunity-to-dengue-virus
#7
Natapong Jupatanakul, Shuzhen Sim, Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Jayme Souza-Neto, Suchismita Das, Kristin E Poti, Shannan L Rossi, Nicholas Bergren, Nikos Vasilakis, George Dimopoulos
We have developed genetically modified Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that activate the conserved antiviral JAK/STAT pathway in the fat body tissue, by overexpressing either the receptor Dome or the Janus kinase Hop by the blood feeding-induced vitellogenin (Vg) promoter. Transgene expression inhibits infection with several dengue virus (DENV) serotypes in the midgut as well as systemically and in the salivary glands. The impact of the transgenes Dome and Hop on mosquito longevity was minimal, but it resulted in a compromised fecundity when compared to wild-type mosquitoes...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073833/exosomal-mir-142-3p-is-increased-during-cardiac-allograft-rejection-and-augments-vascular-permeability-through-down-regulation-of-endothelial-rab11fip2-expression
#8
Ihdina Sukma Dewi, Selvi Celik, Anna Karlsson, Zsuzsanna Hollander, Karen Lam, Janet-Wilson McManus, Scott Tebbutt, Raymond Ng, Paul Keown, Robert McMaster, Bruce McManus, Jenny Öhman, Olof Gidlöf
AIMS: Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer is a recently discovered mode of cell-to-cell communication, in which microRNAs act as paracrine molecules, exerting their regulatory effects in recipient cells. T cells and endothelial cells are two main players in the mechanism of acute cellular cardiac rejection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of exosomal microRNAs in the crosstalk between T cells and endothelial cells and its implications for the molecular mechanisms that drive acute cellular rejection in heart transplantation...
January 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066800/cd36-deficiency-impairs-the-small-intestinal-barrier-and-induces-subclinical-inflammation-in-mice
#9
Vincenza Cifarelli, Stoyan Ivanov, Yan Xie, Ni-Huiping Son, Brian T Saunders, Terri A Pietka, Trevor M Shew, Jun Yoshino, Sinju Sundaresan, Nicholas O Davidson, Ira J Goldberg, Andrew E Gelman, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Nada A Abumrad
BACKGROUND & AIMS: CD36 has immuno-metabolic actions and is abundant in the small intestine on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. We examined the role of CD36 in gut homeostasis using mice null for CD36 (CD36KO) and with CD36 deletion specific to enterocytes (Ent-CD36KO) or endothelial cells (EC-CD36KO). METHODS: Intestinal morphology was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy (EM). Intestinal inflammation was determined from neutrophil infiltration and expression of cytokines, toll-like receptors and COX-2...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056867/risk-factors-and-characteristics-of-blood-stream-infections-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-multiple-myeloma
#10
Chun-Teng Huang, Chia-Jen Liu, Po-Shen Ko, Han-Tsung Liu, Yuan-Bin Yu, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Cheng-Hwai Tzeng, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Jin-Hwang Liu, Muh-Hwa Yang, Ling-Ju Huang, Chun-Yu Liu
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple myeloma are generally immune-compromised either due to pronounced depression in primary antibody responses or because of anti-myeloma therapy. Infection is a major risk factor for early deaths among these patients. The impact of blood stream infections (BSI) on newly diagnosed myeloma patients has been less studied. We aimed to study the incidence and risk factors of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis of multiple myeloma in a tertiary referral center...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056158/mycobacterium-avium-complex-septic-arthritis-presenting-as-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head-in-a-patient-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#11
Alexander B Christ, Elena V Zininberg, Kethy M Jules-Elysee, Michael L Parks
Mycobacterium avium complex is a rare cause of musculoskeletal infection, usually occurring in patients with compromised immune systems. Obtaining the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, and treatment can be delayed because of difficulty with isolating the organism. Treatment involves prolonged, targeted combination antibiotic therapy, and it is unclear whether eradication of the infection can occur in the presence of a foreign body, such as antibiotic spacers. The authors report a case of M avium infection presenting as presumed osteonecrosis of the femoral head in a young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus...
January 5, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055129/long-term-ethanol-exposure-decreases-the-endotoxin-induced-hepatic-acute-phase-response-in-rats
#12
Emilie Glavind, Hendrik Vilstrup, Henning Grønbaek, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Nils Erik Magnusson, Karen Louise Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Long-term excess alcohol intake predisposes to infectious diseases. The hepatic acute phase response is a component of the innate immune system and is part of the first line of defense against invading pathogens, which may be compromised by alcohol. We aimed to investigate whether an induced acute phase response is impaired in long-term ethanol-fed rats. METHODS: For six weeks, rats were either fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing (36% as calories) liquid diet ad libitum or calorically pair-fed...
January 5, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047878/th-ab-209-06-an-investigation-of-the-feasibility-of-malignant-lesion-detection-during-routine-breast-cancer-screening-using-a-prototype-acousto-optic-transmission-ultrasound-imaging-system
#13
J R Rosenfield, J S Sandhu, P J La Riviere
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of malignant lesion detection during routine breast cancer screening using an acousto-optic (AO) transmission ultrasound imaging system, particularly in premenopausal women with high breast density. METHODS: A full-field, single-projection ultrasound imaging system was developed that uses a high-resolution AO detector to convert the acoustic intensity transmitted through the compressed breast into a visual image by virtue of the AO effect in nematic liquid crystals...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035738/predictors-for-and-coverage-of-influenza-vaccination-among-hiv-positive-patients-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
N Harrison, W Poeppl, H Herkner, K D Tillhof, K Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, A Rieger, C Forstner, H Burgmann, H Lagler
OBJECTIVES: Influenza vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected patients, but limited data about vaccination rates are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the coverage of and predictors for influenza vaccination among HIV-positive patients. METHODS: All HIV-positive patients who visited the HIV out-patient department of the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria, between June and August 2015 were asked to participate in this survey by completing a questionnaire...
December 30, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031206/physiological-differences-in-c-neoformans-in-vitro-versus-in-vivo-and-their-effects-on-antifungal-susceptibility
#15
Nina T Grossman, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is an environmentally ubiquitous fungal pathogen that primarily causes disease in people with compromised immune systems, particularly those with advanced AIDS. There are estimated to be almost one million cases per year of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus, leading to over 600,000 annual deaths, with a particular burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Amphotericin B (AMB) and fluconazole (FLC) are key components of cryptococcal meningitis treatment: AMB is used for induction, FLC for consolidation, maintenance, and in occasional individuals, prophylaxis...
December 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028421/the-use-of-different-irrigation-techniques-to-decrease-bacterial-loads-in-healthy-and-diabetic-patients-with-asymptomatic-apical-periodontitis
#16
Mai Ghoneim, Shehab ElDin Saber, Tarek El-Badry, Maram Obeid, Nehal Hassib
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a multisystem disease which weakens the human's immunity. Subsequently, it worsens the sequelae of apical periodontitis by raising a fierce bacterial trait due to the impaired host response. AIM: This study aimed to estimate bacterial reduction after using different irrigation techniques in systemically healthy and diabetic patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enterococcus faecalis, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Fusobacterium necleatum bacteria were chosen, as they are the most common and prevailing strains found in periodontitis...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027929/nrf2-exerts-cell-autonomous-antifibrotic-effects-compromised-function-in-systemic-sclerosis-and-therapeutic-rescue-with-a-novel-heterocyclic-chalcone-derivative
#17
Jun Wei, Hongyan Zhu, Gabriel Lord, Mitra Bhattachayya, Brielle M Jones, Graham Allaway, Shyam S Biswal, Benjamin Korman, Roberta G Marangoni, Warren G Tourtellotte, John Varga
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) governs antioxidant, innate immune and cytoprotective responses and its deregulation is prominent in chronic inflammatory conditions. To examine the hypothesis that Nrf2 might be implicated in systemic sclerosis (SSc), we investigated its expression, activity, and mechanism of action in SSc patient samples and mouse models of fibrosis and evaluated the effects of a novel pharmacologic Nrf2 agonist. We found that both expression and activity of Nrf2 were significantly reduced in SSc patient skin biopsies and showed negative correlation with inflammatory gene expression...
December 9, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026019/activating-the-akt2-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-lcn-2-axis-elicits-an-inflammatory-response-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#18
Sayan Ghosh, Peng Shang, Meysam Yazdankhah, Imran Bhutto, Stacey Hose, Sandra R Montezuma, Tianqi Luo, Sreya Chattopadhyay, Jiang Qian, Gerard A Lutty, Deborah A Ferrington, J Samuel Zigler, Debasish Sinha
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex and progressive degenerative eye disease resulting in severe loss of central vision. Recent evidence indicates that immune system dysregulation could contribute to the development of AMD. We hypothesize that defective lysosome-mediated clearance causes accumulation of waste products in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), activating the immune system and leading to retinal tissue injury and AMD. We have generated unique genetically engineered mice in which lysosome-mediated clearance (both by phagocytosis and autophagy) in RPE cells is compromised, causing development of features of early AMD...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008605/immune-deficiency-augments-the-prevalence-of-p53-loss-of-heterozygosity-in-spontaneous-tumors-but-not-bi-directional-loss-of-heterozygosity-in-bone-marrow-progenitors
#19
Yoav Shetzer, Yael Napchan, Tom Kaufman, Alina Molchadsky, Perry Tal, Naomi Goldfinger, Varda Rotter
p53 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is a frequent event in tumors of somatic and Li-Fraumeni syndrome patients harboring p53 mutation. Here, we focused on resolving a possible crosstalk between the immune-system and p53 LOH. Previously, we reported that p53 heterozygous bone-marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells undergo p53 LOH in-vivo. Surprisingly, the loss of either the wild-type p53 allele or mutant p53 allele was detected with a three-to-one ratio in favor of losing the mutant allele. In the present study we examined whether the immune-system can affect the LOH directionality in bone marrow progenitors...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008165/tuberculous-meningitis-in-an-immunocompetent-host-a-case-report
#20
Suchin R Khanna, Stephen M Kralovic, Rajan Prakash
BACKGROUND Tuberculous meningitis is very rare in the United States in immunocompetent hosts. Risk factors are similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis, including poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, a compromised immune system, and coming from an endemic area. Meningeal tuberculosis mortality and other outcomes have changed little over time despite effective therapies due to delay in diagnosis because of its rarity, variable presentation, and often indolent course. CASE REPORT We describe a case of a 57-year-old male immigrant from Senegal with no significant past medical history and no previous history of tuberculosis or evidence of immune compromise...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
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