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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781185/helper-t-cell-responses-and-pulmonary-fungal-infections
#1
REVIEW
Andrew J McDermott, Bruce S Klein
The mucosal surface of the respiratory tract encounters microbes, such as fungal particles, with every inhaled breath. When pathogenic fungi breach the physical barrier and innate immune system within the lung to establish an infection, adaptive immunity is engaged often in the form of helper CD4 T-cell responses. Type 1 responses, characterized by IFNγ production from CD4 cells, promote clearance of Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Likewise, IL-17A production from Th17 cells promotes immunity to Blastomyces dermatitidis and Coccidiodes species infection by recruiting neutrophils...
May 20, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771386/immunotherapy-in-cns-cancers-the-role-of-immune-cell-trafficking
#2
Nivedita M Ratnam, Mark R Gilbert, Amber J Giles
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant CNS tumor with very poor survival despite intervention with conventional therapeutic strategies. Although the CNS is separated from the immune system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), emerging evidence of immune surveillance and the selective infiltration of GBMs by immune suppressive cells indicates that there is breakdown or compromise of these physical barriers. This in turn offers hope that immunotherapy can be applied to specifically target and reduce tumor burden...
May 15, 2018: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769311/tumor-associated-calreticulin-variants-functionally-compromise-the-peptide-loading-complex-and-impair-its-recruitment-of-mhc-i
#3
Najla Arshad, Peter Cresswell
Major histocompatibility complex-I-β2 m dimers (MHC-I) bind peptides derived from intracellular proteins, enabling the immune system to distinguish between normal cells and those expressing pathogen-derived or mutant proteins. The peptides bind to MHC-I in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and this binding is facilitated by the peptide-loading complex (PLC), which contains calreticulin (CRT). CRT associates with MHC-I via a conserved glycan present on MHC-I and recruits it to the PLC for peptide binding. Somatic frameshift mutations in CRT (CRT-FS) drive the proliferation of a subset of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), which are chronic blood tumors...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768670/patients-affected-by-a-new-variant-of-endemic-pemphigus-foliaceus-have-autoantibodies-colocalizing-with-myzap-p0071-desmoplakins-1-2-and-arvcf-causing-renal-damage
#4
A M Abreu-Velez, M S Howard, H Yi, A A Florez-Vargas
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that about 30% of patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in El Bagre, Colombia (termed El Bagre-EPF or pemphigus Abreu-Manu) have systemic compromise. In the current study, we focused on studying autoreactivity to the kidney and its pathological correlations. AIM: To investigate patients with El Bagre-EPF for renal compromise. METHODS: We performed a case-control study, enrolling 57 patients with El Bagre-EPF and 57 controls from the endemic area, matched by age, sex, race, work activity, demographics and comorbidities...
May 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762862/stress-and-the-psyche-brain-immune-network-in-psychiatric-diseases-based-on-psychoneuroendocrineimmunology-a-concise-review
#5
REVIEW
Anna Giulia Bottaccioli, Francesco Bottaccioli, Andrea Minelli
In the last decades, psychoneuroendocrineimmunology research has made relevant contributions to the fields of neuroscience, psychobiology, epigenetics, molecular biology, and clinical research by studying the effect of stress on human health and highlighting the close interrelations between psyche, brain, and bodily systems. It is now well recognized that chronic stress can alter the physiological cross-talk between brain and biological systems, leading to long-lasting maladaptive effects (allostatic overload) on the nervous, immune, endocrine, and metabolic systems, which compromises stress resiliency and health...
May 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761252/testing-and-treating-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-reduces-symptoms-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Shirley Cohen-Mekelburg, Zaid Tafesh, Elliot Coburn, Russell Weg, Neena Malik, Colleen Webb, Hoda Hammad, Ellen Scherl, Brian P Bosworth
BACKGROUND: Common mechanisms against small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), including an intact ileocecal valve, gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, and an intact immune system, are compromised in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and therefore, a relatively high incidence of SIBO has been reported in this population. AIMS: We aimed to determine whether an improvement in IBD clinical activity scores is seen after testing and treating SIBO. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 147 patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were referred for SIBO breath testing from 1/2012 to 5/2016 was performed...
May 14, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757583/what-immunological-defects-predispose-to-non-tuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections
#7
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749873/fatal-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-an-aids-patient-complicated-with-immune-reconstitution-syndrome-refractory-to-prolonged-amphotericin-b-treatment
#8
Thilinie D Bandaranayake, Onyema E Ogbuagu, Amit Mahajan, Alexander O Vortmeyer, Merceditas S Villanueva
Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous encapsulated environmental yeast that can cause severe central nervous system disease, primarily in immune compromised hosts. In patients with AIDS, the spectrum of cryptococcal central nervous system disease includes meningitis, cystic lesions, and mass-like cryptococcomas. We report a fatal case of meningitis and cerebritis caused by C. neoformans in an AIDS patient refractory to multiple courses of liposomal amphotericin B despite immune recovery with antiretroviral therapy...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735577/hepatitis-a-virus-and-hepatitis-e-virus-emerging-and-re-emerging-enterically-transmitted-hepatitis-viruses
#9
Stanley M Lemon, Christopher M Walker
Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732008/mouse-models-of-multiple-myeloma-technologic-platforms-and-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
Marco Rossi, Cirino Botta, Mariamena Arbitrio, Rosa Daniela Grembiale, Pierosandro Tagliaferri, Pierfrancesco Tassone
Murine models of human multiple myeloma (MM) are key tools for the study of disease biology as well as for investigation and selection of novel candidate therapeutics for clinical translation. In the last years, a variety of pre-clinical models have been generated to recapitulate a wide spectrum of biological features of MM. These systems range from spontaneous or transgenic models of murine MM, to subcutaneous or orthothopic xenografts of human MM cell lines in immune compromised animals, to platform allowing the engraftment of primary/bone marrow-dependent MM cells within a human bone marrow milieu to fully recapitulate human disease...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731689/age-related-variations-in-the-in-vitro-bactericidal-activity-of-human-sera-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
Akram Khan, Isfahan Tauseef, Bibi Aalia, Muhammad Azam Khan, Sadia Akbar, Nighat Sultana, Kashif S Haleem
The human serum is a vital component of the innate immunity of the host that acts as the first line of defence against invading pathogens. A key player in serum-mediated innate immune defence is a system of more than 35 proteins, collectively named as the complement system. After exposure of the pathogen, these proteins are activated in a cascade manner, ultimately forming a membrane attack complex (MAC) on the surface of the pathogen that directly lyses the bacterial cell. Formation of the MAC can be demonstrated in vitro by using serum bactericidal assay (SBA) that works in the absence of cellular components of blood after incubating the serum along with bacteria...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719016/s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome-clinical-and-histopathologic-features-differential-diagnosis-and-treatment
#12
Kerith E Spicknall
Sézary syndrome (SS) is a rare subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma marked by erythroderma, circulating neoplastic T cells, and poor prognosis. Its low incidence has made the study of its etiology, immunologic/molecular pathways, and effective treatments difficult. Because histopathology may be nonspecific in SS, microscopic findings must be correlated with the clinical presentation and the results of blood evaluation in order to make the diagnosis. Treatments that preserve, rather than compromise, the immune system are preferred...
March 2018: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715493/spleen-development-is-modulated-by-neonatal-gut-microbiota
#13
M Manuela Rosado, Alaitz Aranburu, Marco Scarsella, Simona Cascioli, Ezio Giorda, Federica Del Chierico, Stefano Levi Mortera, Eva Piano Mortari, Stefania Petrini, Lorenza Putignani, Rita Carsetti
The full development of the mammalian immune system occurs after birth upon exposure to non self-antigens. The gut is the first site of bacterial colonization where it is crucial to create the appropriate microenvironment able to balance effector or tolerogenic responses to external stimuli. It is a well-established fact that at mucosal sites bacteria play a key role in developing the immune system but we ignore how colonising bacteria impact the maturation of the spleen. Here we addressed this issue. Taking advantage of the fact that milk SIgA regulates bacterial colonization of the newborn intestine, we generated immunocompetent mice born either from IgA pro-efficient or IgA deficient females...
April 28, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712842/less-immune-activation-following-social-stress-in-rural-vs-urban-participants-raised-with-regular-or-no-animal-contact-respectively
#14
Till S Böbel, Sascha B Hackl, Dominik Langgartner, Marc N Jarczok, Nicolas Rohleder, Graham A Rook, Christopher A Lowry, Harald Gündel, Christiane Waller, Stefan O Reber
Urbanization is on the rise, and environments offering a narrow range of microbial exposures are linked to an increased prevalence of both physical and mental disorders. Human and animal studies suggest that an overreactive immune system not only accompanies stress-associated disorders but might even be causally involved in their pathogenesis. Here, we show in young [mean age, years (SD): rural, 25.1 (0.78); urban, 24.5 (0.88)] healthy human volunteers that urban upbringing in the absence of pets ( n = 20), relative to rural upbringing in the presence of farm animals ( n = 20), was associated with a more pronounced increase in the number of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations following acute psychosocial stress induced by the Trier social stress test (TSST)...
May 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712657/commonly-used-oncology-drugs-decrease-antifungal-effectiveness-against-candida-and-aspergillus-species
#15
Arielle Butts, Parker Reitler, Wenbo Ge, Jarrod R Fortwendel, Glen E Palmer
The incidence of invasive fungal infections has risen significantly in recent decades as medical interventions have become increasingly aggressive. These infections are extremely difficult to treat due to the extremely limited repertoire of systemic antifungals, the development of drug resistance, and the extent of to which the patient's immune function is compromised. Even when the appropriate antifungal therapies are administered in a timely fashion, treatment failure is common, frequently even in the absence of in vitro microbial resistance...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706626/long-non-coding-rna-lnc-tim3-exacerbates-cd8-t-cell-exhaustion-via-binding-to-tim-3-and-inducing-nuclear-translocation-of-bat3-in-hcc
#16
Jie Ji, Yin Yin, Huanyu Ju, Xiaoliang Xu, Wei Liu, Qiang Fu, Jiaojiao Hu, Xudong Zhang, Beicheng Sun
Although one of the first comprehensive examinations of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression was performed in human CD8 T lymphocytes, little is known about their roles in CD8 T cells functions during the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we show that Lnc-Tim3 is upregulated and negatively correlates with IFN-γ and IL-2 production in tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells of HCC patients. Lnc-Tim3 plays a pivotal role in stimulating CD8 T exhaustion and the survival of the exhausted CD8 T cells...
April 30, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700415/comparative-systems-analysis-of-the-secretome-of-the-opportunistic-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-other-aspergillus-species
#17
R P Vivek-Ananth, Karthikeyan Mohanraj, Muralidharan Vandanashree, Anupam Jhingran, James P Craig, Areejit Samal
Aspergillus fumigatus and multiple other Aspergillus species cause a wide range of lung infections, collectively termed aspergillosis. Aspergilli are ubiquitous in environment with healthy immune systems routinely eliminating inhaled conidia, however, Aspergilli can become an opportunistic pathogen in immune-compromised patients. The aspergillosis mortality rate and emergence of drug-resistance reveals an urgent need to identify novel targets. Secreted and cell membrane proteins play a critical role in fungal-host interactions and pathogenesis...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686092/environmental-selection-during-the-last-ice-age-on-the-mother-to-infant-transmission-of-vitamin-d-and-fatty-acids-through-breast-milk
#18
Leslea J Hlusko, Joshua P Carlson, George Chaplin, Scott A Elias, John F Hoffecker, Michaela Huffman, Nina G Jablonski, Tesla A Monson, Dennis H O'Rourke, Marin A Pilloud, G Richard Scott
Because of the ubiquitous adaptability of our material culture, some human populations have occupied extreme environments that intensified selection on existing genomic variation. By 32,000 years ago, people were living in Arctic Beringia, and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 28,000-18,000 y ago), they likely persisted in the Beringian refugium. Such high latitudes provide only very low levels of UV radiation, and can thereby lead to dangerously low levels of biosynthesized vitamin D. The physiological effects of vitamin D deficiency range from reduced dietary absorption of calcium to a compromised immune system and modified adipose tissue function...
April 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685987/characterization-of-a-two-component-system-transcriptional-regulator-ltdr-that-impacts-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-and-disease
#19
Liwen Deng, Rong Mu, Thomas A Weston, Brady L Spencer, Roxanne Liles, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus , GBS) is often a commensal bacterium that colonizes healthy adults asymptomatically and is a frequent inhabitant of the vaginal tract in women. However, in immune-compromised individuals, particularly the newborn, GBS may transition to an invasive pathogen and cause serious disease. Despite currently recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for GBS-positive mothers, GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal septicemia and meningitis. To adapt to the various host environments encountered during its disease cycle, GBS possesses multiple two-component regulatory systems (TCS)...
April 23, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682054/aspergilloma-mimicking-olfactory-groove-meningioma
#20
Pradeep Sharma, Kamlesh S Bhaisora, Satyadeo Pandey, Arun Kumar Srivastava, Krushna C Pani, Jayesh Sardhara, Kuntal K Das, Anant Mehrotra, Rabi Narayan Sahu, Awadhesh K Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari
Central nervous system aspergillosis is rare with reported mortality rate of 13-50% involving foci in paranasal sinuses and even higher mortality rates (80-100%) in patients of immune-compromised status. Modern day imaging offers an opportunity for early diagnosis, but findings are minimal. A typical finding is that of a space occupying mass lesion with iso-hypointense signal on T1-weighted sequences and extreme hypointense appearance on T2-weighted. This results from the concentration of ferromagnetic substances (iron/zinc/magnesium/manganese) within the lesion...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
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