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Mogammad Shaheed Soeker, Olumide Ayoola Olaoye
BACKGROUND: Stroke has been identified as a global cause of neurological disability with a resultant burden shared not only by the survivor but also by society. The resumption of an individual's role as a worker after having a stroke, is an important rehabilitation goal. South-West Nigeria has experienced a high incidence and prevalence of stroke, leaving a quarter of survivors with severe disabilities and difficulties in community integration after rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at exploring and describing the experiences of rehabilitated stroke survivors and perceptions of stakeholders about stroke survivors returning to work in South-West Nigeria...
August 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Chao-Jung Hsu, Janis Kim, Rongnian Tang, Elliot J Roth, William Z Rymer, Ming Wu
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether applying a mediolateral corrective force to the pelvis during treadmill walking would enhance muscle activity of the paretic leg and improve gait symmetry in individuals with post-stroke hemiparesis. METHODS: Fifteen subjects with post-stroke hemiparesis participated in this study. A customized cable-driven robotic system based over a treadmill generated a mediolateral corrective force to the pelvis toward the paretic side during early stance phase...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Nicolas A Turpin, Anatol G Feldman, Mindy F Levin
OBJECTIVES: Voluntary movements post-stroke are affected by abnormal muscle activation due to exaggerated stretch reflexes (SRs). We examined the ability of post-stroke subjects to regulate SRs in spastic muscles. METHODS: Elbow flexor and extensor EMGs and joint angle were recorded in 13 subjects with chronic post-stroke spasticity. Muscles were either stretched passively (relaxed arm) or actively (antagonist contraction) at different velocities. Velocity-dependent SR thresholds were defined as angles where stretched muscle EMG exceeded 3SDs of baseline...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Kathrin Allgöwer, Joachim Hermsdörfer
OBJECTIVE: To determine factors characterizing the differences in fine motor performance between stroke patients and controls. To confirm the relevance of the factors by analyzing their predictive power with regard to the Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT), a common clinical test of fine motor control. METHODS: Twenty-two people with slight paresis in an early chronic phase following stroke and twenty-two healthy controls were examined. Performance on the JTHFT, Nine-Hole Peg Test and 2-point discrimination was evaluated...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Budbazar Enkhjargal, Jay Malaguit, Wing M Ho, Wu Jiang, Weifeng Wan, Gaiqing Wang, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
The role of vitamin D3 (VitD3) in the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) and eNOS in the endothelium of cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is investigated. The endovascular perforation SAH model in Sprague-Dawley rats ( n = 103) was used. The VitD3 pretreatment (30 ng/kg) increased endogenous OPN and eNOS expression in cerebral arteries compared with naïve rats ( n = 5 per group). Neurobehavioral scores were significantly improved in Pre-SAH+VitD3 group compared with the SAH group...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Ethem Murat Arsava, Anil Arat, Mehmet Akif Topcuoglu, Ahmet Peker, Muge Yemisci, Turgay Dalkara
The success of endovascular therapies depends on a number of factors including flow dynamics proximal and distal to the occlusion. The evaluation of antegrade flow distal to the occluded segment is currently a readily available, yet unexplored, option during stentriever-mediated thrombectomy. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated presence of contrast stasis and absence of capillary blush on angiograms obtained by selective injections into the distal site of occlusive thrombi, prior to deployment of stentrievers, in patients undergoing endovascular treatment for acute MCA occlusion...
August 19, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
Sushrut Dharmakidari, Pratik Bhattacharya, Seemant Chaturvedi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the study was to update the recent information pertaining to carotid artery stenosis risk stratification and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Current decision-making related to carotid artery stenosis is based on clinical trials that are outdated. Medical therapy has improved considerably in the past two decades, and this has reduced the stroke rate for both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenoses. In recent community-based studies, the stroke risk with asymptomatic stenosis has been < 1% per year...
August 19, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Trudy Voortman, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, M Arfan Ikram, Bruno H Stricker, Frank J A van Rooij, Lies Lahousse, Henning Tiemeier, Guy G Brusselle, Oscar H Franco, Josje D Schoufour
We aimed to evaluate the criterion validity of the 2015 food-based Dutch dietary guidelines, which were formulated based on evidence on the relation between diet and major chronic diseases. We studied 9701 participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort in individuals aged 45 years and over [median 64.1 years (95%-range 49.0-82.8)]. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline with a food-frequency questionnaire. For all participants, we examined adherence (yes/no) to fourteen items of the guidelines: vegetables (≥200 g/day), fruit (≥200 g/day), whole-grains (≥90 g/day), legumes (≥135 g/week), nuts (≥15 g/day), dairy (≥350 g/day), fish (≥100 g/week), tea (≥450 mL/day), ratio whole-grains:total grains (≥50%), ratio unsaturated fats and oils:total fats (≥50%), red and processed meat (<300 g/week), sugar-containing beverages (≤150 mL/day), alcohol (≤10 g/day) and salt (≤6 g/day)...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
Katherine M Nowotny, Richard G Rogers, Jason D Boardman
This paper compares black-white health disparities among state prisoners to disparities in the noninstitutionalized community to provide a more complete portrait of the nation's heath. We use data from the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities and the 2002 and 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for incarcerated and noninstitutionalized adult (aged 18 to 65) men and women, respectively. Health disparities between black and white male prisoners based on self-reported prevalence are similar to disparities in the general population for hypertension and diabetes but significantly reduced for kidney problems and stroke...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Valeria Ludovici, Jens Barthelmes, Matthias P Nägele, Frank Enseleit, Claudio Ferri, Andreas J Flammer, Frank Ruschitzka, Isabella Sudano
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure)...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
Victoria Barbour, Shobhan Thakore
Stroke thrombolysis is an important treatment in the management of acute strokes. Its' effectiveness is reliant on prompt administration after stroke onset. Disability free survival at 3-6 months increases by 10% when administered within 3 hours. There is also an economic benefit from early administration with reduced institutional care. New Scottish care standards have been introduced which suggest a target that 50% of suitable patients should receive thrombolysis within 30 minutes, and 80% within one hour 6...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Xue-Mei Qi, Jian-Fang Ma
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by the deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in the leptomeningeal and cortical blood vessels, which is an age-dependent risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), ischemic stroke and contributes to cerebrovascular dysfunction leading to cognitive impairment. However clinical prevention and treatment of the disease is very difficult because of its occult onset and severity of the symptoms. In recent years, many anti-amyloid β immunotherapies have not demonstrated clinical efficacy in subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the failure may be due to the deposition of Aβ in the cerebrovascular export pathway resulting in further damage to blood vessels and aggravating CAA...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
Pahul Singh, Yenal Harper, Carrie S Oliphant, Mohamed Morsy, Michelle Skelton, Raza Askari, Rami N Khouzam
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disorder associated with a high risk of cardiovascular mortality and continues to be under-recognized. The major risk factors for PAD are similar to those for coronary and cerebrovascular disease. Management includes exercise program, pharmacologic therapy and revascularization including endovascular and surgical approach. The optimal revascularization strategy, endovascular or surgical intervention, is often debated due to the paucity of head to head randomized controlled studies...
July 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
Jing Xia, Ying Zhang, Huanhuan Zhao, Jie Wang, Xueren Gao, Jinpeng Chen, Bo Fu, Yuqing Shen, Fengqin Miao, Jianqiong Zhang, Gaojun Teng
Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules in the central nervous system, which are silenced under normal physiological conditions, have been reported to be induced by injury stimulation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MHC-I molecules could serve as molecular targets for the acute phase of ischemic stroke and to assess whether a high-affinity peptide specific for MHC-I molecules could be applied in the near-infrared imaging of cerebral ischemic mice...
2017: Theranostics
Vivien Thom, Thiruma V Arumugam, Tim Magnus, Mathias Gelderblom
Acute ischemic and traumatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS) is known to induce a cascade of inflammatory events that lead to secondary tissue damage. In particular, the sterile inflammatory response in stroke has been intensively investigated in the last decade, and numerous experimental studies demonstrated the neuroprotective potential of a targeted modulation of the immune system. Among the investigated immunomodulatory agents, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) stand out due to their beneficial therapeutic potential in experimental stroke as well as several other experimental models of acute brain injuries, which are characterized by a rapidly evolving sterile inflammatory response, e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Andrew Q Tan, Yasin Y Dhaher
BACKGROUND: The neural constraints underlying hemiparetic gait dysfunction are associated with abnormal kinetic outflow and altered muscle synergy structure. Recent evidence from our lab implicates the lesioned hemisphere in mediating the expression of abnormally coupled hip adduction and knee extension synergy, suggesting a role of cortical networks in the regulation of lower limb motor outflow poststroke. The potential contribution of contralesional hemisphere (CON-H) in regulating paretic leg kinetics is unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Yuqian Li, Ruixin Yang, Zhihong Li, Bo Tian, Xingye Zhang, Jiancai Wang, Longlong Zheng, Boliang Wang, Lihong Li
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke, which leads to a high rate of mortality and poor neurological outcomes worldwide. Thrombolytic evacuation with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) or tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) has been showed to be a hopeful treatment for ICH. However, to the best of our knowledge, no clinical trials were reported to compare the efficacy and safety of these two fibrinolytics administrated following minimally invasive stereotactic puncture (MISP) in patients with spontaneous basal ganglia ICH...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
Feng Guo, Jicheng Lou, Xiaohua Han, Yuguo Deng, Xiaolin Huang
Cognitive impairment is a serious mental deficit caused by stroke that can severely affect the quality of a survivor's life. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a well-known rehabilitation modality that has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects after cerebral ischemic injury. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of rTMS against post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) and investigated the mechanisms underlying its effects in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Mikkel Lindskov Sachs, Sofia Kälvemark Sporrong, Morten Colding-Jørgensen, Sven Frokjaer, Per Helboe, Katarina Jelic, Susanne Kaae
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, patients are expected to influence decisions previously reserved for regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies, and healthcare professionals. Individual patients have previously represented their patient population when rare, serious adverse events (AEs) were weighed as part of a benefit-risk assessment. However, the degree of heterogeneity of the patient population is critical for how accurately they can be represented by individuals. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore patients' risk perception of rare, serious adverse effects of medicines with regard to blood glucose-lowering antidiabetics used by the individual patient...
2017: Pharmaceutical Medicine
Shaban Darwish, Keykavous Parang, John Marshall, Dennis J Goebel, Rakesh Tiwari
CN2097 (R7Cs-sCYK[KTE(β-Ala)]V) is a rationally designed peptidomimetic that shows effectiveness in preclinical models for the treatment of neurological disorders, such as Angelman syndrome, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke. Because of its therapeutic activity for the treatment of human CNS disorders, there was an urgent need to develop an efficient strategy for large-scale synthesis of CN2097. The synthesis of CN2097 was accomplished using Fmoc/tBu solid phase chemistry in multiple steps. Two different peptide fragments (activated polyarginine peptide Npys-sCR7 and CYK[KTE(β-Ala)]V) were synthesized, followed by solution phase coupling in water...
August 2, 2017: Tetrahedron Letters
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