Read by QxMD icon Read

Compromised immune system

Amjad M Husaini, Aafreen Sakina, Souliha R Cambay
Fusarium oxysporum, a ubiquitous soil-borne pathogen causes devastating vascular wilt in more than 100 plant species and ranks fifth among top ten fungal plant pathogens. It has emerged as a human pathogen too, causing infections in immune-compromised patients. It is, therefore, important to gain insight into the molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of this trans-kingdom pathogen. A complex network comprising of interconnected and over lapping signal pathways; mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, Ras proteins, G-protein signaling components and their downstream pathways, components of the velvet (LaeA/VeA/VelB) complex and cAMP pathways, is involved in perceiving the host...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Yuan Luo, Teena Mohan, Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Lei Deng, Bao-Zhong Wang
Seasonal influenza vaccines have proven to be effective against well-matched viruses in healthy adults. However, rapid accumulation of mutations in the main antigenic surface proteins of influenza can compromise the efficiency of flu vaccines. Occasionally, influenza pandemics arise and present a different type of challenge to current seasonal vaccines. Novel vaccination strategies that can educate the host immune system to generate immune responses focusing on conserved epitopes on theses antigenic surface proteins are crucial for controlling and limiting influenza epidemics and pandemics...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Claudia Schlundt, Christian H Bucher, Serafeim Tsitsilonis, Hanna Schell, Georg N Duda, Katharina Schmidt-Bleek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impaired healing outcomes or even non-unions after bone injury are still a highly relevant problem in the daily clinical life. Especially within an aging population, the occurrence of bone fractures increases and thus novel treatment approaches to overcome compromised bone regeneration are needed. RECENT FINDINGS: The gold standard to treat delayed or non-healing bone injuries is still the use of autologous bone grafts to foster regeneration. Besides its successful treatment outcome, it also has disadvantages: a second surgery is needed in order to harvest the bone material and the material is highly limited...
March 13, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Khadega A Abuelgasim, Yousef Alsharhan, Tariq Alenzi, Abdulaziz Alhazzani, Yosra Z Ali, Abdul Rahman Jazieh
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) along with conventional therapies (CT), whereas a smaller proportion delay or defer CT in favor of CAM. Previous studies exploring CAM use among cancer patients in the Middle East region have shown discrepant results. This study investigates the prevalence and pattern of CAM use by Saudi cancer patients. It also discusses the possible benefits and harm related to CAM use by cancer patients, and it explores the beliefs patients hold and their transparency with health care providers regarding their CAM use...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Niharika Arora Duggal, Ross D Pollock, Norman R Lazarus, Stephen Harridge, Janet M Lord
It is widely accepted that aging is accompanied by remodelling of the immune system including thymic atrophy and increased frequency of senescent T cells, leading to immune compromise. However, physical activity, which influences immunity but declines dramatically with age, is not considered in this literature. We assessed immune profiles in 125 adults (55-79 years) who had maintained a high level of physical activity (cycling) for much of their adult lives, 75 age-matched older adults and 55 young adults not involved in regular exercise...
March 8, 2018: Aging Cell
Antonio Garrido, Julia Cruces, Noemí Ceprián, Mónica De la Fuente
The social environment can affect the regulatory systems, and cohabitation with sick subjects is a negative factor for the nervous and immune systems, compromising the lifespan. Nevertheless, the possible beneficial effects of a positive social environment on nervous and immune functions and longevity have not yet been studied. The aim of the present work was to analyze several behavioral and immune function parameters and lifespan in old mice after their cohabitation with adult animals. Old and adult ICR-CD1 female mice were divided into three experimental groups: adult controls, old controls and a social environment experimental group...
March 1, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Huiyun Yu, Jiapei Yan, Xiangge Du, Jian Hua
Plant cells have multiple plasma-membrane (PM) localized calcium ATPases (ACAs) pumping calcium ions out of cytosol. Although the involvement of some of these ACAs in plant growth and immunity have been reported, the individual and combined function of these PM ACAs have not been fully examined. Here we analyzed the effects of single and combined mutations of four ACAs, ACA8, ACA10, ACA12, and ACA13, in a number of processes. We found that these four ACA genes had both overlapping and differential involvements in vegetative growth, inflorescence growth, seeds setting, disease resistance and stomatal movement...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Juliet A Williams
The ability to create patient derived xenografts (PDXs) has evolved considerably from the breakthrough of the development of immune compromised mice. How researchers in drug discovery have utilized PDX of certain cancer types has also changed from traditionally selecting a few models to profile a drug, to opting to assess inter-tumor response heterogeneity by screening across a broad range of tumor models, and subsequently to enable clinical stratification strategies. As with all models and methodologies, imperfections with this approach are apparent, and our understanding of the fidelity of these models continues to expand...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Abu Musa Md Talimur Reza, Yun-Jung Choi, Jin-Hoi Kim
The Rag2 knockout (KO) mouse is a well-established immune-compromised animal model for biomedical research. A comparative study identified the deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in Rag2 KO mice. However, the interaction between deregulated genes and miRNAs in the alteration of systemic (cardiac, renal, hepatic, nervous, and hematopoietic) regulations and the synthesis of biomolecules (such as l-tryptophan, serotonin, melatonin, dopamine, alcohol, noradrenaline, putrescine, and acetate) are unclear...
February 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hamida Al-Dwibe, Ahmad Amro, Aisha Gashout, Ali El-Zurghany, Said El-Zubi, Mohamed El-Hashme, Omar Hamarsheh, Mokhtar Maree
BACKGROUND: Several case reports describe diseases presenting with skin ulcerations, which resemble pyoderma gangrenosum especially in immune-compromised patients, often proven on further workup, to have an infective or malignant etiology. However, treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum by systemic steroids or other immunosuppressive agents may worsen the condition. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here, a 45 year-old Libyan woman with rheumatoid arthritis on low dose steroids with pyoderma gangrenosum-like skin lesions and positive pathergy...
March 1, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Miriam G Jasiulionis
Epigenetics refers to the study of mechanisms controlling the chromatin structure, which has fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and genome stability. Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are established during embryonic development and epigenetic profiles are stably inherited during mitosis, ensuring cell differentiation and fate. Under the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as metabolic profile, hormones, nutrition, drugs, smoke, and stress, epigenetic marks are actively modulated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Aliko Valbona, Qirjo Mihallaq, Sula Eldores, Morina Valon, Faggio Caterina
The manganese contamination has become a global problem, recently, because it is perceived as a real threat to the human health and the environment. It is well-known that overexposure to Mn2+ may have negative physiological effects on fish and other organisms inhabiting heavy metal polluted waters. To the best of our knowledge, studies relating with manganese effects on fish antioxidant enzyme response in the blood, immunocompetence and erythron profile alteration, are scarce. In this study, the acute sub-lethal effects of manganese on blood antioxidant response, immune status and erythron profile were determined by exposing the freshwater model organism, Carassius auratus, to two doses of this metal (3...
February 23, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Christian Sanner, Nils Huntemann, Richard Lange, Christian Tamm, Ekkehard Peik
We devise a perturbation-immune version of Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields. Spectroscopy of an atomic clock transition without compromising the clock's accuracy is accomplished by actively balancing the spectroscopic responses from phase-congruent Ramsey probe cycles of unequal durations. Our simple and universal approach eliminates a wide variety of interrogation-induced line shifts often encountered in high precision spectroscopy, among them, in particular, light shifts, phase chirps, and transient Zeeman shifts...
February 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Jacob M Ricca, Anton Oseledchyk, Tyler Walther, Cailian Liu, Levi Mangarin, Taha Merghoub, Jedd D Wolchok, Dmitriy Zamarin
Anti-viral immunity presents a major hurdle for systemically administered oncolytic viruses (OV). Intratumoral OV therapy has a potential to overcome this problem through activation of anti-tumor immune response, with local and abscopal effects. However, the effects of anti-viral immunity in such a setting are still not well defined. Using Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) as a model, we explore the effects of pre-existing anti-viral immunity on therapeutic efficacy in syngeneic mouse tumor models. Unexpectedly, we find that while pre-existing immunity to NDV limits its replication in tumors, tumor clearance, abscopal anti-tumor immune effects, and survival are not compromised and, on the contrary, are superior in NDV-immunized mice...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Marisella Panduro, Christophe Benoist, Diane Mathis
Skeletal muscle regeneration is a highly orchestrated process that depends on multiple immune-system cell types, notably macrophages (MFs) and Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T (Treg ) cells. This study addressed how Treg cells rein in MFs during regeneration of murine muscle after acute injury with cardiotoxin. We first delineated and characterized two subsets of MFs according to their expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules, i.e., their ability to present antigens. Then, we assessed the impact of Treg cells on these MF subsets by punctually depleting Foxp3+ cells during the regenerative process...
February 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Priya Revathikumar, Johanna Estelius, Utsa Karmakar, Erwan Le Maître, Marina Korotkova, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Jon Lampa
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is an innate neural reflex where parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves work jointly to control inflammation. Activation of CAP by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has paved way for novel therapeutic strategies in treating inflammatory diseases. Recently, we discovered that VNS mediated splenic acetylcholine (ACh) release and subsequent immunosuppression in response to LPS associated inflammation is impaired in mice lacking microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) expression, a key enzyme responsible for prostaglandin E2 synthesis...
2018: PloS One
Anders Brunse, Päivi Worsøe, Susanne Elisabeth Pors, Kerstin Skovgaard, Per Torp Sangild
Preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal sepsis, potentially inducing brain injury, and they may benefit from early initiation of enteral milk feeding. Using preterm pigs as models, we hypothesized that early provision of bovine colostrum to parentally nourished newborns protects against sepsis and neuroinflammation during bloodstream infection. Preterm newborn pigs were administered 10 CFU/kg of intra-arterial Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE, an opportunistic pathogen often causing sepsis in preterm infants), followed by administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN, SE + TPN, n = 15) or oral provision of bovine colostrum with supplementary parenteral nutrition (SE + COL, n = 14), and compared with uninfected, TPN-nourished controls (CON + TPN, n = 11)...
February 21, 2018: Shock
Masafumi Ota, Tomomitsu Tahara, Toshimi Otsuka, Wu Jing, Tomoe Nomura, Ranji Hayashi, Takeo Shimasaki, Masakatsu Nakamura, Tomoyuki Shibata, Tomiyasu Arisawa
The present study aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 ( RIPK2 ), which encodes a component of the nucleotide binding oligomerization domain containing 2-RIP2 pathway, may compromise the innate immune response to Helicobacter pylori infection, leading to increased susceptibility to gastric cancer in the Japanese population. The present case control study investigated the associations between RIPK2 single nucleotide polymorphisms and gastric mucosal inflammation, atrophy and cancer susceptibility in 528 patients with gastric cancer and 697 patients without gastric malignancies on upper gastro-duodenal endoscopy...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Jakub Zimoch, Joan Simó Padial, Agnes S Klar, Queralt Vallmajo-Martin, Martin Meuli, Thomas Biedermann, Christopher J Wilson, Alan Rowan, Ernst Reichmann
Molecular and mechanical interactions with the 3D extracellular matrix are essential for cell functions such as survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Thermo-responsive biomimetic polyisocyanopeptide (PIC) hydrogels are promising new candidates for 3D cell, tissue, and organ cultures. This is a synthetic, thermo-responsive and stress-stiffening material synthesized via polymerization of the corresponding monomers using a nickel perchlorate as a catalyst. It can be tailored to meet various demands of cells by modulating its stiffness and through the decoration of the polymer with short GRGDS peptides using copper free click chemistry...
February 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Sara Sopeña-Torres, Lucía Jordá, Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva Miedes, Viviana Escudero, Sanjay Swami, Gemma López, Mariola Piślewska-Bednarek, Ines Lassowskat, Justin Lee, Yangnan Gu, Sabine Haigis, Danny Alexander, Sivakumar Pattathil, Antonio Muñoz-Barrios, Pawel Bednarek, Shauna Somerville, Paul Schulze-Lefert, Michael G Hahn, Dierk Scheel, Antonio Molina
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) cascades play essential roles in plants by transducing developmental cues and environmental signals into cellular responses. Among the latter are microbe-associated molecular patterns perceived by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which trigger immunity. We found that YODA (YDA) - a MAPK kinase kinase regulating several Arabidopsis developmental processes, like stomatal patterning - also modulates immune responses. Resistance to pathogens is compromised in yda alleles, whereas plants expressing the constitutively active YDA (CA-YDA) protein show broad-spectrum resistance to fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes with different colonization modes...
February 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"