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Maryam Akbari, Vahidreza Ostadmohammadi, Kamran B Lankarani, Reza Tabrizi, Fariba Kolahdooz, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Seyed Habibollah Kavari, Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Alireza Mafi, Majid Dastorani, Zatollah Asemi
The current systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to summarize the effect of vitamin D supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cochrane library, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science database were searched to identify related randomized-controlled articles (RCTs) published up to November 2017. Two researchers assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and evaluated risk of bias of included RCTs, independently...
February 23, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Tianyuan Peng, Zachary Wooke, Nicola L B Pohl
Acidic hydrolysis is commonly used as a first step to break down oligo- and polysaccharides into monosaccharide units for structural analysis. While easy to set up and amenable to mass spectrometry detection, acid hydrolysis is not without its drawbacks. For example, ring-destruction side reactions and degradation products, along with difficulties in optimizing conditions from analyte to analyte, greatly limits its broad utility. Herein we report studies on a hydrogen peroxide/CuGGH metallopeptide-based glycosidase mimetic design for a more efficient and controllable carbohydrate hydrolysis...
February 3, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Yihui Ma, Shen Liang, Yongchao Zhang, Dangwei Yang, Ruofei Wang
Repurposing the novel p21-activated protein kinase inhibitor compound 15 identified its antifungal activity against five selected species of phytopathogenic fungi. Lead optimization based on its structure gave rise to a focused library of 20 derivatives, among which compound 3c demonstrated increased activity over compound 15 and even comparable to that of some commercialized fungicides in the market including carbendazim, tebuconazole, and pyraclostrobin. This study showed that p21-activated protein kinase inhibitor compound 15 was able to serve as a molecular platform to develop effective fungicides against fungal phytopathogens and indicate that screening existing protein kinase inhibitors might be an effective way to identify lead compounds for antifungal pesticides development...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Paradorn Muangnil, Saravut Satitsri, Kwanruthai Tadpetch, Patchreenart Saparpakorn, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Supa Hannongbua, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Chatchai Muanprasat
Overstimulation of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion plays an important role in the pathogenesis of secretory diarrheas, which remain an important global health problem. This study aimed to identify inhibitors of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion from a library of fungus-derived compounds and to evaluate their pharmacological properties and anti-diarrheal utility. We identified zearalenone, 7'-dehydrozearalenone and 8'-hydroxyzearalenone isolated from the seagrass-derived fungus Fusarium sp. PSU-ES123 as inhibitors of CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells...
February 20, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
R Kumar, G Garcea
INTRODUCTION: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a reliable, reproducible and non-invasive measure of functional capacity. CPET has been increasingly used to assess pre-operative risk and stratify patients at risk of mortality and morbidity following surgery. CPET parameters that predict outcomes within liver and pancreas cancer surgery still remain to be defined. METHODS: A systematic review to assess CPET use in predicting post-operative outcomes in liver and pancreas cancer surgery was carried out using the following databases AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar and PubMED...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Hyung Ki Moon, Jinhee Jang, Kyu Nam Park, Soo Hyun Kim, Byung Kook Lee, Sang Hoon Oh, Kyung Woon Jeung, Seung Pill Choi, In Soo Cho, Chun Song Youn
INTRODUCTION: Predicting neurologic outcomes after cardiac arrest (CA) is challenging. This study tested the hypothesis that a quantitative analysis of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using the FMRIB Software Library (FSL) can predict neurologic outcomes after CA and can clarify the optimal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) thresholds for predicting poor neurologic outcomes. METHODS: Out-of-hospital CA patients treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) who underwent DWI were included in this study...
February 20, 2018: Resuscitation
Zhuo Yang, Mingjuan Du, Wei Wang, Xiu Xin, Peixiang Ma, Hongkai Zhang, Richard A Lerner
It has been observed that converting scFv formatted antibodies to full-length IgG often associates with loss of affinity. We aim to address this issue in this paper by establishing an integrated affinity maturation method applying yeast display technology platform. To demonstrate that, we employed a human thrombopoietin receptor targeting antibody named 3D9 which was identified previously from a combinational antibody library in scFv-Fc fusion protein form. We have observed that significant potency loss happened when 3D9 was transformed to full-length IgG form...
February 21, 2018: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Irma Dumbryte, Jurate Vebriene, Laura Linkeviciene, Mangirdas Malinauskas
Objectives: To evaluate and compare the enamel microcracks (EMCs) characteristics (qualitative and quantitative) in the form of tooth damage before and after debonding from human teeth of in vitro studies. Eligibility criteria: Laboratorial studies evaluating EMCs characteristics before and after debonding metal and ceramic brackets from human teeth with intact buccal enamel. Information sources: An electronic search of four databases (all databases of the Cochrane Library, CA Web of Science, MEDLINE via PubMed, and Google Scholar) and additional manual searches were carried out, without language restrictions...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Clément Viricel, Simon de Givry, Thomas Schiex, Sophie Barbe
Motivation: Accurate and economic methods to predict change in protein binding free energy upon mutation are imperative to accelerate the design of proteins for a wide range of applications. Free energy is defined by enthalpic and entropic contributions. Following the recent progresses of Artificial Intelligence-based algorithms for guaranteed NP-hard energy optimization and partition function computation, it becomes possible to quickly compute minimum energy conformations and to reliably estimate the entropic contribution of side-chains in the change of free energy of large protein interfaces...
February 20, 2018: Bioinformatics
Steven Shave, Stefan Mann, Joanna Koszela, Alastair Kerr, Manfred Auer
The design of highly diverse phage display libraries is based on assumption that DNA bases are incorporated at similar rates within the randomized sequence. As library complexity increases and expected copy numbers of unique sequences decrease, the exploration of library space becomes sparser and the presence of truly random sequences becomes critical. We present the program PuLSE (Phage Library Sequence Evaluation) as a tool for assessing randomness and therefore diversity of phage display libraries. PuLSE runs on a collection of sequence reads in the fastq file format and generates tables profiling the library in terms of unique DNA sequence counts and positions, translated peptide sequences, and normalized 'expected' occurrences from base to residue codon frequencies...
2018: PloS One
Emily K Fowler, Irina Mohorianu, Damian T Smith, Tamas Dalmay, Tracey Chapman
RNA interference (RNAi) is a complex and highly conserved regulatory mechanism mediated via small RNAs (sRNAs). Recent technical advances in high throughput sequencing have enabled an increasingly detailed analysis of sRNA abundances and profiles in specific body parts and tissues. This enables investigations of the localized roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). However, variation in the proportions of non-coding RNAs in the samples being compared can hinder these analyses. Specific tissues may vary significantly in the proportions of fragments of longer non-coding RNAs (such as ribosomal RNA or transfer RNA) present, potentially reflecting tissue-specific differences in biological functions...
2018: PloS One
Aafrinnaz Moulvi, Pooja Minz, Subrata Rath, Richa Ashma
There is a strong evidence in the literature that human odor is unique to an individual; therefore, the focus of this study was to strengthen this evidence through the testing of sweat samples on unrelated individuals with the same ethnicity. Sweat samples were collected from 42 unrelated Indian males and females residing in the same city to determine the chemical constituents in human sweat. The volatile compounds of sweat were subsequently analyzed and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and a National Institute of Standards and Technology library was used for individual profiling...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Luan Luan, Hao Hu, Shu-Chuen Li
OBJECTIVES: To review published studies of the use of health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) instruments in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Chinese-speaking countries/regions, namely, mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore. METHODS: Overlapping searching strategy was used for searching three electronic databases-Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and Embase-from January 1, 1990, to September 30, 2015. After culling, the identified publications were analyzed according to the publication date, the location where the study was conducted, the disease being studied, and the nature of the study (i...
October 18, 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
Folake A Egbewande, Martin C Sadowski, Claire Levrier, Kaylyn D Tousignant, Jonathan M White, Mark J Coster, Colleen C Nelson, Rohan A Davis
The naturally occurring pentacyclic diterpenoid gibberellic acid (1) was used in the generation of a drug-like amide library using parallel-solution-phase synthesis. Prior to the synthesis, a virtual library was generated and prioritized based on drug-like physicochemical parameters such as log P, hydrogen bond donor/acceptor counts, and molecular weight. The structures of the synthesized analogues (2-13) were elucidated following analysis of the NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. Compound 12 afforded crystalline material, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Dimitrios Moris, Stylianos Vagios, Katiuscha Merath, Timothy M Pawlik
The robotic system has emerged as a new minimally invasive technology with promising results. We sought to systematically review the available literature on the safety and the oncologic outcomes of robotic liver surgery. A systematic review was conducted using Medline (PubMed), Embase and Cochrane library through November 12th, 2017. A robotic approach may be a safe and feasible surgical option for minor and major liver resections.
February 23, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Nahara Anani Martínez-González, Andreas Plate, Oliver Senn, Stefan Markun, Thomas Rosemann, Stefan Neuner-Jehle
INTRODUCTION: Men facing prostate cancer screening and treatment need to make critical and highly preference-sensitive decisions that involve a variety of potential benefits and risks. Shared decision-making (SDM) is considered fundamental for "preference-sensitive" medical decisions and it is guideline-recommended. There is no single definition of SDM however. We systematically reviewed the extent of SDM implementation in interventions to facilitate SDM for prostate cancer screening and treatment...
February 23, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
Pei Lu, Yifei Wang, Yangbo Hu, Shiyun Chen
As a master regulator, the alternative sigma factor RpoS coordinates the transcription of genes associated with protection against environmental stresses in bacteria. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, RpoS is also involved in quorum sensing and virulence. The cellular RpoS level is regulated at multiple levels, whereas the post-transcriptional regulation of rpoS in P. aeruginosa remains unclear. To identify and characterize small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) regulating RpoS in P. aeruginosa, an sRNA library expressing a total of 263 sRNAs was constructed to examine their regulatory roles on rpoS expression...
February 23, 2018: Microbiology
Mario D Martinez, David Q Trac, Milton E Brown, Kevin O Maher, Michael E Davis
AIM: Current diagnostic tests for myocarditis are invasive and have low diagnostic value. Our aim was to identify potential targeting peptides to detect early myocarditis following intravenous delivery. MATERIALS & METHODS: We used an animal model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis and a phage display library to identify potential targeting peptides. After several steps, we selected two peptides, MyH-PhD-05 and MyH-PhD-120, for in vivo screening using fluorescent imaging...
February 23, 2018: Nanomedicine
Rosa Maria Vitale, Vincenzo Rispoli, Doriana Desiderio, Roberta Sgammato, Stefano Thellung, Claudio Canale, Massimo Vassalli, Marianna Carbone, Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Ernesto Mollo, Vera Felicità, Rosaria Arcone, Margherita Gavagnin, Mariorosario Masullo, Tullio Florio, Pietro Amodeo
Multitargeting/polypharmacological approaches, looking for single chemical entities retaining the ability to bind two or more molecular targets, are a potentially powerful strategy to fight complex, multifactorial pathologies. Unfortunately, the search for multiligand agents is challenging, because only a small subset of molecules contained in molecular databases are bioactive, and even fewer are active on a preselected set of multiple targets. However, collections of natural compounds feature a significantly higher fraction of bioactive molecules than synthetic ones...
February 23, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
F Rabello, V E Araújo, Sms Magalhães
OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence regarding the effectiveness of using chlorhexidine for oral healthcare on patients in the intensive care unit for the prevention of nosocomial pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia. METHODS: This overview of systematic reviews was developed using articles found in PUBMED, Cochrane Library, LILACS, CRD, CINHAL, manual search and grey literature. RESULTS: Of the total 16 systematic reviews, 14 included meta-analysis...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
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