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Compromised immune system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803741/the-cardiovascular-toxicity-of-triadimefon-in-early-life-stage-of-zebrafish-and-potential-implications-to-human-health
#1
Hong-Cui Liu, Tian-Yi Chu, Li-Li Chen, Wen-Jun Gui, Guo-Nian Zhu
The health risk of triadimefon (TF) to cardiovascular system of human is still unclear, especially to pesticide suicides population, occupational population (farmers, retailers and pharmaceutical workers), and special population (young children and infants, pregnant women, older people, and those with compromised immune systems) who are at a greater risk. Therefore, firstly we explored the toxic effects and possible mechanism of cardiovascular toxicity induced by TF using zebrafish model. Zebrafish at stage of 48 h post fertilization (hpf) exposed to TF for 24 h exhibited morphological malformations which were further confirmed by histopathologic examination, including pericardial edema, circulation abnormalities, serious venous thrombosis and increased distance between the sinus venosus (SV) and bulbus arteriosus (BA) regions of the heart...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794879/human-papillomavirus-driven-immune-deviation-challenge-and-novel-opportunity-for-immunotherapy
#2
REVIEW
Sigrun Smola, Connie Trimble, Peter L Stern
It is now recognized that the immune system can be a key component of restraint and control during the neoplastic process. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers of the anogenital tract and oropharynx represent a significant clinical problem but there is a clear opportunity for immune targeting of the viral oncogene expression that drives cancer development. However, high-risk HPV infection of the target epithelium and the expression of the E6/E7 oncogenes can lead to early compromise of the innate immune system (loss of antigen-presenting cells) facilitating viral persistence and increased risk of cancer...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779867/neurological-complications-of-childhood-cancer
#3
Lauren Weaver, Ayman Samkari
Though the treatment of pediatric cancers has come a long way, acute and chronic effects of cancer are still affecting the life of many children. These effects may be caused not only by the malignancy itself but also by the interventions used for the purpose of treatment. This article focuses primarily on the indirect effects of pediatric cancers and their treatment on the central and peripheral nervous system. Chemotherapy, radiation, and stem cell transplantation cause an immune-compromised state and place the patient at risk of infection, the leading cause of mortality in pediatric cancer...
February 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765055/mitochondrial-dysfunction-as-a-trigger-of-innate-immune-responses-and-inflammation
#4
A Phillip West
A growing literature indicates that mitochondria are key participants in innate immune pathways, functioning as both signaling platforms and contributing to effector responses. In addition to regulating antiviral signaling and antibacterial immunity, mitochondria also are important drivers of inflammation caused by sterile injury. Much research on mitochondrial control of immunity now centers on understanding how mitochondrial constituents released during cellular damage simulate the innate immune system. When mitochondrial integrity is compromised, mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns engage pattern recognition receptors, trigger inflammation, and promote pathology in an expanding list of diseases...
July 29, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760845/micro-rna-98-interferes-with-thrombospondin-1-expression-in-peripheral-b-cells-of-patients-with-asthma
#5
Liming Chen, Jianfeng Xu, Xiaoxia Chu, Chenghua Ju
Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1)-producing B cells are an important immune regulatory cell fraction in the body, which are compromised in a number of immune diseases. Micro RNAs (miR) are involved in the immune regulation. This study aims to elucidate the mechanism by which miR-98 interferes with the expression of TSP1 in B cells of the peripheral blood system. In this study, peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with allergic asthma. The B cells were isolated from the blood samples to be analyzed for the expression of miR-98 and TSP1...
July 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757363/poly-i-c-alleviates-obesity-related-pro-inflammatory-status-and-promotes-glucose-homeostasis
#6
Ying-Hui Wang, Yu-Gen Zhang
Obesity associated insulin resistance (IR) is implicated in chronic inflammation that mediated by the immune system. Imbalance between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory response contributes to the origins and drivers of IR. However, cells of innate and adaptive immune system participate in the pathogenesis of IR, while glucose homeostasis related immune tolerance could be compromised high fat diet (HFD) reduced metabolic disorder. Although previous studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory therapy has a protective role in alleviating the pro-inflammatory status in HFD induced IR, the precise mechanism is still unclear...
July 27, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752081/absence-of-nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2-is-associated-with-less-distinct-disease-in-campylobacter-jejuni-infected-secondary-abiotic-il-10-deficient-mice
#7
Markus M Heimesaat, Ursula Grundmann, Marie E Alutis, André Fischer, Stefan Bereswill
Human Campylobacter jejuni-infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Despite their high prevalence and socioeconomic impact the underlying mechanisms of pathogen-host-interactions are only incompletely understood. Given that the innate immune receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (Nod2) is involved in clearance of enteropathogens, we here evaluated its role in murine campylobacteriosis. To address this, we applied Nod2-deficient IL-10(-/-) (Nod2(-/-) IL-10(-/-)) mice and IL-10(-/-) counterparts both with a depleted intestinal microbiota to warrant pathogen-induced enterocolitis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744856/age-has-a-role-in-driving-host-immuno-pathological-response-to-alphavirus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Yi-Hao Chan, Lisa F P Ng
Alphaviruses are a group arthropod-borne pathogens capable of causing a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from milder symptoms like rashes, fever, and polyarthralgia, to life-threatening encephalitis. This genus of viruses is prevalent globally, and can infect patients across a wide age range. Interestingly, disease severity of virus-infected patients is wide-ranging. Definition on the pathogenesis of alphaviruses, as well as the host factors influencing disease severity remains limited. The innate and adaptive immune systems are important host defenses against alphavirus infections...
July 26, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744226/the-mucosal-immune-function-is-not-compromised-during-a-period-of-high-intensity-interval-training-is-it-time-to-reconsider-an-old-assumption
#9
Dennis-Peter Born, Christoph Zinner, Billy Sperlich
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune function and circadian variation of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate and mood during a period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to long-slow distance training (LSD). Methods: Recreational male runners (n = 28) completed nine sessions of either HIIT or LSD within 3 weeks. The HIIT involved 4 × 4 min of running at 90-95% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3 min of active recovery while the LSD comprised of continuous running at 70-75% of maximum heart rate for 60-80 min...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744200/effect-of-neuroinflammation-on-synaptic-organization-and-function-in-the-developing-brain-implications-for-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#10
Amin Mottahedin, Maryam Ardalan, Tetyana Chumak, Ilse Riebe, Joakim Ek, Carina Mallard
The brain is a plastic organ where both the intrinsic CNS milieu and extrinsic cues play important roles in shaping and wiring neural connections. The perinatal period constitutes a critical time in central nervous system development with extensive refinement of neural connections, which are highly sensitive to fetal and neonatal compromise, such as inflammatory challenges. Emerging evidence suggests that inflammatory cells in the brain such as microglia and astrocytes are pivotal in regulating synaptic structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743817/bacterial-signaling-nucleotides-inhibit-yeast-cell-growth-by-impacting-mitochondrial-and-other-specifically-eukaryotic-functions
#11
Andy Hesketh, Marta Vergnano, Chris Wan, Stephen G Oliver
We have engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inducibly synthesize the prokaryotic signaling nucleotides cyclic di-GMP (cdiGMP), cdiAMP, and ppGpp in order to characterize the range of effects these nucleotides exert on eukaryotic cell function during bacterial pathogenesis. Synthetic genetic array (SGA) and transcriptome analyses indicated that, while these compounds elicit some common reactions in yeast, there are also complex and distinctive responses to each of the three nucleotides. All three are capable of inhibiting eukaryotic cell growth, with the guanine nucleotides exhibiting stronger effects than cdiAMP...
July 25, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742861/targeting-the-permeability-barrier-and-peptidoglycan-recycling-pathways-to-disarm-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-against-the-innate-immune-system
#12
Gabriel Torrens, Marcelo Pérez-Gallego, Bartolomé Moya, Marta Munar-Bestard, Laura Zamorano, Gabriel Cabot, Jesús Blázquez, Juan A Ayala, Antonio Oliver, Carlos Juan
Antimicrobial resistance is a continuously increasing threat that severely compromises our antibiotic arsenal and causes thousands of deaths due to hospital-acquired infections by pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, situation further aggravated by the limited development of new antibiotics. Thus, alternative strategies such as those targeting bacterial resistance mechanisms, virulence or potentiating the activity of our immune system resources are urgently needed. We have recently shown that mutations simultaneously causing the peptidoglycan recycling blockage and the β-lactamase AmpC overexpression impair the virulence of P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738444/protein-coating-of-dna-nanostructures-for-enhanced-stability-and-immunocompatibility
#13
Henni Auvinen, Hongbo Zhang, Nonappa, Alisa Kopilow, Elina H Niemelä, Sami Nummelin, Alexandra Correia, Hélder A Santos, Veikko Linko, Mauri A Kostiainen
Fully addressable DNA nanostructures, especially DNA origami, possess huge potential to serve as inherently biocompatible and versatile molecular platforms. However, their use as delivery vehicles in therapeutics is compromised by their low stability and poor transfection rates. This study shows that DNA origami can be coated by precisely defined one-to-one protein-dendron conjugates to tackle the aforementioned issues. The dendron part of the conjugate serves as a cationic binding domain that attaches to the negatively charged DNA origami surface via electrostatic interactions...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732735/acidic-polysaccharide-complexes-from-purslane-silver-linden-and-lavender-stimulate-peyer-s-patch-immune-cells-through-innate-and-adaptive-mechanisms
#14
Yordan N Georgiev, Manol H Ognyanov, Hiroaki Kiyohara, Tsvetelina G Batsalova, Balik M Dzhambazov, Milan Ciz, Petko N Denev, Haruki Yamada, Berit S Paulsen, Ondrej Vasicek, Antonin Lojek, Hilde Barsett, Daniela Antonova, Maria G Kratchanova
Three polysaccharide complexes (PSCs) were isolated from the aerial parts of common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), and the flowers of common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) and silver linden (Tilia tomentosa Moench) by boiling water extraction and ethanol precipitation. The chemical composition and immunomodulating effects of isolated PSCs were characterized. The chemical characterization revealed that the three samples contain mainly pectic polysaccharides. They exhibited ex vivo intestinal immunomodulating activity through the murine Peyer's patch-mediated bone marrow cell proliferation test at 100μg/ml concentration...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721327/two-catastrophes-in-one-patient-drug-reaction-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-and-toxic-shock-syndrome
#15
Moayed Ibrahim, Diana L Nunley
A 70-year-old, immunocompromised patient presented to the emergency room (ER) five weeks after she was started on clopidogrel. She complained of skin eruption, mouth ulcers, fatigue, and myalgia over the past two weeks. Labs showed severe hyponatremia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalemia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was treated with steroids and discharged after her condition improved. However, a month later, she returned to the ER, complaining of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, chills, and shortness of breath over the past two days...
June 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#16
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713027/an-on-matrix-digestion-procedure-for-ap-ms-experiments-dissects-the-interplay-between-complex-conserved-and-serotype-specific-reactivities-in-dengue-virus-human-plasma-interactome
#17
Yassel Ramos, Vivian Huerta, Dayron Martín, Sucel Palomares, Alexis Yero, Dianne Pupo, Sebastien Gallien, Alejandro M Martín, Yasset Pérez-Riverol, Mónica Sarría, Osmany Guirola, Glay Chinea, Bruno Domon, Luis Javier González
The interactions between the four Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and plasma proteins are crucial in the initial steps of viral infection to humans. Affinity purification combined with quantitative mass spectrometry analysis, has become one of the most powerful tools for the investigation on novel protein-protein interactions. Using this approach, we report here that a significant number of bait-interacting proteins do not dissociate under standard elution conditions, i.e. acid pH and chaotropic agents, and that this problem can be circumvented by using the "on-matrix" digestion procedure described here...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711686/hydrogel-elasticity-and-microarchitecture-regulate-dental-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-host-immune-system-cross-talk
#18
Sahar Ansari, Chider Chen, Mohammad Mahdi Hasani-Sadrabadi, Bo Yu, Homayoun H Zadeh, Benjamin M Wu, Alireza Moshaverinia
The host immune system (T-lymphocytes and their pro-inflammatory cytokines) has been shown to compromise bone regeneration ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We have recently shown that hydrogel, used as an encapsulating biomaterial affects the cross-talk among host immune cells and MSCs. However, the role of hydrogel elasticity and porosity in regulation of cross-talk between dental-derived MSCs and immune cells is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the modulus of elasticity and porosity of the scaffold influence T-lymphocyte-dental MSC interplay by regulating the penetration of inflammatory T cells and their cytokines...
July 12, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705811/proprotein-convertase-furin1-expression-in-the-drosophila-fat-body-is-essential-for-a-normal-antimicrobial-peptide-response-and-bacterial-host-defense
#19
Saara Aittomäki, Susanna Valanne, Tapio Lehtinen, Sampsa Matikainen, Tuula A Nyman, Mika Rämet, Marko Pesu
Invading pathogens provoke robust innate immune responses in Dipteran insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster In a systemic bacterial infection, a humoral response is induced in the fat body. Gram-positive bacteria trigger the Toll signaling pathway, whereas gram-negative bacterial infections are signaled via the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. We show here that the RNA interference-mediated silencing of Furin1-a member of the proprotein convertase enzyme family-specifically in the fat body, results in a reduction in the expression of antimicrobial peptides...
July 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701761/antigen-specific-immunotherapies-in-rheumatic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Judit Pozsgay, Zoltán Szekanecz, Gabriella Sármay
The main goal of antigen-specific immunotherapy (ASI) in autoimmune and rheumatic diseases is to reprogramme or remove autoreactive cells and/or induce immune tolerance to self-antigens. Current therapies in these diseases either treat symptoms or slow down disease progression but are not yet curative or preventative - disease-specific treatments are urgently needed. In contrast to the nonspecific treatments in current use that induce generalized immune suppression, which is associated with several adverse effects including increased risk of infections, ASIs target a restricted subset of B cells or T cells, and thus do not compromise systemic immunity and host defence...
July 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
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