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Compromised immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919508/pro-inflammatory-chitosan-poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-nanoparticles-modulate-human-antigen-presenting-cells-phenotype-and-revert-their-pro-invasive-capacity
#1
Flávia Castro, Marta L Pinto, Andreia M Silva, Catarina L Pereira, Graciosa Q Teixeira, Maria Gomez-Lazaro, Susana G Santos, Mário A Barbosa, Raquel M Gonçalves, Maria J Oliveira
Anticancer immune responses depend on efficient presentation of tumor antigens and co-stimulatory signals provided by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). However, it is described that immature dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages at the tumor site may have an immunosuppressive profile, which limits the activity of effector T cells and supports tumor progression. Therapeutic targeting of these innate immune cells, either aiming at their elimination or re-polarization towards an immunostimulatory profile, has been pointed as an attractive approach to control tumor progression...
September 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912136/tumor-resection-boosts-therapeutic-efficacy-of-encapsulated-stem-cells-expressing-a-highly-secretable-variant-of-interferon-%C3%AE-in-glioblastomas
#2
Sung Hugh Choi, Daniel W Stuckey, Sara Pignatta, Clemens Reinshagen, Jasneet K Khalsa, Nicolaas C Roozendaal, Jordi Martinez-Quintanilla, Kaoru Tamura, Erhan Keles, Khalid Shah
PURPOSE: Despite tumor resection being the frontline clinical care for glioblastoma (GBM) patients, nearly all preclinical immune therapy models intends to treat established GBM tumor. Characterizing cytoreductive surgery-induced immune-response combined with the administration of immune cytokines has the potential of offering a new treatment paradigm of immune therapy for GBMs.  Experimental design: We developed syngeneic orthotopic mouse GBM models of tumor-resection and characterized the immune response of intact and resected tumors...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901280/neuronal-and-extraneuronal-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#3
Michele Zoli, Susanna Pucci, Antonietta Vilella, Cecilia Gotti
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to a super-family of Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels that respond to endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) or other cholinergic ligands. These receptors are also the targets of drugs such as nicotine (the main addictive agent delivered by cigarette smoke) and are involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Numerous studies have shown that the expression and/or function of nAChRs is compromised in many neurological and psychiatric diseases...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899767/effects-of-hexavalent-chromium-on-mouse-splenic-t-lymphocytes
#4
Lu Dai, Wenhua Xu, Hui Li, Jacqueline A Frank, Caigu He, Zhuo Zhang, Gang Chen
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is widely used in various industrial processes and has been recognized as a carcinogen. As the first line of host defense system, the immune system can be a primary target of Cr(VI). T cell population represents a major arm of the immune system that plays a critical role in host anti-tumor immunity. Dysfunction of T cells, such as exhaustion under the persistent presence of tumor antigen, compromise host anti-tumor immunity resulting in oncogenesis. Previous studies have shown Cr(VI) exposure alters the phenotype of human peripheral blood lymphocytes...
September 9, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898429/tgacg-binding-factor-1-tga1-and-tga4-regulate-salicylic-acid-and-pipecolic-acid-biosynthesis-by-modulating-the-expression-of-systemic-acquired-resistance-deficient-1-sard1-and-calmodulin-binding-protein-60g-cbp60g
#5
Tongjun Sun, Lucas Busta, Qian Zhang, Pingtao Ding, Reinhard Jetter, Yuelin Zhang
Salicylic acid (SA) and pipecolic acid (Pip) play important roles in plant immunity. Here we analyzed the roles of transcription factors TGACG-BINDING FACTOR 1 (TGA1) and TGA4 in regulating SA and Pip biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We quantified the expression levels of SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE DEFICIENT 1 (SARD1) and CALMODULIN-BINDING PROTEIN 60g (CBP60g), which encode two master transcription factors of plant immunity, and the accumulation of SA and Pip in tga1-1 tga4-1 mutant plants. We tested whether SARD1 and CBP60g are direct targets of TGA1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation-polymerase chain reaction (ChIP-PCR)...
September 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898238/glucosamine-stimulates-pheromone-independent-dimorphic-transition-in-cryptococcus-neoformans-by-promoting-crz1-nuclear-translocation
#6
Xinping Xu, Jianfeng Lin, Youbao Zhao, Elyssa Kirkman, Yee-Seul So, Yong-Sun Bahn, Xiaorong Lin
Morphotype switch is a cellular response to external and internal cues. The Cryptococcus neoformans species complex can undergo morphological transitions between the yeast and the hypha form, and such morphological changes profoundly affect cryptococcal interaction with various hosts. Filamentation in Cryptococcus was historically considered a mating response towards pheromone. Recent studies indicate the existence of pheromone-independent signaling pathways but their identity or the effectors remain unknown...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894700/targeting-the-type-ii-secretion-system-development-optimization-and-validation-of-a-high-throughput-screen-for-the-identification-of-small-molecule-inhibitors
#7
Ursula Waack, Tanya L Johnson, Khalil Chedid, Chuanwu Xi, Lyle A Simmons, Harry L T Mobley, Maria Sandkvist
Nosocomial pathogens that develop multidrug resistance present an increasing problem for healthcare facilities. Due to its rapid rise in antibiotic resistance, Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most concerning gram-negative species. A. baumannii typically infects immune compromised individuals resulting in a variety of outcomes, including pneumonia and bacteremia. Using a murine model for bacteremia, we have previously shown that the type II secretion system (T2SS) contributes to in vivo fitness of A. baumannii...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894585/cell-based-immunotherapy-in-stage-iiia-inflammatory-breast-cancer-with-declining-innate-immunity-following-successive-chemotherapies-a-case-report
#8
Ranganathan Chidambaram, Hiroshi Terunuma, Madasamy Balamurugan, Vidyasagar Devaprasad Dedeepiya, Premkumar Sumana, Rajappa Senthilkumar, Mathaiyan Rajmohan, Ramalingam Karthick, Senthilkumar Preethy, Samuel J K Abraham
Cancer stem cells in breast cancer migrating to the bone marrow may cause future metastasis, particularly during periods of decreased immunity. Natural killer (NK) cells have a role in immune surveillance and are able to target cancer stem cells. The present study reported a case in which NK cell-based autologous immune enhancement therapy was used combined with conventional treatments in a patient with stage IIIA breast cancer, yielding >28 months of disease-free survival. However, there was a gradual decline in the in vitro expansion of NK cells with subsequent chemotherapeutic treatments...
September 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887540/interleukin-22-level-is-negatively-correlated-with-neutrophil-recruitment-in-the-lungs-in-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia-model
#9
Alexis Broquet, Cédric Jacqueline, Marion Davieau, Anissa Besbes, Antoine Roquilly, Jérôme Martin, Jocelyne Caillon, Laure Dumoutier, Jean-Christophe Renauld, Michèle Heslan, Régis Josien, Karim Asehnoune
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major threat for immune-compromised patients. Bacterial pneumonia can induce uncontrolled and massive neutrophil recruitment ultimately leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and epithelium damage. Interleukin-22 plays a central role in the protection of the epithelium. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of interleukin-22 and its soluble receptor IL-22BP in an acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia model in mice. In this model, we noted a transient increase of IL-22 during Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882797/modification-of-the-plasma-complement-protein-profile-by-exogenous-estrogens-is-indicative-of-a-compromised-immune-competence-in-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#10
Miao Dong, Frauke Seemann, Joseph L Humble, Yimin Liang, Drew R Peterson, Rui Ye, Honglin Ren, Hui-Su Kim, Jae-Seong Lee, Doris W T Au, Yun Wah Lam
Growing evidence suggests that the immune system of teleost is vulnerable to xenoestrogens, which are ubiquitous in the marine environment. This study detected and identified the major circulatory immune proteins deregulated by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which may be linked to fish susceptibility to pathogens in the marine medaka, Oryzias melastigma. Fish immune competence was determined using a host resistance assay to pathogenic bacteria Edwardsiella tarda. Females were consistently more susceptible to infection-induced mortality than males...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874555/a-trans-acting-leader-rna-from-a-salmonella-virulence-gene
#11
Eunna Choi, Yoontak Han, Yong-Joon Cho, Daesil Nam, Eun-Jin Lee
Bacteria use flagella to move toward nutrients, find its host, or retract from toxic substances. Because bacterial flagellum is one of the ligands that activate the host innate immune system, its synthesis should be tightly regulated during host infection, which is largely unknown. Here, we report that a bacterial leader mRNA from the mgtCBR virulence operon in the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium binds to the fljB coding region of mRNAs in the fljBA operon encoding the FljB phase 2 flagellin, a main component of bacterial flagella and the FljA repressor for the FliC phase 1 flagellin, and degrades fljBA mRNAs in an RNase E-dependent fashion during infection...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871477/-diagnostics-and-management-of-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus
#12
R N Werner, N-I Steinhorst, A Nast, U Pleyer
Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) represents the secondary manifestation of an infection with varicellazoster virus (VZV). A reactivation of dormant VZV in the ophthalmic branch of the fifth cranial nerve leads to ophthalmic HZ (HZO). The predominantly older and immune compromised patients often present with eye involvement (approximately 50%) as well as characteristic skin changes. Clinical manifestations include the cornea and conjunctiva but anterior uveitis and (rarely) acute retinal necrosis may also occur...
September 4, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870489/bisphenol-a-and-immunotoxic-potential-a-commentary
#13
Ian Kimber
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the manufacture of polycarbonate and epoxy resin plastics. There has been interest in the possibility that BPA has immunotoxic properties, and a variety of investigations have explored this. Among the approaches taken have been human observational and cross-sectional studies, investigations using experimental animals, and in vitro studies, some of which have been reviewed previously by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This commentary aims to provide a focused review of data regarding the ability of BPA to perturb the immune system, including the developing immune system, and to cause related adverse health effects...
September 1, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860090/the-secreted-candida-albicans-protein-pra1-disrupts-host-defense-by-broadly-targeting-and-blocking-complement-c3-and-c3-activation-fragments
#14
Shanshan Luo, Prasad Dasari, Nadine Reiher, Andrea Hartmann, Susanne Jacksch, Elisabeth Wende, Dagmar Barz, Maria Joanna Niemiec, Ilse Jacobsen, Niklas Beyersdorf, Thomas Hünig, Andreas Klos, Christine Skerka, Peter F Zipfel
Candida albicans the most frequently isolated clinical fungal pathogen can cause local as well as systemic and life-threatening infections particularly in immune-compromised individuals. A better and more detailed understanding how C. albicans evades human immune attack is therefore needed for identifying fungal immune-evasive proteins and develop new therapies. Here, we identified Pra1, the pH-regulated C. albicans antigen as a hierarchical complement inhibitor that targets C3, the central human complement component...
August 28, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841445/apobec3b-lysine-residues-are-dispensable-for-dna-cytosine-deamination-hiv-1-restriction-and-nuclear-localization
#15
Amy M Molan, Heather M Hanson, Cynthia M Chweya, Brett D Anderson, Gabriel J Starrett, Christopher M Richards, Reuben S Harris
The APOBEC3 DNA cytosine deaminase family comprises a fundamental arm of the innate immune response and is best known for retrovirus restriction. Several APOBEC3 enzymes restrict HIV-1 and related retroviruses by deaminating viral cDNA cytosines to uracils compromising viral genomes. Human APOBEC3B (A3B) shows strong virus restriction activities in a variety of experimental systems, and is subjected to tight post-translational regulation evidenced by cell-specific HIV-1 restriction activity and active nuclear import...
August 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830820/cough-in-ambulatory-immunocompromised-adults-chest-expert-panel-report
#16
Mark J Rosen, Belinda Ireland, Mangala Narasimhan, Cynthia French, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough is a common symptom prompting patients to seek medical care. Like patients in the general population, patients with compromised immune systems also seek care for cough. However, it is unclear whether the causes of cough in immunocompromised patients who are deemed unlikely to have a life-threating condition and a normal or unchanged chest radiograph are similar to those in persons with cough and normal immune systems. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to answer the question: What are the most common causes of cough in ambulatory immunodeficient adults with normal chest radiographs? Studies of patients ≥ 18 years of age with immune deficiency, cough of any duration, and normal or unchanged chest radiographs were included and assessed for relevance and quality...
August 19, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827453/plc2-regulates-mamp-triggered-immunity-by-modulating-ros-production-in-arabidopsis
#17
Juan Martín D'Ambrosio, Daniel Couto, Georgina Fabro, Denise Scuffi, Lorenzo Lamattina, Teun Munnik, Mats X Andersson, Maria Elena Alvarez, Cyril Zipfel, Ana M Laxalt
The activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) is one of the earliest responses triggered by the recognition of several microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) in plants. The Arabidopsis PI-PLC gene family is composed of nine members. Previous studies suggested a role for PLC2 in MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI) as it is rapidly phosphorylated in vivo upon treatment with the bacterial MAMP flg22. Here we analyzed the role of PLC2 in plant immunity using an artificial microRNA to silence PLC2 expression in Arabidopsis...
August 21, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826355/human-beta-defensin-2-and-3-mitigate-the-negative-effects-of-bacterial-contamination-on-bone-healing-in-rat-calvarial-defect
#18
Po-Hui Lee, Meng-Yu Chen, Yu-Lin Lai, Shyh-Yuan Lee, Hen-Li Chen
Bacterial contamination during the healing of bone defects frequently compromises the effects of bone regenerative therapy. Human beta-defensin-2 (hBD2) and -3 (hBD3) are antimicrobial peptides of human innate immune system with a broad antibacterial spectrum and rare bacterial resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hBD2 and hBD3 on the healing of bacteria-contaminated bone defects. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were infected with adenovirus to overexpress hBD2 or hBD3...
August 21, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820471/metal-based-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-infectious-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Blessing Atim Aderibigbe
Infectious diseases can be transmitted and they cause a significant burden on public health globally. They are the greatest world killers and it is estimated that they are responsible for the demise of over 17 million people annually. The impact of these diseases is greater in the developing countries. People with compromised immune systems and children are the most affected. Infectious diseases may be caused by bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The treatment of infectious diseases is hampered by simultaneous resistance to multiple drugs, indicating that there is a serious and pressing need to develop new therapeutics that can overcome drug resistance...
August 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818344/the-2016-espen-arvid-wretlind-lecture-the-gut-in-stress
#20
REVIEW
Stephen A McClave, Cynthia C Lowen, Robert G Martindale
The gut has a major influence on the course of the human stress response in critical illness for several reasons; the quantity of its immune tissue, the extent of interface with the external environment, the expanse of the microbiome, and its access to the systemic circulation. In critical illness, it is not uncommon to lose mucosal barrier function, which exposes the host to the downside effects of luminal contents and epithelial cell regulation. In that setting, the microbiome is converted to a pathobiome, upregulation of metabolic and immune responses occurs, and homeostatic defense systems are compromised...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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